Evans, Darrell J. R.
Although podcasting has been a well used resource format in the last few years as a way of improving the student learning experience, the inclusion of enhanced audiovisual formats such as screencasts has been less used, despite the advantage that they work well for both visual and auditory learners. This study examines the use of and student…
Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven
The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…
Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.
The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850
The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…
Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…
Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley
This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…
Barnes, R. T.; Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.
The addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to provide a number of ecosystem services, ranging from carbon (C) sequestration to increased soil fertility and crop production. It is estimated that 0.5 to 0.9 Pg of C yr-1 can be sequestered through the addition of biochar to soils, significantly increasing the charcoal flux to the biosphere over natural inputs from fire (0.05 to 0.20 Pg C yr-1). There remain large uncertainties about biochar mobility within the environment, making it a challenge to assess the ecosystem residence time of biochar. We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to understand how soil amendment with laboratory-produced biochar changes water, C, and nitrogen (N) fluxes from soils. We used column experiments to assess how biochar amendment to three types of soils (sand, organic, clay-rich) affected hydraulic conductivity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes. Results varied with soil type; biochar significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and organic soils by a factor of 10.6 and 2.7, respectively. While not statistically significant, biochar addition increased the hydraulic conductivity of the clay-rich soil by 50% on average. The addition of biochar significantly increased the DOC fluxes from the C-poor sand and clay soils while it significantly decreased the DOC flux from the organic-rich soil. In contrast, TDN fluxes decreased with biochar additions from all soil types, though the results were not statistically significant from the clay-rich soil. These laboratory experiments suggest that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of soil due to biochar amendments could play a significant role in understanding how biochar additions to agricultural fields will change watershed C and N dynamics. We additionally conducted a 28-day greenhouse experiment with sorghum plants using a three-way factorial treatment (water availability x biochar x mycorrhizae) to
Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda
Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…
Leggat, Peter A.
Discusses the learning experience from both traditional and computer-assisted instructional methods. Describes the environments in which these methods are effective. Focuses on learning experiences in medical education and describes educational strategies, particularly the 'SPICES' model. Discusses the importance of mentoring in the psychosocial…
Furuness, Linda B.; Cohen, Michael R.
Science education has often struggled to determine effective teaching methodologies and learning strategies. One promising field of research has been that of alternative frameworks. The research described in this paper describes how immersion in an unfamiliar environment and culture affected teacher learning, some of the significant experiences…
Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik
What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…
Franklin, Sandra Putnam; Lamana, Annette; Van Thiel, Lisa
This document presents guidelines for preschool learning experiences in Massachusetts programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and is designed to be used by teachers and program administrators in planning and evaluating curricula. The guidelines structure learning through play and meaningful activities in a developmental sequence and are based on the…
Purpose: This paper aims to examine employees' conceptions of the meaning of experience in job-competence and its development in workplace context. The aim is to bring out the variety of conceptions related to experience, competence and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on interview data from six Finnish small and…
Hulet, Michael W.
Space flight is a risky business. This truism has been bandied about since the earliest days of the space program. When asked by the young daughter of a coworker, one of the Mercury astronauts likened launching into space to "riding a Roman candle" -- it was both exciting and dangerous. Even in these more technologically advanced days, the solid rocket boosters and external tanks of the space shuttle provide a no less exciting, or dangerous, ride into space. However much the phrase "risk mitigation" is bandied about within the U.S. space program, there is still the history of the Apollo 1 fire during a ground test at Cape Canaveral, Fla., the loss of the shuttle Challenger during liftoff, and the loss of the shuttle Columbia when returning to Earth to remind us that while we give lip-service to risk management, we have not learned to manage risk as well as we ought. Moreover, there are many more less dramatic, but equally critical, incidents that have occurred in association with the space program that also highlight our inability to accurately gauge and manage risk. Why do we seem caught in a senseless spiral in which we focus most on risk only after a tragedy? Why do we repeat serious mishaps and not learn from our mistakes? This paper reviews some possible explanations for our risk-taking behavior and provides examples of interest to the NASA centers, while also discussing inter center and intra-center opportunities for sharing information to mitigate risk.
Sun, Jun; Flores, Javier; Tanguma, Jesus
The contribution of the e-textbooks can be enormous considering their additional supporting features, but adoption has not crystallized yet. This study examines the relevant experiences of college students in terms of how the use of e-textbooks may enhance their learning. A survey study was conducted to measure the perceptions of each student on…
Reynolds, Kirstin K.
Describes the development of Atta-Touch, the school-based business run by students at Clark Fork Junior/Senior High School in Idaho, that grew out of an entrepreneurship class and that currently designs and creates technology-based, multimedia products. Discusses community building; real-world experience; project-based learning; and products…
The program is directed specifically toward providing the basis for granting college credit for learning experiences conducted by business, industry, private organizations, and government. The author studies the program's evaluation, faculty, materials, subject matter, transferability, and site visits to view their implications and foresee…
Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…
Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay
This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…
Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik
What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510
Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick
This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…
Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali
We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…
Burgoyne, K.; Kelly nee Hutchinson, J. M.; Whiteley, H. E.; Spooner, A.
Background: Data from national test results suggests that children who are learning English as an additional language (EAL) experience relatively lower levels of educational attainment in comparison to their monolingual, English-speaking peers. Aims: The relative underachievement of children who are learning EAL demands that the literacy needs of…
Wu, Bing; Xu, WenXia; Ge, Jun
This study is a productivity review on the literature gleaned from SSCI, SCIE databases concerning experience in E-Learning research. The result indicates that the number of literature productions on experience effect in ELearning research is still growing from 2005. The main research development country is Croatia, and from the analysis of the publication year, the number of papers is increasing to the peaking in 2010. And the main source title is British Journal of Educational Technology. In addition the subject area concentrated on Education & Educational Research. Moreover the research focuses on are mainly survey research and empirical research, in order to explore experience effect in E-Learning research. Also the limitations and future research of these research were discussed, so that the direction for further research work can be exploited
Beretta, Lorna M.
Within a difficult social setting the starting point for change is the personal learning experiences of those struggling for the change. The learning experiences of people belonging to a community of underprivileged in Brazil are presented in this article in order to recognise how sustainable change is rooted in personal learning experiences. The…
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1
Based on a Making Experience Count (MEC) project, this book examines current trends in learning from experience. Chapter 1 discusses key theoretical elements that underpin work in the field of experiential learning and analyzes the contribution of the andragogic approach to adult learning. Chapter 2 offers an alternative model--gynagogy--and…
Maceiras, Rocio; Cancela, Angeles; Urrejola, Santiago; Sanchez, Angel
The objective of this work is to share the authors' experience towards a different mode of teaching/learning method. Cooperative learning (Jigsaw) was employed on the University of Vigo's fourth-year engineering students. The results of the experience show that cooperative learning is quite a viable alternative to the classical way of lecturing at…
This exploratory study is the second stage of a multi-method approach to explore some of the reasons why registered nurses take part in formal and informal learning and higher education. Also under exploration is the extent to which their various learning experiences met their expectations. The sample consists of 25 registered nurses, randomly selected from a population (N=162) of 1st and 2nd Level nurses employed in public and private clinical settings, who have taken part in continuing education to obtain a Diploma or a Degree in Nursing. The data gathering was achieved by three focus group interviews. Formal learning included mandatory and non-mandatory in house teaching. Mandatory input was regarded as a self-protection measure by the employer, not related to personal development and with no perceived benefit on client care. Regarding the achievement of additional clinical competences, the overwhelming reason is to improve client care, although the motives of the employer and medical staff are viewed with some suspicion as a measure to saving doctors' time. Higher education pursuits appears to be triggered by a perceived need to increase the participants' level of existing knowledge in line with that of current students on placement, but adjustment to adult life transition period also appear to be an influencing factor. In terms of learning experiences, the relevance and quality of mandatory sessions came under criticism, whilst a measure of surprise was expressed at the unexpected benefits, at a personal and a professional level, gained by taking part in academic learning. PMID:17126455
Alpin, D. Yvonne
Of particular concern to educational psychologists when assessing hearing-impaired children is the identification of learning difficulties in addition to deafness which might hinder progress with language development. This study sought to replicate research which showed that some deaf children who have difficulty with fine motor movements and body…
Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo
The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.
Stripling, Barbara K.; Harada, Violet H.
Planning is the less visible part of the teaching and learning process; however, it serves as the blueprint for student learning. To conceptualize the unit or project as a holistic learning experience, the authors created the C.L.E.A.R. G.O.A.L.S. guidelines that address the major elements of unit planning. An essential step is identifying the…
Plaut, David C.; And Others
This paper describes further research on a learning procedure for layered networks of deterministic, neuron-like units, described by Rumelhart et al. The units, the way they are connected, the learning procedure, and the extension to iterative networks are presented. In one experiment, a network learns a set of filters, enabling it to discriminate…
Discusses the two theories that have contributed most to the development of the mediational approach to learning, Vygotskian sociocultural theory and Feuerstein's theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Both theories emphasize the importance of sociocultural forces in shaping a child's development and learning, and have generated a number of…
Castro, Claudio de Moura
This essay is concerned with organisational learning and, in particular, policy learning. Sometimes, organisations learn; sometimes they do not. Sometimes they use their acquired knowledge, but this is, not always the case. Inside organisations, particular values, rules and incentive systems are developed. In addition, organisations need to…
Gilbert, Nigel; Ahrweiler, Petra; Pyka, Andreas
According to the organizational learning literature, the greatest competitive advantage a firm has is its ability to learn. In this paper, a framework for modeling learning competence in firms is presented to improve the understanding of managing innovation. Firms with different knowledge stocks attempt to improve their economic performance by engaging in radical or incremental innovation activities and through partnerships and networking with other firms. In trying to vary and/or to stabilize their knowledge stocks by organizational learning, they attempt to adapt to environmental requirements while the market strongly selects on the results. The simulation experiments show the impact of different learning activities, underlining the importance of innovation and learning.
Analysis of recent literature on experiential education provides material for a model for learning experiences in experiential education. The model is constructed from six interconnected and overlapping parts, ranging from the profoundly foundational to the more specifically tactical. First, the learning experience attends to the human condition.…
Holmes, Courtney M.; Kozlowski, Kelly A.
The current study examines the experiences of faculty in a research learning community developed to support new faculty in increasing scholarly productivity. A phenomenological, qualitative inquiry was used to portray the lived experiences of faculty within a learning community. Several themes were found including: accountability, belonging,…
Martin, David S.
A classroom cognitive intervention model for adolescents and adults who are deaf is described. The model provides mediated learning experiences whereby a person assists the learner in interpreting experience and learning problem-solving strategies. The program, entitled instrumental enrichment (IE), is based on the following principles: IE uses a…
Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.
This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)
Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan
This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…
Fowler, William E.; Stovall, O. Scott; Neill, John D.
In this paper, we describe how our department recently incorporated a major service learning component into the curriculum. Specifically, we employed participation in the IRS's Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program as an effective means of experiential and service learning for the past two years for Masters of Accountancy students. We…
Edmond, Tracie; Tiggeman, Theresa
This paper discusses incorporating collaborative learning into accounting classes as a response to the Accounting Education Change Commission's call to install a more active student learner in the classroom. Collaborative learning requires the students to interact with each other and with the material within the classroom setting. It is a…
Singer, Robert N.; And Others
This manual for research in motor learning was written for scientifically based physical educators, experimental psychologists, and others interested in the investigation of learning and performance phenomena associated with skill acquisition. Laboratory and field experiments are presented that can be run with or without the presence of a formal…
Colardyn, Danielle; White, Kathleen M.
From a search of (mostly French) literature, a hypothesis was formulated that students with both academic training and work experience would solve a practical learning problem more easily than students with academic learning only. A study was conducted at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris to test this hypothesis. Two groups,…
Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Education, 2004
This curriculum, designed for young children ages 3-6, focuses on math, science, and social studies and includes integrated activities to use with over 30 software titles. Young Children as Explorers: Interactive Learning Experiences addresses learning standards established by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, National Research…
Wald, Mike; Draffan, E. A.; Seale, Jane
This article provides an overview and initial findings of the LExDis project which is exploring the e-learning experiences of disabled learners within a UK university in order to increase understanding of the many complex issues and interactions introduced by disabled learners' requirements for accessible e-learning, compatible assistive…
O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran
The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and
Wintrup, Julie; Wakefield, Kelly; Morris, Debra; Davis, Hugh
Research into MOOCs--massive, open, online courses--is proliferating as they become increasingly popular in the UK. The study reported here sought in-depth accounts of learning on a MOOC from ten people who completed one of the University of Southampton's first two such courses during 2014. Its goal is to better understand their motivations for…
What constitutes successful practice for supervision of postgraduate students at an Open and Distance learning institution? In this article I describe a limited experiment in on-line teaching using a group of postgraduate students at the University of South Africa (Unisa). While the experiment has obvious limitations including the short time in…
Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.
Santally, Mohammad Issack; Senteni, Alain
Personalisation of e-learning environments is an interesting research area in which the learning experience of learners is generally believed to be improved when his or her personal learning preferences are taken into account. One such learning preference is the V-A-K instrument that classifies learners as visual, auditory or kinaesthetic. In this…
This ethnographic case study investigated how the process of learning during a yearlong after-school, project-based learning (PjBL) experience could be documented by student-created reflective videos. Guided by social constructivism, constant comparative analysis was used to explore the meaningful learning that took place in addition to the…
Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.
Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.
Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.
The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.
Barros, Allan Kardec
The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.
Merk, Hillary; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Carroll, James
Researchers and teacher educators have given increased attention to co-teaching during the student teaching experience. Co-teaching facilitates an apprenticeship arrangement that encourages modeling of classroom practice for the candidate and a chance to implement directly what is being learned by the apprentice. The co-teaching model can be…
Martin, Frank; Smith, Ronnie
The issue of whether or not entrepreneurs really learn from experience has been one of the key themes of entrepreneurship research. If they do learn from experience, what do they learn? The importance of knowledge and learning to the performance of a business has been highlighted by many authors, who emphasize the role of life cycle, learning from…
This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.
May, N; Veitch, L
It is evident that the Scottish colleges have designed and provided very different curricular arrangements to support students' learning to practise in placements. Evaluation has demonstrated that some of these arrangements are of fundamental importance in facilitating or constraining the educational experience of students, including opportunities for reflection on experience, students' preparation for placements, the role of tutors in students' placement learning, the preparation of mentors and the utility of instruments for the assessment of students' practice-based learning. In addition to the formal provision in support of students' learning to work, students have developed their own informal strategies in order to meet their (sometimes conflicting) needs to maximize practical learning opportunities, ease entry into the nursing team and achieve favourable assessment of learning. Some of these involve working in order to learn. This paper is based on the work of the National Board-funded Evaluation of Project 2000 in Scotland (1992-96). The remit of the evaluation was to examine the teaching/learning processes of the Project 2000 nursing programmes and the new midwifery programmes, and their relationship to the educational outcomes for individual students, giving particular emphasis to the experience of students. PMID:10188467
Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar
This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. PMID:23237972
Barnett, R. M.; Johansson, K. E.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Long, L.; Pequenao, J.; Reimers, C.; Watkins, P.
With the start of the LHC, the new particle collider at CERN, the ATLAS experiment is also providing high-energy particle collisions for educational purposes. Several education projects--education scenarios--have been developed and tested on students and teachers in several European countries within the Learning with ATLAS@CERN project. These…
Lyon, David N.
A learning experiment at a West Coast cluster college is reported that involved curricular devices designed to modify student-faculty interactions, change the basis of student motivation, and develop new insights into subject matter on the part of both faculty and students. (Author/LBH)
Stevenson, Anne; Harper, Sarah
Purpose: To investigate the possible effects of workplace stress in academics on the student learning experience. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were designed and distributed to all academic staff at a Scottish Higher Education Institute. This measured perceived levels of stress amongst academic staff and the possible impact of this…
Lindeman, Cheryl A.
It all started with an invitation from the Oxford Round Table. The author was summoned to participate in a lively debate at Exeter College in the Oxford University about, "Science and Faith: The Great Matter." If one has participated in an Oxford University summer experience, he/she will agree it is a once in a lifetime learning endeavor. The…
How can school librarians know about other teachers' professional development experiences? School librarians need time to talk with fellow teachers about the wide range of issues and challenges present in schools. A collaborative mission gives precious time to create learning opportunities for students; but does it give enough time for reflective…
The following lists offer indicators with which a tertiary institution may choose to audit, review, and develop opportunities to internationalise student learning experiences. They are classified under the headings: Staff and Student Attributes, International Relations, Curriculum Design and Content, and Curriculum Delivery. Although they do not…
Barnett, R. M.; Johansson, K. E.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Long, L.; Pequenao, J.; Reimers, C.; Watkins, P.
With the start of the LHC, the new particle collider at CERN, the ATLAS experiment is also providing high-energy particle collisions for educational purposes. Several education projects—education scenarios—have been developed and tested on students and teachers in several European countries within the Learning with ATLAS@CERN project. These highly appreciated projects could become a new component in many teachers' classrooms. The Learning with ATLAS portal and the information on the ATLAS public website make it possible for teachers to design educational material for their own situations. To be able to work with real data adds a new dimension to particle physics explorations at school.
Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia
Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language. PMID:24134139
Krakowka, Amy Richmond
Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…
Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso
According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin
This study examined the interrelationship between student learning experiences and study behaviour in explaining academic achievement. The participants were 541 final year students from a university in Hong Kong. Students' learning experiences and study behaviour were measured using the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Learning and Study…
Lawrence, William K.
This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…
Smalheer, C. V.
The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.
Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C.; Tagorda, Michelle
To foster student development, critical thinking, and application skills among public health students at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, a three-course capstone series was developed as a key component of the public health Bachelor of Arts degree program. Over the course of 1.5 academic years students are actively involved in developing an interdisciplinary project proposal, then executing and presenting an independent, supervised, applied learning project. In the first course, students are introduced to a diverse range of public health projects and methods while working to develop their own project proposal – the foundation for the applied learning experience. The project execution course is designed to allow students to execute their proposed applied learning projects. This experience focuses on the application and integration of public health knowledge, skills, and practice acquired during the bachelor’s degree course of study. Finally, students will be involved in reflecting on, finalizing, and sharing their completed projects in an undergraduate capstone seminar. Through implementation of this series, the program hopes to provide students with the opportunity to actively apply academic skills to real-world application. PMID:25741503
Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Tagorda, Michelle
To foster student development, critical thinking, and application skills among public health students at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, a three-course capstone series was developed as a key component of the public health Bachelor of Arts degree program. Over the course of 1.5 academic years students are actively involved in developing an interdisciplinary project proposal, then executing and presenting an independent, supervised, applied learning project. In the first course, students are introduced to a diverse range of public health projects and methods while working to develop their own project proposal - the foundation for the applied learning experience. The project execution course is designed to allow students to execute their proposed applied learning projects. This experience focuses on the application and integration of public health knowledge, skills, and practice acquired during the bachelor's degree course of study. Finally, students will be involved in reflecting on, finalizing, and sharing their completed projects in an undergraduate capstone seminar. Through implementation of this series, the program hopes to provide students with the opportunity to actively apply academic skills to real-world application. PMID:25741503
Interest in using classroom experiments to teach economics is increasing whereas empirical evidence on how experiments affect learning is limited and mixed. The author used a pretest-posttest control-group design to test whether classroom experiments and grade incentives that reward performance in experiments affect learning of introductory…
In interviews, Scottish adults aged 55-96 in formal, self-help, and distance learning or not participating in group learning reflected on the process of working together to make meaning and on beliefs about learning, education, knowledge, and wisdom. The research process itself was a learning experience for subjects and interviewer. (SK)
Kyei-Blankson, Lydia, Ed.; Ntuli, Esther, Ed.
Learning environments continue to change considerably and is no longer confined to the face-to-face classroom setting. As learning options have evolved, educators must adopt a variety of pedagogical strategies and innovative technologies to enable learning. "Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments"…
Lestari, Umi Puji; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf
This study aims to investigate how set model can help students' understanding of addition of integers in fourth grade. The study has been carried out to 23 students and a teacher of IVC SD Iba Palembang in January 2015. This study is a design research that also promotes PMRI as the underlying design context and activity. Results showed that the…
Gaudioso, E.; Hernandez-del-Olmo, F.; Montero, M.
Teachers in e-learning play a crucial role as facilitators of the students' learning experiences. To this end, a teacher needs to monitor, understand and evaluate the activity of the students in the course. What is more, e-learning can be enhanced if tools for supporting teachers in this task are provided. In this paper, two experiences are…
Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald
In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…
Girod, Mark; Twyman, Todd; Wojcikiewicz, Steve
Drawing from the Deweyan theory of experience (1934, 1938), the goal of teaching and learning for transformative, aesthetic experience is contrasted against teaching and learning from a cognitive, rational framework. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate teaching and learning of fifth grade science from each perspective across an…
Howell, Robert T.
Service learning, a form of experiential learning, is not a new idea. Students learn through participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet real community needs are are coordinated in collaboration with schools/faculty and community organizations. the service experiences are integrated into the students' academic curriculum,…
Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta
There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…
This article examines factors that influence transformative learning experiences of international graduate students from Africa. In general, 84.8% of the participants experienced transformative learning while 15.2% reported no transformative experiences. For those who experienced transformative learning, 26.1% of the transformative experiences…
Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C
Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses. PMID:23658412
Nagel, P. M.; Schotz, F. M.; Skirvan, J. A.
The effects of programmer experience level, different program usage distributions, and programming languages are explored. All these factors affect performance, and some tentative relational hypotheses are presented. An analytic framework for replicated and non-replicated (traditional) software experiments is presented. A method of obtaining an upper bound on the error rate of the next error is proposed. The method was validated empirically by comparing forecasts with actual data. In all 14 cases the bound exceeded the observed parameter, albeit somewhat conservatively. Two other forecasting methods are proposed and compared to observed results. Although demonstrated relative to this framework that stages are neither independent nor exponentially distributed, empirical estimates show that the exponential assumption is nearly valid for all but the extreme tails of the distribution. Except for the dependence in the stage probabilities, Cox's model approximates to a degree what is being observed.
Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.
Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)
Miers, Margaret E; Clarke, Brenda A; Pollard, Katherine C; Rickaby, Caroline E; Thomas, Judith; Turtle, Ann
Health and social care students in a faculty in the United Kingdom learn together in an interprofessional module through online discussion boards. The module assessment encourages engagement with technology and with group members through peer review. An evaluation of student experience of the module gathered data from 48 students participating in 10 online groups. Analysis of contributions to discussion boards, and transcripts of interviews with 20 students revealed differing levels of participation between individuals and groups. Many students were apprehensive about the technology and there were different views about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning. Students interacted in a supportive manner. Group leadership was seen as associated with maintaining motivation to complete work on time. Students reported benefiting from the peer review process but were uncomfortable with critiquing each other's work. Sensitivity about group process may have inhibited the level of critical debate. Nevertheless the module brought together students from different professions and different sites. Examples of sharing professional knowledge demonstrated successful interprofessional collaboration online. PMID:17891626
White, M J; Kouzekanani, K; Olson, R; Amos, E
Because the most effective way to learn is by doing, faculty need to develop experiential learning experiences for students. The authors discuss one such experience, a multiple sclerosis camp where nursing students lived with and cared for their clients for 6 days. The camp experience illustrates how educators can partner with community organizations to the benefit of both. PMID:11111564
This document contains a cross-curricular cooperative learning experience that is designed to give high school students career and technical educational experiences in the areas of forensic sciences and criminalistics by doing the forensic work to "solve" a fictitious murder. The activities included in the cooperative learning experience are…
Peavey, Kay S., Ed.
This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…
Lawler, Robert W.
An intensive, naturalistic study tracked one six year old's learning for six months and more. The study was inspired by the hope that with concepts of Artificial Intelligence and sufficiently detailed observation, the path of knowledge development could be described through observing significant learning experiences. Included is a reasonably…
Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M
Acquiring clinical experiences for students is a major challenge for nurse educators. One of the most difficult areas in which to secure clinical experiences is pediatric nursing; yet, nurse educators have a responsibility to create innovative strategies to assure that students have experience with pediatric clients. The purpose of this paper is to describe Girl Scout Badge Day (GSBD), a teaching strategy rooted in service learning. The strategy incorporates the three essential elements that distinguish service learning from other learning: experiential learning, reflection, and reciprocal learning. During this clinical experience, students provide health promotion education to scouts who subsequently earn badge requirements. Students are provided experiential learning as they implement the role of the teacher and reflect on the core values of nursing. In this paper, the specifics of implementing GSBD are presented and lessons learned are discussed. Benefits for students, scouts, troop leaders, and faculty are identified and improvements are suggested. PMID:18976233
Warner, Richard N.; Picard, Michelle Y.
This paper develops the concept of articulated learning and relates it to the role of Academic Language and Learning (ALL) academics in facilitating the progress of international and other English as an additional language (EAL) students from program to program, between generic, academic and disciplinary skills and from their studies to the work…
Corrigan, Trudy; McNamara, Gerry; O'Hara, Joe
Problem Statement: This paper reports on the evaluation of a project rooted in the principles and practice of Intergenerational Learning. Intergenerational Learning is increasingly seen as a key strategy in providing learning opportunities for older people in societies where the profile of the population is ageing rapidly. No significant work has,…
Chen, Gwo-Dong; Nurkhamid; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Yang, Su-Hang; Lu, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Kai
This study proposes a platform to provide a near-authentic environment, context, and situation for task-based learning. The platform includes two projection screens (a vertical and a horizontal screen) combined for situated or authentic learning. The horizontal screen extends the vertical screen scene to form a space for learning activities and…
Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.
Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.
Pierce, Mark W.
The thesis provides lessons learned from experiments conducted by the 11th Air Force to verify the capabilities of two vendor-produced Radar Data Management Systems (RDMS). The first part of the thesis provides background information explaining the impetus for such experiments and why a lessons learned approach was taken. The experimental plan and the final report from the PACAF experiments are analyzed using evaluation tools taught in the C3 curriculum at the Naval Postgraduate School. The lessons learned from the mistakes made during these experiments are applied to produce a revised experimental plan. A lessons learned section follows the analysis. This section discusses specific lessons learned from the 11th Air Force experiments as well as more general lessons learned by the author. The thesis concludes with two chapters that provide overall conclusions and a summary, and recommendations for future work that can be accomplished in the area of radar data management.
Tsoi, Mun Fie
Purpose: Research on the nature of blended learning and its features has led to a variety of approaches to the practice of blended learning. The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative practice model, the TSOI hybrid learning model (HLM) to enhance the blended learning experiences in science education. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Hadj M'tir, Riadh; Rumpler, Béatrice; Jeribi, Lobna; Ben Ghezala, Henda
Current trends in e-Learning focus mainly on personalizing and adapting the learning environment and learning process. Although their increasingly number, theses researches often ignore the concepts of capitalization and reuse of learner experiences which can be exploited later by other learners. Thus, the major challenge of distance learning is…
In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…
This study explores the determinants of the e-learning continuance intention of users with different levels of e-learning experience and examines the moderating effects of e-learning experience on the relationships among the determinants. The research hypotheses are empirically validated using the responses received from a survey of 256 users. The…
Campbell, Karen P.
The purpose of this heuristic study was to explore the ways in which spirituality informed and impacted educators' own experience of learning as a transformative inner encounter. It inquired into the experience of learning from a spiritual perspective in order to determine the extent to which transformative learning could be described as a…
Palmer, Yolanda Michelle
The author discusses the learning experiences and processes of selected international graduate students within a Canadian university as they progressed from student to scholar. Inspired by social learning theorists Lave and Wenger's (1991) notion of apprentice to masters in situated learning and communities of practice, the student to scholar…
Holzweiss, Peggy C.; Joyner, Sheila A.; Fuller, Matthew B.; Henderson, Susan; Young, Robert
The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of online master's students regarding their best learning experiences. The authors surveyed 86 graduate students concerning what helped them learn in the online environment. Results indicate that although graduate students learned using the same technological tools as undergraduates,…
Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan
Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…
Capdeferro, Neus; Romero, Margarida
Online education increasingly puts emphasis on collaborative learning methods. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences. The purpose of this study was to characterize the feelings of frustration as a negative emotion among online learners…
The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…
Geelan, Benjamin; de Salas, Kristy; Lewis, Ian; King, Carolyn; Edwards, Dale; O'Mara, Aidan
Gamified learning systems are becoming increasingly common within educational institutions, however there is a lack of understanding on the elements of gamification that influence, either positively or negatively, the learning experiences of students using these systems. This study examines an existing gamified learning tool implemented within an…
Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.
The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.
Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas
There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency
O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran
The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…
Czerkawski, Betul C.
Deeper learning promotes students' active engagement in learning environments, so they can continuously explore, reflect and produce information to build complex knowledge structures. Consequently, deeper learning has become a major focus of scholarly investigation and debate. Multiple studies have been conducted to describe the…
McInally, Wendy; Metcalfe, Sharon; Garner, Bonnie
This article provides a knowledge and understanding of an international, collaborative, cultural learning model for students from the United States and Scotland. Internationalizing the student experience has been instrumental for student learning for the past eight years. Both countries have developed programs that have enriched and enhanced the overall student learning experience, mainly through the sharing of evidence-based care in both hospital and community settings. Student learning is at the heart of this international model, and through practice learning, leadership, and reflective practice, student immersion in global health care and practice is immense. Moving forward, we are seeking new opportunities to explore learning partnerships to provide this collaborative cultural learning experience. PMID:26376575
Engineers are expected to work with people with different disciplinary knowledge to solve real-world problems that are inherently complex, which is one of the reasons that interdisciplinary learning has become a common pedagogical practice in engineering education. However, empirical evidence on the impact of interdisciplinary learning on undergraduates is lacking. Regardless of the differences in the scope of methods used to assess interdisciplinary learning, frameworks of interdisciplinary learning are imperative for developing attainable outcomes as well as interpreting assessment data. Existing models of interdisciplinary learning have been either conceptual or based on research faculty members' experiences rather than empirical data. The study addressed the gap by exploring the different ways that undergraduate engineering students experience interdisciplinary learning. A phenomenographic methodological framework was used to guide the design, data collection, and data analysis of the study. Twenty-two undergraduate engineering students with various interdisciplinary learning experiences were interviewed using semi-structured protocols. They concretely described their experiences and reflected meaning associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data revealed eight qualitatively different ways that students experience interdisciplinary learning, which include: interdisciplinary learning as (A) no awareness of differences, (B) control and assertion, (C) coping with differences, (D) navigating creative differences, (E) learning from differences, (F) bridging differences, (G) expanding intellectual boundaries, and (H) commitment to holistic perspectives. Categories D through H represent a hierarchical structure of increasingly comprehensive way of experiencing interdisciplinary learning. Further analysis uncovered two themes that varied throughout the categories: (i) engagement with differences and (ii) purpose and integration. Students whose experiences lie
Casement, S.; Ho, K.; Sandor-Leahy, S.; Biggar, S.; Czapla-Myers, J.; McCorkel, J.; Thome, K.
The use of hyperspectral imagers to provide climate-quality data sets, such as those expected from the solar reflective sensor on the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), requires stringent radiometric calibration requirements. These stringent requirements have been nearly met with broadband radiometers such as CERES, but high resolution spectrometers pose additional challenges. A review of the calibration processes for past space-based HSIs provide guidance on the calibration processes that will be needed for future sensors. In November 2000, the Earth Observer-1 (EO-1) platform was launched onboard a Boeing Delta II launch vehicle. The primary purpose of the EO-1 mission was to provide a technological testbed for spaceborne components. The platform has three sensors onboard, of which, the hyperspectral imager (HSI) Hyperion, is discussed here. The Hyperion sensor at the time had no comparable sensor in earth orbit, being the first grating-based, hyperspectral, civilian sensor in earth orbit. Ground and on-orbit calibration procedures including all cross-calibration activities have achieved an estimated instrument absolute radiometric error of 2.9% in the Visible channel (0.4 - 1.0 microns) and 3.4% in the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 0.9 - 2.5 microns) channel (EO-1/Hyperion Early Orbit Checkout Report Part II On-Orbit Performance Verification and Calibration). This paper describes the key components of the Hyperion calibration process that are applicable to future HSI missions. The pre-launch methods relied on then newly-developed, detector-based methods. Subsequent vicarious methods including cross-calibration with other sensors and the reflectance-based method showed significant differences from the prelaunch calibration. Such a difference demonstrated the importance of the vicarious methods as well as pointing to areas for improvement in the prelaunch methods. We also identify areas where lessons learned from Hyperion regarding
Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved. PMID:27047598
Shin, Jongho; Cho, Eunbyul
The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of convergence learning experience when learners study integrated learning contents from various academic subjects. Specifically, cognitive and emotional experiences and their changes over time were investigated. Eight undergraduate and graduate students participated in the study.…
Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael A.
This article reports on research into the student experience of learning through discussions in a third-year undergraduate engineering subject. Information engineering students studying e-commerce were required to engage in face-to-face and online discussions as a key aspect of their learning experience. This study investigates the quality of the…
Bickmore, Dana L.
This study identified the formal and informal professional learning experiences in which school administrators engaged and the relationship between these professional learning experiences and administrator practice. The researcher developed an instrument that solicited school administrators' engagement and perceived value of formal and informal…
Tokar, David M.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Subich, Linda M.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Williams, Christine M.
The underlying factor structure of the Learning Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; Schaub, 2004) was examined using data from 742 male and female college-age respondents. The LEQ items reflect a variety of learning experiences (generated based on Bandura's (1986, 1997) four sources of self-efficacy perceptions) that might occur in each of Holland's…
Turner, Martin; Baskerville, Rachel
This study examines how to support accounting students to experience deep learning. A sample of 81 students in a third-year undergraduate accounting course was studied employing a phenomenographic research approach, using ten assessed learning tasks for each student (as well as a focus group and student surveys) to measure their experience of how…
Huffman, Jane B.
Studies one school's experience as a learning community. Discusses seven themes found to be associated with the school's learning-community experience: Leadership, responsible decision-making, systematic staff development, site-based management, collaboration, and common focus. Draws implications for research and practice. (Contains 20…
Kim, Daesang; Rueckert, Daniel; Kim, Dong-Joong; Seo, Daeryong
This study focused on how students perceive the use of mobile devices to create a personalized learning experience outside the classroom. Fifty-three students in three graduate TESOL classes participated in this study. All participants completed five class projects designed to help them explore mobile learning experiences with their own mobile…
Pieri, Michelle; Diamantini, Davide; Paini, Germano
This work focuses on an experience of social learning realized in six Italian high schools in the 2012-2013 academic year. In this experience we used ThinkTag Smart, a new learning platform, to train 400 students. After an introduction concerning Information and Communication Technologies in Italian schools, this contribution will describe the…
Pankhurst, K. V.
This paper examines the nature and significance of learning by experience during work, both paid and unpaid. Data about the relationship between costs, especially labour costs, and output have come to be interpreted as evidence of learning by experience, but these grouped data are unable to explain the nature and process of individual experience…
Five experiments were carried out to gain insight into foreign language learning as it takes place in the classroom environment, and to create optimal learning conditions for beginning Swedish-speaking learners of English as a Foreign Language. The experiments examined receptive and productive comprehension of English vocabulary in…
Jokinen, Pirkko; Mikkonen, Irma
This paper considers teachers' experiences of teaching undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. The basic idea of the study programme was to support students to reflect on theory and practice, and provide with access to expert and professional knowledge in real-life problem-solving and decision making. Learning was organised to support learning in and about work: students worked full-time and this provided excellent opportunities for learning both in practice, online and face-to-face sessions. The aim of the study was to describe teachers' experiences of planning and implementing teaching and learning in a blended-learning-based adult nursing programme. The research method was qualitative, and the data were collected by three focus group interviews, each with four to six participants. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the blended learning environment constructed by the combination of face-to-face learning and learning in practice with technology-mediated learning creates challenges that must be taken into consideration when planning and implementing blended teaching and learning. However, it provides good opportunities to enhance students' learning in and about work. This is because such programmes support student motivation through the presence of "real-life" and their relevance to the students' own places of work. Nevertheless, teachers require knowledge of different pedagogical approaches; they need professional development support in redesigning teaching and learning. PMID:23608218
Hickey, Pamela J.
What is the journey of acquiring language? What is the journey of sharing it? These are the questions that compelled the hermeneutic phenomenological investigation (Gadamer, 1960/2004; van Manen, 1997) that led to this paper. Guided by the voice of Heidegger (1954/2008), I discovered the necessity of "un-learning to learn" in order to hear the…
Learning in the earliest stage of life--the infancy, toddlerhood and preschool period--is relational and rapid. Child-initiated and adult-mediated conversations, playful interactions and learning through active involvement are integral to young children making sense of their environments and to their development over time. The child's experience…
Gruendemann, Barbara J
Face-to-face learning has been the mainstay of nursing student learning. Despite moves to online learning, face-to-face learning persists. This study focuses on how nursing students experience face-to-face learning and why it not only survives, but thrives. This study was anchored in a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, with Gadamerian concepts and van Manen's lifeworlds as frameworks to understand students' experiences of face-to-face learning. Patterns and themes were extracted from audiore-corded face-to-face interviews. Participants confirmed that face-to-face learning continues to be valued as a strong methodology in nursing education. Their experiences focused on humanism, the importance of "presence," physical proximity, classroom as "the real thing," immediacy of feedback, and learning and knowing by human connections and interaction. The study findings were a rich source for understanding how nursing students process learning experiences. Increased understanding of the meaning and essence of face-to-face learning is essential as we decide how nursing content will be taught. PMID:21956259
Pippin, M. R.; Kollmeyer, R.; Joseph, J.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Harte, T.; Taylor, J.; Lewis, P. M.; Weisman, A.; Hyater-Adams, S.
The NASA LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Research and Analysis (R&A) related and mission-based research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring and guidance of NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, the LEARN teachers present scientific posters. During summer 2013, Cohort 1 (7 teachers) presented posters at an open session and discussed their research topics with Cohort 2 (6 teachers) and science and educator personnel at Langley. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that 6 teachers from Cohort 1 have elected to continue a second year of research working alongside Cohort 2 and LEARN scientists. In addition, Cohort 1 teachers have brought their LEARN experiences back to their classrooms in a variety of ways. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into the outcomes of this research experience for teachers and particularly effective program elements. In particular, the LEARN evaluation has focused on how an extended research experience for teachers spanning a full year influences teacher views of science and classroom integration of scientific principles. Early findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. Teachers also valued the teamwork and cohort approach. In addition, the LEARN evaluation focuses on the experiences of scientists involved in the LEARN program and how their experiences working with
Continued concern over attainment and participation in secondary school mathematics has led to a focus on improving the quality of teaching and student outcomes through a variety of professional learning opportunities. A study of teacher professional identity serves to illuminate this learning; this constant process of sensemaking (Day and Kington…
Hinton, Geoffrey E.
Discusses computational studies of learning in artificial neural networks and findings that may provide insights into the learning abilities of the human brain. Describes efforts to test theories about brain information processing, using artificial neural networks. Vignettes include information concerning how a neural network represents…
Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.
The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…
Evaluation of a workplace literacy program at a mining and processing plant involved interviews with 15 participants. Most used learning guides and valued computer-based learning but disliked videos. Observing and listening helped them move from knowing about to knowing how. (SK)
Thornton, James E.
This article discusses the proposition that learning is an unexplored feature of the guided autobiography method and its developmental exchange. Learning, conceptualized and explored as the embedded and embodied processes, is essential in narrative activities of the guided autobiography method leading to psychosocial development and growth in…
Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.
Chapters in this book include: (1) E-Learning Indicators: A Multidimensional Model for Planning Developing and Evaluating E-Learning Software Solutions (Bekim Fetaji and Majlinda Fetaji); (2) Barriers to Effective use of Information Technology in Science Education at Yanbu Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Abdulkareem Eid S. Alwani and Safeeullah Soomro);…
Takase, Miyuki; Imai, Takiko; Uemura, Chizuru
This paper examines the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale. A survey method was used to collect data from a total of 502 nurses. Data were analyzed by factor analysis and the known-groups technique to examine the construct validity of the scale. In addition, internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and stability was examined by test-retest correlation. Factor analysis showed that the Learning Experience Scale consisted of five factors: learning from practice, others, training, feedback, and reflection. The scale also had the power to discriminate between nurses with high and low levels of nursing competence. The internal consistency and the stability of the scale were also acceptable. The Learning Experience Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, and helps organizations to effectively design learning interventions for nurses. PMID:26373632
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007
The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…
Snow, Roslyn; Bruns, Phyllis A.
Describes Orange Coast College's Assessment of Prior Learning (APL) program, which involves student preparation of a fully documented autobiographical essay and an assessment procedure used to award credit for demonstrated competencies. Highlights faculty and industry involvement. (DMM)
Shakroum, Moamer; Wong, Kok Wai; Fung, Lance Chun Che
Several studies and experiments have been conducted in recent years to examine the value and the advantage of using the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS).The investigation of the influence of the GBLS mode on the learning outcomes is still scarce. Most previous studies did not address more than one category of learning outcomes (cognitive,…
Boud, David; Walker, David
This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning in the Workplace: Part A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the process of learning from experience within the context of on-the-job-training and learning in the workplace. The following topics…
This dissertation explores the confluence between transformative learning (TL), education for sustainability (EfS), and Expeditionary Learning (EL). The researcher has studied the experiences of EL graduates from three high schools and asked the question: does participation in an EL high school result in transformative learning? If so, what are…
Van Winkle, Christine M.; Lagay, Katya
The purpose of the research described in the paper was to explore the learning experience that occurs during leisure tourism from the tourist's perspective. Learning throughout the lifespan occurs in diverse contexts and travel presents a unique learning environment enabling both unplanned and planned opportunities. The Husserlian phenomenology…
Edwards, Richard; Usher, Robin
Considers the implications of globalization for rethinking instruction. Suggests the use of location/dislocation in the sense of positioning as a metaphor and discusses its application to the theory of experiential learning. Contains 38 references. (SK)
Veletsianos, George; Doering, Aaron
In this paper we investigate the experiences of elementary school children over a two-year period during which they engaged with a hybrid Adventure Learning program. In addition to delineating Adventure Learning experiences, we report on educational technology implementations in ecologically valid and complex environments, while drawing inferences…
Sparacia, Gianvincenzo; Cannizzaro, Floreana; D'Alessandro, Donna M; D'Alessandro, Michael P; Caruso, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto
The use of two different educator-centric learning management systems (LMSs), Moodle and Manila, for radiology e-learning was formatively evaluated and the implications of the future use of LMSs in radiology education were explored. NeuroRAD, a neuroradiologic digital library and learning community, is implemented with Moodle, one of the most popular open-source educator-centric LMSs. Pediatric-Education.org, a pediatric digital library and learning community, is implemented with Manila, a commercial educator-centric LMS. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of these LMSs were performed with World Wide Web server log file statistical programs and user-submitted comment forms. In 2005, NeuroRAD was used by 9959 visitors, who read 98,495 pages of information, whereas PediatricEducation .org was used by 91,000 visitors, who read 186,000 pages of information. Visitors represented a wide spectrum of medical learners and used the sites to answer clinical questions; to prepare for lectures, conferences, and informal teaching sessions; and to stay up-to-date and prepare for examinations. Early results indicate that radiology learning communities can be implemented with educator-centric LMSs relatively easily and at low cost by radiologists with minimal computer expertise, and can find receptive and appreciative audiences. Online radiology learning communities could play a significant role in providing education to radiologists the world over throughout their careers. PMID:17374871
Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Schroeder, Scott R
Musical experience may benefit learning of a new language by increasing the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes sound. In the current study, participants with varying degrees of musical experience were exposed to two statistically defined languages consisting of auditory Morse code sequences that varied in difficulty. We found an advantage for highly skilled musicians, relative to lower-skilled musicians, in learning novel Morse code-based words. Furthermore, in the more difficult learning condition, performance of lower-skilled musicians was mediated by their general cognitive abilities. We suggest that musical experience may improve processing of statistical information and that musicians' enhanced ability to learn statistical probabilities in a novel Morse code language may extend to natural language learning. PMID:23505962
This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…
Walker, Tracy; Molnar, Tim
This work examines the experience of secondary school students involved in authentic science inquiry (ASI) at the Canadian Light Source. We suggest this experience is a transformational learning experience for participants. Using evidence from surveys and interviews from a total of 119 high school students, 23 teachers, and 18 scientists…
Preston, Jane P.; Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Nsiah, Joseph K.
The purpose of the paper is to describe our peer mentorship experiences and explain how these experiences fostered transformational learning during our PhD graduate program in educational administration. As a literature backdrop, we discuss characteristics of traditional forms of mentorship and depict how our experiences of peer mentorship was…
Varao-Sousa, Trish L.; Kingstone, Alan
The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms. PMID:26561235
Varao-Sousa, Trish L; Kingstone, Alan
The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms. PMID:26561235
Ravanipour, Maryam; Bahreini, Masoud; Ravanipour, Masoumeh
Background: Peer learning is an educational process wherein someone of the same age or level of experience level interacts with other students interested in the same topic. There is limited evidence specifically focusing on the practical use of peer learning in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of peer learning in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted. Focus groups were used to find the students’ experiences about peerlearning. Twenty-eight baccalaureate nursing students at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively, and were arranged in four groups of seven students each. The focus group interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis identified four themes: Paradoxical dualism, peer exploitation, first learning efficacy, and socialization practice. Gained advantages and perceived disadvantages created paradoxical dualism, and peer exploitation resulted from peer selection and peer training. Conclusion: Nursing students reported general satisfaction concerning peer learning due to much more in-depth learning with little stress than conventional learning methods. Peer learning is a useful method for nursing students for practicing educational leadership and learning the clinical skills before they get a job. PMID:26097860
Liljedahl, Matilda; Boman, Lena Engqvist; Fält, Charlotte Porthén; Bolander Laksov, Klara
This paper explores and contrasts undergraduate medical and nursing students' experiences of the clinical learning environment. Using a sociocultural perspective of learning and an interpretative approach, 15 in-depth interviews with medical and nursing students were analysed with content analysis. Students' experiences are described using a…
Lucas, Timothy; Rowley, Natalie M.
We explored the experiences of first year chemistry students of an Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) approach to learning spectroscopy. An investigation of how students' perceived confidences changed as a result of their experience of using EBL in the spectroscopy course was carried out. Changes in the students' perceived confidence, both in their…
Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas
In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…
Bolger, Benjamin B.; Rowland, Gordon; Reuning-Hummel, Carrie; Codner, Stephen
Powerful and transformative learning experiences display characteristics in common with each other. Emerging communication technologies may increase opportunities for powerful and transformative learning experiences. To explore this question, there are four sections to this article. First, it is observed that there are many interesting synergies…
Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Olson, Richard
Many Latinos come to higher education as adults. One degree completion strategy that is particularly suited to adult students in higher education is prior learning assessment (PLA). PLA provides opportunities to evaluate a student's learning from work or life experience for the purpose of awarding college credit. For students whose…
Wallestad, Chizuko Konishi
The purpose of this present ethnographic case study is to explore the initial and developing beliefs, understandings, and experiences of prospective language teachers as they engage in the process of learning about cooperative learning (CL) and in putting it into practice in a TESOL graduate program in the U.S. Data collection includes multiple…
Virtanen, Anne; Tynjala, Paivi
The Finnish vocational education and training system underwent remarkable transformations at the turn of the century. One of the biggest changes was introducing compulsory and guided on-the-job learning periods in all study programmes. In this article students' experiences of on-the-job learning and in particular of integrating school-based and…
Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz
In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…
Emo, Kenneth; Emo, Wendy; Kimn, Jung-Han; Gent, Stephen
This article examines how student learning is a product of the experiential interaction between person and environment. We draw from the theoretical perspective of complexity to shed light on the emergent, adaptive, and unpredictable nature of students' learning experiences. To understand the relationship between the environment and the student…
Choi, Sheena; Slaubaugh, Michael; Kim, Ae-Sook
This study examines the role of international exchange programs on the transformative learning of English-speaking students. A student exchange program at a South Korean university is used for this case study. It explores how learning experiences are translated by participants onto their perceptions about the host country. An analysis of a pre-…
Naidu, Som; Cunnington, David
This paper describes a research project that seeks to explore the experience of faculty with technology-enhanced teaching and learning. A particular focus of this investigation is on how the use of information and communications technology is influencing teaching practices and students' approaches to learning at the University of Melbourne. This…
Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy
During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…
Weinstein, Margot B.
This study explored the learning experiences of CEOs in organizations for profit throughout the United States. Malcolm Knowles theory of Andragogy was used as the framework of the inquiry. While the CEO' position is considered unique from other executive positions, it has not been the focus of many studies. The findings suggest how CEOs learn and…
This article describes the effects of a year-long reflective writing assignment--weekly Learning Posts--designed for students in an undergraduate music education course. I created this assignment to cause students to regularly interrogate the teaching and learning they experience in their own daily lives. This study's research question emerged…
Wong, Andus W.-K.; Tse, Andy C.-Y.; Ma, Estella P.-M.; Whitehill, Tara L.; Masters, Rich S. W.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of error experience on the acquisition of hypernasal speech. Method: Twenty-eight healthy participants were asked to simulate hypernasality in either an "errorless learning" condition (in which the possibility for errors was limited) or an "errorful learning"…
Hamilton, Stephen F.
Unpaid community activities have been widely recommended as learning experiences for adolescents. An evaluation was conducted of two community action learning programs, one which placed adolescents one-to-one in adult-dominated settings and the other which gave adolescents a group project to plan and carry out with adult assistance. Both programs…
Leaving one's own territory in research by taking part in an international project is like learning a new language: it's not just learning a new vocabulary and grammar, but is a total human experience which is best learnt in everyday activity. Social scientists like Jean Lave argued that "knowledge-in-practice, constituted in the settings of…
Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen
Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…
This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…
Holmes, David; Zayas, Luis E; Koyfman, Alex
International health electives offer unique experiences for medical students to develop clinical skills and cultural competencies in unique and diverse environments. Medical students have been increasingly pursuing these learning opportunities despite the challenges. However, their goals in pursuing these opportunities and the relation between their learning objectives and actual experiences have not been studied adequately. It is important to assess these programs based on student objectives and whether those objectives are met. Thirty-seven medical students from five cohorts at a US medical school completed pre-post questionnaires regarding their global health elective objectives and learning experiences. The questionnaires included mostly open-ended questions and a Likert-scale rating of their overall experience. Qualitative thematic analysis involved inductive coding and followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Quantitative program evaluation measures yielded descriptive statistics. Five general objectives and four types of learning experiences were identified. Student objectives were: (1) to observe the practice and organization of health care in another country; (2) improve medical/surgical skills; (3) improve language skills; (4) learn about another culture; and (5) deepen knowledge of infectious diseases. All of their objectives were achieved. Moreover, one learning theme, "self-reflection and personal growth," was not a student objective. Quantitative assessment showed that most students had a favorable elective experience. Program challenges were also identified. Students in a global health elective were able to fulfill self-identified learning objectives, while also gaining other unexpected yet important lessons. Students' learning objectives also should be considered in evaluating learning experiences in international health electives. PMID:22367606
Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E.
In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the add-1…
I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM
Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso
According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based…
Wright, Dolores J.
An environmental health learning experience involved collaborative activities of graduate public health and undergraduate nursing students. Pre/postcourse measures (n=31) showed increased awareness of issues and competence in interdisciplinary teamwork. (Contains 13 references.) (SK)
Burgess, Annette; Ramsey-Stewart, George
Background The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD) within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods At the end of the course, all students (n=24) were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results In total, 20/24 (83%) students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying teaching methods and frequent assessments, prompting student–student and student–teacher interaction, was also beneficial for student learning. PMID:26345392
Personal accounts of nurses' and midwives' experiences of health problems feature not infrequently in the nursing press, with different points being made. The contribution of experience to learning is examined in relation to data collected during a study of midwives' care of relinquishing mothers. The extent to which there is a conflict between experiential learning, valued as a component of andragogy, and aspirations to being a research-based profession is examined. PMID:1538674
Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.
This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…
Sun, R; Peterson, T
This paper presents a novel learning model CLARION, which is a hybrid model based on the two-level approach proposed by Sun. The model integrates neural, reinforcement, and symbolic learning methods to perform on-line, bottom-up learning (i.e., learning that goes from neural to symbolic representations). The model utilizes both procedural and declarative knowledge (in neural and symbolic representations, respectively), tapping into the synergy of the two types of processes. It was applied to deal with sequential decision tasks. Experiments and analyzes in various ways are reported that shed light on the advantages of the model. PMID:18255804
Ambrose, Susan A.; Poklop, Laurie
This article reports on a phenomenological study conducted in 2013 to investigate co-op learning from the students' perspectives. 104 seniors were interviewed who had completed one to three periods of co-op employment. A stratified purposeful sample with proportional representation of six university colleges was used. Using a standardized,…
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP,…
Middelborg, Jorn; Duvieusart, Baudouin, Ed.
A community learning centre (CLC) is a local educational institution outside the formal education system, usually set up and managed by local people. CLCs were first introduced in Myanmar in 1994, and by 2001 there were 71 CLCs in 11 townships. The townships are characterized by remoteness, landlessness, unemployment, dependency on one cash crop,…
This review of "Teacher Lore," a book of essays, highlights what teacher lore is, teachers' stories and ideas, and learning from teacher lore. The book invites teachers to look searchingly into their daily practice in order to understand the mystery and intangibles of teaching. It is recommended for preservice and inservice teachers. (SM)
Wang, Minjuan; Poole, Melissa; Harris, Bruce; Wangemann, Paul
Describes a project conducted in England and Scotland that engaged teenagers in using Internet-based tools to collaborate in problem-based learning. Explains Motorola Expeditions, designed to help young people develop skills in using new network technologies to work together in teams to solve real world problems. Results showed a significant…
Fournier, Hélène; Kop, Rita
This paper will present current work on various frameworks that are aimed at guiding the research, development, and evaluation efforts around Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Initiatives and activities, including current work by the National Research Council (NRC) in the context of Learning and Performance Support Systems and MOOCs, will be…
Powell, Stephen; Tindal, Ian; Millwood, Richard
This paper describes a model of personalized work-integrated learning that is collaborative in nature, uses emerging Internet technologies and is accessed fully online. The Ultraversity project was set up by Ultralab at Anglia Ruskin University to develop a fully online, 3-year duration, undergraduate degree program with an emphasis on action…
Viau, Rolland; Larivee, Jacques
Objectives of this study were to create a prototype of an interactive hypermedia textbook and to explore the relationships between learners' performance and use of available learning tools (i.e., textbook glossary and navigation map). The effects of prior knowledge on textbook use and performance were also investigated. (11 references) (EA)
Collis, Betty; Waring, Burney; Nicholson, Gerry
Business needs in multinational corporations call for courses that involve problem solving and creating and sharing new knowledge based on workplace situations. The courses also need to be engaging for the participants. Blended learning at Shell International Exploration and Production involves these kinds of outcomes in courses designed around a…
Council of Independent Colleges, 2008
This report highlights the experiences of the 33 members of CIC's (Council of Independent Colleges) Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) Consortium over the past three years as they used the CLA to measure student learning outcomes. The CLA instrument assesses how the college experience helps students develop such "higher order" cognitive skills…
Main, E Eve; Garrett-Wright, Dawn; Kerby, Molly
For the past decade participation in service and experiential learning in higher education has increased. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of BSN and MSN students participating in a multidisciplinary service-learning course in a rural, underserved village in Belize. Researchers analyzed student journals utilizing qualitative data analysis techniques. There were eight consistent themes found in the student journals. The findings indicate that international service learning opportunities increase students' awareness of their place in a global society and the potential contribution they can make in society. For the past decade, service and experiential learning in higher education, including nursing education, has become increasingly important. Simply put, service and experiential learning combine community service activities with a student's academic study for the sole purpose of enriching the academic experience. As faculty, we feel the goal of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education is to produce an educated professional who will become a responsible citizen. PMID:23367657
O'Mara, Linda; McDonald, Jane; Gillespie, Mary; Brown, Helen; Miles, Lynn
Clinical learning is an essential component of becoming a nurse. However at times, students report experiencing challenging clinical learning environments (CCLE), raising questions regarding the nature of a challenging clinical learning environment, its impact on students' learning and how students might respond within a CCLE. Using an Interpretive Descriptive study design, researchers held focus groups with 54 students from two Canadian sites, who self-identified as having experienced a CCLE. Students defined a CCLE as affected by relationships in the clinical area and by the context of their learning experiences. CCLE decreased students' learning opportunities and impacted on them as persons. As students determined which relationships were challenging, they tapped other resources and they used strategies to rebuilt, reframe, redirect and/or retreat relative to the specific challenge. Relationships also acted as buffers to unsupportive practice cultures. Implications for practice and research are addressed. PMID:24063792
When it comes to learning, a deep understanding of the material and a broadband of knowledge are equally important. However, provided limited amount of semester time, instructors often find themselves struggling to reach both aspects at the same time and are often forced to make a choice between the two. On one hand, we would like to spend much time to train our students, with demonstrations, step by step guidance and practice, to develop strong critical thinking skills and problem-solving skills. On the other hand, we also would like to cover a wide range of content topics to broaden our students' understanding. In this presentation, we propose a working scheme that may assist to achieve these two goals at the same time without sacrificing either one. With the help of recorded and pre-recorded lectures and other class materials, it allows instructors to spend more class time to focus on developing critical thinking skills and problem-solving skills, and to apply and connect principle knowledge with real life phenomena. It also allows our students to digest the material at a pace they are comfortable with by watching the recorded lectures over and over. Students now have something as a backup to refer to when they have random mistakes and/or missing spots on their notes, and hence take more ownership of their learning. Advanced technology have offered flexibility of how/when the content can be delivered, and have been assisting towards better teaching and learning strategies.
Stevens, Emily E.; Gazza, Elizabeth; Pickler, Rita
Purpose Although extensive research has been conducted on preterm infant oral feeding, few investigations have examined parents’ experiences learning to orally feed their preterm infant while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). As such, the aim of this study was to explore parental learning experiences to gain a better understanding of the process parents’ use in learning to feed their preterm infant. Subjects Parents included in the investigation were18 years of age or older with a medically stable preterm infant that was less than 36 weeks gestational age at birth, free of congenital malformations, and feeding orally. Design This investigation used hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the depth and richness of parental experience with the process of learning to orally feed their preterm infant. Methods Participants were recruited from a university affiliated women’s hospital with a Level III NICU. Purposive sampling was used to ensure that all participants were familiar with the experience of interest. Data collection consisted of personal interviews conducted in a private consultation room located within the NICU. In instances where both the infant’s mother and father chose to participate, the interviews were conducted separately on the same day. Main Outcome measures Twelve mothers and eight fathers participated in semi-structured interviews. For eight mothers and six fathers, this was their first child. This was the first preterm infant for all participants. From the parental experience three themes were identified: an emotional experience; learn as you go; and it’s technical. Principal Results Parents noted that feeding encompassed both positive as well as negative emotions, that learning was a process that nurses played an instrumental role in, and that feeding a preterm infant could be very technical requiring extra skills for feeding success. Conclusions Nurses can play a key role in helping parents learn by acknowledging both positive
This article will discuss ways of maximizing the online course experience for teachers- and counselors-in-training. The widespread popularity of online instruction makes it a necessary learning experience for future teachers and counselors (Ash, 2011). New teachers and counselors take on the responsibility of preparing their students for real-life…
McGregor, Karla K.; Langenfeld, Natalie; Van Horne, Sam; Oleson, Jacob; Anson, Matthew; Jacobson, Wayne
To explore the university experiences of students with learning disabilities (LD), 63,802 responses to the 2014 Student Experience in the Research University Survey were analyzed. Compared to other students, those with self-reported LD (5.96 percent) had difficulty with assignments and had more obstacles caused by nonacademic responsibilities and…
Nolan, Mary Gill
Active participation in a 12-hour operating room experience seemed to provide one group of medical-surgical nursing students with a broad range of clinical nursing experiences leading to rapid, integrated learning of knowledge and skills and increased self-confidence. (Author)
Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.
A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the…
Cahill, Jo; Turner, Jan; Barefoot, Helen
Background: Quality enhancement in higher education is essentially a planned process of change that leads to continuous improvement in the effectiveness of the learning experience of students and the students' experience of higher education. Published literature that explores the concept in the reality of practice is sparse. Purpose: The overall…
Rapidly advancing technology continues to change the landscape of blended foreign language education. Pinpointing the differences between blended language (BL) learning environments and understanding how stakeholders experience such spaces is complex. However, learner experiences can provide a roadmap for the design and development of BL courses.…
Honebein, Peter C.
"Transmergent learning" is a macro instructional strategy that increases the likelihood of exceptional educational experiences, where creativity and innovation reign. By blending the principles of transformational experiences with evolutionary and emergent properties of complexity theory, instructional designers are able to craft an educational…
This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…
Despite growing interest in learning and teaching as emotional activities, there is still very little research on experiences of sensitive issues. Using qualitative data from students from a range of social science disciplines, this study investigates student's experiences. The paper highlights how, although they found it difficult and…
Parrish, Patrick E.; Wilson, Brent G.; Dunlap, Joanna C.
This article presents a framework for understanding learning experience as an object for instructional design--as an object for design as well as research and understanding. Compared to traditional behavioral objectives or discrete cognitive skills, the object of experience is more holistic, requiring simultaneous attention to cognition, behavior,…
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)
Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott
An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.
Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer
Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011
Pascua, Luigi A M; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca
The authors examined the individual and combined influences of 2 factors that have been shown to benefit motor learning: an external focus of attention and enhanced performance expectancies. Another purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying these variables. In a factorial design, participants learning a novel motor skill (i.e., throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not given external focus instructions, and were or were not provided bogus positive social-comparative feedback to enhance their expectancies. This resulted in 4 groups: external focus, enhanced expectancy, external focus/enhanced expectancy and control. External focus instructions and enhanced expectancies had additive benefits for learning: the external focus/enhanced expectancy group demonstrated the greatest throwing accuracy on both retention and transfer tests, while the accuracy scores of the external focus and enhanced expectancy groups were lower, but higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, self-efficacy was increased by both external focus and enhanced expectancy, and predicted retention and transfer performance. Positive affect was heightened in the enhanced expectancy and external focus/enhanced expectancy groups after practice and predicted transfer performance. The findings suggest that the learning benefits of an external focus and enhanced expectancies mediate learning through partially different mechanisms. PMID:24875153
Papastavrou, Evridiki; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Tsangari, Haritini; Saarikoski, Mikko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The clinical learning environment is a complex social entity that influences student learning outcomes in the clinical setting. Exploration of this environment gives insight into the educational functioning of the clinical areas and allows nurse teachers to enhance students' opportunities for learning. Since Cyprus is undergoing major reforms in nursing education, building on the experience and knowledge gained, this study aims to explore the present clinical situation and how this would impact on nursing education moves to the university. As nursing education would take on a different approach, it is assumed the learning approach would also be different, and so utilization of the clinical environment would also be improved. Six hundred and forty five students participated in the study. Data were collected by means of the clinical learning environment and supervision instrument. A statistically significant correlation was found between the sub-dimensions "premises of nursing care" and "premises of learning" indicating that students are relating learning environment with the quality of nursing care and patient relationships. The ward atmosphere and the leadership style of the manager were rated as less important factors for learning. The majority of students experienced a group supervision model, but the more satisfied students were those with a "personal mentor" that was considered as the most successful mentor relationship. The findings suggest more thorough examination and understanding of the characteristics of the clinical environment that are conductive to learning. PMID:19700368
van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina
This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.
Perin, Suzanne Marie
By first recognizing the valuable social and scientific practices taking place within families as they learn science together across multiple, everyday settings, this dissertation addresses questions of how to design and scaffold activities that build and expand on those practices to foster a deep understanding of science, and how the aesthetic experience of learning science builds connections across educational settings. Families were invited to visit a natural history museum, an aquarium, and a place or activity of the family's choice that they associated with science learning. Some families were asked to use a set of activities during their study visits based on the practices of science (National Research Council, 2012), which were delivered via smartphone app or on paper cards. I use design-based research, video data analysis and interaction analysis to examine how families build connections between informal science learning settings. Chapter 2 outlines the research-based design process of creating activities for families that fostered connections across multiple learning settings, regardless of the topical content of those settings. Implications of this study point to means for linking everyday family social practices such as questioning, observing, and disagreeing to the practices of science through activities that are not site-specific. The next paper delves into aesthetic experience of science learning, and I use video interaction analysis and linguistic analysis to show how notions of beauty and pleasure (and their opposites) are perfused throughout learning activity. Designing for aesthetic experience overtly -- building on the sensations of enjoyment and pleasure in the learning experience -- can motivate those who might feel alienated by the common conception of science as merely a dispassionate assembly of facts, discrete procedures or inaccessible theory. The third paper, a case study of a family who learns about salmon in each of the sites they visit
McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise
This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…
Struyven, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Steven; Gielen, Sarah
This study investigated the effects of two contrasting learning environments on students' course experiences: a lecture-based setting to a student-activating teaching environment. In addition, the evaluative treatment involved five research conditions that went together with one of four assessment modes, namely, portfolio, case-based, peer…
Musyoka, Millicent Malinda; Gentry, Mary Anne; Bartlett, James Joseph
The purpose of this research is to investigate experiences of K-12 classroom teachers of deaf students with additional disabilities. Today, more deaf and hard of hearing students are identified as having additional disabilities (Bruce, DiNatale & Ford, 2008; Ewing, 2011; Gallaudet Research Institute, 2011; Jones, Jones & Ewing, 2006;…
Nottingham, Casey L; Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M
Recently, researchers have investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets during learning trials for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This instructional method may be more efficient than typical methods used with learners with ASD, because learners may acquire secondary targets without additional instruction. This review will discuss the recent literature on providing secondary targets during teaching trials for individuals with ASD, identify common aspects and results among these studies, and identify areas for future research. PMID:25376814
Caruana, Vicki; Woodrow, Kelli; Pérez, Luis
The Learning Activities Survey (LAS) detected whether, and to what extent, a perspective transformation occurred during two graduate courses in teacher preparation. The LAS examined the types of learning identified as contributing to their transformative experiences. This study examined pre-service teachers' critical reflection of the course…
This research explored the experience of graduate students who taught service-learning courses to undergraduate students at a large research university. The inquiry was grounded in literature about service-learning, the scholarship of engagement, and doctoral education. A qualitative study included interviews with graduate student service-learning…
Hussein-Farraj, Rania; Barak, Miri; Dori, Yehudit Judy
This study examined the development of two Distance Learning (DL) courses and their effect on students' perceptions and learning experiences. Our study included about 260 science and engineering graduate students. Among them, 105 students were divided into two research groups: on-campus students (N=70) and DL students (N=35). These two groups…
Katz, Jennifer; DuBois, Melinda; Wigderson, Sara
This study investigated communication outcomes after training or applied service-learning experiences. Pre-practicum trainees learned active listening skills over 10 weeks. Practicum students were successful trainees who staffed a helpline. Community interns were trained and supervised at community agencies. Undergraduate students in psychology…
Education for active citizenship continues to be a critical response for social cohesion and reconstruction in conflict-affected areas. Oftentimes, approaches to learning and teaching in such contexts can do as much harm as good. This study qualitatively examines 435 students' reflections of their civics classroom learning experiences and their…
Abram, Marie J.
The work of eight learning theorists was used to evaluate a proposed adult education/learning experience in an effort to operationalize a system for locating strengths and weaknesses in an instructional system prior to its implementation. Thirty-five implications for adult education were extrapolated from work representing the Behaviorist (B.F.…
Ngee, Lee Mah
This paper presents a study of 428 youths who participated in service-learning projects in developing countries in South-East Asia, China and India. Using mixed-method approach, this study examined the reasons for their participation in the YEP (youth expedition projects) and the impact of their service-learning experiences on their civic…
The paper first explores the factors that affect the use of social networks to enhance teaching and learning experiences among students and lecturers, using structured questionnaires prepared based on the Push-Pull-Mooring framework. A total of 455 students and lecturers from higher learning institutions in Malaysia participated in this study.…
Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi
This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…
Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Len
This study attempted to examine students' learning outcomes and their learning experiences through playing a Serious Educational Game. A mixed-method research design was employed collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 98 middle-school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades participated through paper-and-pencil…
Johannesson, Eva; Silén, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Håkan
Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten third-year undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in three themes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator's contribution to the students' learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection. PMID:22395307
Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika
Objectives To explore medical students’ experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen. Conclusions Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.
Hodder, A. Peter W.
Presents an exercise designed as a team building experience for managers that can be used to demonstrate to science students the potential benefit of group decision-making. Involves the ranking of options for surviving a large earthquake. Yields quantitative measures of individual student knowledge and how well the groups function. (Author/YDS)
Kling, J. W.
This report describes the introductory psychology demonstration showing conditioned taste aversion in rats based on those animals' inability to distinguish between safe NaCl and toxic LiCl solutions. Test results showed the established phenomena of classical conditioning. Included is a discussion of the experiments relevance to behaviorist…
Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.
Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may
Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter
Concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to be less effective for learning simple motor tasks than for complex tasks. However, as mostly artificial tasks have been investigated, transfer of results to tasks in sports and rehabilitation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different concurrent feedback was evaluated in trunk-arm rowing. It was then investigated whether multimodal audiovisual and visuohaptic feedback are more effective for learning than visual feedback only. Naïve subjects (N = 24) trained in three groups on a highly realistic virtual reality-based rowing simulator. In the visual feedback group, the subject's oar was superimposed to the target oar, which continuously became more transparent when the deviation between the oars decreased. Moreover, a trace of the subject's trajectory emerged if deviations exceeded a threshold. The audiovisual feedback group trained with oar movement sonification in addition to visual feedback to facilitate learning of the velocity profile. In the visuohaptic group, the oar movement was inhibited by path deviation-dependent braking forces to enhance learning of spatial aspects. All groups significantly decreased the spatial error (tendency in visual group) and velocity error from baseline to the retention tests. Audiovisual feedback fostered learning of the velocity profile significantly more than visuohaptic feedback. The study revealed that well-designed concurrent feedback fosters complex task learning, especially if the advantages of different modalities are exploited. Further studies should analyze the impact of within-feedback design parameters and the transferability of the results to other tasks in sports and rehabilitation. PMID:25511166
Shaibani, Saami J.
As a rule, students enjoy conducting experiments in which the practical aspects are straightforward and well-defined. This also applies even when there is no anticipated result for students to ``prove.'' A laboratory exercise with such properties was created for students to undertake in a completely blind manner, and they happily proceeded without any knowledge at all of what they might expect to find. The philosophy developed for the research in this paper expands the pioneering approach formulated some half century ago and successfully employed more recently. In the present era of differentiated instruction (DI) being implemented in a diversity of educational settings, the design of the subject experiment is especially significant for its inclusive nature and for the positive outcomes it produces for less academically capable students. All students benefit from such an environment because it preempts the wasted effort of undue manipulation and it removes the need to contrive agreement with a textbook via irregular attempts at reverse engineering.
Ortiz, Patricio F.; Ochsenbein, François
The experiences gained as a result of the CDS/ESO Datamining project are described in this paper as well as a brief outline of the tools developed (described in Ortiz et al. 1998 and Ortiz, 2000). Important issues about datamining and the exchange of information in the context of the Virtual Observatory are described and discussed, emphasizing the need of consistent meta-information for the exchange of data amongst servers and institutions.
Lasers and high speed cameras are a wonderful tool to visualize the very complex behavior of fluids, and to help students grasp concepts like turbulence, surface tension and vorticity. In this work we present experiments done by physics students in their senior year at the School of Science of the National University of Mexico as a final project in the continuum mechanics course. Every semester, the students make an oral presentation of their work and videos and images are kept in the web page ``Pasión por los Fluidos''. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department of Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Davi, F; Stillo, P; De Feo, C; Divo, A; Esposito, G; Follador, E; Moschella, S; Terentieva, I; Venaruzzo, S
According to the literature, self-learning plans represent an helpful and very flexible method in order to individualize the nursing students' learning activities, to develop the students' autonomy and responsibility together with the skills required for continuing nursing education. The educational experience of the implementation of the self learning plans in the practical training of the nursing students of the Pediatric Nursing School of Trieste, during 1996-97, is described. The 9 third year students produced 27 learning plans. According to the mentors and the students, the overall experience had a positive impact. The presentation and evaluation of the learning plans spurred the students' initiative, the adoption of innovative learning and research strategies and allowed to replace the traditional classroom teaching lectures. The main problems related to the implementation of this method lay in the increase of mentors' workload and in the difficulties in matching the high flexibility of the method with the inflexibility and constraints of both the organization and teaching programs and paces. PMID:9807516
Haverila, Matti; Barkhi, Reza
The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a research conducted to evaluate the effect of learning preconceptions, prior e-learning experience, ability and interest of students on their perceptions regarding the process of e-learning. We study the effectiveness of e-learning as it relates to the level of e-learning experience. The…
Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. Methods: The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin’s method of grounded theory. Results: A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students’ enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students’ responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. Conclusion: The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers. PMID:26084680
Brew, Angela; Jewell, Evan
Research into undergraduate research and inquiry in Australian universities was conducted during an Australian Learning and Teaching Council National Teaching Fellowship. In this paper we share experiences of this project as a student and an academic, reflecting on key challenges, including undergraduate research as an immersion experience for…
Gresh, Donna K.
This qualitative study explored the perceptions of 14 adults (ages 21 to 37) with learning disabilities (including 7 enrolled in college) regarding their K-12 school experiences. Personal interviews were used to elicit those dimensions of the school experience perceived as most positive or most negative. The critical incident technique was used to…
This multiple narrative case study examines the experiences of six science doctoral students from a workplace learning perspective. For each participant, the following were gathered over 2.5 years: biographic questionnaires, 6-10 activity logs of a week's experiences, 2 pre-interview questionnaires, and 2 semi-structured interviews. Amongst…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of consumptive behavior by analyzing learning experiences of housewives as members of Family Welfare Movement (PKK) in Malang, East Java Indonesia. Financial literacy is defined as personal knowledge and capability in financial management. Sample of this study was 123 housewives and…
Willoughby-Eastlake School District, Willoughby, OH.
This collection of teaching units is one of three volumes designed to assist teachers in bringing relevant, interdisciplinary, environmental learning experiences to elementary students. This first volume is aimed at the K-2 level and deals with the immediate environment of the student. Titles of the nine units presented are: Preparing for Seasonal…
Catala, Alejandro; Garcia-Sanjuan, Fernando; Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Mocholi, Jose A.
Children nowadays consume and manage lots of interactive digital software. This makes it more interesting and powerful to use digital technologies and videogames supporting learning experiences. However, in general, current digital proposals lack of in-situ social interaction supporting natural exchange and discussion of ideas in the course of…
Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di
This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might see RCE's…
This is an account of how one class of English language learners compared and contrasted their language learning experiences with English language teaching (ELT) research findings during a five-week Intensive Academic Preparation course at an Australian university. It takes as its starting point the fact that learners, unlike teachers and…