Science.gov

Sample records for additional protocol ratification

  1. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  2. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  3. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  4. The Role of Additional Pulses in Electropermeabilization Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Cecilia; Soba, Alejandro; Maglietti, Felipe; Olaiz, Nahuel; Marshall, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Electropermeabilization (EP) based protocols such as those applied in medicine, food processing or environmental management, are well established and widely used. The applied voltage, as well as tissue electric conductivity, are of utmost importance for assessing final electropermeabilized area and thus EP effectiveness. Experimental results from literature report that, under certain EP protocols, consecutive pulses increase tissue electric conductivity and even the permeabilization amount. Here we introduce a theoretical model that takes into account this effect in the application of an EP-based protocol, and its validation with experimental measurements. The theoretical model describes the electric field distribution by a nonlinear Laplace equation with a variable conductivity coefficient depending on the electric field, the temperature and the quantity of pulses, and the Penne's Bioheat equation for temperature variations. In the experiments, a vegetable tissue model (potato slice) is used for measuring electric currents and tissue electropermeabilized area in different EP protocols. Experimental measurements show that, during sequential pulses and keeping constant the applied voltage, the electric current density and the blackened (electropermeabilized) area increase. This behavior can only be attributed to a rise in the electric conductivity due to a higher number of pulses. Accordingly, we present a theoretical modeling of an EP protocol that predicts correctly the increment in the electric current density observed experimentally during the addition of pulses. The model also demonstrates that the electric current increase is due to a rise in the electric conductivity, in turn induced by temperature and pulse number, with no significant changes in the electric field distribution. The EP model introduced, based on a novel formulation of the electric conductivity, leads to a more realistic description of the EP phenomenon, hopefully providing more accurate

  5. The role of additional pulses in electropermeabilization protocols.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cecilia; Soba, Alejandro; Maglietti, Felipe; Olaiz, Nahuel; Marshall, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Electropermeabilization (EP) based protocols such as those applied in medicine, food processing or environmental management, are well established and widely used. The applied voltage, as well as tissue electric conductivity, are of utmost importance for assessing final electropermeabilized area and thus EP effectiveness. Experimental results from literature report that, under certain EP protocols, consecutive pulses increase tissue electric conductivity and even the permeabilization amount. Here we introduce a theoretical model that takes into account this effect in the application of an EP-based protocol, and its validation with experimental measurements. The theoretical model describes the electric field distribution by a nonlinear Laplace equation with a variable conductivity coefficient depending on the electric field, the temperature and the quantity of pulses, and the Penne's Bioheat equation for temperature variations. In the experiments, a vegetable tissue model (potato slice) is used for measuring electric currents and tissue electropermeabilized area in different EP protocols. Experimental measurements show that, during sequential pulses and keeping constant the applied voltage, the electric current density and the blackened (electropermeabilized) area increase. This behavior can only be attributed to a rise in the electric conductivity due to a higher number of pulses. Accordingly, we present a theoretical modeling of an EP protocol that predicts correctly the increment in the electric current density observed experimentally during the addition of pulses. The model also demonstrates that the electric current increase is due to a rise in the electric conductivity, in turn induced by temperature and pulse number, with no significant changes in the electric field distribution. The EP model introduced, based on a novel formulation of the electric conductivity, leads to a more realistic description of the EP phenomenon, hopefully providing more accurate

  6. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  7. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  8. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  9. Explaining patterns in the ratification of global environmental treaties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the ratification behavior of 160 countries with respect to 38 global environmental treaties. The study identifies and explains patterns in the ratification of treaties, providing two means of assessing the likelihood that any given country will support global environmental treaties. National ratification totals reveal a pattern of high ratification by countries in Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. A country's standing within the range of high to low ratification rates can be explained by the statistical model developed in the study. This research allows one to identify countries likely to support global environmental treaties.

  10. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  11. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  12. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR). 781.1 Section 781.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS...

  13. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR). 781.1 Section 781.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS...

  14. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR). 781.1 Section 781.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS...

  15. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR). 781.1 Section 781.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS...

  16. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  17. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  18. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  19. 15 CFR 781.2 - Purposes of the Additional Protocol and APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Protocol (see IAEA Information Circular, INFCIRC/540, at http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purposes of the Additional Protocol... Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL...

  20. 15 CFR 781.2 - Purposes of the Additional Protocol and APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and with physical access to reportable locations where nuclear facilities, materials, or ores are.... Declaration). The Additional Protocol is based upon and is virtually identical to the IAEA Model...

  1. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  2. 12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ratification by Bank members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS § 1278.6 Ratification by Bank members. (a) Requirements for member vote. No...

  3. 12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ratification by Bank Members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS § 1278.6 Ratification by Bank Members. (a) Requirements for member vote. No...

  4. 12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ratification by Bank Members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS § 1278.6 Ratification by Bank Members. (a) Requirements for member vote. No...

  5. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Ratification of... a ratification if he/she acted as a contracting officer in preparing the determination and findings required under paragraph (c)(3) of this section. (2) The CCOs defined in 1502.100 for purposes...

  6. U.S. Additional Protocol Outreach Program-Tabletop Exercises to Implement the AP.

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D. C.; Thomas, K. E.; Smith, M. K.; Hale, L. E.; Hansen, L. H.; Miller, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    The Office of International Regimes and Agreement (NA-243) is the lead office in the Department of Energy (DOE) to assist DOE and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) sites in the preparation of providing declarations on relevant civilian, nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development activities to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This is in accordance to the implementation of the ''Protocol Additional to the AGreement between the United STates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Applications of Safeguards in the United States. In preparation for entry-into-force, NA-243 conducted two tabletop exercises under the Additional Protocol Outreach Program. The first one, held in May 2004 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, focused on the factors important to protect national security assets and intellectual property. The other, held in August 2004 at the Idaho National Laboratory explored the level of detail or granularity for reporting declarable activities. Both tabletops invited participants from the national laboratories and DOE/NNSA organizations. Discussions were based around the process to identify potential declarable activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle-related R and D projects from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program. The two tabletop exercises provided recommendations and conclusions that would be helpful to other DOE/NNSA locations for preparing for and reporting relevant and concise information to the IAEA under the Additional Protocol. This paper provides details on the events, discussions, observations, and lessons learned from both the LANL and INL tabletop exercises.

  7. Diffusion of innovations theory applied to global tobacco control treaty ratification.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Dyal, Stephanie R; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2015-11-01

    This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change. PMID:26460508

  8. 25 CFR 81.7 - Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote... TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.7 Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority... those actually voting are in favor of adoption, ratification, or revocation. The total vote...

  9. 25 CFR 81.7 - Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote... TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.7 Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority... those actually voting are in favor of adoption, ratification, or revocation. The total vote...

  10. 25 CFR 81.7 - Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote... TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.7 Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority... those actually voting are in favor of adoption, ratification, or revocation. The total vote...

  11. 25 CFR 81.7 - Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote. 81... REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.7 Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote. Except as... voting are in favor of adoption, ratification, or revocation. The total vote cast, however, must be...

  12. 25 CFR 81.7 - Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority vote... TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.7 Adoption, ratification, or revocation by majority... those actually voting are in favor of adoption, ratification, or revocation. The total vote...

  13. Implications of Export/Import Reporting Requirements in the United States - International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Benjamin, Eugene L.; McNair, Gary W.

    2001-02-20

    The United States has signed but not ratified the US/IAEA Safeguards Additional Protocol. If ratified, the Additional Protocol will require the US to report to the IAEA certain nuclear-related exports and imports to the IAEA. This document identifies and assesses the issues associated with the US making those reports. For example, some regulatory changes appear to be necessary. The document also attempts to predict the impact on the DOE Complex by assessing the historical flow of exports and imports that would be reportable if the Additional Protocol were in force.

  14. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Contracting Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3...

  15. 48 CFR 701.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 701.602-3 Section 701.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  16. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  17. 48 CFR 2801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2801.602-3 Section 2801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development,...

  18. 48 CFR 2801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2801.602-3 Section 2801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development,...

  19. 48 CFR 801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 801.602-3 Section 801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  20. 48 CFR 2801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2801.602-3 Section 2801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development,...

  1. 48 CFR 2801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2801.602-3 Section 2801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development,...

  2. 48 CFR 1.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 1.602-3 Section 1.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  3. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  4. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  5. 48 CFR 701.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 701.602-3 Section 701.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  6. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  7. 48 CFR 1201.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 1201.602-3 Section 1201.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority...

  8. 48 CFR 1401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 1401.602-3 Section 1401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  9. 48 CFR 701.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 701.602-3 Section 701.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  10. 48 CFR 301.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 301.602-3 Section 301.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  11. 48 CFR 801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 801.602-3 Section 801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  12. 48 CFR 2901.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 2901.602-3 Section 2901.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  13. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  14. Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2011-07-19

    The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP

  15. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published on... qualitative fit-testing protocol (see 72 FR 72971). Subsequently, OSHA withdrew, without prejudice, this fit... further research addressing issues described in the withdrawal notice (see 74 FR 30250). II. Summary...

  16. The Ratification of Spain of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surribas, Santiago Castella

    This report describes the development and approval of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. After discussing the expression of consent to the European Charter, the report focuses on the ratification process of and obligations assumed by Spain. Although Spain was one of the first signatories in 1992, the ratification was not…

  17. Does ratification of human-rights treaties have effects on population health?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Alexis; Tomkinson, Jocelyn; Phung, Charlene; Ford, Nathan; Joffres, Michel; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Zeng, Leilei; Lima, Viviane; Montaner, Julio S G; Guyatt, Gordon H; Mills, Edward J

    2009-06-01

    Human-rights treaties indicate a country's commitment to human rights. Here, we assess whether ratification of human-rights treaties is associated with improved health and social indicators. Data for health (including HIV prevalence, and maternal, infant, and child [<5 years] mortalities) and social indicators (child labour, human development index, sex gap, and corruption index), gathered from 170 countries, showed no consistent associations between ratification of human-rights treaties and health or social outcomes. Established market economy states had consistently improved health compared with less wealthy settings, but this was not associated with treaty ratification. The status of treaty ratification alone is not a good indicator of the realisation of the right to health. We suggest the need for stringent requirements for ratification of treaties, improved accountability mechanisms to monitor compliance of states with treaty obligations, and financial assistance to support the realisation of the right to health. PMID:19501746

  18. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  19. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  20. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  1. Synthetic protocol toward fused pyrazolone derivatives via a Michael addition and reductive ring closing strategy.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nikita; Thomas, Joice; John, Jubi; Kusurkar, Radhika; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Dehaen, Wim

    2014-06-01

    A new class of pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3,7-dione and pyrazolo[3,4-d]azepine-3,7-dione scaffolds was synthesized via a Michael addition and reductive cyclization strategy. These fused heterocycles were accessed from simple starting materials such as nitroolefins and 3-ethoxycarbonyl(methylene)pyrazoline-5-one. The pyrazolo-fused heterocycles were obtained in good overall yields. PMID:24797239

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Lessons Learned at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Entry into Force of the U.S. Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Shauna A. Hoiland

    2009-07-01

    For a number of years, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been preparing for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP). These preparations included attending training, participating in tabletop exercises, preparing draft declarations, developing INL-specific guidance documents, preparing for and hosting a mock complementary access visit, and preparing declarations for official submittal. All of these activities, the training materials, and software developed by other U.S. DOE national laboratories (PNNL, ORNL, LANL, and BNL) were very helpful in preparing for the entry into force of the AP. As with any endeavor of this size and complexity, however, there are always instances where even the best preparations and advanced planning do not anticipate every challenge. As the DOE's lead nuclear energy research and development facility, the INL faced many unique challenges. The majority of research conducted at the INL is nuclear fuel cycle related, most of which is not protected by the National Security Exclusion. This paper describes the lessons learned from the INL’s experience of preparing for the entry into force of the AP, specifically how translating and implementing general principles into actual activities proved to be one of many challenges, and provides general suggestions on how to respond effectively and efficiently to routine annual data calls and other AP requests.

  4. Challenges of the Harmonization and Ratification of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities by Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osamu, Nagase

    2013-01-01

    There are 130 ratifications by national governments around the world of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), adopted by the United Nations in December 2006. However, Japan has yet to ratify the CRPD. The author examined the social, political, and legal context in Japan, affecting the ratification of the CRPD and…

  5. Lessons learned during the training exercise for the entry into force of the U.S. additional protocol in the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 in anticipation of the United States bringing into force the Additional Protocol in early 2009 DOE/NNSA planned and executed training exercises in the conduct of Additional Protocol complementary access activities. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory together produced the exercises designed to prepare the following types of DOE laboratories for complementary access - weapons laboratories, nuclear engineering laboratories, and science laboratories. This panel provides a forum to discuss and summarize the results and lessons learned from the 2008 exercise.

  6. 48 CFR 49.108-4 - Authorization for subcontract settlements without approval or ratification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorization for subcontract settlements without approval or ratification. 49.108-4 Section 49.108-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-4 Authorization for...

  7. The Ratification of the Constitution. The U.S. Army Bicentennial Series, No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    After 38 of the 41 delegates signed it on September 17, 1787, the U.S. Constitution was sent to the Continental Congress in New York where a vote was taken to pass the document to the 13 states for ratification. The process began with a struggle in Congress between those who favored the document, or the Federalists, and those who opposed it, or…

  8. The Writing and Ratification of the U.S. Constitution: A Bibliography. Education and Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Russell R.

    This bibliography focuses on the origins and development of the United States Constitution. This single bibliography is organized into two versions: (1) The Abbreviated Bibliography provides a long catalog of some major sources for a basic understanding of the events and ideas of the writing and ratification of the Constitution; and (2) the…

  9. 10 CFR 205.14 - Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions. 205.14 Section 205.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General... hereby confirmed and ratified, and shall remain in full force and effect as if issued under this...

  10. 10 CFR 205.14 - Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions. 205.14 Section 205.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General... hereby confirmed and ratified, and shall remain in full force and effect as if issued under this...

  11. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  12. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  13. Removing the deadline for the ratification of the equal rights amendment.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1

    2013-05-09

    03/12/2014 Ms. Speier asked unanimous consent that she be considered the first sponsor of H.J. Res. 43, removing the deadline for the ratification of the equal rights amendment, a bill originally introduced by Representative Robert Andrews of New Jersey, for the purposes of adding... (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS, INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME II/III IAEA COMMITTEE 24, Major Issues Underlying the Model Additional Protocol (1996-1997).

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Volume I of this Review traces the origins of the Model Additional Protocol. It covers the period from 1991, when events in Iraq triggered an intensive review of the safeguards system, until 1996, when the IAEA Board of Governors established Committee 24 to negotiate a new protocol to safeguards agreement. The period from 1991-1996 set the stage for this negotiation and shaped its outcome in important ways. During this 5-year period, many proposals for strengthening safeguards were suggested and reviewed. Some proposals were dropped, for example, the suggestion by the IAEA Secretariat to verify certain imports, and others were refined. A rough consensus was established about the directions in which the international community wanted to go, and this was reflected in the draft of an additional protocol that was submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors on May 6, 1996 in document GOV/2863, Strengthening the Effectiveness and Improving the Efficiency of the Safeguards System - Proposals For Implementation Under Complementary Legal Authority, A Report by the Director General. This document ended with a recommendation that, 'the Board, through an appropriate mechanism, finalize the required legal instrument taking as a basis the draft protocol proposed by the Secretariat and the explanation of the measures contained in this document.'

  15. 32 CFR 151.6 - Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953. 151.6 Section 151.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.6 Resolution...

  16. 32 CFR 151.6 - Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or alters the right of the United States of America to safeguard its own security by excluding or... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953. 151.6 Section 151.6 National Defense Department...

  17. 32 CFR 151.6 - Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or alters the right of the United States of America to safeguard its own security by excluding or... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resolution of ratification, with reservations, as agreed to by the Senate on July 15, 1953. 151.6 Section 151.6 National Defense Department...

  18. Addressing the tobacco epidemic in the Philippines: progress since ratification of the WHO FCTC

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, M.; Limpin, M.; Alzona, L.; Trinidad, F.; Dorotheo, U.; Yapchiongco, R.; Garcia, R.; Anden, A.; Alday, J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, and is estimated to kill more than 5 million persons each year worldwide. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke pose a major public health problem in the Philippines. Effective tobacco control policies are enshrined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a legally binding international treaty that was ratified by the Philippines in 2005. Since 2007, Bloomberg Philanthropies has supported the accelerated reduction of tobacco use in many countries, including the Philippines. Progress in the Philippines is discussed with particular emphasis on the period since ratification of the WHO FCTC, and with particular focus on the grants programme funded by the Bloomberg Initiative. Despite considerable progress, significant challenges are identified that must be addressed in future if the social, health and economic burden from the tobacco epidemic is to be alleviated. PMID:26393010

  19. Addressing the tobacco epidemic in the Philippines: progress since ratification of the WHO FCTC.

    PubMed

    Bellew, B; Antonio, M; Limpin, M; Alzona, L; Trinidad, F; Dorotheo, U; Yapchiongco, R; Garcia, R; Anden, A; Alday, J

    2013-06-21

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, and is estimated to kill more than 5 million persons each year worldwide. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke pose a major public health problem in the Philippines. Effective tobacco control policies are enshrined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a legally binding international treaty that was ratified by the Philippines in 2005. Since 2007, Bloomberg Philanthropies has supported the accelerated reduction of tobacco use in many countries, including the Philippines. Progress in the Philippines is discussed with particular emphasis on the period since ratification of the WHO FCTC, and with particular focus on the grants programme funded by the Bloomberg Initiative. Despite considerable progress, significant challenges are identified that must be addressed in future if the social, health and economic burden from the tobacco epidemic is to be alleviated. PMID:26393010

  20. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2016).

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; King, Andrew M Q; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Mushegian, Arcady R; Nibert, Max; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Davison, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in April 2016.Changes to virus taxonomy (the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ICTV]) now take place annually and are the result of a multi-stage process. In accordance with the ICTV Statutes ( http://www.ictvonline.org/statutes.asp ), proposals submitted to the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) undergo a review process that involves input from the ICTV Study Groups (SGs) and Subcommittees (SCs), other interested virologists, and the EC. After final approval by the EC, proposals are then presented for ratification to the full ICTV membership by publication on an ICTV web site ( http://www.ictvonline.org/ ) followed by an electronic vote. The latest set of proposals approved by the EC was made available on the ICTV website by January 2016 ( https://talk.ictvonline.org/files/proposals/ ). A list of these proposals was then emailed on 28 March 2016 to the 148 members of ICTV, namely the EC Members, Life Members, ICTV Subcommittee Members (including the SG chairs) and ICTV National Representatives. Members were then requested to vote on whether to ratify the taxonomic proposals (voting closed on 29 April 2016). PMID:27424026

  1. Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Treated With Primary Radiotherapy: A Comparison of the Addition of Cetuximab or Chemotherapy and the Impact of Protocol Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Jimmy J.; Sawrie, Stephen M.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Carroll, William R.; Peters, Glenn E.; Nabell, Lisle M.; Meredith, Ruby F.; Bonner, James A.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy (ChRT) or cetuximab (ExRT) to concurrent radiotherapy (RT) has resulted in improved survival in Phase III studies for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). However the optimal treatment regimen has not been defined. A retrospective study was performed to compare outcomes in patients who were treated definitively with ExRT or ChRT. Methods: Cetuximab with concurrent RT was used to treat 29 patients with LAHNC, all of whom had tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx. All patients were T2 to T4 and overall American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage III to IVB, with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of 60 or greater. ChRT was used to treat 103 patients with similar characteristics. Patients were evaluated for locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up for patients alive at last contact was 83 months for those treated with ExRT and 53 months for those treated with ChRT. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent prognostic factors. Results: The LRC, DMFS, and DSS were not significantly different, with 3-year rates of 70.7%, 92.4%, and 78.6% for ExRT and 74.7%, 86.6%, and 76.5% for ChRT, respectively. The OS was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.02), with 3-year rates of 75.9% for ExRT and 61.3% for ChRT. OS was not significant when patients who were on protocol treatments of ExRT or ChRT were compared. Also, OS was not significant when multivariate analysis was used to control for potential confounding factors. Conclusion: In our single-institution retrospective review of patients treated with ExRT or ChRT, no significant differences were found in LRC, DMFS, DSS, or OS.

  2. Hyperventilation and photic stimulation are useful additions to a placebo-based suggestive seizure induction protocol in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation and photic stimulation as means of suggestion while also implementing more open, standardized patient information. We investigated whether the diversification of suggestive seizure induction has an effect on diagnostic yield and whether it preempts the administration of placebo. Data from 52 patients with confirmed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures were analyzed. While suggestive seizure induction using only placebo-based suggestion provoked a typical event in 13 of 20 patients (65%), the extended protocol was positive in 27 of 34 cases (84%); this improvement was not significant (p=0.11). Noninvasive suggestion techniques accounted for 78% of inductions, avoiding placebo administration in a majority of patients. Still, placebo remains an important part of suggestive seizure induction, responsible for 22% (6 out of 27) of successful inductions using our extended protocol. Our study demonstrates that the diversification of suggestive seizure induction is feasible and beneficial for both patients and diagnosticians. PMID:25934586

  3. U.S. ratification of the CRC and reducing child poverty: can we get there from here?

    PubMed

    Aber, J Lawrence; Hammond, Andrew S; Thompson, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    If the United States finally ratifies the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), will it improve the country's to effectively combat child poverty and thereby improve child well-being? This article addresses this and related questions in two ways. First, the authors examine how ratification of the CRC has influenced the efforts of other wealthy Anglophone countries to reduce child poverty. Second, they draw on lessons learned from these other countries' efforts to generate predictions about America's postratification future. The authors conclude that, while the CRC is a compelling, practical tool, a communications strategy and business plan are necessary complements to achieve desired results. PMID:21361163

  4. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. H.J.Res.43 — 113th Congress (2013-2014) Removing the deadline for the ratification of the equal rights amendment.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1

    2013-05-09

    03/12/2014 Ms. Speier asked unanimous consent that she be considered the first sponsor of H.J. Res. 43, removing the deadline for the ratification of the equal rights amendment, a bill originally introduced by Representative Robert Andrews of New Jersey, for the purposes of adding... (All Actions)

  6. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  7. Addition of telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity program in people with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    -up assessments will also occur at 12 and 18 months. Discussion The findings will help determine whether the addition of telephone coaching sessions can improve sustainability of outcomes from a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity intervention in people with knee OA. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12612000308897 PMID:23231928

  8. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  9. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  10. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  11. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    controlled trial. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for the first fully powered randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to establish if additional Saturday allied health services for rehabilitation inpatients reduces length of stay without compromising discharge outcomes. If successful, this trial will have substantial health benefits for the patients and for organizations delivering rehabilitation services. Clinical trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000973213 PMID:21073703

  12. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  13. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS OBTAINED BY USE OF ALTERNATIVE OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSIONS AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE DISEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report sets standards by which the emissions reduction provided by fuel and lubricant technologies can be tested and be tested in a comparable way. It is a generic protocol under the Environmental Technology Verification program.

  14. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  15. Indoor air quality investigation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

  16. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  17. Delay Tolerant Networking - Bundle Protocol Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SeGui, John; Jenning, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the addition of MACHETE models needed to support DTN, namely: the Bundle Protocol (BP) model. To illustrate the useof MACHETE with the additional DTN model, we provide an example simulation to benchmark its performance. We demonstrate the use of the DTN protocol and discuss statistics gathered concerning the total time needed to simulate numerous bundle transmissions.

  18. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  19. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  20. Delta Coherence Protocols: The Home Update Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Reynolds, P.F.; de Supinoki, B.

    2000-07-21

    We describe a new class of directory coherence protocols called delta coherence protocols that use network guarantees to support a new and highly concurrent approach to maintain a consistent shared memory. Delta coherence protocols are more concurrent than other coherence protocols in that they allow processes to pipeline memory accesses without violating sequential consistency; support multiple concurrent readers and writers to the same cache block; and allow processes to access multiple shared variables atomically without invalidating the copies held by other processes or otherwise obtaining exclusive access to the referenced variables. Delta protocols include both update and invalidate protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest, most basic delta protocol, an update protocol called the home update protocol. Delta protocols are based on isotach network guarantees. An isotach network maintains a logical time system that allows each process to predict and control the logical time at which its messages are received. Processes use isotach guarantees to control the logical time at which their requests on shared memory appear to be executed. We prove the home update protocol is correct using logical time to reason about the order in which requests are executed.

  1. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  2. Methow and Columbia Rivers studies: summary of data collection, comparison of database structure and habitat protocols, and impact of additional PIT tag interrogation systems to survival estimates, 2008-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Tibbits, Wesley T.; Watson, Grace A.; Newsom, Michael A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    designed to show some initial analysis and to disseminate summary information that could potentially be used in ongoing modeling efforts by USGS, Reclamation, and University of Idaho. The second chapter documents the database of fish and habitat data collected by USGS from 2004 through 2012 and compares USGS habitat protocols to the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP) protocol. The third chapter is a survival analysis of fish moving through Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems in the Methow and Columbia Rivers. It examines the effects of adding PIT tags and/or PIT tag interrogation systems on survival estimates of juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon.

  3. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  4. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  5. Economic analysis of a phase III clinical trial evaluating the addition of total androgen suppression to radiation versus radiation alone for locally advanced prostate cancer (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10)

    SciTech Connect

    Konski, Andre . E-mail: a_konski@fccc.edu; Sherman, Eric; Krahn, Murray; Bremner, Karen; Beck, J. Robert; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Pilepich, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding hormone therapy to radiation for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, using a Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov Model. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10 randomized patients to receive radiation therapy (RT) alone or RT plus total androgen suppression (RTHormones) 2 months before and during RT for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. A Markov model was designed with Data Pro (TreeAge Software, Williamstown, MA). The analysis took a payer's perspective. Transition probabilities from one state of health (i.e., with no disease progression or with hormone-responsive metastatic disease) to another were calculated from published rates pertaining to RTOG 86-10. Patients remained in one state of health for 1 year. Utility values for each health state and treatment were obtained from the literature. Distributions were sampled at random from the treatment utilities according to a second-order Monte Carlo simulation technique. Results: The mean expected cost for the RT-only treatments was $29,240 (range, $29,138-$29,403). The mean effectiveness for the RT-only treatment was 5.48 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (range, 5.47-5.50). The mean expected cost for RTHormones was $31,286 (range, $31,058-$31,555). The mean effectiveness was 6.43 QALYs (range, 6.42-6.44). Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed RTHormones to be within the range of cost-effectiveness at $2,153/QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis resulted in a >80% probability that RTHormones is cost-effective. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that adding hormonal treatment to RT improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range.

  6. Training program to prepare the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the protocol additional to the agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Stevens, Rebecca C; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Valente, John N; Valente, John U; Jo, Jae H; Sellen, Joana

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a joint team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) consisting of specialists in training IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol. Since the U.S. Additional Protocol would allow for IAEA access to the DOE laboratories under the aegis of complementary access activities, the DOE laboratories would need to prepare for such visits. The goal of the training was to ensure that the DOE laboratories would successfully host an IAEA complementary access. In doing so, the labs must be able to provide the IAEA with the information that the IAEA would need to resolve its questions about the U.S. Declaration and declared activities at the lab, and also protect certain equities, as provided under the U.S. Additional Protocol Article 1.b and c. which set forth a 'National Security Exclusion.' This 'NSE' states that the AP provisions apply within the United States 'excluding only instances where its application would result in access by the Agency to activities with direct national security significance to the United States or to location or information associated with such activities.' These activities are referred to collectively as DNSS-direct national security significance. Furthermore, the U.S. has a specific right to employ managed access, without prejudice to the right under Article 1.b, in connection with activities of DNSS. The provisions in Articles 1.b and 1.c are unique to the U.S. AP, and are additional to the more general right, under Article 7, to use managed access to protect from disclosure proprietary and/or proliferation-sensitive information, and to meet safety and security requirements, that is incorporated directly from the Model Additional Protocol. The BNL-LANL team performed training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak

  7. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Knowledge of error-correcting protocol helps in individual eavesdropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.

    2007-06-01

    The quantum key distribution protocol ΒΒ84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction are analyzed from the viewpoint of security against individual eavesdropping empowered by quantum memory. We show that a mere knowledge of the error correction protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information about the generated key.

  11. Effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for women with menstrual pain compared to usual care alone: using stakeholder engagement to design a pragmatic randomized trial and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care acupressure might be successful in treating menstrual pain, which is common among young women. There is a need for comparative effectiveness research with stakeholder engagement in all phases seeking to address the needs of decision-makers. Our aim was to design a study on the effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for menstrual pain comparing usual care alone using different methods of stakeholder engagement. Methods The study was designed using multiple mixed methods for stakeholder engagement. Based on the results of a survey and focus group discussion, a stakeholder advisory group developed the study design. Results Stakeholder engagement resulted in a two-arm pragmatic randomized trial. Two hundred and twenty women aged 18 to 25 years with menstrual pain will be included in the study. Outcome measurement will be done using electronic questionnaires provided by a study specific mobile application (App). Primary outcome will be the mean pain intensity at the days of pain during the third menstruation after therapy start. Conclusion Stakeholder engagement helped to develop a study design that better serves the needs of decision makers, including an App as a modern tool for both intervention and data collection in a young target group. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier http://NCT01582724 PMID:24499425

  12. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  13. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  14. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  15. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  16. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  17. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  20. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  1. Variable bandwidth broadcasting protocol for video-on-demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Long, Darrell D. E.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first broadcasting protocol that can alter the number of channels allocated to a given video without inconveniencing the viewer and without causing any temporary bandwidth surge. Our variable bandwidth broadcasting (VBB) protocol assigns to each video a minimum number of channels whose bandwidths are all equal to the video consumption rate. Additional channels can be assigned to the video at any time to reduce the customer waiting time or retaken to free server bandwidth. The cost of this additional flexibility is quite reasonable as the bandwidth requirements of our VBB fall between those of the fast broadcasting protocol and the new pagoda broadcasting protocol.

  2. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  3. Formal Analysis of Two Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David M.; Treharne, Helen; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Waller, Adrian

    In this paper we demonstrate how the formal model constructed in our previous work [1], can be modified in order to analyse additional Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols, identifying which specific sections of the CSP scripts remain identical and which require modification. First, we model the protocol proposed by Memon and Wong [2], an examplar of the Offline Watermarking Authority (OFWA) Model, defined in the framework by Poh and Martin [3]. Second, we model the Shao protocol [4] as an example of a protocol fitting the Online Watermarking Authority (ONWA) Model. Our analysis of the protocols reaffirms the unbinding attack described by Lei et al.[5] on the Memon and Wong protocol and we identify a new unbinding attack on the protocol proposed by Shao.

  4. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation": the linguistic…

  5. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  6. InterGroup Protocols

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmore » a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.« less

  7. Optimizing the Protocol for Pulmonary Cryoablation: A Comparison of a Dual- and Triple-Freeze Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, J. Louis; Littrup, Peter J.; Durick, Nathan; Leung, Winnie; Lee, Fred T.; Sampson, Lisa; Brace, Christopher L.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare a double freeze-thaw protocol to a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation utilizing an in vivo porcine lung model. A total of 18 cryoablations were performed in normal porcine lung utilizing percutaneous technique with 9 each in a double- (10-5-10) and triple-freeze (3-3-7-7-5) protocol. Serial noncontrast CT images were obtained during the ablation. CT imaging findings and pathology were reviewed. No imaging changes were identified during the initial freeze cycle with either protocol. However, during the first thaw cycle, a region of ground glass opacity developed around the probe with both protocols. Because the initial freeze was shorter with the triple freeze-thaw protocol, the imaging findings were apparent sooner with this protocol (6 vs. 13 min). Also, despite a shorter total freeze time (15 vs. 20 min), the ablation zone identified with the triple freeze-thaw protocol was not significantly different from the double freeze-thaw protocol (mean diameter: 1.67 {+-} 0.41 cm vs. 1.66 {+-} 0.21 cm, P = 0.77; area: 2.1 {+-} 0.48 cm{sup 2} vs. 1.99 {+-} 0.62 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.7; and circularity: 0.95 {+-} 0.04 vs. 0.96 {+-} 0.03, P = 0.62, respectively). This study suggests that there may be several advantages of a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation, including earlier identification of the imaging findings associated with the ablation, the promise of a shorter procedure time or larger zones of ablation, and theoretically, more effective cytotoxicity related to the additional freeze-thaw cycle.

  8. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  9. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  10. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  11. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  12. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  13. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  14. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  15. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  16. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  17. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  18. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  19. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  20. Network protocols for mobile robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1998-01-01

    Communications and communications protocols will play an important role in mobile robot systems able to address real world applications. A poorly integrated 'stack' of communications protocols, or protocols which are poorly matched to the functional and performance characteristics of the underlying physical communications links, can greatly reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise well implemented robotic or networked sensors system. The proliferation of Internet-like networks in military as well as civilian domains has motivated research to address some of the performance limitations TCP suffers when using RF and other media with long bandwidth-delay, dynamic connectivity, and error-prone links. Beyond these performance issues, however, TCP is poorly matched to the requirements of mobile robot and other quasi-autonomous systems: it is oriented to providing a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages, and the canonical 'socket' interface conceals short losses of communications connectivity, but simply gives up and forces the application layer software to deal with longer losses. For the multipurpose security and surveillance mission platform project, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of user datagram protocol to provide a reliable message-based transport service. In addition, a session layer protocol is planned to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple stations.

  1. The Evolution of Children's Mental Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue

    Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…

  2. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  3. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  4. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  5. Protocol for a Delay-Tolerant Data-Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Jordan; Hooke, Adrian; Burleigh, Scott; Fall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As its name partly indicates, the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol is a protocol for delay-tolerant transmission of data via communication networks. This protocol was conceived as a result of studies of how to adapt Internet protocols so that Internet-like services could be provided across interplanetary distances in support of deep-space exploration. The protocol, and software to implement the protocol, is being developed in collaboration among experts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other institutions. No current Internet protocols can accommodate long transmission delay times or intermittent link connectivity. The DTN Bundle Protocol represents a departure from the standard Internet assumption that a continuous path is available from a host computer to a client computer: It provides for routing of data through networks that may be disjointed and may be characterized by long transmission delays. In addition to networks that include deepspace communication links, examples of such networks include terrestrial ones within which branches are temporarily disconnected. The protocol is based partly on the definition of a message-based overlay above the transport layers of the networks on which it is hosted.

  6. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  7. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  8. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  9. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  10. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-06-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  11. PROTOCOL FOR EXAMINATION OF THE INNER CAN CLOSURE WELD REGION FOR 3013 DE CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-09-16

    The protocol for the examination of the inner can closure weld region (ICCWR) for 3013 DE containers is presented within this report. The protocol includes sectioning of the inner can lid section, documenting the surface condition, measuring corrosion parameters, and storing of samples. This protocol may change as the investigation develops since findings may necessitate additional steps be taken. Details of the previous analyses, which formed the basis for this protocol, are also presented.

  12. A Bayesian approach to optimizing cryopreservation protocols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is beset with the challenge of protocol alignment across a wide range of cell types and process variables. By taking a cross-sectional assessment of previously published cryopreservation data (sample means and standard errors) as preliminary meta-data, a decision tree learning analysis (DTLA) was performed to develop an understanding of target survival using optimized pruning methods based on different approaches. Briefly, a clear direction on the decision process for selection of methods was developed with key choices being the cooling rate, plunge temperature on the one hand and biomaterial choice, use of composites (sugars and proteins as additional constituents), loading procedure and cell location in 3D scaffolding on the other. Secondly, using machine learning and generalized approaches via the Naïve Bayes Classification (NBC) method, these metadata were used to develop posterior probabilities for combinatorial approaches that were implicitly recorded in the metadata. These latter results showed that newer protocol choices developed using probability elicitation techniques can unearth improved protocols consistent with multiple unidimensionally-optimized physical protocols. In conclusion, this article proposes the use of DTLA models and subsequently NBC for the improvement of modern cryopreservation techniques through an integrative approach. PMID:26131379

  13. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  14. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  15. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  16. Protocols for Publishing PMRT Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of these protocols is to assist in providing guidance to PMRT members and Sub-groups in relation to seeking approval for the publication of documents of the Performance Measurement and Reporting Taskforce (PMRT) or of its predecessor the National Education Performance Monitoring Taskforce (NEPMT). These protocols complement the…

  17. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  18. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  19. Clinical validation protocols for noninvasive blood pressure monitors and their recognition by regulatory authorities and professional organizations: rationale and considerations for a single unified protocol or standard.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim-Gau

    2013-10-01

    Standardized protocols for validating the clinical accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors have been available since 1987. Some of them were developed by standards bodies and others by professional organizations. They have been well-tested through use and progressively improved through multiple revisions; however, many methodological differences exist between them. In addition, for the purpose of regulatory approval or marketing clearance, some protocols are recognized in some countries but not in others; thus, manufacturers have to validate their NIBP monitors to more than one protocol in order to market them worldwide. The use of different protocols not only makes it difficult to compare one device with another but also complicates the validation, regulatory approval, marketing, and public acceptance of NIBP monitors, creating undue burden on manufacturers and unnecessary confusion among users. There is a need for protocol developers, standards bodies, and regulatory authorities to work together to develop and agree on a single unified protocol or standard, one that builds on the strengths of the various protocols that have been developed so far. It is apparent that there is already a trend toward convergence of the various protocols into two protocols, namely, the ISO 81060-2:2009 standard and the 2010 European Society of Hypertension International Protocol. With further reconciliation and consensus, it should be possible to integrate the best features of the ISO, European Society of Hypertension, and other protocols, along with further improvements, into a single unified protocol or standard. PMID:23709002

  20. A Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Credential Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose a leakage-resilient and proactive authenticated key exchange (called LRP-AKE) protocol for credential services which provides not only a higher level of security against leakage of stored secrets but also secrecy of private key with respect to the involving server. And we show that the LRP-AKE protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model with the reduction to the computational Difie-Hellman problem. In addition, we discuss about some possible applications of the LRP-AKE protocol.

  1. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  2. Internet-Protocol-Based Satellite Bus Architecture Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is designing future complex satellite missions ranging from single satellites and constellations to space networks and sensor webs. These missions require more interoperability, autonomy, and coordination than previous missions; in addition, a desire exists to have scientists retrieve data directly from the satellite rather than a central distribution source. To meet these goals, NASA has been studying the possibility of extending the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite for spacebased applications.

  3. A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A bounded model of the protocol was mechanically verified for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.

  4. A novel protocol for the one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction provides easy access to hinge-binding groups for kinase inhibitors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01915j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, A.; Zambon, A.

    2016-01-01

    The one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction is a very efficient means of accessing cross-coupling products of two aryl-halide partners that generally requires the use of specific catalysts or ligands and/or relatively long reaction times. This new microwave-assisted method provides a quick one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction protocol that we applied to the synthesis of various bi- or poly-aryl scaffolds, including a variety of aryl and heteroaryl ring systems and the core frameworks of kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and GDC-0879. PMID:26620576

  5. Robust multipartite multilevel quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Nihira, Hideomi; Stroud, C.R. Jr.

    2005-08-15

    We present a quantum protocol utilizing a tripartite three-level state. The state used in this scheme contains entanglement even after one system is traced out and as a result can be used for both a secret-sharing protocol among the three parties and a quantum-key-distribution protocol between any two parties. We show how to utilize this residual entanglement for quantum-key-distribution purposes, and explore a possible realization of the scheme using entanglement of orbital-angular-momentum states of photons.

  6. A new quantum sealed-bid auction protocol with secret order in post-confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiang-Hua; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    A new security protocol for quantum sealed-bid auction is proposed to resist the collusion attack from some malicious bidders. The most significant feature of this protocol is that bidders prepare their particles with secret order in post-confirmation for encoding bids. In addition, a new theorem and its proof are given based on the theory of combinatorial mathematics, which can be used as evaluation criteria for the collusion attack. It is shown that the new protocol is immune to the collusion attack and meets the demand for a secure auction. Compared with those previous protocols, the security, efficiency and availability of the proposed protocol are largely improved.

  7. A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.

  8. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  9. The Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milian, Arturo Valencia; Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper discusses the Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol (CASP), a new protocol for the Media Access Control (MAC) of wireless networks. The CASP is intended to provide a more efficient use of communication channels; this is achieved by mechanisms for eliminating contentions among network stations and by an implicit handling of acknowledge messages. To avoid collisions of messages, the protocol divides the time into short slots, each of which is assigned to a single station, and any station must wait its own slot to start its transmission. However once a transmission is started the slot can be extended and no other station can make use of the channel. The use of an implicit acknowledge mechanism removes the necessity of an acknowledge message exchange for every transmission. In various simulated scenarios the CASP shows a 25% better throughput efficiency compared with the one of the IEEE802.11 protocol.

  10. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  11. QUALITY CONTROL - VARIABILITY IN PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory’s Quality Assurance Office, which published the popular pocket guide Preparing Perfect Project Plans, is now introducing another quality assurance reference aid. The document Variability in Protocols (VIP) was initially designed as a ...

  12. Variability in protocols on donation after circulatory death in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Organ donation after circulatory death (DCD) has become an accepted strategy to reduce the shortage of organs for transplantation in many European countries. The use and number of DCD donors varies between countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the available protocols for DCD in Europe. Methods We contacted national transplant societies and responsible transplant co-ordinators in the countries that perform DCD to obtain DCD protocols. We compared information on the protocols and additional data including: inclusion and exclusion criteria for donation, legislation, determination of death and preservation methods. Results In ten European countries DCD is performed, eight of which describe the methods in protocols. There are large differences in used DCD categories, legislation and the way death is determined. Protocols differ in the detail in which DCD procedures are described and the way methods are supported by additional consensus statements and ethical frameworks. Conclusions Although DCD is an established strategy to enlarge the donor pool and to contribute to the reduction of the waiting list for transplantation, its potential has not been fully utilized yet. To further promote DCD transplantation, it is important to share expertise and obtain consensus, so that this can be translated into more uniform and solid protocols supported by the competent authorities, transplant and intensive care professionals, which may eventually result in a further promotion of DCD transplantation in Europe. PMID:24090229

  13. A Voting Protocol Based on the Controlled Quantum Operation Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Juan-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Based on the controlled quantum operation teleportation, a secure voting protocol is proposed in this paper. Genuine four-qubit entangled state functions as the quantum channel. The eligible voter's quantum operation which represents his vote information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Voter's quantum identity authentication provides the anonymity of voters'ID, which is ensured by a zero-knowledge proof of the notary organization CA. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy verifiability and non-reusability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. The security analysis shows that the voting protocol satisfies unforgeability, and has great advantages over some relevant researches. Additionally, the quantum operation can be transmitted successfully with the probability 1, which can make the protocol reliable and practical.

  14. e-SCP-ECG+ Protocol: An Expansion on SCP-ECG Protocol for Health Telemonitoring—Pilot Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Mandellos, George J.; Koukias, Michael N.; Styliadis, Ioannis St.; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard Communication Protocol for Computer-assisted Electrocardiography (SCP-ECG) provides standardized communication among different ECG devices and medical information systems. This paper extends the use of this protocol in order to be included in health monitoring systems. It introduces new sections into SCP-ECG structure for transferring data for positioning, allergies, and five additional biosignals: noninvasive blood pressure (NiBP), body temperature (Temp), Carbon dioxide (CO2), blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), and pulse rate. It also introduces new tags in existing sections for transferring comprehensive demographic data. The proposed enhanced version is referred to as e-SCP-ECG+ protocol. This paper also considers the pilot implementation of the new protocol as a software component in a Health Telemonitoring System. PMID:20628537

  15. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  16. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  17. Fault-tolerant quantum cryptographic protocols with collective detection over the collective amplitude damping channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Li, Yan-Bing; Sun, Ying

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, which can be immune to collective amplitude damping noise, is proposed with collective detection strategy. Then a multi-party quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol and a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol are introduced as two applications of the proposed QKD protocol. Except for one participant who is responsible for preparing and measuring quantum states, the rest of the users in each of these protocols only need to perform certain unitary operations due to the utilization of collective detection. Therefore, in addition to the advantage of being secure against collective amplitude damping noise, the proposed protocols still have the advantages of higher qubit efficiency and lower cost for implementation. Moreover, the security of these protocols is guaranteed by theorems on quantum operation discrimination.

  18. nPAKE + : A Hierarchical Group Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Using Different Passwords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhiguo; Deng, Robert H.; Bao, Feng; Preneel, Bart

    Although two-party password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols have been intensively studied in recent years, group PAKE protocols have received little attention. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical group PAKE protocol nPAKE + protocol under the setting where each party shares an independent password with a trusted server. The nPAKE + protocol is a novel combination of the hierarchical key tree structure and the password-based Diffie-Hellman exchange, and hence it achieves substantial gain in computation efficiency. In particular, the computation cost for each client in our protocol is only O(logn). Additionally, the hierarchical feature of nPAKE + enables every subgroup obtains their own subgroup key in the end. We also prove the security of our protocol under the random oracle model and the ideal cipher model.

  19. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Ferreira, Summer; Schoenwald, David

    2014-06-01

    The Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems (PNNL-22010) was first issued in November 2012 as a first step toward providing a foundational basis for developing an initial standard for the uniform measurement and expression of energy storage system (ESS) performance. Its subsequent use in the field and review by the protocol working group and most importantly the users’ subgroup and the thermal subgroup has led to the fundamental modifications reflected in this update of the 2012 Protocol. As an update of the 2012 Protocol, this document (the June 2014 Protocol) is intended to supersede its predecessor and be used as the basis for measuring and expressing ESS performance. The foreword provides general and specific details about what additions, revisions, and enhancements have been made to the 2012 Protocol and the rationale for them in arriving at the June 2014 Protocol.

  20. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John; Mayers, Dominic

    2004-05-01

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules.

  1. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  2. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  3. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  4. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  5. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  6. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  7. FTP Extensions for Variable Protocol Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    The specification for the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) assumes that the underlying network protocols use a 32-bit network address and a 16-bit transport address (specifically IP version 4 and TCP). With the deployment of version 6 of the Internet Protocol, network addresses will no longer be 32-bits. This paper species extensions to FTP that will allow the protocol to work over a variety of network and transport protocols.

  8. Internet Protocol Enhanced over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive research conducted by the Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center led to an experimental change to the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that will increase performance over satellite channels. The change raises the size of the initial burst of data TCP can send from 1 packet to 4 packets or roughly 4 kilobytes (kB), whichever is less. TCP is used daily by everyone on the Internet for e-mail and World Wide Web access, as well as other services. TCP is one of the feature protocols used in computer communications for reliable data delivery and file transfer. Increasing TCP's initial data burst from the previously specified single segment to approximately 4 kB may improve data transfer rates by up to 27 percent for very small files. This is significant because most file transfers in wide-area networks today are small files, 4 kilobytes or less. In addition, because data transfers over geostationary satellites can take 5 to 20 times longer than over typical terrestrial connections, increasing the initial burst of data that can be sent is extremely important. This research along with research from other institutions has led to the release of two new Request for Comments from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF, the international body that sets Internet standards). In addition, two studies of the implications of this mechanism were also funded by NASA Lewis.

  9. Design and Verification of a Distributed Communication Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

    2009-01-01

    The safety of remotely operated vehicles depends on the correctness of the distributed protocol that facilitates the communication between the vehicle and the operator. A failure in this communication can result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. To complicate matters, the communication system may be required to satisfy several, possibly conflicting, requirements. The design of protocols is typically an informal process based on successive iterations of a prototype implementation. Yet distributed protocols are notoriously difficult to get correct using such informal techniques. We present a formal specification of the design of a distributed protocol intended for use in a remotely operated vehicle, which is built from the composition of several simpler protocols. We demonstrate proof strategies that allow us to prove properties of each component protocol individually while ensuring that the property is preserved in the composition forming the entire system. Given that designs are likely to evolve as additional requirements emerge, we show how we have automated most of the repetitive proof steps to enable verification of rapidly changing designs.

  10. Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Horoshko, D B

    2007-12-31

    The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  11. A supportive intervention protocol for couples terminating a pregnancy for genetic reasons.

    PubMed

    Magyari, P A; Wedehase, B A; Ifft, R D; Callanan, N P

    1987-01-01

    This protocol recognizes the couple's sense of loss, the reality of their situation, and their decision to terminate the pregnancy. Couples who participated in our protocol reported that their involvement had a favorable effect on their experience and adjustment. In addition, the loss of the pregnancy does not seem to discourage them from pursuing future pregnancies or utilizing prenatal diagnostic services. This support protocol may be used as a model to be incorporated into prenatal diagnosis clinics and genetic counseling programs. PMID:3435779

  12. An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification. PMID:26123833

  13. Extensible Authentication Protocol Overview and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youm, Heung Youl

    The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication framework that supports multiple authentication mechanisms [38] between a peer and an authentication server in a data communication network. EAP is used as a useful tool for enabling user authentication and distribution of session keys. There are numerous EAP methods that have been developed by global SDOs such as IETF, IEEE, ITU-T, and 3GPP. In this paper, we analyze the most widely deployed EAP methods ranging from the EAP-TLS [27] to the EAP-PSK [25]. In addition, we derive the security requirements of EAP methods meet, evaluate the typical EAP methods in terms of the security requirements, and discuss the features of the existing widely-deployed EAP methods. In addition, we identify two typical use cases for the EAP methods. Finally, recent global standardization activities in this area are reviewed.

  14. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  15. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  16. Changing Teacher Performance with Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Gary R.

    This study examined whether selected protocol materials in classroom management, used in inservice courses, would bring about long-term significant changes in teachers' classroom performance. Fifteen teachers participated in the study by taking an inservice course on classroom management and discipline. Two modules of classroom management…

  17. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  18. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  19. 21 CFR 660.46 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Samples; protocols; official release. 660.46 Section 660.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B...

  20. 21 CFR 660.46 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples; protocols; official release. 660.46 Section 660.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B...

  1. 21 CFR 660.6 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Samples; protocols; official release. 660.6 Section 660.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis...

  2. 21 CFR 660.46 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples; protocols; official release. 660.46 Section 660.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B...

  3. 21 CFR 660.46 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Samples; protocols; official release. 660.46 Section 660.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B...

  4. 21 CFR 660.46 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; protocols; official release. 660.46 Section 660.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B...

  5. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  6. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  7. How to write a protocol: part 2.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. The following article is the second in a 2-part series on how to write a protocol. A framework for composing protocols and the components of clinical imaging protocols were detailed in the first article. This article details the framework and components of protocols for cardiac stress testing, therapy, and quality control. PMID:25655345

  8. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  9. Mutagenesis protocols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vivo overlap extension.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A high recombination frequency and its ease of manipulation has made Saccharomyces cerevisiae a unique model eukaryotic organism to study homologous recombination. Indeed, the well-developed recombination machinery in S. cerevisiae facilitates the construction of mutant libraries for directed evolution experiments. In this context, in vivo overlap extension (IVOE) is a particularly attractive protocol that takes advantage of the eukaryotic apparatus to carry out combinatorial saturation mutagenesis, site-directed recombination or site-directed mutagenesis, avoiding ligation steps and additional PCR reactions that are common to standard in vitro protocols. PMID:20676972

  10. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  11. Separable states improve protocols with finite randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, Tan Kok Chuan; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    It is known from Bell's theorem that quantum predictions for some entangled states cannot be mimicked using local hidden variable (LHV) models. From a computer science perspective, LHV models may be interpreted as classical computers operating on a potentially infinite number of correlated bits originating from a common source. As such, Bell inequality violations achieved through entangled states are able to characterize the quantum advantage of certain tasks, so long as the task itself imposes no restriction on the availability of correlated bits. However, if the number of shared bits is limited, additional constraints are placed on the possible LHV models, and separable, i.e. disentangled states may become a useful resource. Bell violations are therefore no longer necessary to achieve a quantum advantage. Here we show that, in particular, separable states improve the so-called random access codes, which is a class of communication problem wherein one party tries to read a portion of the data held by another distant party in the presence of finite shared randomness and limited classical communication. We also show how the bias of classical bits can be used to avoid wrong answers in order to achieve the optimal classical protocol and how the advantage of quantum protocols is linked to quantum discord.

  12. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  13. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    PubMed

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  14. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  15. How to write a protocol: part 1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical imaging protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. It is imperative that all nuclear medicine facilities have protocols for every procedure performed. However, creating protocols that are detailed, unambiguous, and consistent is often easier said than done. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. This 2-part article provides technologists with a framework for composing comprehensive protocols. Part 1 discusses the secrets to successfully composing protocols ensuring they are detailed and step-by-step along with the importance of basing protocols on evidence from published guidelines and peer-reviewed literature. The components and important aspects of clinical imaging protocols are detailed. PMID:25613336

  16. A Wiki Based CT Protocol Management System.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Rubert, Nicholas; Belden, Daryn; Ciano, Amanda; Duplissis, Andrew; Hermanns, Ashley; Monette, Stephen; Saldivar, Elliott Janssen

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin Madison Department of Radiology, CT protocol management requires maintenance of thousands of parameters for each scanner. Managing CT protocols is further complicated by the unique configurability of each scanner. Due to recent Joint Commission requirements, now all CT protocol changes must be documented and reviewed by a site's CT protocol optimization team. The difficulty of managing the CT protocols was not in assembling the protocols, but in managing and implementing changes. This is why a wiki based solution for protocol management was implemented. A wiki inherently keeps track of all changes, logging who made the changes and when, allowing for editing and viewing permissions to be controlled, as well as allowing protocol changes to be instantly relayed to all scanner locations. PMID:26710573

  17. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  18. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  19. The impact of the Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol on the role stress of hospital chaplains.

    PubMed

    Dodd-McCue, Diane; Tartaglia, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol was implemented to provide early family intervention and to facilitate effective communications during potential organ donation cases. Previous studies found the Protocol associated with improved donor outcome measures and with reduced role stress for ICU nurses caring for potential donors. The present study examines the impact of the Protocol on the perceived role stress of hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. All hospital chaplains serving as FCCs at an academic teaching hospital were surveyed. Their perceptions of job dimensions, role stress, job satisfaction, and commitment were measured; interviews and secondary data supplemented the surveys. The findings demonstrate that the FCC Protocol is associated with improved role stress, specifically role ambiguity and role conflict, among hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. Additionally, the findings suggest that satisfaction with the Protocol may be associated with experience with the Protocol. PMID:16392645

  20. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  1. Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Westcott, Jil

    1987-01-01

    The technology of packet switching over multihop, multiple-access channels has evolved to the point at which its protocols can now support internetwork operation of medium-size networks whose nodes possess some degree of mobility. As regards the needs and challenges of the future operating environment, it is clear that these can be met only by enhancing the packet radio architecture and its protocols. Several enhancements that allow the organization of large, dynamic networks that can operate over multiple channels, adapt to varying conditions, and possess self-monitoring and self-control capabilities are discussed. As these areas are examined, the attendant issues and tradeoffs are discussed; in addition, some protocols and information regarding their performance are presented.

  2. Message Protocols for Provisioning and Usage of Computing Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissov, Nikolay; Caton, Simon; Rana, Omer; Levine, Aharon

    The commercial availability of computational resources enable consumers to scale their applications on-demand. However, it is necessary for both consumers and providers of computational resources to express their technical and economic preferences using common language protocols. Ultimately, this requires clear, flexible and pragmatic communication protocols and policies for the expression of bids and resulting generation of service level agreements (SLAs). Further standardization efforts in such description languages will foster the specification of common interfaces and matching rules for establishing SLAs. Grid middleware are not compatible with market-orientated resource provisioning. We aim to reduce this gap by defining extensions to a standardized specification such as JSDL. Furthermore, we present a methodology for matchmaking consumer bids and provider offers and map the additional economic attributes into a SLA. We demonstrate the usage of the message protocols in an application scenario.

  3. Efficient hybrid ARQ protocols with adaptive forward error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Samir

    1994-02-01

    In this paper, efficient Stop-and-Wait, Go-Back-N , and Selective-Repeat hybrid ARQ protocols with Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) using convolutional coding are proposed and analyzed. The basic idea is to vary the coding rate for error correction according to system parameters, such as the signal-to-noise ratio, the round trip delay, and the buffer size at the receiver, so as to maximize the throughput efficiency. The performances of the proposed ARQ protocols are evaluated for two channel models: a non-fading and an ideally-interleaved Rayleigh-fading additive white Gaussian noise channel. In all cases, it is found that the hybrid ARQ protocols with AFEC yield a comparatively high throughput under all channel conditions.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  6. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  7. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  8. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  9. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  10. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  11. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  12. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  13. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  14. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  15. 40 CFR 792.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protocol. 792.120 Section 792.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved...

  16. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31....31 EAS protocol. (a) The EAS uses a four part message for an emergency activation of the EAS. The... protocol, including any codes, must not be amended, extended or abridged without FCC authorization. The...

  17. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  18. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  20. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  1. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  2. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  3. Phenology monitoring protocol: Northeast Temperate Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tierney, Geri; Mitchell, Brian; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Katz, Jonathan; Denny, Ellen; Brauer, Corinne; Donovan, Therese; Richardson, Andrew D.; Toomey, Michael; Kozlowski, Adam; Weltzin, Jake F.; Gerst, Kathy; Sharron, Ed; Sonnentag, Oliver; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2013-01-01

    historical parks and national historic sites in the northeastern US. This protocol was developed in collaboration with and relies upon the procedures and infrastructure of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), including Nature’s Notebook, USA-NPN’s online plant and animal phenology observation program (www.nn.usanpn.org). Organized in 2007, USA-NPN is a nation-wide partnership among federal agencies, schools and universities, citizen volunteers, and others to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the nation’s biological resources. The overall goal of NETN’s phenology monitoring program is to determine trends in the phenology of key species in order to assist park managers with the detection and mitigation of the effects of climate change on park resources. An additional programmatic goal is to interest and educate park visitors and staff, as well as a cadre of volunteer monitors.

  4. On the vulnerability of basic quantum key distribution protocols and three protocols stable to attack with 'blinding' of avalanche photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2012-05-15

    The fundamental quantum mechanics prohibitions on the measurability of quantum states allow secure key distribution between spatially remote users to be performed. Experimental and commercial implementations of quantum cryptography systems, however, use components that exist at the current technology level, in particular, one-photon avalanche photodetectors. These detectors are subject to the blinding effect. It was shown that all the known basic quantum key distribution protocols and systems based on them are vulnerable to attacks with blinding of photodetectors. In such attacks, an eavesdropper knows all the key transferred, does not produce errors at the reception side, and remains undetected. Three protocols of quantum key distribution stable toward such attacks are suggested. The security of keys and detection of eavesdropping attempts are guaranteed by the internal structure of protocols themselves rather than additional technical improvements.

  5. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  6. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  7. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  8. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  9. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  10. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.