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Sample records for additive effect catalyseurs

  1. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  2. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  3. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. Étude par RMN à l'état solide de catalyseurs oxydes du type Mo-P-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartararo, J.; Rigole, M.; Guelton, M.; Amoureux, J. P.; Grimblot, J.

    1999-10-01

    Solid state 27Al NMR and especially 27Al MQMAS is used to characterize the oxide Mo-P-Al hydrotreating catalysts. This application shows that NMR is an efficient method to determine the local structure of the elements in the amorphous catalysts. So, this permits to conclude that the association of the Mo and the P leads to the formation of aluminium phosphates and that differences in the structure depend on the method of preparation. La RMN du solide et notamment la méthode “MQMAS" de 27Al est utilisée pour caractériser en détail les catalyseurs d'hydrotraitement du type Mo-P-Al sous forme oxyde. Cette application montre que la RMN est un outil efficace pour déterminer la structure locale des éléments introduits dans les catalyseurs de caractère amorphe. Ainsi, elle permet d'établir que le Mo associé au P induit la formation de phosphates d'aluminium. Des différences de structure en fonction de la méthode de préparation sont également observées.

  6. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  7. Effects of fuel and additives on combustion chamber deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.M.; Pocinki, S.B.

    1994-10-01

    The effects of gasoline composition, as represented in typical regular and premium unleaded gasolines and fuel additives, on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) were investigated in BMW and Ford tests. In addition, the influences of engine lubricant oil and ethanol oxygenate on CCD were examined in Ford 2.3L engine dynamometer tests. Also, additive effects of packages based on mineral oil fluidizers versus synthetic fluidizers were studied in several different engines for CCD. Finally, a new method for evaluating the effect of fluidizers on valve sticking is introduced. 6 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  9. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  10. Unraveling Additive from Nonadditive Effects Using Genomic Relationship Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricio R.; Resende, Marcio F. R.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de los Campos, Gustavo; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley; Peter, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    The application of quantitative genetics in plant and animal breeding has largely focused on additive models, which may also capture dominance and epistatic effects. Partitioning genetic variance into its additive and nonadditive components using pedigree-based models (P-genomic best linear unbiased predictor) (P-BLUP) is difficult with most commonly available family structures. However, the availability of dense panels of molecular markers makes possible the use of additive- and dominance-realized genomic relationships for the estimation of variance components and the prediction of genetic values (G-BLUP). We evaluated height data from a multifamily population of the tree species Pinus taeda with a systematic series of models accounting for additive, dominance, and first-order epistatic interactions (additive by additive, dominance by dominance, and additive by dominance), using either pedigree- or marker-based information. We show that, compared with the pedigree, use of realized genomic relationships in marker-based models yields a substantially more precise separation of additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance. We conclude that the marker-based relationship matrices in a model including additive and nonadditive effects performed better, improving breeding value prediction. Moreover, our results suggest that, for tree height in this population, the additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance are similar in magnitude. This novel result improves our current understanding of the genetic control and architecture of a quantitative trait and should be considered when developing breeding strategies. PMID:25324160

  11. Mathematics Anxiety Effects in Simple and Complex Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Michael W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports three experiments that show that anxiety effects were prominent in two-column addition problems, especially those involving carrying. Elaborates a theory of mathematics anxiety. Contains 50 references. (SKS)

  12. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  13. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  14. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  16. POEM: Identifying Joint Additive Effects on Regulatory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Botzman, Maya; Nachshon, Aharon; Brodt, Avital; Gat-Viks, Irit

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress toward a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such “modularization” approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic) effects. Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules), a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs. Availability: The software described in this article is available at csgi.tau.ac.il/POEM/. PMID:27148351

  17. The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y.; Roylance, B. J.

    1992-10-01

    The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear has been investigated using a ball-on-plate machine. The test results confirm that the antiwear additives, e.g. phospho-sulphurized terpene, sulphurized esters and sulphurized paraffins, are effective in reducing friction and wear. Examination of worn surfaces by optical and electron microscope inspection indicated the presence of thin films which had been deposited under fretting action when using oils containing these additives. Unlubricated fretting wear occurred in the scuffing region. In contrast, the lubricated fretting wear with the lubricating oils containing the antiwear additives took place in the mixed lubrication region. In lubricated fretting wear, the size of the wear particles was smaller than with dry fretting wear.

  18. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  19. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  20. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  1. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Balakos, M.W.

    1991-09-20

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additives on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 27 refs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Chase, K.L.; Bertus, K.M.; Stepp, A.K.

    1989-12-01

    An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments relating to the effects of additives on oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. The effects of additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations were determined by conducting oil displacement experiments in 1-foot-long Berea sandstone cores. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, a lignosulfonate surfactant, and sodium bicarbonate were added to a microbial formulation at a concentration of 1%. The effects of using these additives in a preflush prior to injection of the microbial formulation were also evaluated. Oil-displacement experiments with and without a sodium bicarbonate preflush were conducted in 4-foot-long Berea sandstone cores, and samples of in situ fluids were collected at various times at four intermediate points along the core. The concentrations of metabolic products and microbes in the fluid samples were determined. 9 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Effects of additional interfering signals on adaptive array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of additional interference signals on the performance of a fully adaptive array are considered. The case where the number of interference signals exceeds the number of array degrees of freedom is addressed. It is shown how performance is affected as a function of the number of array elements, the number of interference signals, and the directivity of the array antennas. By using directive auxiliary elements, the performance of the array can be as good as the performance when the additional interference signals are not present.

  5. Additive genetic effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampus activity.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Karolina; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Persson, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-04-01

    Human memory is a highly heritable polygenic trait with complex inheritance patterns. To study the genetics of memory and memory-related diseases, hippocampal functioning has served as an intermediate phenotype. The importance of investigating gene-gene effects on complex phenotypes has been emphasized, but most imaging studies still focus on single polymorphisms. APOE ε4 and BDNF Met, two of the most studied gene variants for variability in memory performance and neuropsychiatric disorders, have both separately been related to poorer episodic memory and altered hippocampal functioning. Here, we investigated the combined effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampal activation (N=151). No non-additive interaction effects were seen. Instead, the results revealed decreased activation in bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus as a function of the number of APOE ε4 and BDNF Met alleles present (neither, one, or both). The combined effect was stronger than either of the individual effects, and both gene variables explained significant proportions of variance in BOLD signal change. Thus, there was an additive gene-gene effect of APOE and BDNF on medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation, showing that a larger proportion of variance in brain activation attributed to genetics can be explained by considering more than one gene variant. This effect might be relevant for the understanding of normal variability in memory function as well as memory-related disorders associated with APOE and BDNF. PMID:24321557

  6. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-08-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.

  7. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  8. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  9. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  11. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol. PMID:24555295

  12. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components. PMID:25308673

  13. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  14. Effect of surfactant addition on removal of microbubbles using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashida, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Kazuki; Terasaka, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to control the bubble in a liquid by the external operation, because the behavior of the bubble is controlled in buoyancy and flow of liquid. On the other hand, microbubbles, whose diameter is several decades μm, stably disperse in static liquid because of their small buoyancy and electrical repulsion. When an ultrasound, whose frequency was 2.4 MHz, was irradiated, the milky white microbubbles suspended solution became rapidly clear. In this study, the effects of surfactant addition on the removal of microbubbles from a liquid in an ultrasonic field were investigated. The efficiency of removal of microbubbles decreased with surfactant addition. Surfactant type influenced the size of agglomerated microbubbles, and the efficiency of removal of microbubbles changed. The surface of microbubble was modified by surfactant adsorption, and the steric inhibition influenced the removal of microbubbles. PMID:24745307

  15. Priming effects in Haplic Luvisol after different substrate additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolova, I.; Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Although soils contain considerable amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), most of it is not easily available for microorganisms. Addition of various substrates to soil (for example, plant residues, root exudates) may affect SOC mineralization. The addition of mineral nutrients, especially N, may also affect C turnover and so change the mineralization rate of SOC. Such short-term changes in mineralization of organic substance of soil were termed as "priming-effects" (Bingemann et al., 1953). Priming effect leads to additional mineralization of SOC (van Elsas and van Overbeek, 1993). It has been shown that not only plant residues induce priming effects (Sauerbeck, 1966; Stemmer et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2003), but also easily available substrates such as sugars or amino acids, which are present in soil solutions and root exudates (Vasconcellos, 1994; Shen and Bartha, 1997; Hamer and Marschner, 2002). Since easily available substrates may not only accelerate SOC mineralization, but also may retard it, Kuzyakov et al. (2000) differentiated between positive and negative priming effects. It is not clear until now, how long priming effects persists in soil after substrate addition, and if they are induced every time when a substrate becomes available in soil. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of glucose and plant residues on SOM decomposition, and influence of glucose on plant residues decomposition in soil. The experimental layout was designed as two factor experiment: 1) plant residues and 2) available substrate amendment. Maize shoot residues (50 mg added to 5 g soil) were 14C labeled (9•104 DPM per 5 g soil). Soil without of any plant residues served as a control for this treatment. Two levels of D (+) glucose as easily available substrates were added after three months of pre-incubation of soil samples with maize residues: 0.009 mg glucose C g-1 soil and 0.225 mg glucose C g-1 soil. The glucose was uniformly labelled with 14C (2.37•104 DPM per 5

  16. PREDATOR IDENTITY AND ADDITIVE EFFECTS IN A TREEHOLE COMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. Studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. To test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were examined in artificial analogues of water-filled treeholes. The combined effects of the two predators were accurately predicted from single predator treatments by a multiplicative risk model, indicating additivity. Overall survivorship of both prey species decreased greatly in the presence of the top predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. By itself, the intermediate predator Corethrella appendiculata increased survivorship of the native prey species Ochlerotatus triseriatus and decreased survivorship of the invasive prey species Aedes albopictus relative to treatments without predators. Intraguild predation did not occur until alternative prey numbers had been reduced by approximately one-half. Owing to changes in size structure accompanying its growth, T. rutilus consumed more prey as time progressed, whereas C. appendiculata consumed less. The intermediate predator, C. appendiculata, changed species composition by preferentially consuming A. albopictus, while the top predator, T. rutilus, reduced prey density, regardless of species. Although species interactions were in most cases predicted from pairwise interactions, risk reduction from predator interference occurred when C. appendiculata densities were increased and when the predators were similarly sized. PMID:16676542

  17. Galfenol alloying additions and the effects on uniaxial anisotropy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Eric; Meloy, Rob; Restorff, J. B.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of substitutional and interstitial additions on uniaxial anisotropy (Kuni) generated via stress annealing were investigated for the galfenol (Fe-Ga) alloy system. Polycrystalline samples prepared via free stand zone melt directional solidification technique were tested under pre- and post-stress annealed conditions in order to ascertain the extent of the built-in stress (Tbuilt-in) created. Energy based modeling utilizing magnetostriction and magnetization data was used to determine Kuni and Tbuilt-in. Differential magnetomechanical properties; d33 and μr were estimated using the same model. Carbon additions from a Fe-C master alloy resulted in Kuni and Tbuilt-in values of 12.1 kJ/m3 and 55 MPa, comparable to the binary system. Low carbon steel additions resulted in a minor decrease in Kuni to 9.6 kJ/m3, but still had high Tbuilt-in values of 54 MPa. Aluminum additions exhibited the largest decreases in Kuni and Tbuilt-in. A linear decrease in both values was observed as a function of increasing aluminum content. Kuni values for Fe81.6Ga13.8Al4.6 and Fe81.6Ga9.2Al9.2 alloys were 6.7 and 4.2 kJ/m3, respectively. Tbuilt-in values for Fe81.6Ga13.8Al4.6 and Fe81.6Ga9.2Al9.2 alloys were 37 and 24 MPa, respectively. Estimated d33 and μr values ranged from 2.0 to 2.7×10-8 m/A and 120-170 for all compositions studied.

  18. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  19. Effectiveness of antibacterial copper additives in silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Gosau, Martin; Bürgers, Ralf; Vollkommer, Tobias; Holzmann, Thomas; Prantl, Lukas

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays a major role in capsular contractures of silicone breast implants. This in vitro study evaluates the antibacterial effect of copper on S. epidermidis in silicone implants. Specimens of a silicone material used for breast augmentation (Cu0) and specimens coated with different copper concentrations (Cu1, Cu2) were artificially aged. Surface roughness and surface free energy were assessed. The specimens were incubated in an S. epidermidis suspension. We assessed the quantification and the viability of adhering bacteria by live/dead cell labeling with fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, inhibition of bacterial growth was evaluated by agar diffusion, broth culture, and quantitative culture of surface bacteria. No significant differences in surface roughness and surface free energy were found between Cu0, Cu1 and Cu2. Aging did not change surface characteristics and the extent of bacterial adhesion. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the quantity of bacteria on Cu0 was significantly higher than that on Cu1 and Cu2. The ratio of dead to total adhering bacteria was significantly lower on Cu0 than on Cu1 and Cu2, and tended to be higher for Cu2 than for Cu1. Quantitative culture showed equal trends. Copper additives seem to have anti-adherence and bactericidal effects on S. epidermidis in vitro. PMID:22492200

  20. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  1. Probing the "additive effect" in the proline and proline hydroxamic acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of nitroalkanes to cyclic enones.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Govindan, Subramaniyan; Warrier, Jayakumar S

    2005-11-01

    The effect of chirality and steric bulk of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines as additives in the conjugate addition of 2-nitropropane to cyclohexenone, catalyzed by l-proline, was investigated. Neither chirality nor steric bulk affects the enantioselectivity of addition, which gives 86-93% ee in the presence of achiral and chiral nonracemic 2,5-disubstituted piperazines. Proline hydroxamic acid is shown for the first time to be an effective organocatalyst in the same Michael reaction. PMID:16189834

  2. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  3. The effect of additives and substrates on nonferrous metal electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zeyang

    Electrodeposits play an important role in science and industry today. Control of the quality of electrodeposits becomes more critical. One of the major factors which can lead to better products is the ability to control the electrocrystallization process to obtain smooth, dense and coherent deposits with good mechanical and physical properties, such as corrosion resistance, ductility and less internal stress. Many parameters may play a prominent role in electrodeposition. Two of the more important parameters is the control of impurities/additives present in the solution and cathode condition. In this study, the effects of small concentrations of tin additions on the composition, structure and surface morphology of Zn-Ni alloy deposits were studied. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were conducted to study the role of tin in changing the charge transfer resistance of the reaction. The results obtained were promising in elucidating some basic factors which influence Zn-Ni alloy electrocrystallization mechanisms. The effects of thermal oxidation of stainless steel cathodes used in copper electrodeposition were studied. Particular emphasis was given to the initial stages of copper nucleation and growth. The copper electrocrystallization process was strongly influenced by the temperature applied in oxidizing the stainless steel. In this research, the effects of the impurities Alsp{3+} and Crsp{3+} using two stainless steels as cathodes during Ni electrowinning from a sulfate bath were studied. The current efficiency decreased in the presence of the impurities over the concentration range studied. Certain changes in the surface morphology, internal stress, crystallographic orientation and polarization behavior were observed. The changes were different for two stainless steel substrates.

  4. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  5. Hierarchical additive effects on heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Huang, Wenchao; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis in crops has contributed greatly to improvement in global food and energy production. In spite of the pervasive importance of heterosis, a complete understanding of its mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, a small test-crossed rice population was constructed to investigate the formation mechanism of heterosis for 13 traits. The results of the relative mid-parent heterosis and modes of inheritance of all investigated traits demonstrated that additive effects were the foundation of heterosis for complex traits in a hierarchical structure, and multiplicative interactions among the component traits were the framework of heterosis in complex traits. Furthermore, new balances between unit traits and related component traits provided hybrids with the opportunity to achieve an optimal degree of heterosis for complex traits. This study dissected heterosis of both reproductive and vegetative traits from the perspective of hierarchical structure for the first time. Additive multiplicative interactions of component traits were proven to be the origin of heterosis in complex traits. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to component traits, rather than complex traits, in the process of revealing the mechanism of heterosis. PMID:26442051

  6. Hierarchical additive effects on heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Huang, Wenchao; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis in crops has contributed greatly to improvement in global food and energy production. In spite of the pervasive importance of heterosis, a complete understanding of its mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, a small test-crossed rice population was constructed to investigate the formation mechanism of heterosis for 13 traits. The results of the relative mid-parent heterosis and modes of inheritance of all investigated traits demonstrated that additive effects were the foundation of heterosis for complex traits in a hierarchical structure, and multiplicative interactions among the component traits were the framework of heterosis in complex traits. Furthermore, new balances between unit traits and related component traits provided hybrids with the opportunity to achieve an optimal degree of heterosis for complex traits. This study dissected heterosis of both reproductive and vegetative traits from the perspective of hierarchical structure for the first time. Additive multiplicative interactions of component traits were proven to be the origin of heterosis in complex traits. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to component traits, rather than complex traits, in the process of revealing the mechanism of heterosis. PMID:26442051

  7. Effects of additives on the thermostability of chloroperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lifei; Jiang, Yucheng; Wang, Yingsong; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Ma, Yingjun

    2007-01-01

    The effects of several polyhydroxy compounds (glucose, fructose, gumsugar, galactose, trehalose, dextran, xylose, PEG200, glycerin) and surfactant (dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt, AOT) on the catalytic activity and thermal stability of chloroperoxidase (CPO) in aqueous systems were investigated at various temperatures. A 25% superactivity was found in AOT solutions at 25 degrees C, and it could be maintained during the 882 h. PEG200 and glycerin were proven to be the most efficient stabilizer for CPO in temperatures ranging from 25 to 60 degrees C. Trehalose is more helpful than other sugars for extended storage of CPO. These results are promising in view of industrial applications of this versatile biological catalyst. The protective mechanism of various additives on CPO was discussed. PMID:17487972

  8. Effect of adsorbent addition on floc formation and clarification.

    PubMed

    Younker, Jessica M; Walsh, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Adding adsorbent into the coagulation process is an emerging treatment solution for targeting hard-to-remove dissolved organic compounds from both drinking water and industrial wastewater. The impact of adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) or organoclay (OC) adsorbents with ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant was investigated in terms of potential changes to the coagulated flocs formed with respect to size, structure, and breakage and regrowth properties. The ability of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and sedimentation (SED) clarification processes to remove hybrid adsorbent-coagulant flocs was also evaluated through clarified water quality analysis of samples collected in bench-scale jar test experiments. The jar tests were conducted using both a synthetic fresh water and oily wastewater test water spiked with dissolved aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene. Results of the study demonstrated that addition of adsorbent reduced the median coagulated floc size by up to 50% but did not affect floc strength or regrowth potential after application of high shear. Experimental results in fresh water demonstrated that sedimentation was more effective than DAF for clarification of both FeCl3-PAC and FeCl3-OC floc aggregates. However, experimental tests performed on the synthetic oily wastewater showed that coagulant-adsorbent floc aggregates were effectively removed with both DAF and sedimentation treatment, with lower residual turbidity achieved in clarified water samples than with coagulation treatment alone. Addition of OC or PAC into the coagulation process resulted in removals of over half, or nearly all of the dissolved aromatics, respectively. PMID:27064206

  9. Catalyseur d'hydrocraquage à base de sulfure de NiMo déposé sur une zéolithe HEMT modifiée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalala, M.; Becue, T.; Leglise, J.; Manoli, J. M.; van Gestel, J. N. M.; Lamotte, J.; Bensitel, M.; Goupil, J. M.; Cornet, D.

    1999-02-01

    Treating a NH4EMT zeolite with a solution of (NH4)2SiF6 at 80 °C affords a solid containing amorphous SiO2 intimately mixed with the zeolite. This acidic support EMT-Si was loaded with NiMo sulfide in order to prepare a bifunctional catalyst, which was tested for the hydrogenation of benzene and the hydrocracking of n-heptane. This NiMo/EMT-Si catalyst was found more active for hydrogenation than the analogous NiMo/HY. This is ascribed to a higher dispersion of the NiMo sulfide, which is almost equally shared between the internal mesopores in the modified EMT solid, and the fissures, which were created throughout the zeolite grains upon inserting the NiMo sulfide. The catalyst with the EMT-Si support was also found more active than the NiMo/HY for the hydrocracking of heptane, with a slightly higher selectivity into heptane isomers. Le traitement d'une zéolithe NH4EMT par une solution de (NH4)2SiF6 fournit un solide comportant une phase SiO2 amorphe intimement mélangée aux parties intactes de la zéolithe. Sur ce support acide EMT-Si, on a greffé un sulfure de NiMo afin de préparer un catalyseur bifonctionnel qui a été testé dans les réactions d'hydrogénation du benzène et d'hydrocraquage du n-heptane. Ce catalyseur NiMo/EMT-Si s'avère plus actif en hydrogénation que son analogue NiMo/HY, en raison d'une meilleure dispersion du sulfure de NiMo. Sur le solide EMT modifié, le sulfure se répartit à peu près également entre les mésopores internes et les fissures crées dans les grains de zéolithe lors de l'insertion du sulfure de NiMo. Au contraire sur le support Y, une partie du sulfure est externe aux grains de zéolithe et inactive en catalyse. Le catalyseur NiMo/EMT-Si est aussi trouvé plus actif que le NiMo/HY en hydrocraquage du n-heptane, et un peu plus sélectif en isomères.

  10. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  11. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another. PMID:8116814

  12. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  13. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  14. The effect of switchable water additives on clay settling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Shun; Lau, Ying Yin; Mercer, Sean M; Robert, Tobias; Horton, J Hugh; Jessop, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    The recycling of process water from strip mining extractions is a very relevant task both industrially and environmentally. The sedimentation of fine tailings during such processes, however, can often require long periods of time and/or the addition of flocculants which make later water recycling difficult. We propose the use of switchable water additives as reversible flocculants for clay/water suspensions. Switchable water additives are compounds such as diamines that make it possible to reversibly control the ionic strength of an aqueous solution. Addition of CO(2) to such an aqueous solution causes the ionic strength to rise dramatically, and the change is reversed upon removal of the CO(2). These additives, while in the presence of CO(2), promote the aggregation of clay tailings, reduce settling times, and greatly increase the clarity of the liberated water. The removal of CO(2) from the liberated water regenerates a low ionic strength solution that does not promote clay aggregation and settling until CO(2) is added again. Such reversible behavior would be useful in applications such as oil sands separations in which the recycled water must not promote aggregation. When added to kaolinite and montmorillonite clay suspensions, switchable water provided process waters of lower turbidity than those additives from inorganic salts or by CO(2)-treatment alone. When recollected, the switchable water supernatant was shown to be recyclable over three cycles for enhanced settling of kaolinite. PMID:22945593

  15. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot always be

  16. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  17. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  18. The Effect of Tungsten Additions on Disk Alloy CH98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickelbase superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatments are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated in the range of 1500 to 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool and age. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. Previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments will decrease creep capability, however, tungsten additions appear to improve the creep capability of stabilized and aged CH98. In this study, a systematic variation of tungsten additions to CH98 was investigated. Specifically, the 1300 F tensile, creep, and fatigue crack growth properties of stabilized CH 98 were assessed with varying levels of tungsten additions.

  19. Effect of shaddock albedo addition on the properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bing; Li, Xingmin; Pan, Teng; Zheng, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Huiyuan; Jiang, Lu; Zhen, Shaobo; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-07-01

    To explore the potential as a natural auxiliary emulsifier, shaddock albedo was added into frankfurters at six different levels: 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 %. The emulsion capacity (EC) of meat batters and cooking properties of frankfurters were evaluated. EC of meat batters was improved with the addition of shaddock albedo and the maximum value was reached at the 5 % albedo concentration. The addition of shaddock albedo resulted in lower cooking losses of frankfurters, with the lowest value obtained at the 7.5 % level. The presence of shaddock albedo decreased the total expressible fluid (TEF) and the proportion of fat in total expressible fluid (PF) which indicated the emulsion stability of frankfurters and the lowest values both occurred at the concentration of 7.5 %. Shaddock albedo inclusion increased the lightness and yellowness of frankfurters and decreased redness. Texture profile analysis showed increased hardness and decreased chewiness of frankfurters with the addition of shaddock albedo. Consequently, shaddock albedo could be a potential source of auxiliary emulsifier filler for emulsion-type meat products. PMID:26139927

  20. The effect of feedstock additives on FCC catalyst deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.; Koon, C.L.; McGhee, B.

    1995-12-31

    Fluid catalytic cracking is a major petroleum refining process and because of this the deactivation of FCC catalysts by coke deposition has been the subject of considerable investigation during the past 50 years. Nevertheless, a lack of understanding of the fundamental understanding of processes leading to coke formation still exists. Basic studies using Zeolites have usually involved excessively high levels of coke deposits compared to normal FCC operation. The present study addresses coke formation at realistic levels of 0.5 to 1.0% w/w using a standard MAT reactor in which concentrations of 1% and 10% of various additives were added to the n-hexadecane feedstock. These additives included, quinoline, phenanthrene, benzofuran, thianaphthene and indene. The coke formed was characterised by mass spectrometry and was significantly aliphatic in nature, the amount formed increasing in the order quinoline, phenanthrene, thianaphthene, benzofuran, indene. Quinoline acts primarily as a poison, whereas the other additives tend to promote coke formation in n-hexadecane cracking.

  1. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  2. Additive effect of propofol and fentanyl precipitating cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, AC Jesudoss

    2013-01-01

    The intravenous administration of propofol and fentanyl has become a common practice in a variety of clinical settings including outpatient dermatologic, cosmetic and oral surgery. The combination provides both systematic sedation and analgesia with low incidence of unwanted side effects. The cardiogenic shock is very uncommon in healthy individuals. The cardiovascular depressive effect of propofol and fentanyl has been well established, but the development of cardiogenic shock is very rare when these drugs are used together. Hence the awareness of this effect is advantageous to the patients undergoing such surgeries PMID:23960431

  3. Additive effect of Lygodium venustum SW. in association with gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Souza, Teógenes M; Santos, Karla K A; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Tintino, Saulo R; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Costa, José G M; Saraiva, Antonio A F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the interactions between gentamicin and the ethanol extract of the fern Lygodium venustum SW (EELV). The ethanol extract of L. venustum was obtained, the phytocompounds were identified and the EELV was assayed by the checkerboard method with gentamicin against two bacterial strains multiresistant to antibiotics. The antibiotic activity of gentamicin, when associated with the extract, was enhanced in an additive manner against both strains. The results indicated that L. venustum can be a source of secondary metabolites to be used in association with antibiotics as aminoglycosides in the antibiotic chemotherapy against resistant bacteria. PMID:26284428

  4. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  5. Effects Of Radiation On Electronics-Additional References

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Bibliography abstracts summarizing literature on effects of radiation on new electronic devices. This and second volume cover years 1984 and 1985. Third volume, covers 1982 and 1983 (previously published).

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Their Additive Effects on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Zito, Annapaola; Carratù, Pierluigi; Falcone, Vito Antonio; Bega, Elioda; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. It is widely accepted that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with atherosclerosis. Similar to OSA, hypertension (HTN) is a condition associated with atherosclerosis. However, to date, the impact of the simultaneous presence of OSA and HTN on the risk of atherosclerosis has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the coexistence of OSA and HTN on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis (such as interleukin- [IL-] 6 and pentraxin- [PTX-] 3). Methods. The study design allowed us to define 4 groups: (1) controls (n = 30); (2) OSA patients without HTN (n = 30); (3) HTN patients without OSA (n = 30); (4) patients with OSA and HTN (n = 30). In the morning after portable monitoring (between 7 am and 8 am), blood samples were collected, and carotid IMT was measured. Results. Carotid IMT, IL-6, and PTX-3 in OSA normotensive patients and in non-OSA HTN subjects were significantly higher compared to control subjects; in addition, in OSA hypertensive patients they were significantly increased compared to OSA normotensive, non-OSA HTN, or control subjects. Conclusions. OSA and HTN have an additive role in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and in blood levels of inflammatory markers for atherosclerosis, such as interleukin-6 and pentraxin-3. PMID:26697221

  7. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  8. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  9. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  10. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  11. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  12. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  13. Effect of Particle Addition on Degradation Rate of Methylene Blue in an Ultrasonic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Chiemi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kuroda, Chiaki; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound has been found to be an attractive advanced technology for the degradation of hazardous organic compounds in water. In addition, the sonochemical reaction is enhanced by particle addition. However, the enhancement mechanism of particle addition has not been investigated well, because ultrasound enhances not only chemical reactions but also mass transfer. In this study, the ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out, and the effects of the ultrasonic irradiation condition on the degradation rate were investigated. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the improvement of degradation by particle addition was also investigated. The order of degradation rate with frequency was the same as the tendency of sonochemical efficiency value obtained using KI oxidation dosimetry method (SEKI). The degradation process of methylene blue was intensified by particle addition, and the degradation rate increased with increasing amount of particle addition. The enhancement of degradation rate by particle addition was influenced by both ultrasonic frequency and type or diameter of particles.

  14. Effect of Oxygen-affinity Additives on the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-H.

    We examined the effect of oxygen-affinity additives on the superconducting properties of magnesium diborides. The additives were elemental Y, Sm, Ca, Li compounds (LiH, LiBH4), polyethylene and polyethylene glycol, which have a higher oxygen-affinity than magnesium. The formation of magnesium oxide during in-situ sintering of magnesium diboride was inhibited by the addition of such materials. The critical current density was not improved by the additives of Y, Sm, Ca and lithium compounds in spite of reduced oxide phases. Only the addition of polyethylene and polyethylene glycol resulted in the enhanced superconducting property.

  15. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage. PMID:26094194

  16. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  17. Metabolic effects of ß-glucans addition to corn maize flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of ß-glucans to degermed precooked corn maize flour produced favorably low metabolic responses in healthy young subjects. The increase in viscosity in the small intestine during the digestion period is the proposed mechanism for this effect. The addition of ß-glucans to corn maize pro...

  18. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  19. Effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology of stored pig manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology in stored pig manure were investigated using a dynamic manure storage system, which allowed for continual addition of swine feces and urine. After 13 weeks of manure collection and storage, four treatments were added to tanks (900 L capaci...

  20. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  1. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. 75 FR 66752 - ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi- Stakeholder..., ``Notice of Interviews, Teleconferences, Regional Workshops And Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference...

  3. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community. PMID:26944427

  4. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  5. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  6. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  7. Effect of ionic additives on the elution of sodium aryl sulfonates in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Taylor, L T; Pinkston, J David; Mangels, M L

    2005-08-01

    Addition of a small amount of polar solvent (i.e., modifier) to CO2 in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has shown major improvements in both polar analyte solubility and interaction of the polar analyte with the stationary phase. Recently, the addition of an ionic component (i.e., additive) to the primary modifier by one of us has been shown to extend even further the application of SFC to polar analytes. In this work, the effect of various ionic additives on the elution of ionic compounds, such as sodium 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonate and sodium 4-octylbenene sulfonate, has been studied. The additives were lithium acetate, ammonium acetate, tetramethylammonium acetate, tetrabutylammonium acetate, and ammonium chloride dissolved in methanol. Three stationary phases with different degrees of deactivation were considered: conventional cyanopropyl, deltabond cyanopropyl, and bare silica. The effect of additive concentration and additive functionality on analyte retention was investigated. Sodium 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonate was successfully eluted using all the additives with good peak shape under isocratic/isobaric/isothermal conditions. Different additives, however, yielded different retention times and in some cases different peak shapes. PMID:16035365

  8. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Tongxin; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Zhang, Fangyue

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs) and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the effect of

  9. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest.

    PubMed

    He, Tongxin; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Zhang, Fangyue

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs) and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the effect of

  10. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  11. Non-additive dietary effects in juvenile slider turtles, Trachemys scripta.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sarah S; Murphy, Amber K; Berry, Jennifer A

    2010-02-01

    Non-additive dietary effects occur when nutritional gains from a mixed diet are greater than or less than that predicted by summing the gains from individual diet items. Both positive and negative effects occur in adult slider turtles, Trachemys scripta. Such effects may also be important to juvenile T. scripta as they ontogenetically switch from carnivorous to herbivorous diets. The purpose of this study was to determine if juveniles experience non-additive effects and to assess the underlying mechanism. Two feeding trials were conducted. In Trial 1, juveniles were fed 100% duckweed, Lemna valdiviana, 100% grass shrimp, Palaemontes paludosus, or a mixed diet containing 81% duckweed and 19% shrimp. In Trial 2, juveniles were fed 100% duckweed, Lemna minor, 100% cricket, Acheta domesticus, or one of three mixed diets containing duckweed and cricket in varying percentages (22%, 39% and 66% cricket). Similar to adults, a negative non-additive effect was demonstrated on the 19% shrimp and 22% cricket diets. However, the positive effect found in adults was not observed. Intake varied dramatically between the plant and animal diets, resulting in differences in transit time that could explain the non-additive effect. These results offer some insight into understanding ontogenetic diet shifts in turtles. PMID:19931632

  12. Additive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality: the influence of trial history and data transformations.

    PubMed

    Balota, David A; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Yap, Melvin J

    2013-09-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear mixed effects modeling to provide evidence that the additive effects were actually being driven by previous trial history. Because Masson and Kliegl also included semantic priming as a factor in their study and recent evidence has shown that semantic priming can moderate the additivity of word frequency and stimulus quality (Scaltritti, Balota, & Peressotti, 2012), we reanalyzed data from 3 published studies to determine if previous trial history moderated the additive pattern when semantic priming was not also manipulated. The results indicated that previous trial history did not influence the joint influence of word frequency and stimulus quality. More important, and independent of Masson and Kliegl's conclusions, we also show how a common transformation used in linear mixed effects analyses to normalize the residuals can systematically alter the way in which two variables combine to influence performance. Specifically, using transformed, rather than raw reaction times, consistently produces more underadditive patterns. PMID:23565779

  13. Effects of additives on volume change on melting, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. L.; Rasmussen, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of various oxide additives on the volume change on melting, the surface tension, and the viscosity of liquid Al2O3 were studied. Additives of Sm2O3, MgO, and Y2O3 which form solid solutions, compounds, and multiphase solids with Al2O3 were studied. A review of the property data for Al2O3 and Al2O3 containing oxide additives is presented. Oxide additives to Al2O3 reduce the volume change on melting and with the exception of SiO2 lower the viscosity; surface tensions change with oxide additives, but changes vary with different container material. Viscosity and volume change on melting appeared to be significantly more important for studying the properties of liquid oxides than surface tension. Supercooling of 270 K of yttrium aluminum garnet was observed.

  14. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide addition on ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Kaho; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Naya, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Yuichiro; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out in the absence and presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a radical scavenger for various frequencies, and the effects of DMSO addition on the degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction rate decreased with DMSO addition, and hydroxyl radicals were observed to play important roles in the degradation of methylene blue. However, the degradation reaction did not stop with DMSO addition, and the degradation rate constant in the presence of DMSO was not affected by ultrasonic frequency.

  15. Effects of different additives on the performance of spray dryer system during incineration process.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Peng, C Y; Wu, H Y; Chiang, B C; Liu, Z S

    2002-06-01

    The spray dryer system was conventionally employed to remove the SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas. However, the removal efficiency of acid gas in the practical incineration flue gas, which contains dust, heavy metals, and acid gas itself, was seldom mentioned in the literature. The alkaline sorbents possess large specific surface that was a main factor on the adsorption of heavy metals and acid gas. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was focused on the effect of different additives on the removal efficiency of acid gas and heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The mass and element size distribution of heavy metals in fly ash under different additives were also investigated. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of HCl in the spray dryer system was higher than 97.8%. The effects of additives on the removal efficiency of HCl, however, were undistinguished. In the desulfurization process, the highest removal efficiency was 71.3% when the additive of amorphous SiO2 was added in the spray dryer system. The removal efficiency was 66.0% with the additive of CaCl2 and 63.1% without any additives, respectively. It was also found that the spray dryer system could decrease the concentration of metal in fly ash but increase the amount of fly ash. In addition, amorphous SiO2 in the alkaline sorbent tended to increase the adsorption of heavy metal on reactant, because it could enhance the dispersion of alkaline sorbent. PMID:12118621

  16. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer. PMID:25985667

  17. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  18. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  19. The effects of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction in a SNCR process.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiangtao; Yu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yufei; Zhu, Xiuming

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction during the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process were carried out in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The effects of reaction temperature (Tr), water vapor, Na/K additives (NaCl, KCl, Na2CO3) and flyash characteristics on NO reduction were analyzed. The results indicated that NO removal efficiency shows a pattern of increasing first and decreasing later with the increase of the temperature at Tr=850-1150°C. Water vapor can improve the performance of NO reduction, and the NO reduction of 70.5% was obtained while the flue gas containing 4% water vapor at 950°C. Na/K additives have a significant promoting effect on NO reduction and widen the SNCR temperature window, the promoting effect of the test additives is ordered as Na2CO3>KCl>NaCl. NO removal efficiency with 125ppm Na2CO3 and 4% water vapor can reach up to 84.9% at the optimal reaction temperature. The additive concentration has no significant effects on NO reduction while its concentration is above 50ppm. Addition of circulating fluidized combustion (CFB) flyash deteriorates NO reduction significantly. However, CFB flyash and Na/K additives will get a coupling effect on NO reduction during the SNCR process, and the best NO reduction can reach 72.3% while feeding Na2CO3-impregnated CFB flyash at 125ppm Na2CO3 and Tr=950°C. PMID:25532766

  20. Effects of In and Ni Addition on Microstructure of Sn-58Bi Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Omid; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of adding 0.5 wt.% and 1 wt.% In and Ni to Sn-58Bi solder on intermetallic compound (IMC) layers at the interface and the microstructure of the solder alloys were investigated during reflow and thermal aging by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe micro-analysis. The results showed that the addition of minor elements was not effective in suppressing the IMC growth during the reflow; however, the addition of 0.5 wt.% In and Ni was effective in suppressing the IMC layer growth during thermal aging. The thickening kinetics of the total IMC layer was analyzed by plotting the mean thickness versus the aging time on log-log coordinates, and the results showed the transition point from grain boundary diffusion control to a volume diffusion control mechanism. The results also showed that the minor addition of In can significantly suppress the coarsening of the Bi phase.

  1. Additivity of semantic and phonological effects: Evidence from speech production in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-11-01

    A number of previous studies using picture-word interference (PWI) tasks conducted with speakers of Western languages have demonstrated non-additive effects of semantic and form overlap between pictures and words, which may indicate underlying non-discrete processing stages in lexical retrieval. The present study used Mandarin speakers and presented Chinese characters as distractors. In two experiments, we crossed semantic relatedness with "pure" phonological (i.e., orthographically unrelated) relatedness and found statistically additive effects. In a third experiment, semantic relatedness was crossed with orthographic overlap (phonological overlap was avoided), and once again we found an additive pattern. The results are discussed with regard to possible cross-linguistic differences between Western and non-Western languages in terms of phonological encoding, as well as concerning the locus of relatedness effects in PWI tasks. PMID:26730809

  2. Mechanisms and modeling of the effects of additives on the nitrogen oxides emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Krishna P.; Nguyen, Hung Lee; Kang, M. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study on the emission of the oxides of nitrogen in the combustion of hydrocarbons is presented. The current understanding of the mechanisms and the rate parameters for gas phase reactions were used to calculate the NO(x) emission. The possible effects of different chemical species on thermal NO(x), on a long time scale were discussed. The mixing of these additives at various stages of combustion were considered and NO(x) concentrations were calculated; effects of temperatures were also considered. The chemicals such as hydrocarbons, H2, CH3OH, NH3, and other nitrogen species were chosen as additives in this discussion. Results of these calculations can be used to evaluate the effects of these additives on the NO(x) emission in the industrial combustion system.

  3. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  4. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  5. Genomic prediction of growth in pigs based on a model including additive and dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M S; Bastiaansen, J W M; Janss, L; Knol, E F; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Independent of whether prediction is based on pedigree or genomic information, the focus of animal breeders has been on additive genetic effects or 'breeding values'. However, when predicting phenotypes rather than breeding values of an animal, models that account for both additive and dominance effects might be more accurate. Our aim with this study was to compare the accuracy of predicting phenotypes using a model that accounts for only additive effects (MA) and a model that accounts for both additive and dominance effects simultaneously (MAD). Lifetime daily gain (DG) was evaluated in three pig populations (1424 Pietrain, 2023 Landrace, and 2157 Large White). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina SNP60K Beadchip and assigned to either a training data set to estimate the genetic parameters and SNP effects, or to a validation data set to assess the prediction accuracy. Models MA and MAD applied random regression on SNP genotypes and were implemented in the program Bayz. The additive heritability of DG across the three populations and the two models was very similar at approximately 0.26. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by dominance effects ranged from 0.04 (Large White) to 0.11 (Pietrain), indicating that importance of dominance might be breed-specific. Prediction accuracies were higher when predicting phenotypes using total genetic values (sum of breeding values and dominance deviations) from the MAD model compared to using breeding values from both MA and MAD models. The highest increase in accuracy (from 0.195 to 0.222) was observed in the Pietrain, and the lowest in Large White (from 0.354 to 0.359). Predicting phenotypes using total genetic values instead of breeding values in purebred data improved prediction accuracy and reduced the bias of genomic predictions. Additional benefit of the method is expected when applied to predict crossbred phenotypes, where dominance levels are expected to be higher. PMID:26676611

  6. Radiation graft modification of ethylene-propylene rubber—II. Effect of additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi-Asl, V.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of multifunctional acrylic additives including TMPTA, PEGDA and PGTA on the radiation grafting of hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto ethylene—propylene elastomer (EPM rubbers) was studied. This work centres upon gamma irradiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto EPM rubber by the simultaneous method. Water proved to be an effective solvent but methanol lowered grafting. Sulphuric acid was detrimental to both homopolymerisation and grafting, a result consistent with the theory proposed for the role of this additive in polymer grafting systems.

  7. Additive and interactive effects of stimulus degradation: no challenge for CDP+.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is able to simulate additive effects in these conditions. In the current article, it is shown that the connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate these effects because its nonlexical route is thresholded. The authors present a series of simulations showing that CDP+ can not only simulate the precise dissociation observed by O'Malley and Besner but more generally can produce additive effects for a wide range of parameter combinations and different sets of items. The nonlexical route of CDP+ was not modified post hoc to deal with the effects of stimulus quality, but it had been thresholded for principled reasons before it was known that these effects existed. Together, the effects of stimulus quality on word frequency do not challenge CDP+ but rather provide unexpected support for its architecture and processing dynamics. PMID:19210104

  8. Effects of additives on lipase immobilization in microemulsion-based organogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Na; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Wan-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Li; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-03-01

    An inexpensive, facile, and environmentally benign method was developed to improve the activity and stability of Candida rugosa lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) immobilized on microemulsion-based organogels (CRL MBGs) via the addition of additives during immobilization. The additives used were polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polysaccharides. This study is the first report on the effect of additives in CRL MBGs. Among the tested additives, PEG produced the most improvement in the immobilized CRL, enhancing its stability in organic solvents (specifically polar solvents). The results of circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra experiments indicated that exposure of the acidic CRL to electronegative additives in the buffer, such as polyethylenimine and the electropositive surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, may change the lipase secondary structure, ultimately causing enzyme inactivation. However, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate and PEG 2000 had minimal effects on the secondary structure of CRL. The CRL MBGs containing PEG 2000 demonstrated remarkable retention of their catalytic activity during the recycling test. No significant changes in enzymatic activity were observed, even after nine runs, and 90% of the original yield was maintained after 15 cycles. PMID:24497044

  9. The Blazhko Effect and Additional Excited Modes in RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, J. M.; Szabó, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent photometric space missions, such as CoRoT and Kepler, revealed that many RR Lyrae stars pulsate—beyond their main radial pulsation mode—in low-amplitude modes. Space data seem to indicate a clear trend that, namely, overtone (RRc) stars and modulated fundamental (RRab) RR Lyrae stars ubiquitously show additional modes, while non-Blazhko RRab stars never do. Two Kepler stars (V350 Lyr and KIC 7021124), however, apparently seemed to break this rule: they were classified as non-Blazhko RRab stars showing additional modes. We processed Kepler pixel photometric data of these stars. We detected a small amplitude (but significant) Blazhko effect for both stars by using the resulting light curves and O-C diagrams. This finding strengthens the apparent connection between the Blazhko effect and the excitation of additional modes. In addition, it yields a potential tool for detecting Blazhko stars through the additional frequency patterns, even if we have only short but accurate time series observations. V350 Lyr shows the smallest amplitude multiperiodic Blazhko effect ever detected.

  10. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  11. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  12. Effects of TFA addition on the growth of sintered YBa2Cu3Oy superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Ryusuke; Kuroda, Keita; Kato, Teppei; Miura, O.; Yamada, K.; Kaneko, K.

    The effects of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) addition on the growth of a superconducting phase in sintered YBCO samples were investigated. YBCO samples with TFA addition were prepared by adding TFA (99.0%) to YBCO powder and then pressed into pellets and heated 1173 K - 1213 K for 12 - 20 hr in air. After the heat treatment, the TFA-added sample showed large grain sizes and highly c-axis oriented structures compared to pure YBCO samples, which indicates the enhancement of the grain growth of YBCO sintered samples by the TFA addition. The Jc (0) value and Jc/Jc (0T) properties of the sintered samples was improved by the TFA addition.

  13. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  14. Effect on intake valve deposits of ethanol and additives common to the available ethanol supply

    SciTech Connect

    Shibolm, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    With the widespread introduction of the third generation additives to modern gasolines, the author's company chose to further define the effects of gasoline/ethanol blends (gasohol) on intake system deposits (ISD). The third generation additives referred to here are those that provide protection against ISD. This paper presents detailed results of the investigation in this area. During evaluation of various ISD additives, it was found that additive levels capable of controlling ISD with normal gasolines were unable to do so with fuels containing neat ethanol. Most fuel grade ethanol available in the marketplace is pretreated with additives intended to control accumulation of port fuel injector (PFI) deposits. These currently accepted PFI additives proved to be even more of a problem to intake valves than neat ethanol in gasoline. Some, however, contributed more to valve deposits than others. Data for this investigation was generated via the Modified IVD Test in BMW vehicles at an independent laboratory. Results identify that proper gasoline and ethanol additive combinations and treatment levels can provide satisfactory ISD protection in gasoline engines.

  15. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. Methods The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. Results The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged < = 60 and in patients >70. Conclusions The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification. PMID:27045168

  16. Genetic interactions contribute less than additive effects to quantitative trait variation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Kotenko, Iulia; Sadhu, Meru J.; Treusch, Sebastian; Albert, Frank W.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies of quantitative traits typically focus on detecting loci that contribute additively to trait variation. Genetic interactions are often proposed as a contributing factor to trait variation, but the relative contribution of interactions to trait variation is a subject of debate. Here we use a very large cross between two yeast strains to accurately estimate the fraction of phenotypic variance due to pairwise QTL–QTL interactions for 20 quantitative traits. We find that this fraction is 9% on average, substantially less than the contribution of additive QTL (43%). Statistically significant QTL–QTL pairs typically have small individual effect sizes, but collectively explain 40% of the pairwise interaction variance. We show that pairwise interaction variance is largely explained by pairs of loci at least one of which has a significant additive effect. These results refine our understanding of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and help guide future mapping studies. PMID:26537231

  17. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  18. Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency on Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality…

  19. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  20. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  1. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  2. The effect of alum addition on microbial communities in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 • 14 H2O) is a common poultry litter amendment used to decrease water soluble phosphorus and/or reduce ammonia volatilization. While the physiochemical effects of alum addition has been well researched, little attention has been given to the poultry litter microbial communities. Th...

  3. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...: The effective date for the final rule published in the Federal Register of March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14491) is confirmed as April 27, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Felicia M. Ellison, Center for Food... (75 FR 14491), FDA amended the color additive regulations in Sec. 73.2110 (21 CFR 73.2110)...

  4. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY, SOIL TYPE, AND LITHIUM ADDITION ON SPINACH AND MUSTARD GREENS LEAF CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between 14 Dec. 2005 and 17 Feb 2006 to evaluate the effect of soil type, light environment, and lithium addition on the leaf nutrients of spinach and mustard greens. Cultivars Samish (Spinacia oleracea) and...

  5. EFFECT OF A WHOLE-CATCHMENT N ADDITION ON STREAM DETRITUS PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired catchment study investigating ecosystem effects of N and S deposition. Because of the decade long (NH4)2SO4 addition, the treatment catchment has higher stream NO3 and enriched foliar N concentrations compared to the reference ...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1374-10 - Effective date and additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... file original or amended returns that are consistent with these provisions for taxable years of the S... apply these provisions even if all affected shareholders cannot file consistent returns. In addition...) Effective January 1, 1988, X, a C corporation that is a qualified corporation under section 633(d) of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1374-10 - Effective date and additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... file original or amended returns that are consistent with these provisions for taxable years of the S... apply these provisions even if all affected shareholders cannot file consistent returns. In addition...) Effective January 1, 1988, X, a C corporation that is a qualified corporation under section 633(d) of...

  8. Additive and Interactive Effects of Stimulus Degradation: No Challenge for CDP+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is…

  9. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  10. Thermodynamic method of calculating the effect of alloying additives on interphase interaction in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuchinsky, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alloying additives to the matrix of a composite on the high temperature solubility rate of a single component fiber was analyzed thermodynamically. With an example of binary Ni alloys, with Group IV-VI transition metals reinforced with W fibers, agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of additional catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    ENDEN, T.; RESCH, S.; WHITE, C.; WIK, H. S.; KLØW, N. E.; SANDSET, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Additional treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has recently been shown to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Objectives To estimate the cost effectiveness of additional CDT compared with standard treatment alone. Methods Using a Markov decision model, we compared the two treatment strategies in patients with a high proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a low risk of bleeding. The model captured the development of PTS, recurrent venous thromboembolism and treatment-related adverse events within a lifetime horizon and the perspective of a third-party payer. Uncertainty was assessed with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyzes. Model inputs from the CaVenT study included PTS development, major bleeding from CDT and utilities for post DVT states including PTS. The remaining clinical inputs were obtained from the literature. Costs obtained from the CaVenT study, hospital accounts and the literature are expressed in US dollars ($); effects in quality adjusted life years (QALY). Results In base case analyzes, additional CDT accumulated 32.31 QALYs compared with 31.68 QALYs after standard treatment alone. Direct medical costs were $64 709 for additional CDT and $51 866 for standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $20 429/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed model sensitivity to the clinical efficacy of both strategies, but the ICER remained < $55 000/QALY over the full range of all parameters. The probability that CDT is cost effective was 82% at a willingness to pay threshold of $50 000/QALY gained. Conclusions Additional CDT is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to the standard treatment for patients with a high proximal DVT and a low risk of bleeding. PMID:23452204

  12. Effects of Litter and Nutrient Additions on Soil Carbon Cycling in a Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Halterman, S.; Turner, B. L.; Tanner, E.; Wright, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) dynamics present one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global C cycle models, with tropical forest soils containing some of the largest terrestrial C stocks. Drastic changes in soil C storage and loss are likely to occur if global change alters plant net primary production (NPP) and/or nutrient availability in these ecosystems. We assessed the effects of litter removal and addition, as well as fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and/or potassium (K), on soil C stocks in a tropical seasonal forest in Panama after ten and sixteen years, respectively. We used a density fractionation scheme to assess manipulation effects on rapidly and slowly cycling pools of C. Soil samples were collected in the wet and dry seasons from 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in 15- 45x45 m plots with litter removal, 2x litter addition, and control (n=5), and from 32- 40x40 m fertilization plots with factorial additions of N, P, and K. We hypothesized that litter addition would increase all soil C fractions, but that the magnitude of the effect on rapidly-cycling C would be dampened by a fertilization effect. Results for the dry season show that the "free light" C fraction, or rapidly cycling soil C pool, was significantly different among the three litter treatments, comprising 5.1 ± 0.9 % of total soil mass in the litter addition plots, 2.7 ± 0.3 % in control plots, and 1.0 ± 0.1 % in litter removal plots at the 0-5cm depth (means ± one standard error, p < 0.05). Bulk soil C results are similar to observed changes in the rapidly cycling C pool for the litter addition and removal. Fertilization treatments on average diminished this C pool size relative to control plots, although there was substantial variability among fertilization treatments. In particular, addition of N and P together did not significantly alter rapidly cycling C pool sizes (4.1 ± 1.2 % of total soil mass) relative to controls (3.5 ± 0.4 %), whereas addition of P alone resulted in

  13. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge. PMID:25328094

  14. Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sean C; Frye, Susan; Gale, Nigel; Garmon, Matthew; Launchbury, Rebecca; Machado, Natasha; Melamed, Sarah; Murray, Jessica; Petroff, Alexandre; Winsborough, Carolyn

    2013-11-15

    Addition of pyrolyzed biomass ("biochar") to soils has commonly been shown to increase crop yields and alleviate plant stresses associated with drought and exposure to toxic materials. Here we investigate the ability of biochar (at two dosages: 5 and 50 t ha(-1)) to mitigate salt-induced stress, simulating road salt additions in a factorial glasshouse experiment involving the broadleaved herbaceous plants Abutilon theophrasti and Prunella vulgaris. Salt additions of 30 g m(-2) NaCl to unamended soils resulted in high mortality rates for both species. Biochar (Fagus grandifolia sawdust pyrolyzed at 378 °C), when applied at 50 t ha(-1) as a top dressing, completely alleviated salt-induced mortality in A. theophrasti and prolonged survival of P. vulgaris. Surviving A. theophrasti plants that received both 50 t ha(-1) biochar and salt addition treatments showed growth rates and physiological performance similar to plants without salt addition. Biochar treatments alone also substantially increased biomass of P. vulgaris, with a ∼50% increase relative to untreated controls at both biochar dosages. Biochar did not significantly affect photosynthetic carbon gain (Amax), water use efficiency, or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in either species. Our results indicate that biochar can ameliorate salt stress effects on plants through salt sorption, suggesting novel applications of biochar to mitigate effects of salinization in agricultural, urban, and contaminated soils. PMID:23796889

  15. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  16. The effect of diamic acid additives on the dielectric constant of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of six selected diamic acids additives (including 2,2-prime bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-aniline (An); 4,4-prime-oxydiphthalic anhydride-An, 3,3-prime diaminodiphenyl sulfone-phthalic anhydride (PA); 4,4-prime-oxydianiline-PA; 2,2-bis 4(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA; and 2,2-bis 4(3-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA) on the dielectric constants of low-dielectric-constant polyimide resins was evaluated. It was found that the effect of the incorporation of the diamic acids on reducing the dielectric constant of polyimides may be limited as the dielectric constant of the base resin itself becomes very low. The additives were found to lower the resin's values of glass transition temperature, with no effect on thermooxidative stability.

  17. In-line image analysis on the effects of additives in batch cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiyan; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Kallas, Juha

    2006-03-01

    The effects of two potassium salt additives, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA) and potassium pyrophosphate (KPY), on the batch cooling crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were investigated. The crystal growth rates of certain crystal faces were determined from in-line images taken with a MTS particle image analysis (PIA) video microscope. An in-line image processing method was developed to characterize the size and shape of the crystals. The nucleation kinetics was studied by measurement of the metastable zone width and induction time. A significant promotion effect on both nucleation and growth of KDP was observed when EDTA was used as an additive. KPY, however, exhibited strong inhibiting impacts. The mechanism underlying the EDTA promotion effect on crystal growth was further studied with the 2-dimension nucleation model. It is shown that the presence of EDTA increased the density of adsorbed molecules of the crystallizing solute on the surface of the crystal.

  18. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening: a Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C; Suwantika, Auliya A; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-04-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in combination with cervical screening in the Netherlands. Most of the studies agree that vaccination in pre-sexual-activity periods of life is cost-effective. Based on published sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was found to be mainly driven by vaccine cost and discount rates. Fewer vaccine doses, inclusion of additional benefits of these vaccines to prevent HPV-related non-cervical cancers and vaccination of males to further reduce the burden of HPV-induced cancers are three relevant options suggested to be investigated in upcoming economic evaluations. PMID:25482311

  19. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  20. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro. PMID:25688004

  1. Effect of lubricant extreme pressure additives on rolling element fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of surface active additives on rolling-element fatigue life were investigated with the five-ball fatigue tester at conditions where classical subsurface initiated rolling-element fatigue is the sole mode of failure. Test balls of AISI 52100, AISI M-50, and AISI 1018 were run with an acid-treated white oil containing either 2.5 percent sulfurized terpene, 1 percent didodecyl phosphite, or 5 percent chlorinated wax. In general, it was found that the influence of surface active additives was detrimental to rolling-element fatigue life. The chlorinated-wax additive significantly reduced fatigue life by a factor of 7. The base oil with the 2.5 percent sulfurized-terpene additive can reduce fatigue life by as much as 50 percent. No statistical change in fatigue life occurred with the base oil having the 1 percent didodecyl-phosphite additive. The additives used with the base oil did not change the ranking of the bearing steels where rolling-element fatigue life was of subsurface origin.

  2. Effect of additives on the reduction of PM2.5 emissions during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Qunying Wang; Shuyin Xu; Katsuharu Mizuno; Isao Awaya

    2009-07-15

    Two bituminous coals used in coal-fired power plants were mixed with either Ca- or Mg-based chemical additives. Coals and the mixtures were burnt in a laboratory-scale drop tube furnace, respectively. The impact of the additives on the transformations of coal minerals, as well as on the emissions of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5), was investigated. The generated ash particles were collected using a cyclone combined with a low-pressure impactor. The physical and chemical properties of these ash particles were analyzed. The results indicate that the addition of chemical additives can affect the mineral transformation process, and thus, control the emissions of PM2.5 and PM1 during combustion. In particular, additives have a considerable impact on the particle size distribution and chemical composition of PM, wherein it improves the degree of coalescence of submicron and fine mineral particles, which reduces PM2.5 emissions. The effects of additive on the reduction of PM2.5 emissions depend on the type of coals being used. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of aluminum and iron nanoparticle additives on composite AP/HTPB solid propellant regression rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styborski, Jeremy A.

    This project was started in the interest of supplementing existing data on additives to composite solid propellants. The study on the addition of iron and aluminum nanoparticles to composite AP/HTPB propellants was conducted at the Combustion and Energy Systems Laboratory at RPI in the new strand-burner experiment setup. For this study, a large literature review was conducted on history of solid propellant combustion modeling and the empirical results of tests on binders, plasticizers, AP particle size, and additives. The study focused on the addition of nano-scale aluminum and iron in small concentrations to AP/HTPB solid propellants with an average AP particle size of 200 microns. Replacing 1% of the propellant's AP with 40-60 nm aluminum particles produced no change in combustive behavior. The addition of 1% 60-80 nm iron particles produced a significant increase in burn rate, although the increase was lesser at higher pressures. These results are summarized in Table 2. The increase in the burn rate at all pressures due to the addition of iron nanoparticles warranted further study on the effect of concentration of iron. Tests conducted at 10 atm showed that the mean regression rate varied with iron concentration, peaking at 1% and 3%. Regardless of the iron concentration, the regression rate was higher than the baseline AP/HTPB propellants. These results are summarized in Table 3.

  4. Effects of montmorillonite addition on the performance of starch-based wood adhesive.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan

    2015-01-22

    Effects of montmorillonite (MMT) addition on the performance of corn starch-based wood adhesive were investigated. It was found that MMT addition could enhance the shear strength of the starch-based wood adhesive. The shear strength of the adhesive with 5% (w/w, dry starch basis) MMT reached 10.6 MPa in the dry state, which was almost twice that of the same adhesive without MMT. Addition of 5% MMT also produced an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the shear strength in the wet state. Although this addition caused an increase in the viscosity, the resulting adhesive retained both good mobility and viscosity stability during storage. MMT also enhanced the shear-thinning and solid-like behaviors of the adhesive, compared with the adhesive without MMT. Finally, MMT addition improved the thermal stability of the adhesive. In conclusion, addition of MMT to starch-based wood adhesives can improve their overall performance, enhancing their value as alternatives for traditional petrochemical-based wood adhesives. PMID:25439910

  5. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Species Turnover in Temperate Grasslands in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change. PMID:22768119

  6. Investigation of the effects of short chain processing additives on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stclair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low level concentrations of several short chain processing additives on the properties of the 4,4'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA)/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA)/1,3'-diaminobenzene (m-phenylene diamine) (MPA) (422) copolyimide were investigated. It was noted that 5 percent MPD/phthalic anhydride (PA) is more effective than 5 percent ODA/PA and BDSDA/aniline (AN) in strengthening the host material. However, the introduction of 10 percent BDSDA/AN produces disproportionately high effects on free volume and free electron density in the host copolyimide.

  7. Predicting the effects of nanoscale cerium additives in diesel fuel on regional-scale air quality.

    PubMed

    Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Pouliot, George A; Simon, Heather; Mathur, Rohit

    2014-11-01

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and alter the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) species, including several hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). To predict their net effect on regional air quality, we review the emissions literature and develop a multipollutant inventory for a hypothetical scenario in which nCe additives are used in all on-road and nonroad diesel vehicles. We apply the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to a domain covering the eastern U.S. for a summer and a winter period. Model calculations suggest modest decreases of average PM2.5 concentrations and relatively larger decreases in particulate elemental carbon. The nCe additives also have an effect on 8 h maximum ozone in summer. Variable effects on HAPs are predicted. The total U.S. emissions of fine-particulate cerium are estimated to increase 25-fold and result in elevated levels of airborne cerium (up to 22 ng/m3), which might adversely impact human health and the environment. PMID:25271762

  8. Effects of bulking agent addition on odorous compounds emissions during composting of OFMSW.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Wu, Duo; Lü, Fan; Li, Tian-Shui; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-08-01

    The effects of rice straw addition level on odorous compounds emissions in a pilot-scale organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) composting plant were investigated. The cumulative odorous compounds emissions occurred in a descending order of 40.22, 28.71 and 27.83 mg/dry kg of OFMSW for piles with rice straw addition level at ratio of 1:10, 2:10 and 3:10 (mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW on a wet basis), respectively. The mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW had a statistically significant effect on the reduction of malodorous sulfur compounds emissions, which had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of VFAs, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics and ammonia emissions during composting, respectively. The cumulative emissions of malodorous sulfur compounds from piles with the increasing rice straw addition level were 1.17, 1.08 and 0.88 mg/dry kg of OFMSW, respectively. The optimal mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW was 1:5. Using this addition level, the cumulative malodorous sulfur compounds emissions based on the organic matter degradation were the lowest during composting of OFMSW. PMID:24820662

  9. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  10. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  11. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  12. Effect of combinations of additives on the performance of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santee, Stuart; Xiao, Ang; Yang, Li; Gnanaraj, Joe; Lucht, Brett L.

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance at room temperature for a few years. However, the calendar life and thermal stability (>50 °C) need to be improved for many applications, including electric vehicles. We have conducted an investigation of the effect of thermal stabilizing additives, including dimethyl acetamide, vinylene carbonate, and lithium bis(oxalato) borate, on the performance of lithium ion batteries stored at 70 °C for one month. The reactions of the lithium hexafluorophosphate/carbonate electrolyte, with and without electrolyte additives, with the surface of the electrodes after initial formation cycling have been analyzed via a combination of IR-ATR and XPS.

  13. Low-Density Steels: The Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sudipta; Suwas, Satyam

    2014-09-01

    Density reduction of automotive steels is needed to reduce fuel consumption, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Aluminum addition has been found to be effective in making steels lighter. Such an addition does not change the crystal structure of the material. Steels modified with aluminum possess higher strength with very little compromise in ductility. In this work, different compositions of Fe-Al systems have been studied so that the desired properties of the material remain within the limit. A density reduction of approximately 10% has been achieved. The specific strength of optimal Fe-Al alloys is higher than conventional steels such as ultra-low-carbon steels.

  14. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect. PMID:26761846

  15. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low. PMID:26134580

  16. Effects of lipids on thermophilic anaerobic digestion and reduction of lipid inhibition upon addition of bentonite.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Petersen, S P; Ahring, B K

    1990-07-01

    The effect of bentonite-bound oil on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was investigated. In digestor experiments, addition of oil was found to be inhibitory during start-up and the inhibitory effect was less pronounced when the oil was added in the form of bentonite-bound oil compared to when the oil was added alone. After adaptation of the digestors, very rapid degradation of oil was observed and more than 80% of the oil was degraded within a few hours after daily feeding. In batch experiments, glyceride trioleate was found to be inhibitory to thermophilic anaerobic digestion when the concentrations were higher than 2.0 g/l. However, addition of bentonite (a clay mineral) at concentrations of 0.15% and 0.45% was found to partly overcome this inhibition. Addition of calcium chloride in concentration of 3 mM (0.033% w/v) showed a similar positive effect on the utilization of oil, but the effect was lower than with bentonite. PMID:1366749

  17. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. ); Mitchell, K. . Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. )

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  18. The effect of an additional reflection in a precedence effect experiment

    PubMed Central

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Yu, Gongqiang; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the precedence effect typically utilize a two-source paradigm, which is not realistic relative to real world situations where multiple reflections exist. A step closer to multiple-reflection situations was studied using a three-source paradigm. Discrimination of interaural time differences (ITDs) was measured for one-, two-, and three-source stimuli, using clicks presented over headphones. The ITD was varied in either the first, second, or the third source. The inter-source intervals ranged from 0–130 ms. A perceptual weighting model was extendedto incorporate the three-source stimuli and used to interpret the data. The effect of adding a third source could mostly, but not entirely, be understood by the interaction of effects observed in the precedence effect with two sources. Specifically, for delays between 1 and 8 ms, the ITD information of prior sources was typically weighted more heavily than subsequent sources. For delays greater than 8 ms, subsequent sources were typically weighted slightly more heavily than prior sources. However, there were specific conditions that showed a more complex interaction between the sources. These findings suggest that the two-source paradigm provides a strong basis for understanding how the auditory system processes reflections in spatial hearing tasks. PMID:22501073

  19. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  20. Effect of multiplicative and additive noise on genetic transcriptional regulatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Xie, Hui-Zhang; Liu, Liang-Gang; Li, Zhi-Bing

    2009-02-01

    A multiplicative noise and an additive noise are introduced in the kinetic model of Smolen-Baxter-Byrne [P. Smolen, D.A. Baxter, J.H. Byrne, Amer. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 274 (1998) 531], in which the expression of gene is controlled by protein concentration of transcriptional activator. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved and the steady-state probability distribution is obtained numerically. It is found that the multiplicative noise converts the bistability to monostability that can be regarded as a noise-induced transition. The additive noise reduces the transcription efficiency. The correlation between the multiplicative noise and the additive noise works as a genetic switch and regulates the gene transcription effectively.

  1. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

  2. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality. PMID:27162416

  3. The effect of manganese additions on the reactive evaporation of chromium in Ni–Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-05-01

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 °C and 55 at 700 °C. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  4. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C and borderline alumina-forming {gamma} (TiAl) + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina, and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  5. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C as well as on the borderline alumina-forming {gamma} + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  6. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  7. Effect of basic additives on sensitivity and diffusion of acid in chemical amplification resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Koji; Ushirogouchi, Tohru; Nakase, Makoto

    1995-06-01

    The effect of amine additives in chemical amplification resists is discussed. Phenolic amines such as 4-aminophenol and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane were investigated as model compounds from the viewpoint of sensitivity, diffusion and resolution. Equal molar amounts of acid and amine deactivated at the very beginning of post-exposure bake, and could not participate in decomposing the inhibitor as a catalyst. Only the acid which survived from the deactivation diffuses in the resist, decomposing the inhibitors from the middle to late stage of PEB. The basic additives reduce the diffusion range of the acid, especially for long-range diffusion, resulting in higher contrast at the interfaces between the exposed and unexposed areas. In addition, the amine concentration required is found to be less than the concentration which causes the resist sensitivity to start decreasing.

  8. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  9. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  10. Coexposure to Phytoestrogens and Bisphenol A Mimics Estrogenic Effects in an Additive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER–mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer. PMID:24284790

  11. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer. PMID:24284790

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  13. Hydrothermal treatment of incineration fly ash for PCDD/Fs decomposition: the effect of iron addition.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Zhen; Hu, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Peng-Fei

    2012-12-01

    The catalytic effect of Fe addition on the decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash during the hydrothermal process was investigated. Influencing factors, such as Fe addition mode, reaction time and cooling procedure after reaction, were tested to evaluate their effects. Experimental results indicated that Fe addition in the form of a mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric sulphate enhanced decomposition of PCDD/Fs contained in the MSWI fly ash, particularly for the decomposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-furan under the reaction temperature of 563 K. The decomposition rate of PCDD/Fs reached 90.33% by international toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) when Fe was added as a mixture of ferrous and ferric sulphates by 5% (wt/wt) with the Fe (III)/Fe (II) ratio being 2; without Fe addition, the decomposition rate of PCDD/Fs was only 46.17% by I-TEQ in the same process. Fe addition in the form of ferrous sulphate alone also showed an enhancing effect on PCDD/Fs decomposition, but the associated decomposition rates were relatively lower, suggesting iron oxides formed from the mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates are more favourable catalysts. At the same time, the cooling procedure after the hydrothermal reaction became more flexible if Fe was added in the form of a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates. Although a longer reaction time was helpful to increase decomposition rates of PCDD/Fs, 1 h was proved to be a reasonable time under this condition. PMID:23437649

  14. Effects of nitrogen addition and fire on plant nitrogen use in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Lü, Fu-Mei; Han, Xing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Plant nitrogen (N) use strategies have great implications for primary production and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Given the increasing atmospheric N deposition received by most of the terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the responses of plant N use would facilitate the projection of plant-mediated N cycling under global change scenarios. The effects of N deposition on plant N use would be affected by both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, such as prescribed fire in the grassland. We examined the effects of N addition (5.25 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and prescribed fire (annual burning) on plant N concentrations and N use characters at both species and community levels in a temperate steppe of northern China. We found that N addition and fire independently affected soil N availability and plant N use traits. Nitrogen addition increased aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), inorganic N, and N uptake, decreased N response efficiency (NRE), but did not affect biomass-weighed N concentrations at community level. Prescribed fire did not change the community level N concentrations, but largely decreased N uptake efficiency and NRE. At the species level, the effects of N addition and fire on plant N use were species-specific. The divergent responses of plant N use at community and species levels to N addition and fire highlight the importance of the hierarchical responses of plant N use at diverse biological organization levels to the alteration of soil N availability. This study will improve our understanding of the responses of plant-mediated N cycling to global change factors and ecosystem management strategies in the semiarid grasslands. PMID:24594654

  15. Effect of boron addition on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2015-05-07

    The effect of B addition on CoPt nanoparticles was investigated. The CoPt-B nanoparticles were synthesized by means of the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the as-synthesized particles have a spherical morphology with average size about 2–3 nm. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique showed the effect of B concentration on phase transformation. The addition of B at up to 60% promoted the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase when the nanoparticles were subjected to annealing at 600 °C. If the B content is higher than 60%, the phase transition is suppressed. The evidence of B addition on the structure of CoPt nanoparticles was further supported by the magnetic measurements. The results show that the coercivity of the annealed CoPt-B nanoparticles was enhanced by the B additions from 20% to 60%, with the maximum coercivity of 12 000 Oe for the CoPt-40%B sample.

  16. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  17. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Four cast superalloys (one cobalt-base and three nickel-base) were tested at 900 C for 100 h in Mach 0.3 combustion gases. 5 ppm of synthetic sea salt were added to the gases in the combustion chamber. Several types of thermal cycle and washing procedures were employed. Similar tests were made with the addition of 300 ppm of a chromium-containing fuel additive. In both sets of tests the extent of hot corrosion was evaluated by specific weight change and metal recession. In general, the chromium additive in the fuel reduced the extent of hot (salt) corrosion but did not eliminate it. The percentage reduction of hot corrosion attack was similar for all four alloys. As great a reduction of hot corrosion was achieved by reducing the number of thermal cycles during the test from 100 to 5 or 6. The effect of washing the alloys every ten cycles as opposed to the end of the test was erratic; some alloys were attacked slightly more, others somewhat less. A NiCrAlY coating was found to be more effective in reducing hot corrosion than either the fuel additive or the washing schedule.

  18. Effect of addition of commercial rosemary extracts on potent odorants in cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun; Cadwallader, Keith R; Kido, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Yuko

    2013-06-01

    Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry (SPME-GCO) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) were applied to measure the effects of the addition of two commercial rosemary extracts (RE) on the potent odorants in cooked beef extracts (BE). On the basis of the results of SPME-GCO and AEDA, the addition of RE imparted sweet and floral notes to BE as a result of the addition of esters and terpenes of RE. In addition, RE suppressed the formation of odorants derived via lipid oxidation and Maillard reactions. The most potent lipid oxidation volatiles consisted of 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like), (E)-2,4-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), and eight different aldehydes (fatty). The Maillard reaction volatiles, necessary for typical cooked beef flavor, included compounds with meaty [2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan], roasty (2-furanmethanethiol), caramel-like [4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone], baked potato-like [3-(methylthio)propanal], and spicy [3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] attributes. The suppressive effects of RE may be caused by the action of antioxidative substances in RE alone or in combination with the pH increase in BE induced by the matrix components of RE. PMID:23501248

  19. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  20. The effects of additives on the crystal habit of monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Chiaki; Nagashima, Nobuya; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Iitaka, Yoichi

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various amino acids and organic acids on the habit of MSG crystals have been investigated. The addition of L-alanine (L-Ala) and L-lysine (L-Lys) made the MSG crystals short and thick, but D-glutamic acid (D-Glu), γ-amino butylic acid (γ-ABA) and L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (L-PCA) made the crystals long and thin. HPLC analysis of the end and the side faces of the MSG crystals grown with the additives revealed that the concentrations of L-Lys and L-Ala were higher at the end faces than at the side faces; but those of D-Glu, γ-ABA and L-PCA were higher at the side faces than at the end faces. The facts indicate that habit modifications of the MSG crystals, brought about in the presence of these additives, are due to stereo-selective adsorption of the additives on the crystal faces. Finally, the cause leading to the differences in adsorption of the additives on the crystal faces of MSG is discussed in relation to the stacking density of L-Glu molecules and Na ions on each face using the results of the X-ray structure analysis.

  1. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  2. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26059183

  3. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  4. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  5. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0. PMID:17323142

  6. Mechanical Effects of Hafnium and Boron Addition to Aluminum Alloy Films for Submicrometer LSI Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Eishi; Kawai, Yasuaki; Madokoro, Shoji; Fukuyo, Hideaki; Sawada, Susumu

    1993-11-01

    This is the first report on the mechanical properties of hafnium- and boron-added Al-Si-Cu alloy film for LSI interconnects. Two to three hundred ppm of hafnium and boron addition into Al-Si-Cu alloy film does not influence the Al alloy properties for metal lines as LSI interconnects, such as its low resistivity, low ohmic contact resistance with Si, and fine-line patterning feasibility. The mechanical properties of the Al alloy film, however, change greatly. Vertical hillock and lateral hillock formation is considerably suppressed during heat treatments used in LSI fabrication processes. Stress-induced void formation is also reduced during aging test at 125°C. These effects due to hafnium and boron addition are considered to be an impurity precipitation effect ihat was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis.

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY USING LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    White, T

    2007-05-08

    The effectiveness of three dispersants to modify rheology was examined using rheology measurements and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in simulated waste solutions. All of the dispersants lowered the yield stress of the slurries below the baseline samples. The rheology curves were fitted reasonably to a Bingham Plastic model. The three-dimensional LSCM images of simulants showed distinct aggregates were greatly reduced after the addition of dispersants leading to a lowering of the yield stress of the simulated waste slurry solutions.

  8. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  9. Oxidative addition of hydrogen halides and dihalogens to Pd. Trends in reactivity and relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G Theodoor; Kovacs, Attila; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2006-06-29

    We have theoretically studied the oxidative addition of HX and X(2) to palladium for X = F, Cl, Br, I and At, using both nonrelativistic and ZORA-relativistic density functional theory at BLYP/QZ4P. The purpose is 3-fold: (i) to obtain a set of consistent potential energy surfaces (PESs) to infer accurate trends in reactivity for simple, archetypal oxidative addition reactions; (ii) to assess how relativistic effects modify these trends along X = F, Cl, Br, I and At; and (iii) to rationalize the trends in reactivity in terms of the reactants' molecular-orbital (MO) electronic structure and the H-X and X-X bond strengths. For the latter, we provide full Dirac-Coulomb CCSD(T) benchmarks. All oxidative additions to Pd are exothermic and have a negative overall barrier, except that of HF which is approximately thermoneutral and has a positive overall barrier. The activation barriers of the HX oxidative additions decrease systematically as X descends in group 17 of the periodic table; those of X(2) first increase, from F to Cl, but then also decrease further down group 17. On the other hand, HX and X(2) show clearly opposite trends regarding the heat of reaction: that of HX becomes more exothermic and that of X(2) less exothermic as X descends in group 17. Relativistic effects can be as large as 15-20 kcal/mol but they do not change the qualitative trends. Interestingly, the influence of relativistic effects on activation barriers and heats of reaction decreases for the heavier halogens due to counteracting relativistic effects in palladium and the halogens. PMID:16789784

  10. Effect of Mo Addition on Strength of Fire-Resistant Steel at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Rongchun; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Lanting; Shan, Aidang

    2014-08-01

    A series of Fe-Mo-C steels with Mo addition from 0.1 to 0.8 wt.% has been prepared for studying the effect of Mo on the elevated-temperature strength of fire-resistant steel. Two heat treatments were performed for obtaining either ferrite microstructure or ferrite-bainite microstructure to study the contributions from two strengthening mechanisms with Mo addition, namely solid-solution strengthening and bainite strengthening. The results show that solid-solution strengthening is the predominant elevated-temperature strengthening mechanism of Mo in fire-resistant steel. This strengthening effect has a huge contribution in improving elevated-temperature strength when Mo content is below 0.5 wt.%, and the yield strength at 600 °C goes up by a significant 13.7 MPa per 0.1 wt.% Mo addition. However, it becomes relatively weak when Mo content is more than or equal to 0.5 wt.%. Moreover, results indicate that the elevated-temperature strength remarkably increases when the volume fraction of bainite is above 15%. Furthermore, it is found that the ferrite grain size has minor effect on elevated-temperature strength of fire-resistant steel. Results also provide fundamentals of designing low-cost fire-resistant steels with excellent strength.

  11. The effect of enzyme addition on anaerobic digestion of JoseTall Wheat Grass.

    PubMed

    Romano, Rowena T; Zhang, Ruihong; Teter, Sarah; McGarvey, Jeffery A

    2009-10-01

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied using JoseTall Wheat Grass (wheat grass) as a model substrate. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 50 degrees C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations were simulated and investigated: (1) enzyme addition to a single-stage digester, (2) pre-treatment of wheat grass with enzymes followed by a single-stage anaerobic digestion, and (3) enzyme addition to the first stage (hydrolysis and acidification) of a two-stage digestion system. The enzyme products showed positive effects on the solubilization of wheat grass when used alone to treat the wheat grass. However, no significant differences in biogas and methane yields, and volatile solids reduction resulted when the enzyme products were tested in the anaerobic digestion systems. This reveals that the microorganisms present in the inoculum were effective in carrying out the digestion of wheat grass. The types of microorganisms present in the inoculum were identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. A comparison of the sequences between the different inocula revealed that the prevalent operational taxonomic units were similar, but that the acidified inoculum contained a higher percentage of the species Thermotogae. PMID:19467589

  12. Effects of a ceramic particle trap and copper fuel additive on heavy-duty diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.D.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H.; Gratz, L.D.; Bagley, S.T.; Leddy, D.G.

    1994-10-01

    This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic carbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions, and mutagenic activity] from 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. Engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60, and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30, and 60 ppm Cu levels. The fuel additive had little effect on baseline emissions (without the trap) of TPM, SOF, XOC, HC, or NO{sub x}. The trap reduced TPM from 72 93% compared to baseline, had no effect on NO{sub x}, and reduced HC about 30% at mode 9 with no consistent change at mode 11. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Effect of Addition of Chin Strap on PAP Compliance, Nightly Duration of Use, and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Shelley R.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Zhang, Shiling; Devara, Anupama; Rowley, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A chinstrap is potentially useful to reduce unintentional air leak by preventing mouth opening during PAP treatment. This study examines whether the addition of a chinstrap to PAP therapy has any effect on adherence, nightly duration of use, air leak, and residual AHI. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed at an AASM-accredited VAMC sleep center. Clinical sleep data of veterans (n = 124) prescribed PAP therapy for sleep apnea was evaluated, and the effect of chinstrap use vs non-use on the above parameters was assessed. Results: Chinstrap users had significantly greater PAP adherence, longer nightly duration of PAP use, lower residual AHI and lower leak compared to chinstrap non-users at first follow up visit. Conclusions: The addition of a chin strap to PAP therapy is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing PAP adherence. Citation: Knowles SR; O'Brien DT; Zhang S; Devara A; Rowley JA. Effect of addition of chin strap on PAP compliance, nightly duration of use, and other factors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):377-383. PMID:24733982

  14. [Effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Sang, Wei-guo; Zhu, Li; Song, Ying-ying; Wang, Jin-ping

    2010-12-01

    A greenhouse control experiment was conducted to explore the effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the growth of alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Nitrogen addition had no significant effects on the morphological indices, biomass and its allocation, and absolute growth rate of A. artemisiifolia, but increased the nitrogen content in the aboveground and underground parts of the plant significantly. Carbon addition increased the content of soil available nitrogen. In this case, the biomass allocation in root system for nutrient (nitrogen) absorption promoted, resulting in a remarkable decrease of branch number, total leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf mass ratio. As a result, the total biomass decreased significantly. The symbiosis of A. artemisiifolia and AM fungi had great influence on the common ragweed's soil nitrogen acclimation, which enhanced its resource-capture by the increase of SLA, and this effect was more significant when the soil nitrogen content was low. AM fungi played an important role in the growth of A. artemisiifolia in low-nitrogen environment. PMID:21442989

  15. Effect of addition of human follicular fluid on progesterone secretion by cultured sheep granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kumari, G L; Vohra, S; Raghavan, V

    1982-10-01

    The effect of addition of human follicular fluid to cultures of granulosa cells of large sheep follicles (4-6 mm in diameter) on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone secretion was investigated. Both luteinization and progesterone secretion were inhibited by addition of 10% (w/v) charcoal-treated follicular fluid from medium (2-6 mm) and large (7-16 mm) follicles which had low concentrations of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone and LH. In comparison, the fluid from large follicles, having high levels of the same hormones, stimulated both the parameters, and addition of LH along with the fluid had no further effect. Fluid collected from cystic follicles appeared to be stimulatory which also had elevated levels of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. These findings indicate the presence of both the inhibitors and stimulators of luteinization in human follicular fluid. The effectiveness of any of them either to inhibit or stimulate luteinization probably will depend upon the composition of the follicular fluid and the stage of maturation of the follicles from which it was collected. PMID:6218983

  16. Effect of pretreatment and additives on boron release during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yuuki Mochizuki; Katsuyasu Sugawara; Yukio Enda

    2009-09-15

    Boron is one of the most toxic and highly volatile elements present in coal. As part of a series of studies carried out on coal cleaning to prevent environmental problems and to promote efficient coal utilization processes, the removal of boron by leaching with water and acetic acid has been investigated. The effects of the addition of ash components, that is, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO on the control of boron release during pyrolysis and gasification were investigated. Here, 20-70% of boron in coal was removed by leaching the coal with water and acetic acid. Boron leached by water and acetic acid was related to the volatiles released from coal in pyrolysis below 1173 K. The addition of ash components such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to be effective in suppressing the release of boron during pyrolysis at temperatures below and above 1173 K, respectively. The addition of CaO to coal was effective in suppressing the release of boron during gasification at 1173 K. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Complete positivity, finite-temperature effects, and additivity of noise for time-local qubit dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankinen, Juho; Lyyra, Henri; Sokolov, Boris; Teittinen, Jose; Ziaei, Babak; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    We present a general model of qubit dynamics which entails pure dephasing and dissipative time-local master equations. This allows us to describe the combined effect of thermalization and dephasing beyond the usual Markovian approximation. We investigate the complete positivity conditions and introduce a heuristic model that is always physical and provides the correct Markovian limit. We study the effects of temperature on the non-Markovian behavior of the system and show that the noise additivity property discussed by Yu and Eberly [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 140403 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.140403] holds beyond the Markovian limit.

  18. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant

    2014-10-15

    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  19. The Additive Effects of Core Muscle Strengthening and Trunk NMES on Trunk Balance in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Jae; Kim, Dae Yul; Yi, Jin Hwa; Kim, Won; Hong, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. Methods Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. Results All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. Conclusion The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients. PMID:26949681

  20. Effect of concentration and addition of ions on the adsorption of aerosol-OT to sapphire.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R; Hughes, Arwel V

    2010-09-21

    Aerosol-OT (sodium bis 2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate or NaAOT) adsorbs to hydrophilic sapphire solid surfaces. The structure of the formed bilayer has been determined over the concentration range 0.2-7.4 mM NaAOT. It was found that the hydrocarbon tails pack at maximum packing limit at very low concentrations, and that the thickness of the bilayer was concentration-independent. The adsorption was found to increase with concentration, with the surfactant molecules packing closer laterally. The area per molecule was found to change from 138 ± 25 to 51 ± 4 A(2) over the concentration range studied, with the thickness of the layer being constant at 33 ± 2 A. Addition of small amounts of salt was found to increase the surface excess, with the bilayer being thinner with a slightly larger area per molecule. Addition of different salts of the same valency was found to have a very similar effect, as had the addition of NaOH and HCl. Hence, the effects of adding acid or base should be considered an effect of ionic strength rather than an effect of pH. Adsorption of NaAOT to the sapphire surface that carries an opposite charge to the anionic surfactant is similar in many respects to the adsorption reported previously for hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces. This suggests that the adsorption of NaAOT to a surface is driven primarily by NaAOT self-assembly rather than effects of electrostatic attraction to the interface. PMID:20735040

  1. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder. PMID:19227072

  2. Synergistic effect between nano-ceramic lubricating additives and electroless deposited Ni-W-P coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Cheng, Wushan; Zhao, Zuxin; Huang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    The major solving ways for the material wear are surface modification and lubrication. Currently, the researches at home and abroad are all limited to the single study of either nano-lubricating oil additive or electroless deposited coating. The surface coating has high hardness and high wear resistance, however, the friction reduction performance of the coating with high hardness is not good, the thickness of the coating is limited, and the coating can not regenerate after wearing. The nano-lubricating additives have good tribological performance and self-repair function, but under heavy load, the self-repair rate to the worn surface with the nano-additives is smaller than the wearing rate of the friction pair. To solve the above problems, the Ni-W-P alloy coating and deposition process with excellent anti-wear, and suitable for industrial application were developed, the optimum bath composition and process can be obtained by studying the influence of the bath composition, temperature and PH value to the deposition rate and the plating solution stability. The tribological properties as well as anti-wear and friction reduction mechanism of wear self-repair nano-ceramic lubricating additives are also studied. The ring-block abrasion testing machine and energy dispersive spectrometer are used to explore the internal relation between the coating and the nano-lubricating oil additives, and the tribology mechanism, to seek the synergetic effect between the two. The test results show that the wear resistance of Ni-W-P alloy coating (with heat treatment and in oil with nano-ceramic additives) has increased hundreds times than 45 steel as the metal substrate in basic oil, the friction reduction performance is improved. This research breaks through the bottleneck of previous separate research of the above-mentioned two methods, and explores the combination use of the two methods in industrial field.

  3. Effect and interactions of commercial additives and chloride ion in copper electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyuan

    This thesis is to understand and compare the effects and interactions of modified polysaccharide (HydroStar), polyacrylamide (Cyquest N-900) and chloride ion on copper electrowinning. A study of the nucleation and growth was conducted in a synthetic electrolyte (40 g/L Cu, 160 g/L H2SO 4, 20 mg/L Cl-) with the addition of HydroStar or Cyquest N-900 using potential step measurements. The current responses generated were compared to theoretical models of nucleation and growth mechanisms. The nucleation and growth mechanism changed as function of potential and the presence of organic additives. The nucleation and growth mechanisms were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low overpotentials, electrodeposition from the electrolyte without additives proceeded by progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3-D) growth. The addition of HydroStar produced smaller nuclei and changed the mechanism to progressive nucleation and 2-D growth. Cyquest N-900 used there appeared to be progressive nucleation with 2-D growth and polarize the cathodes. In addition, instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control occurred at high overpotentials. Chloride ion and its interaction with HydroStar and Cyquest N-900 were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The trends observed from Nyquist plots and equivalent circuit models were consistent with the CV results. Chloride, on its own, depolarized copper electrodeposition, while chloride ion associated with Cyquest N-900 inhibited the reaction. It is proposed that Cl- acted as a bridging ligand between copper and Cyquest N-900. The addition of HydroStar depolarized copper deposition, but it did not interact with.

  4. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat. PMID:24547939

  6. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  7. Effect of additives on electrochemical performance of lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Seok; Choi, Suneui; Song, JunHo; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jo, Yong Nam; Choi, Jungkyu; Yim, Taeeun; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide, Li[NixCoyMnz]O2 (NCM) is a low-cost cathode material with a high capacity and a moderately high rate capability, however, it still suffers from poor electrochemical performance. In this study, several types of additives are attempted to enhance the surface stability of high-Ni-content (Ni ≥ 60%) cathodes and the most effective additive turns out to be PS. The cycle performance in the presence of 2% PS is much improved at a high temperature of 60 °C: (1) 98.9% of its initial capacity is preserved, (2) the increase in thickness is only 17.9%, preventing undesired swellings, and (3) gases are not generated in large amounts with the internal pressure being 56.4 kPa. The FT-IR spectroscopy results suggest that the surface of the cathode in the presence of 2% PS is covered with a film of alkyl sulfone components (RSOSR and RSO2SR), which is possibly formed by the electrochemical oxidation of PS. The current results confirm that the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathodes can be improved via the appropriate use of additives. They also indicate that among the tested additive candidates in this study, PS is highly desirable for enhancing the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathodes.

  8. Effect of addition of palladium on properties of Ag2Hg3 (gamma 1) phase.

    PubMed

    Chern Lin, J H; Lee, H C; Ju, C P

    1997-07-01

    The effect of palladium addition on the microstructure, compressive strength, creep rate and mercury release rate of Ag2Hg3 (gamma 1) phase was evaluated. Experimental results indicated that fairly pure gamma 1 phase could be fabricated using the present trituration method. The heat treatment of gamma 1 at 90 degrees C increased porosity level, increased dimensional shrinkage, increased mercury vapour release and enhanced the formation of beta1 phase. Addition of palladium in gamma 1 slowed down the amalgamation reaction, largely suppressed the phase transition to beta1 and caused a slight shift in open circuit potential toward the anodic direction. Although the overall anodic polarization profiles did not show a significant effect of palladium, scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological differences between pure and palladium-containing gamma 1. Addition of palladium in gamma 1 also increased compressive strength, increased creep resistance, and largely reduced both mercury vapour and ion release rates. Considering overall performance, the optimal palladium content in gamma 1 seems to be in the range between 0.50 and 0.75 wt%. PMID:9199764

  9. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA–ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  10. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  11. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  12. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  13. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization. PMID:18487638

  14. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. PMID:26812027

  15. EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2007-08-27

    The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

  16. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  17. Noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive signals by coherent addition using the temporal Talbot effect

    PubMed Central

    Maram, Reza; Van Howe, James; Li, Ming; Azaña, José

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of signal intensity is essential for initiating physical processes, diagnostics, sensing, communications and measurement. During traditional amplification, the signal is amplified by multiplying the signal carriers through an active gain process, requiring the use of an external power source. In addition, the signal is degraded by noise and distortions that typically accompany active gain processes. We show noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive optical pulse waveforms with gain from 2 to ~20 without using active gain. The proposed method uses a dispersion-induced temporal self-imaging (Talbot) effect to redistribute and coherently accumulate energy of the original repetitive waveforms into fewer replica waveforms. In addition, we show how our passive amplifier performs a real-time average of the wave-train to reduce its original noise fluctuation, as well as enhances the extinction ratio of pulses to stand above the noise floor. Our technique is applicable to repetitive waveforms in any spectral region or wave system. PMID:25319207

  18. Effect of additions of aluminosilicate and silicate materials on the softening temperature of chromite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, A. V.; Nurmaganbetova, B. N.; Pavlov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    The temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the fines of the rich chromite ore of the Donskoy Ore Mining & Processing Plant in Kazakhstan are experimentally determined. The following natural and technical silica-containing materials, which are considered as fluxing additions to decrease the melting temperature of the chromite ore, are investigated: aluminosilicate clays, microsilica, and quartzite of various fractions. The effect of additions of the natural and technical silica-containing materials on the temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the chromite ore of DODPE is analyzed. The influences of various materials and their fraction compositions on the temperature of softening of the chromite ores are compared.

  19. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  20. The effects of addition of citric acid on the morphologies of ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zao . E-mail: yangzao888@tom.com; Liu Quanhui; Yang Lei

    2007-02-15

    ZnO nanorods of 25-100 nm in diameter and 0.2-1 {mu}m in length were fabricated through citric acid assisted annealing process. The microstructure of ZnO nanorods was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. As a result, it was found that ZnO nanorods were single crystalline and pure. The effects of the growth conditions such as addition of citric acid, annealing temperature on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been investigated. At the given temperature the length decreased but the diameter increased with addition of the mass of citric acid. With the rising of the calcining heat, the shape of ZnO changed from rod to granule for a given amount of citric acid. Finally, the mechanism for citric acid assisted annealing synthesis of the ZnO nanostructure is discussed.

  1. Effect of metal oxides addition on the superconducting properties of YBaCuO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choi, Yong

    2011-07-01

    The superconducting properties of YBCO superconductor with ZrO2 addition prepared by different contents were prepared by a unique method so called thermal pyrolysis process to study the effect of the zirconium oxide on the electromagnetic properties and superconducting mechanism of the superconductor. The critical temperature of YBCO superconductor was not predominately dependent upon the zirconium oxide. The maximum magnetism was observed by adding 2% zirconium oxide. The addition of zirconium oxide forming a pinning center of magnetic flux due to ZrO2 phase which was related to the change of electromagnetic properties of the YBCO superconductor. The result indicates that magnetization is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines passing through the sample. The added ZrO2 appear to contribute the increasing Vickers hardness. PMID:22121688

  2. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-01

    The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 °C.

  3. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change. PMID:23858649

  4. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  5. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  6. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  7. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Stability of amorphous pharmaceutical solids: crystal growth mechanisms and effect of polymer additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Zhu, Lei; Wu, Tian; Cai, Ting; Gunn, Erica M; Yu, Lian

    2012-09-01

    We review recent progress toward understanding and enhancing the stability of amorphous pharmaceutical solids against crystallization. As organic liquids are cooled to become glasses, fast modes of crystal growth can emerge. One such growth mode, the glass-to-crystal or GC mode, occurs in the bulk, and another exists at the free surface, both leading to crystal growth much faster than predicted by theories that assume diffusion defines the kinetic barrier of crystallization. These phenomena have received different explanations, and we propose that GC growth is a solid-state transformation enabled by local mobility in glasses and that fast surface crystal growth is facilitated by surface molecular mobility. In the second part, we review recent findings concerning the effect of polymer additives on crystallization in organic glasses. Low-concentration polymer additives can strongly inhibit crystal growth in the bulk of organic glasses, while having weaker effect on surface crystal growth. Ultra-thin polymer coatings can inhibit surface crystallization. Recent work has shown the importance of molecular weight for crystallization inhibitors of organic glasses, besides "direct intermolecular interactions" such as hydrogen bonding. Relative to polyvinylpyrrolidone, the VP dimer is far less effective in inhibiting crystal growth in amorphous nifedipine. Further work is suggested for better understanding of crystallization of amorphous organic solids and the prediction of their stability. PMID:22434258

  9. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation.

    PubMed

    Borkhataria, Rena R; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2006-04-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects > 5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects < 5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. PMID:16711056

  10. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  11. The effect of additional etching and curing mechanism of composite resin on the dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Su; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional acid etching and curing mechanism (light-curing or self-curing) of a composite resin on the dentin bond strength and compatibility of one-step self-etching adhesives. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen human permanent molars were randomly divided into eight groups according to the adhesives used (All-Bond Universal: ABU, Clearfil S3 Bond: CS3), additional acid etching (additional acid etching performed: EO, no additional acid etching performed: EX), and composite resins (Filtek Z-250: Z250, Clearfil FII New Bond: CFNB). Group 1: ABU-EO-Z250, Group 2: ABU-EO-CFNB, Group 3: ABU-EX-Z250, Group 4: ABU-EX-CFNB, Group 5: CS3-EO-Z250, Group 6: CS3-EO-CFNB, Group 7: CS3-EX-Z250, Group 8: CS3-EX-CFNB. After bonding procedures, composite resins were built up on dentin surfaces. After 24-hour water storage, the teeth were sectioned to make 10 specimens for each group. The microtensile bond strength test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The failure mode of the fractured specimens was examined by means of an optical microscope at ×20 magnification. The data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Additional etching groups showed significantly higher values than the no additional etching group when using All-Bond Universal. The light-cured composite resin groups showed significantly higher values than the self-cured composite resin groups in the Clearfil S3 Bond. CONCLUSION The additional acid etching is beneficial for the dentin bond strength when using low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives, and low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives are compatible with self-cured composite resin. The acidity of the one-step self-etch adhesives is an influencing factor in terms of the dentin bonding strength and incompatibility with a self-cured composite resin. PMID:24353889

  12. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content. PMID:26604421

  13. Cytotoxic Effects of Temozolomide and Radiation are Additive- and Schedule-Dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Anthony J.; Ruff, Elliot M.; Martindale, Christine; Lovegrove, Nadia; Short, Susan C.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Despite aggressive therapy comprising radical radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor, particularly if tumors express O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). The interactions between radiation and TMZ remain unclear and have important implications for scheduling and for developing strategies to improve outcomes. Methods and Materials: Factors determining the effects of combination therapy on clonogenic survival, cell-cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair were investigated in four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, U87-MG). Results: Combining TMZ and radiation yielded additive cytotoxicity, but only when TMZ was delivered 72 h before radiation. Radiosensitization was not observed. TMZ induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest at 48-72 h, coincident with phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Additive G2/M arrest and Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation was only observed when TMZ preceded radiation by 72 h. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-55933 increased radiation sensitivity and delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, but did not influence TMZ effects. The multiple kinase inhibitor caffeine enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemoradiation and exacerbated DNA damage. Conclusions: TMZ is not a radiosensitizing agent but yields additive cytotoxicity in combination with radiation. Our data indicate that TMZ treatment should commence at least 3 days before radiation to achieve maximum benefit. Activation of G2/M checkpoint signaling by TMZ and radiation has a cytoprotective effect that can be overcome by dual inhibition of ATM and ATR. More specific inhibition of checkpoint signaling will be required to increase treatment efficacy without exacerbating toxicity.

  14. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  15. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  16. Interaction of phenolic uncouplers in binary mixtures: concentration-additive and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Escher, B I; Hunziker, R W; Schwarzenbach, R P

    2001-10-01

    The uncoupling activities of 14 binary mixtures of substituted phenols and of 4 binary mixtures of phenols and anisols were investigated at different pH values. Experiments were performed with time-resolved spectroscopy on membrane vesicles (chromatophores) of the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Phenols are known to destroy the electrochemical proton gradient in energy-transducing membranes by a protonophoric mechanism. Anisols do not have protonophoric activity but disturb membrane structure and functioning as a nonspecific baseline toxicant. It was postulated in the literature that, for certain substituted phenols, the formation of a dimer between the phenoxide and the neutral phenol may contribute significantly to the overall protonophoric activity. In 13 of 14 mixtures of substituted phenols but in none of the mixtures of phenols with anisols, such a dimer appears to be formed between two different mixture partners. An extended shuttle mechanism of uncoupling, which includes a term for the contribution of such a mixed dimer, provided a good description of all experimental data. Opposite speciation favors interaction and ortho substituents abate interaction, which adds evidence for the dimerformation via a hydrogen bond between the phenol-OH and the phenoxide. These findings are significant not only regarding the mechanism of protonophoric action but also for the risk assessment process of chemical mixtures in the environment. When assessing the effect of mixtures, concentration addition is regarded as a reference X concept to estimate effects of similarly acting compounds. The substituted phenols in this work act according to the same action mechanism of uncoupling. Nevertheless, the overall effect of four of the investigated mixtures, which exhibit stronger dimer formation as compared to the single compounds or for which the resulting dimer is intrinsically more active, exceeded the effect calculated according to concentration addition

  17. Thermodynamic network model for predicting effects of substrate addition and other perturbations on subsurface microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Istok; Melora Park; James McKinley; Chongxuan Liu; Lee Krumholz; Anne Spain; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin

    2007-04-19

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on microbial growth, community composition and system geochemistry. The hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding growth reactions performed by defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change.

  18. Self-administration of cocaine-antihistamine combinations: super-additive reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixia; Woolverton, William L

    2007-02-28

    Histamine H1 receptor antagonists have some behavioral effects that predict abuse liability. In the present study, diphenhydramine and cocaine each maintained i.v. self-administration under a progressive-ratio schedule in rhesus monkeys. When cocaine and DPH were combined in a 1:1 ratio of the ED50s, the combination was super-additive in all monkeys. The data predict that the combination of cocaine and histamine H1 receptor antagonists would have enhanced potential for abuse relative to either drug alone. PMID:17196194

  19. Molecular-orbital coefficients for dinuclear polymethyne dyes in the effective additive parameter method

    SciTech Connect

    Dyadyusha, G.G.; Ushomirskii, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    A method previously proposed for determining the energy structure of a polymethyne dye with any terminal groups is used in considering formulas for the molecularorbital coefficients and the differences in the distribution on the atoms in the polymethyne chain for localized and delocalized energy levels, as well as the accuracy in calculating the molecular-orbital coefficients by means of a finite number of effective additive parameters. It is found that the localized states are important to the electron-density distribution on the chain atoms characteristic of the polymethyne dyes.

  20. Effects of Additive on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo/pbs Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Yoon, Han-Ki; Takagi, Hitoshi; Ohkita, Kazuya

    Compared with general composites which are produced from fossil fuel, biodegradable resins have received considerable attention as an environment-friendly material. Bamboo fiber has relatively high strength compared with other natural fibers. Therefore, the focus of this study is to produce bamboo fiber reinforced Poly butylene succinate (PBS) composites by injection molding and to study the effects of additive on mechanical properties of this bamboo/PBS composite. The injection-molding is a highly productive fabrication technique. Bamboo/PBS composites were examined by flexural test and Vickers hardness. Also we examined fracture surface and microstructure of the bamboo/PBS composites by microscope.

  1. Effect of Copper and Other Trace Metal Addition to Pulp and Paper Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jason; Richardson, Desmond; Stack, Karen; Lewis, Trevor

    2015-12-01

    Porous pots were used to mimic, on a laboratory scale, an industrial activated sludge plant from a thermomechanical pulp and news print paper mill. Trace metal additions of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe(III), and Mg were found to improve chemical oxygen demand removal from 82% to 86 to 87%. Copper (0.1 to 1.0 mg/L) was also found to be beneficial in significantly inhibiting the growth of filamentous bacteria, contributing to a reduction of 20 to 45% in sludge volume index (SVI) with improved settle ability and decreased bulking. However, at levels of 1.0 mg/L and higher, the concentration of Cu in the porous pot effluent would potentially exceed guidelines for receiving waters. The fate and impact of Cu was affected by the presence of other trace metals, in particular Mg and Ca. The addition of Mg or Ca along with 0.5 mg/L Cu increased the amount of Cu in the aqueous phase to levels that would potentially exceed government environmental guidelines. Calcium addition was also found to inhibit the effect of Cu in reducing filamentous bacteria and SVI. PMID:26652119

  2. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers. PMID:27319014

  3. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals. PMID:24971658

  4. Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, M R; Lin, T C; Chao, H R; Chang, F H; Chen, C B

    2001-11-12

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the regulated emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), as well as the unregulated carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel engine. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emissions tests were performed under both cold- and hot-start transient heavy-duty federal test procedure (HD-FTP) cycles and two selected steady-state modes. Results show that MCA addition slightly decreases PM emissions but generally increases both THC and CO emissions. Decrease in NOx emissions was found common in all MCA blends. As for unregulated emissions, CO2 emissions did not change significantly for all MCA blends, while vapor-phase and particle-associated PAHs emissions in high load and transient cycle tests were relatively low compared to the base diesel when either 5 or 8% MCA was used. This may be attributed to the lower PAHs levels in MCA blends. Finally, the particle-associated PAHs emissions also showed trends quite similar to that of the PM emissions in this study. PMID:11712594

  5. Effect of Cr and Cu addition on corrosion behavior of Ni-Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Iijima, M; Endo, K; Ohno, H; Mizoguchi, I

    1998-03-01

    The corrosion behavior of three Ni-Ti alloys with compositions as commercial super-elastic orthodontic wires was investigated using polished plate specimens. Corrosion resistance was estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 0.9% NaCl and 1% lactic acid solutions and analysis of released metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of Cr and Cu addition on the structure of the surface oxide film was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Addition of 0.19 at% Cr had little effect on the structure of the oxide films and the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti alloys. For Ni-Ti-5Cu-0.3Cr alloy, the metallic Cu was enriched at the alloy/oxide film interface, resulting in increased susceptibility to pitting corrosion above +1000 mV. However, the passive current density and the amount of released Ni were not significantly increased by the addition of Cu. The study showed that small amounts of Cr and Cu added to change the super-elastic characteristics do not change the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti alloy freely immersed in simulated physiological environments. PMID:9663060

  6. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction. PMID:27265613

  7. Monitoring Residual Solvent Additives and Their Effects in Solution Processed Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Derek M.; Basham, James I.; Engmann, Sebastian; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J.; Bittle, Emily G.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2015-03-01

    High boiling point solvent additives are a widely adopted approach for increasing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell efficiency. However, experiments show residual solvent can persist for hours after film deposition, and certain common additives are unstable or reactive. We report here on the effects of residual 1,8-diiodooctane on the electrical performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT): phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC[71]BM) BHJ photovoltaic cells. We optimized our fabrication process for efficiency at an active layer thickness of 220 nm, and all devices were processed in parallel to minimize unintentional variations between test structures. The one variable in this study is the active layer post spin drying time. Immediately following the cathode deposition, we measured the current-voltage characteristics at one sun equivalent illumination intensity, and performed impedance spectroscopy to quantify charge density, lifetime, and recombination process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR, and XPS are also used to monitor residual solvent and correlated with electrical performance. We find that residual additive degrades performance by increasing the series resistance and lowering efficiency, fill factor, and free carrier lifetime.

  8. The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

    2004-10-20

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  9. Use of pyrocatechol violet as an effective redox additive for highly promoting the supercapacitor performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Nie, Yong Fu; Chen, Xiang Ying; Xiao, Zheng Hui; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-08-01

    In present work, we demonstrate a simple but effective redox additive of pyrocatechol violet (abbr. PCV) to largely promote the capacitive performances especially when carried out in three different kinds of electrolytes (H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH), mostly due to its fast electron and proton transfer occurring in the electrode/electrolyte interface. It reveals that the PCV dosage incorporated into electrolyte plays a crucial role in the determination of capacitive performance. When conducted in a two-electrode system, incorporating 0.06 mol L-1 PCV into 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 can achieve large capacitance up to 200 F g-1, which is almost 2.06 times than the one without the addition of PCV; besides, the corresponding energy density is of 28 Wh kg-1 (also increasing 2 times). What's more, PCV has been extended as the redox additive in other electrolytes such as Na2SO4 and KOH, and remarkable promotion in capacitance and energy density also occur, well evincing the high efficiency and universal applicability of PCV for the large promotion of supercapacitors' performances due to its prominent electrochemical reversibility and high solubility.

  10. The Effect of Cerium Oxide Addition on the Properties and Behavior of Y-TZP

    PubMed Central

    Ragurajan, D.; Satgunam, M.; Golieskardi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 addition on the sintering behavior and mechanical properties of Y-TZP have been investigated over a wide sintering regime by pressureless sintering. It has been revealed that small additions of CeO2 (0.3–1.0 wt%) to Y-TZP were beneficial in enhancing the mechanical properties and hydrothermal ageing resistance of Y-TZP. Sintered samples were used to evaluate the bulk density, Vickers's hardness, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness of the material. CeO2 doped Y-TZPs were sintered at relatively low temperatures (1250°C and 1350°C) retaining high bulk density (>97% of theoretical density) and high Young's modulus (>200 GPa) without sacrificing tetragonal phase stability. The optimum level of dopant was found to be at 0.5 wt% for sintering between 1250°C and 1450°C using the standard 2 h holding time cycle, with sintered body exhibiting excellent combination of properties when compared to the undoped ceramics. In this experiment, the addition of 0.5 wt% recorded a bulk density reading of 5.9 g/cm3, Vickers hardness value of 13.2 GPa, Young's modulus value of 211 GPa, and fracture toughness of 6.4 MPam1/2, respectively, in a temperature range of 1400–1450°C.