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Sample records for adductor policis muscle

  1. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  2. A rare case of adductor longus muscle rupture.

    PubMed

    van de Kimmenade, R J L L; van Bergen, C J A; van Deurzen, P J E; Verhagen, R A W

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  3. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

  4. ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLE AS PREDICTOR OF MALNUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Camila Yandara Sousa Vieira; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background In the compromised nutritional status, there is excessive skeletal muscle loss and decreased inflammatory response, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality and length of stay. Aim To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition by measuring adductor pollicis muscle using cutoffs for surgical patients suggested in the literature. Methods Cross-sectional study with 151 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedure. Nutritional assessment was performed by classical anthropometric measurements: arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, BMI and percentage of weight loss and the extent of the adductor pollicis muscle in both hands. Results The prevalence of malnutrition in patients was high. A significant association between nutritional diagnosis according to the measures of adductor pollicis muscle and arm circumference, BMI and triceps skinfold thickness but there was no association with arm muscular circumference, arm muscular area or percentage of weight loss. Conclusion The adductor pollicis muscle has proved to be a good method to diagnose muscle depletion and malnutrition in surgical patients. PMID:24676291

  5. Scaling and Accommodation of Jaw Adductor Muscles in Canidae.

    PubMed

    Penrose, Fay; Kemp, Graham J; Jeffery, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size. Data were collected for a suite of morphological metrics, including body mass, endocranial volume, and muscle masses and we used geometric morphometric shape analysis to reveal associated form changes. We find that all jaw adductor muscles scale isometrically against body mass, regardless of phylogeny or trophic group, but that endocranial volume scales with negative allometry against body mass. These findings suggest that head shape is partly influenced by the need to house isometrically scaling muscles on a neurocranium scaling with negative allometry. Principal component analysis suggests that skull shape changes, such as the relatively wide zygomatic arches and large sagittal crests seen in species with higher body masses, allow the skull to accommodate a relative enlargement of the jaw adductors compared with the endocranium. Anat Rec, 299:951-966, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103346

  6. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  7. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. PMID:25911542

  8. Thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in nutritional assessment of surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229

  9. Surgical management of a completely avulsed adductor longus muscle in a professional equestrian rider.

    PubMed

    Quah, Conal; Cottam, Andrew; Hutchinson, James

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors. PMID:24711943

  10. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  11. The jaw adductor muscle complex in teleostean fishes: evolution, homologies and revised nomenclature (osteichthyes: actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae - A1, A2, A3, and Aω - patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  12. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID

  13. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shixin; Hou, Xin; Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190-500 nm was observed between 210-220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  14. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhonghu; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared radiation) spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190–500 nm was observed between 210–220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin). This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle. PMID:26555720

  15. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the right calf circumference. Laboratory parameters, length of stay, vital signs and electronic medical record data and tests were all collected. Results The study population included 83 patients, of whom 62% were men. The average age was 68.6 ± 12.5 years. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute myocardial infarction (34.9%), and the most common pathology was systolic blood pressure (63.9%), followed by diabetes mellitus (28.9%). According to subjective global assessment classifications, 62.7% of patients presented no nutritional risk, 20.5% were moderately malnourished and 16.9% were severely malnourished. Women had a higher nutritional risk, according to both the subjective global assessment and the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test, the cutoff for which was < 6.5mm (54.8%; p = 0.001). The pathology presenting the greatest nutritional risk was congestive heart failure (p = 0.001). Evaluation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment showed the accuracy of the former, with an area of 0.822. Conclusion Adductor pollicis muscle thickness proved to be a good method for evaluating nutritional risk. PMID:26761475

  16. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Saad M.; Gdalevitch, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain. PMID:25580335

  17. Effects of ankle extensor muscle afferent inputs on hip abductor and adductor activity in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D A E; Misiaszek, J E

    2012-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve at group I afferent strength leads to adaptations in the amplitude and timing of extensor muscle activity during walking in the decerebrate cat. Such afferent feedback in the stance leg might result from a delay in stance onset of the opposite leg. Concomitant adaptations in hip abductor and adductor activity would then be expected to maintain lateral stability and balance until the opposite leg is able to support the body. As many hip abductors and adductors are also hip extensors, we hypothesized that stimulation of the LGS nerve at group I afferent strength would produce increased activation and prolonged burst duration in hip abductor and adductor muscles in the premammillary decerebrate walking cat. LGS nerve stimulation during the extensor phase of the locomotor cycle consistently increased burst amplitude of the gluteus medius and adductor femoris muscles, but not pectineus or gracilis. In addition, LGS stimulation prolonged the burst duration of both gluteus medius and adductor femoris. Unexpectedly, long-duration LGS stimulus trains resulted in two distinct outcomes on the hip abductor and adductor bursting pattern: 1) a change of burst duration and timing similar to medial gastrocnemius; or 2) to continue rhythmically bursting uninterrupted. These results indicate that activation of muscle afferents from ankle extensors contributes to the regulation of activity of some hip abductor and adductor muscles, but not all. These results have implications for understanding the neural control of stability during locomotion, as well as the organization of spinal locomotor networks. PMID:22972967

  18. Adductor longus muscle metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Irfan; Ucar, Mehmet; Bozdag, Zehra; Alkan, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones and adrenal glands. Metastasis of bladder cancer to the skeletal muscle is extremely rare, as is the case in other malignancies. We report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who presented with pain and swelling in the right lower extremity and had difficulty walking, and who was later found to have metastasis in the adductor longus muscle 3 months after the initial diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The study also provides a review of the current literature. PMID:24827659

  19. Temporal changes in sarcomere lesions of rat adductor longus muscles during hindlimb reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krippendorf, B. B.; Riley, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Focal sarcomere disruptions were previously observed in adductor longus muscles of rats flown approximately two weeks aboard the Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellite flights. These lesions, characterized by breakage and loss of myofilaments and Z-line streaming, resembled damage induced by unaccustomed exercise that includes eccentric contractions in which muscles lengthen as they develop tension. We hypothesized that sarcomere lesions in atrophied muscles of space flow rats were not produced in microgravity by muscle unloading but resulted from muscle reloading upon re-exposure to terrestrial gravity. To test this hypothesis, we examined temporal changes in sarcomere integrity of adductor longus muscles from rats subjected to 12.5 days of hindlimb suspension unloading and subsequent reloading by return to vivarium cages for 0, 6, 12, or 48 hours of normal weightbearing. Our ultrastructural observations suggested that muscle unloading (0 h reloading) induced myofibril misalignment associated with myofiber atrophy. Muscle reloading for 6 hours induced focal sarcomere lesions in which cross striations were abnormally widened. Such lesions were electron lucent due to extensive myofilament loss. Lesions in reloaded muscles showed rapid restructuring. By 12 hours of reloading, lesions were moderately stained foci and by 48 hours darkly stained foci in which the pattern of cross striations was indistinct at the light and electron microscopic levels. These lesions were spanned by Z-line-like electron dense filamentous material. Our findings suggest a new role for Z-line streaming in lesion restructuring: rather than an antecedent to damage, this type of Z-line streaming may be indicative of rapid, early sarcomere repair.

  20. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  1. The adductor pollicis muscle: a poor predictor of clinical outcome in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Leong Shu-Fen, Claudia; Ong, Venetia; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Ling, Teh Ai; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Henry, Jeya

    2015-01-01

    No nutrition assessment tools specifically tailored for intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been developed and validated in Singapore. Studies conducted in Brazilian populations suggest that the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM) may be used to assess nutritional status and predict mortality of critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine if TAPM can be used as a predictive indicator of mortality in Singapore ICU patients. TAPM values were obtained using skinfold calipers in 229 patients admitted to the medical ICU. TAPM measured in both hands showed no significant correlation with either the primary outcome (28-day mortality) or secondary outcomes (hospital outcome and hospital length of stay). This study demonstrated that TAPM does not predict 28-day mortality and hospital outcome, and is not correlated to length of stay in Singapore ICU patients. More studies are necessary to validate the use of TAPM as an anthropometric indicator of ICU outcome in other regions of the world. PMID:26693744

  2. Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle--a test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. L.; Balog, E. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Sarcomere disruptions are observed in the adductor longus (AL) muscles following voluntary reloading of spaceflown and hindlimb suspension unloaded (HSU) rat, which resemble lesions in eccentrically challenged muscle. We devised and tested an eccentric contraction (ECCON) test system for the 14-day HSU rat AL. Six to 7 hours following ECCON, ALs were fixed to allow immunostaining and electron microscopy (EM). Toluidine blue-stained histology semithin sections were screened for lesion density (#/mm2). Serial semithin sections from the ECCON group were characterized for myosin immunointensity of lesions. Five myofibrillar lesion types were identified in histological semithin sections: focal contractions; wide A-bands; opaque areas; missing A-bands; and hyperstretched sarcomeres. Lesion density by type was greater for ECCON than NonECCON ALs (P< or =0.05; focal contractions and opaque regions). Lesion density (#-of-all-five-types/mm2) was significantly different (ECCON: 23.91+/-10.58 vs. NonECCON: 5.48+/-1.28, P< or =0.05; ECCON vs. SHAM: 0.00+/-0.00; P< or = 0.025). PostECCON optimal tension decreased (Poi-drop, 17.84+/-4.22%) and was correlated to lesion density (R2=0.596), but prestretch tension demonstrated the highest correlation with lesion density (R2=0.994). In lesions, the darkly staining A-band lost the normally organized thick filament alignment to differing degrees across the different lesion types. Ranking the five lesion types by a measure of lesion length deformation (hypercontracted to hyperstretched) at the light microscopy level, related to the severity of thick filament registry loss across the lesion types at the electron microscopic level. This ranking suggested that the five lesion types seen in semithin sections at the light level represented a lesion progression sequence and paralleled myosin immunostaining loss as the distorted A-band filaments spread across the hyperlengthening lesion types. Lesion ultrastructure indicated damage involved

  3. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

  4. Surgical treatment of the adductor longus muscle's distal tendon total rupture in a soccer player.

    PubMed

    Masionis, P; Popov, K; Kurtinaitis, J; Uvarovas, V; Porvaneckas, N

    2016-09-01

    Only a few cases of adductor longus tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature and - there are no clear criteria for conservative or surgical treatment. A case of traumatic rupture of the right distal adductor longus tendon is presented in an elite soccer player, which was surgically repaired. The condition was managed conservatively primarily. However, after 2 months, a palpable mass remained on the medial side of the thigh, and the patient had pain after moderate everyday load and insufficient strength of the right leg during physical exercise. It was decided to explore ruptured tendon surgically and reattach to the femur. Full function of the right leg was achieved at 3 months after surgical repair. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient had returned to soccer at the same level. PMID:27132783

  5. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a belt. The reliability was verified using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). [Results] ICC (1, 1) was >0.9. A systematic bias was not observed between the first and second measurement values except for the right side in N-SG. A systematic bias between the maximum value obtained during the first and second measurements and third measurement value was observed on the left side in N-SG, and on the non-paralyzed side in SG: the third measurement values were small in both cases. [Conclusion] Intrarater reliabilities were high for shoulder horizontal adductor strength measurements using an HHD with a belt for geriatric and stroke patients. Taking the systematic bias into consideration, these findings suggest that the required number of measurements is two. PMID:26957727

  6. Lower values of handgrip strength and adductor pollicis muscle thickness are associated with hepatic encephalopathy manifestations in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Augusti, L; Franzoni, L C; Santos, L A A; Lima, T B; Ietsugu, M V; Koga, K H; Moriguchi, S M; Betting, L E; Caramori, C A; Silva, G F; Romeiro, F G

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a late complication of liver cirrhosis and is clearly associated with poor outcomes. Chronic liver insufficiency leads to progressive muscle wasting, impairing ammonia metabolism and thus increasing the risk for HE. Given the association between lean mass and adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), it has been used to predict outcome and complications in many conditions, but not yet in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, this article aimed to study the association between HE manifestations and measures related to muscle mass and strength. This cross-sectional study included 54 cirrhotic outpatients with HE varying from subclinical to grade II according to the West-Haven criteria, who were submitted to neuropsychometric tests, electroencephalogram, brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength (HGS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry exam (DXA). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between body composition measures and HE grade. Analysis of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve revealed the values related to neurological manifestations (HE grades I and II). Reductions in APMT and HGS were associated with higher HE grades, suggesting a big impact caused by the loss of muscle mass and function on HE severity. The link between HE manifestations and anthropometric measures, namely APMT and HGS, point to a significant relation concerning skeletal muscles and the neurological impairment in this population. PMID:27131802

  7. Aggressive Lymphoma "Sarcoma Mimicker" Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Elkourashy, Sarah A; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Alam, Syed I; Ammar, Adham A; El Sayed, Ahmed M; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%-40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  8. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S. P.; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Rosário Domingues, M.; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers’ interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  9. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  10. Aggressive Lymphoma “Sarcoma Mimicker” Originating in the Gluteus and Adductor Muscles: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elkourashy, Sarah A.; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J.; Alam, Syed I.; Ammar, Adham A.; El Sayed, Ahmed M.; Omri, Halima El; Yassin, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%–40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system. PMID:27398038

  11. Influence and interactions of laryngeal adductors and cricothyroid muscles on fundamental frequency and glottal posture control

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Berry, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) in controlling fundamental frequency (F0) and glottal posture remain unclear. In an in vivo canine model, three sets of intrinsic laryngeal muscles—the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and lateral cricoarytenoid plus interarytenoid (LCA/IA) muscle complex—were independently and accurately stimulated in a graded manner using distal laryngeal nerve stimulation. Graded neuromuscular stimulation was used to independently activate these paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles over a range from threshold to maximal activation, to produce 320 distinct laryngeal phonatory postures. At phonation onset these activation conditions were evaluated in terms of their vocal fold strain, glottal width at the vocal processes, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottic pressure, and airflow. F0 ranged from 69 to 772 Hz and clustered into chest-like and falsetto-like groups. CT activation was always required to raise F0, but could also lower F0 at low TA and LCA/IA activation levels. Increasing TA activation first increased then decreased F0 in all CT and LCA/IA activation conditions. Increasing TA activation also facilitated production of high F0 at a lower onset pressure. Independent control of membranous (TA) and cartilaginous (LCA/IA) glottal closure enabled multiple pathways for F0 control via changes in glottal posture. PMID:25235003

  12. Effects of free oxygen radicals on Ca2+ release mechanisms in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle.

    PubMed

    Burlando, B; Viarengo, A; Pertica, M; Ponzano, E; Orunesu, M

    1997-08-01

    In vitro oxyradical effects on SR Ca2+ regulation were studied by using a SR-containing cell-free preparation from scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle. Ca2+ variations were fluorimetrically detected after incubation with Fluo-3 in the presence of ATP. Exposure to Fe3+/ascorbate produced dose-dependent Ca2+ release from SR vesicles, eventually leading to massive Ca2+ loss. Exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase also caused Ca2+ release but at a much slower rate. Pre-incubations with catalase or with the hydroxyl radical scavenger KMBA led to a significant decrease in the Fe3+/ascorbate-induced Ca2+ release rate and to a delay of massive Ca2+ loss. Pre-incubations with GSH or DTT strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate and, moreover, they prevented massive Ca2+ loss from SR vesicles. Addition of GSH or DTT after Fe3+/ascorbate promptly reduced the Ca2+ release rate and delayed massive Ca2+ release. Pre-incubation with the SR Ca2+ channel blocker ruthenium red strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate, and also prevented massive Ca2+ loss. In the presence of ruthenium red, Fe3+/ascorbate treatments followed by Ca2+ addition revealed that Ca2+ uptake inhibition was slower than Ca2+ release. Taken together, data showed that free radicals and, in particular, hydroxyl radicals, affected the scallop SR Ca2+ regulation. This mainly occurred through Ca2+ channel opening, most likely triggered by sulfhydryl oxidation, which eventually led to massive Ca2+ release from SR vesicles. The demonstration of a specific effect of oxyradicals on SR Ca2+ channels is in line with their possible involvement in cell signaling. PMID:9292226

  13. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao

    2011-01-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals. PMID:22131959

  14. [Bilateral diabetic infarction of the thigh adductor muscles in a diabetic female patient-- A case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Watanabe, M; Ohkoshi, N; Tamaoka, A; Shoji, S

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old female complained of lancinating pain in the bilateral thighs for 10 days. The patient had a 22-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Physical examination revealed swelling of the bilateral lower extremities. There was exquisite tenderness on palpation over the medial thighs, with marked increase in pain on hip and knee flexion. Muscle strength of quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip adductor was decreased due to muscle pain. Pedal pulses were palpable bilaterally. Roentogenograms of the left femur revealed calcification of the left femoral arterial wall. Venogram revealed no obstruction with normal drainage. Complete blood cell count showed left shift of the neutrophils, markedly accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, prolonged prothorombin time of 9 sec (normal 11.7 sec), C-reactive protein of 7.3 mg/dl and serum creatine kinase level of 175 IU/L. FBS was 225 mg/dl and Hb A 1 c was 16.4%. An MR imaging of the thighs revealed high signal intensities in the bilateral adductor muscles on T 2-weighted images. The symptoms resolved spontaneously over a three week period. From the course of the illness and MR imaging, the patient was diagnosed having diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), a rare complication of diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DMI in Japan. Diabetic microangiopathy and hypercoagulability are thought to be responsible for inducing DMI. Because the diagnosis can be made from the characteristic clinical and the typical MR imaging findings, muscle biopsy is not always necessary to obtain the diagnosis of DMI. PMID:10391074

  15. Midline lateralization thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, N; Tsuji, D H; Yamamoto, Y; Iizuka, Y

    2000-02-01

    Midline lateralization thyroplasty was successfully performed on a patient with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The thyroid cartilage was incised at the midline, and a 3 x 2-mm perforation was made at the anterior commissure to widen it. The perforation was closed with a free composite graft taken from the upper edge of the thyroid ala, and the incised thyroid cartilage edges were kept separated 4 mm apart with silicone wedges. A part of the sternohyoid muscle was rotated to seal any leak from the perforation. The postoperative course was uneventful. The voice has been restored to normal, and there is no sign of recurrence of the symptom so far, as of 1 year 5 months postoperative. Although a longer follow-up is needed, this case indicates that midline type II thyroplasty could be a useful treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:10685572

  16. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  17. Swimming away or clamming up: the use of phasic and tonic adductor muscles during escape responses varies with shell morphology in scallops.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E; Himmelman, John H

    2012-12-01

    The simple locomotor system of scallops facilitates the study of muscle use during locomotion. We compared five species of scallops with different shell morphologies to see whether shell morphology and muscle use change in parallel or whether muscle use can compensate for morphological constraints. Force recordings during escape responses revealed that the use of tonic and phasic contractions varied markedly among species. The active species, Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus and Pecten fumatus, made more phasic contractions than the more sedentary species, Mimachlamys asperrima and Crassadoma gigantea. Tonic contractions varied considerably among these species, with the two more sedentary species often starting their response to the predator with a tonic contraction and the more active species using shorter tonic contractions between series of phasic contractions. Placopecten magellanicus made extensive use of short tonic contractions. Pecten fumatus mounted an intense series of phasic contractions at the start of its response, perhaps to overcome the constraints of its unfavourable shell morphology. Valve closure by the more sedentary species suggests that their shell morphology protects them against predation, whereas swimming by the more active species relies upon intense phasic contractions together with favourable shell characteristics. PMID:22972884

  18. Isolated Paralysis of the Adductor Pollicis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De Maio, F.; Bisicchia, S.; Farsetti, P.; Ippolito, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of isolated paralysis of the right adductor pollicis in a 30-year-old woman. Electromyographic study showed involvement of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. A ganglion and an anomalous muscle were both ruled out clinically and by MRI as a possible cause of the paralysis. At surgical exploration, we found a fibrous band joining the pisiform and the hook of the hamate bone that compressed the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The fibrous band was excised, and a neurolysis of the motor branch of the ulnar nerve was performed. At followup, eight months later, the patient had fully recovered strength of the adductor muscle. PMID:21991410

  19. Imaging of adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Pesquer, L; Reboul, G; Silvestre, A; Poussange, N; Meyer, P; Dallaudière, B

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain is a common condition in athletes and results from various causes. Osteitis pubis, adductor dysfunction, inguinal hernia, or a combination of all three entities, generally explains the onset of symptoms. Adductor longus tendinopathy is the main cause of adductor-related groin pain. It leads to a significant reduction of sports participation and can require surgical management. Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic findings (tendinosis, calcifications, cortical erosions) are common in athletes and care should be taken when assessing groin pain. The most specific sign of tendinopathy is an intratendinous tear of the adductor longus. PMID:25823982

  20. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Logan, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1) cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2) lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3) incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet) and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids. PMID:22611496

  1. Vocal Fold Paralysis: Improved Adductor Recovery by Vincristine Blockade of Posterior Cricoarytenoid

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS A new treatment for acute unilateral vocal fold paralysis was proposed, in which a drug is injected into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) shortly after nerve injury, before the degree of natural recovery is known, to prevent antagonistic synkinetic reinnervation. This concept was tested in a series of canine experiments using vincristine as the blocking agent. STUDY DESIGN Animal experiments. METHODS Laryngeal adductor function was measured at baseline and at 6 months following experimental recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injuries, including complete transection, crush injury, and cautery. In the treatment animals, the PCA was injected with vincristine at the time of RLN injury. RESULTS Adductor function in the vincristine-treated hemilarynges was significantly improved compared with injury-matched noninjected controls (total n=43). Transection/repair controls recovered 56.1% of original adductor strength, vincristine-treated hemilarynges recovered to 73.1% (p=0.002). Cautery injuries also improved with vincristine block (60.7% vs 88.7%, p=0.031). Crush injuries recovered well even without vincristine (104.8% vs 111.2%, p=0.35). CONCLUSIONS These findings support a new paradigm of early, pre-emptive blockade of the antagonist muscle (PCA) to improve ultimate net adductor strength, which could potentially improve functional recovery in many UVFP patients and avoid the need for medialization procedures. Possible clinical aspects of this new approach are discussed. PMID:25267697

  2. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration

  3. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. Results: The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. Conclusion: The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique

  4. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  5. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  6. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  7. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  8. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume). Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses. PMID:25165628

  9. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. PMID:26692539

  10. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. PMID:23813615

  11. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  12. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  13. The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed Central

    Whurr, R; Lorch, M; Fontana, H; Brookes, G; Lees, A; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    Botulinum toxin injections have been used to treat 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Injections of 3.00-3.75 units of botulinum toxin were performed bilaterally into the thyroarytenoid muscle. This treatment significantly decreased the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency of the speech sample, indicating a reduction in the variability of pitch amongst patients. A total of 96% of patients' subjective diary reports showed an improvement with a median of 7 days to peak effect and a 5 week duration of peak effect. Images PMID:8505645

  14. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa. PMID:22357261

  15. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-07-01

    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa. PMID:22357261

  16. RESULTS OF ADDUCTORS MUSCLE TENOTOMY IN SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Luiz Gabriel Betoni; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhao; Mendonça, Rodrigo Góes Medea de; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Assumpçao, Rodrigo Montezuma César de; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic evaluation of the evolution of hips that underwent soft-tissue release. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation on 101 spastic cerebral palsy patients who underwent soft-tissue release between 1991 and 2006. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: 23 boys and 21 girls; 34 diparetic and 10 quadriparetic. Functionally, 29 were non-walkers, five were able to walk at home and 10 were able to walk within the community. Reimers' index (RI) and the acetabular index (AI) were measured on pre and postoperative radiographs, with a minimum follow-up of three years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.4 years. Results: The results were considered good if the RI had reduced, or had increased by less than 10%. This was found in 52% of this study. We observed a clear improvement in IR, along with worse results in patients with more than five years of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Soft-tissue release should be performed as early as possible, regardless of age, walking condition, clinical type, RI, AI or sex, and as soon as the patient clinically presents less than 30° abduction, because of the benefits relating to walking, prevention and treatment of subluxation, hygiene and pain relief. PMID:27022574

  17. Partial thyroarytenoid myectomy: an animal study investigating a proposed new treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Genack, S H; Woo, P; Colton, R H; Goyette, D

    1993-03-01

    A new surgical procedure with potential application for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia was performed on ten rabbits to assess surgical effects on laryngeal function. Using an external approach, partial unilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle excision was performed through a thyroplasty cartilage window. The contralateral side was left undisturbed as a control. The animals were studied acutely and at 3 months using videolaryngoscopy. Electrophysiologic measurements were recorded at 3 months. The procedure was well tolerated by all animals, with no postoperative infection or aspiration. At 3 months, spontaneous and evoked (recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation) TA muscle electromyographic potentials were measurable bilaterally. TA compound muscle action potential amplitudes were reduced on the side of myectomy. The threshold of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation needed to produce observable vocal fold adduction was increased on the side operated on. Perioperative and long-term (3 months) videolaryngoscopy demonstrated preservation of laryngeal competence with good true vocal cord adduction. Histologic analysis with whole organ sections showed replacement of excised muscle with loose fibroareolar tissue. No evidence of muscle regeneration was observed. The vocal ligament and vocal fold mucosa were intact and undistorted in all specimens. This procedure is technically simple and appears to effectively result in a functional yet weakened TA muscle. Because myectomy includes motor unit end-plate excision, problems associated with reinnervation may be circumvented. TA myectomy may be applicable in patients with focal laryngeal dystonia to decrease muscle spasm. PMID:8464639

  18. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p <0.0033) occurred with unilateral ISLN stimulation in the interstitial subnucleus, the ventrolateral subnucleus, the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius, the lateral tegmental field of the reticular formation, the area postrema and the nucleus ambiguus. Neither the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, usually active for swallow, nor the nucleus retroambiguus, retrofacial nucleus, or the lateral reticular nucleus, usually active for cough, were active with elicitation of the laryngeal adductor response alone. The results demonstrate that the laryngeal adductor pathway is contained within the broader pathways for cough and swallow in the medulla. PMID:15212423

  19. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  20. Adductor Pollicis Longus Strain in a Professional Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J.; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G.; Gallo, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb. PMID:24459545

  1. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  2. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  3. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  4. Differential regulation of the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes with skeletal muscle type in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Kitashiro, Ayana; Tsuchii, Nami; Tsuchihashi, Tatsuya; Inui, Mariko; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are known to differ among skeletal muscle types in mammals. For example, glycolytic muscles prefer glucose as an energy source, whereas oxidative muscles prefer fatty acids (FA). We herein demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major (a glycolytic twitch muscle), adductor superficialis (an oxidative twitch muscle), and adductor profound (a tonic muscle) of 14-day-old chicks. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, the mRNA levels of muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 were markedly lower in the adductor superficialis muscle, suggesting that basal glycolytic activity is very low in this type of muscle. In contrast, high mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) in the adductor superficialis muscle suggest that FA uptake is high in this type of muscle. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) were significantly higher in the adductor profound muscle than in other muscles, suggesting that basal lipolytic activity is high in this type of muscle. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ and CPT1b were significantly increased in the adductor superficialis muscle, but not in other muscles, after 24h of fasting. Therefore, the availability of FA in the oxidative twitch muscles in growing chickens appears to be upregulated by fasting. Our results suggest that lipid metabolism-related genes are upregulated under both basal and fasting conditions in the adductor superficialis in growing chickens. PMID:26188321

  5. Interfascial Spread of Injectate After Adductor Canal Injection in Fresh Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Pierre; Lecoq, Jean-Pierre; Ninane, Vincent; Brichant, Jean Francois; Sala-Blanch, Xavi; Gautier, Philippe E; Bonnet, Pierre; Carlier, Alain; Hadzic, Admir

    2016-08-01

    The adductor canal block has become a common analgesic technique in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. Dispersion of local anesthetic outside the adductor canal through interfascial layers and blockade of smaller nerves that confer innervation to the knee could contribute to the analgesic efficacy of the adductor canal block. We studied the diffusion of local anesthetic mixed with dye after injection into the adductor canal in fresh human cadavers. In all 8 legs, injectate was found in the popliteal fossa in contact with the sciatic nerve and/or popliteal blood vessels. Interfascial spread patterns were identified. PMID:27442773

  6. Effects of aging and levodopa on the laryngeal adductor reflex in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xu, Zengrui; Butler, Susan G.; Leng, Iris; Zhang, Tan; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an essential role in sensorimotor function, and declines with age. Previously, we found the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) was increased in excitation by a dopamine receptor antagonist. If this airway-protective reflex is similarly affected by aging, it will interfere with volitional control in older adults. The current study tested whether the LAR was affected by aging, and whether such deficits were reversed by levodopa administration in aging rats. We recorded thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle activity at rest and during elicitation of LAR responses by stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (iSLN) in 6-, 18- and 30-month-old rats under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Using paired stimuli at different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), LAR central conditioning, resting muscle activity, and reflex latency and amplitudes were quantified. Numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were measured using tyrosine hydroxylase staining. We found: (1) increased resting TA muscle activity and LAR amplitude occurred with fewer dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc in 18- and 30-month-old rats; (2) decreases in LAR latency and increases in amplitude correlated with reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc; (3) test responses were greater at 1000 ms ISI in 18-month-old rats compared with 6-month-old rats; and (4) levodopa administration further increased response latency but did not alter muscle activity, response amplitude, or central conditioning. In conclusion, increases in laryngeal muscle activity levels and re-flex amplitudes accompanied age reductions in dopaminergic neurons but were not reversed with levodopa administration. PMID:22824541

  7. Wound Complications Following Resection of Adductor Compartment Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, Robert J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose Limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas is associated with both a risk of local recurrence and wound complications. Although the lower limb appears to be at greater risk of wound-related morbidity, few studies separate anatomical compartments. We believe that the adductor compartment of the thigh has a particularly high rate of complications and so performed a retrospective analysis of all soft tissue sarcomas arising in this region undergoing limb salvage. Patients Patients with intermediate and high grade adductor compartment tumours were identified from our database and the case notes were reviewed for patient, tumour, surgical and wound variables, identifying those with wound complications both before and after discharge. Results Of 49 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery, 22 (42.9%) developed complications. Twelve patients (24.5%) required further surgery prior to wound healing and 10 patients had delays in post-operative radiotherapy. There were significant differences in the rates of preceding surgery, open biopsy performed at other centres and previous radiotherapy to this region between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Discussion The management of these difficult tumours carries a high rate of wound complications and requires careful planning prior to tissue biopsy. Open biopsies should be performed by the tumour surgeon to allow easy inclusion of this site in the definitive procedure. In previously irradiated or operated limbs, alternative strategies for wound management may need to be considered. PMID:18521315

  8. Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

    2014-01-01

    Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

  9. Current concepts of inguinal-related and adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Schilders, Ernest

    2016-05-14

    Groin pain encompasses a number of conditions from the lower abdomen, inguinal region, proximal adductors, hip joint, upper anterior thigh and perineum. The complexity of the anatomy, the heterogeneous terminology and the overlapping symptoms of different conditions that may co-exist epitomise the challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Inguinal-related and adductor-related pain is the most common cause of groin pain and will be discussed in this article. PMID:27174069

  10. Arthroscopic pubic symphysis debridement and adductor enthesis repair in athletes with athletic pubalgia: technical note and video illustration.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Sascha; Tumin, Masjudin; Wilhelm, Peter; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens

    2014-11-01

    We elaborately describe our novel arthroscopic technique of the symphysis pubis in athletes with osteitis pubis and concomitant adductor enthesopathy who fail to conservative treatment modalities. The symphysis pubis is debrided arthroscopically and the degenerated origin of adductor tendon (enthesis) is excised and reattached. With our surgical procedure the stability of the symphysis pubis is successfully preserved and the adductor longus enthesopathy simultaneously addressed in the same setting. PMID:25055756

  11. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. PMID:26061279

  12. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training. PMID:26815174

  13. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. PMID:23707017

  14. Unilateral absence of thigh muscles confirmed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J E; Currarino, G

    1981-01-01

    A 5-month-old infant is presented with congenital absence of a group of muscles of the right thigh including the three adductors, gracilis, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. The diagnosis was suspected from the conventional radiographs and was confirmed by computerized tomography. PMID:7322654

  15. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  16. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  17. "Modified Adductor Sling Technique"- a surgical therapy for patellar instability in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Lena; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Preiss, Achim; Heitmann, Maximilian; Akoto, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Due to open femoral physis, the therapy of patellar instability in children and adolescents is challenging. We developed a surgical technique, modified form of the "Adductor-Sling-Technique" by Sillanpää which offers a surgical treatment to avoid damage to the femoral physis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a benefit in the clinical outcome for patients operated by the "modified Adductor Sling Technique" in comparison to patients with other surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty "modified Adductor Sling" reconstructions in 19 patients (age 11-24) were included in the study until now, 15 patients with open physis and 4 patients with closed physis with special indications. Since 2010 "modified Adductor Sling" reconstruction was performed by looping the gracilis tendon around the adductor magnus tendon and attaching it at the medial facette of the patella. Clinical outcome was retrospectively evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 1.3 years (range 0.5-3.6). The evaluation also included Lysholm Score, Kujala Score and DGU score. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM®SPSS®Statistics Version 21. A P value less than 0.5 was considered significant. Results: The average age at the time of operation was 14.9 years (range 11.2-24.3). Recurrent dislocation occurred in 4 out of 20 cases (20%). It was noticeable that out of those 4 patients 2 patients had a lateral release in addition to the "modified Adductor Sling Technique" due to lateral hyperpression. No other patients had a lateral release in our patient population. Also, out of those 4 patients 3 patients had an additional maltracking of the patella, caused by a high TTTG, severe trochlea dysplasia or additional axial deformity. The overall Kujala Score was 87 (range 46-100) points, in patients without re-dislocation it was 94 (range 46-100) points. The overall Lysholm Score was 85 (range 39-100) points, in the group without re-dislocation 90 (range

  18. Laryngeal Adductor Function in Experimental Models of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.; Rich, Jason T.; Debnath, Nick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. Study Design Animal (canine) experiments. Methods Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pre-treatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n=59). The 9 study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. Results The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, while a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72% and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. Conclusions The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve post-injury adductor function. PMID:25283381

  19. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck 1819.

    PubMed

    Martínez; Brokordt; Aguilera; Soto; Guderley

    2000-04-26

    Recently spawned Argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. During one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. During both experiments, total gonadal levels of lipids and protein increased markedly during conditioning with the two mixed diets at 16 degrees C. These increases were less pronounced at 20 degrees C. Carbohydrate gonadal levels only increased during the second experiment at both temperatures and with the three diets. Of the major biochemical components of the adductor muscle, carbohydrate levels changed most during conditioning. Whereas muscle protein levels increased slightly with gonadal maturation, carbohydrate levels dropped considerably. Despite the marked drop in the levels of glycolytic substrates, only the activities of octopine dehydrogenase in the adductor muscle of the scallops conditioned at 16 degrees C consistently decreased. Muscle levels of glycogen phosphorylase were higher in mature than in recently spawned (control) scallops, suggesting a role in the transfer of glucose equivalents from the adductor muscle to other tissues. PMID:10727686

  1. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  2. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  3. Effect of reproduction on escape responses and muscle metabolic capacities in the scallop Chlamys islandica Müller 1776.

    PubMed

    Brokordt; Himmelman; Guderley

    2000-08-30

    In scallops, gametogenesis leads to mobilization of glycogen and proteins from the adductor muscle towards the gonad. This mobilization is likely to diminish the metabolic capacities of the adductor muscle and thereby the scallops' escape response. We examined the escape response in terms of number of valve claps until exhaustion, rate of clapping and the recovery during and after valve closure in adult scallops, Chlamys islandica, sampled at different stages in the reproductive cycle (immature, mature, before and after spawning). In parallel, we measured muscle glycogen, protein and phosphoarginine contents, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria isolated from the adductor muscle and levels of muscle enzymes which are active during exercise and recovery. The number of claps (24-26), rate of clapping ( approximately 13 clapsmin(-1)) and phosphoarginine and arginine kinase levels were similar during the different reproductive stages. All immature scallops responded to restimulation immediately after opening their valves, while only 62% of mature, 82% of prespawned and 38% of spawned scallops responded. Immature animals completely recovered their initial swimming capacity within 4 h of opening their valves, but mature, prespawned and spawned scallops needed 18, 12 and 18 h, respectively. Overall phasic adductor muscle from mature, prespawned and spawned animals showed decreased glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase (except for prespawned), octopine dehydrogenase and citrate synthase levels, a deterioration of the oxidative capacity of mitochondria and a marked decrease in glycogen content compared to immature scallops. Therefore, during gonadal maturation and spawning, C. islandica did not change its clapping capacity, but slowed its recuperation from exhausting burst exercise, both during and after valve closure, likely due to the decreased metabolic capacity of the adductor muscle. PMID:10960615

  4. On the central muscle attachment scar pattern of Suchonella Spizharsky 1939

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The fortuitous spalling of a carapace of the nonmarine Permian Suchonella typica Spizharsky 1939 disclosed the adductor muscle attachment scar as well as two accessory scars on both the right side of the steinkern and the inside of the spalled right valve. This central muscle field is illustrated and discussed. An objective list of species described in or referred to Suchonella Spizharsky 1939 is appended.

  5. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT. PMID:27433253

  6. Muscle imaging in muscle dystrophies produced by mutations in the EMD and LMNA genes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Alejaldre, Aida; González, Laura; Olivé, Montse; Gómez-Andrés, David; Muelas, Nuria; Vílchez, Juan José; Llauger, Jaume; Carbonell, Pilar; Márquez-Infante, Celedonio; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Poza, Juan José; López de Munáin, Adolfo; González-Quereda, Lidia; Mirabet, Sonia; Clarimon, Jordi; Gallano, Pía; Rojas-García, Ricard; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the mutated gene that produces a particular muscle dystrophy is difficult because different genotypes may share a phenotype and vice versa. Muscle MRI is a useful tool to recognize patterns of muscle involvement in patients with muscle dystrophies and to guide the diagnosis process. The radiologic pattern of muscle involvement in patients with mutations in the EMD and LMNA genes has not been completely established. Our objective is to describe the pattern of muscle fatty infiltration in patients with mutations in the EMD and in the LMNA genes and to search for differences between the two genotypes that could be helpful to guide the genetic tests. We conducted a national multicenter study in 42 patients, 10 with mutations in the EMD gene and 32 with mutations in the LMNA gene. MRI or CT was used to study the muscles from trunk to legs. Patients had a similar pattern of fatty infiltration regardless of whether they had the mutation in the EMD or LMNA gene. The main muscles involved were the paravertebral, glutei, quadriceps, biceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, adductor major, soleus, and gastrocnemius. Involvement of peroneus muscle, which was more frequently affected in patients with mutations in the EMD gene, was useful to differentiate between the two genotypes. Muscle MRI/CT identifies a similar pattern of muscle fatty infiltration in patients with mutations in the EMD or the LMNA genes. The involvement of peroneus muscles could be useful to conduct genetic analysis in patients with an EDMD phenotype. PMID:26573435

  7. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  8. Femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block for postoperative pain control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled double blind study

    PubMed Central

    El Ahl, Mohamed Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the postoperative pain control using adductor canal block (ACB) compared that using the femoral nerve block (FNB) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR). Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients who had been scheduled to patellar graft ACLR were included in this double blind study, and were randomly allocated into two groups; group ACB and group FNB (64 patients each). All patients received general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery, patients in group FNB received a FNB and those in group ACB received an ACB. The postoperative pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and muscle weakness were assessed in the postoperative care unit and every 6 h thereafter for 24 h. The total morphine requirements were also recorded. Results: Patients in group ACB had significantly higher VAS (at 18 h and 24 h), higher morphine consumption, but significantly less quadriceps weakness than those in group FNB. Conclusion: In patients with patellar graft ACLR, the ACB can maintain a higher quadriceps power, but with lesser analgesia compared with the FNB. PMID:26240546

  9. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. PMID:19462457

  10. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  11. How human gait responds to muscle impairment in total knee arthroplasty patients: Muscular compensations and articular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Moazen, Mehran

    2016-06-14

    Post-surgical muscle weakness is prevalent among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a probabilistic multi-body dynamics (MBD) to determine whether and to what extent habitual gait patterns of TKA patients may accommodate strength deficits in lower extremity muscles. We analyzed muscular and articular compensations in response to various muscle impairments, and the minimum muscle strength requirements needed to preserve TKA gait patterns in its habitual status. Muscle weakness was simulated by reducing the strength parameter of muscle models in MBD analysis. Using impaired models, muscle and joint forces were calculated and compared versus those from baseline gait i.e. TKA habitual gait before simulating muscle weakness. Comparisons were conducted using a relatively new statistical approach for the evaluation of gait waveforms, i.e. Spatial Parameter Mapping (SPM). Principal component analysis was then conducted on the MBD results to quantify the sensitivity of every joint force component to individual muscle impairment. The results of this study contain clinically important, although preliminary, suggestions. Our findings suggested that: (1) hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip extensor weakness; (2) hip extensor, hip adductor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip flexor weakness; (3) hip and knee flexor muscles responded to hip abductor weakness; (4) knee flexor and hip abductor balanced hip adductor impairment; and (5) knee extensor and knee flexor weakness were compensated by hip extensor and hip flexor muscles. Future clinical studies are required to validate the results of this computational study. PMID:27063251

  12. Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block within and distal to the adductor canal with low volume of local anesthetic

    PubMed Central

    Adoni, Areti; Paraskeuopoulos, Tilemachos; Saranteas, Theodosios; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: The anatomic site and the volume of local anesthetic needed for an ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve block differ in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two different ultrasound-guided low volume injections of local anesthetic on saphenous and vastus medialis nerves. Materials and Methods: Recruited patients (N = 48) scheduled for orthopedic surgery were randomized in two groups; Group distal adductor canal (DAC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml of local anesthetic) distal to the inferior foramina of the adductor canal. Group adductor canal (AC): Ultrasound-guided injection (5 ml local anesthetic) within the adductor canal. Following the injection of local anesthetic, block progression was monitored in 5 min intervals for 15 min in the sartorial branches of the saphenous nerve and vastus medialis nerve. Results: Twenty two patients in each group completed the study. Complete block of the saphenous nerve was observed in 55% and 59% in Group AC and DAC, respectively (P = 0.88). The proportion of patients with vastus medialis weakness at 15 min in Group AC, 36%, was significantly higher than in Group DAC (0/22), (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Low volume of local anesthetic injected within the adductor canal or distally its inferior foramina leads to moderate success rate of the saphenous nerve block, while only the injection within the adductor canal may result in vastus medialis nerve motor block. PMID:25190947

  13. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  14. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  15. Analysis of muscle forces acting on fragments in pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Elabjer, Esmat; Nikolić, Vasilije; Matejcić, Aljosa; Stancić, Marin; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    CT was used in 50 adult pelvic fractures to determine the size and the position of relevant muscles with regard to bony elements in order to calculate muscle forces acting upon certain pelvic portions. Muscle length was measured to calculate muscle volume and physiological muscle cross-section. Among others, the size and direction of muscle forces were calculated for iliac, pubic and ischiadic fractures. The strongest muscle acting in iliac fractures is m. gluteus medius. The strongest upward pulling of iliac bone fragments is exerted by the erector muscles, while the major anterior, medial and downward pulling is performed by the iliopsoas muscle. In pubic bone fractures, eight muscles push bone fragments downward, the strongest among them being m. adductor magnus. Two muscles pull them upwards: m. rectus abdominis and m. obliquus externus. Nine muscles are responsible for downward displacement of bone fragments in ischiadic fractures, but the strongest is m. semitendinosus. Calculation of moments of muscle forces acting upon bone fragments using CT of pelvic fractures gives additional data for planning of optimal operative treatment that can guarantee stable fixation in individual patients. PMID:20102053

  16. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  17. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  18. Medullary mediation of the laryngeal adductor reflex: A possible role in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-06-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is a laryngeal protective reflex. Vagal afferent polymodal sensory fibres that have cell bodies in the nodose ganglion, originate in the sub-glottal area of the larynx and upper trachea. These polymodal sensory fibres respond to mechanical or chemical stimuli. The central axons of these sensory vagal neurons terminate in the dorsolateral subnuclei of the tractus solitarius in the medulla oblongata. The LAR is a critical, reflex in the pathways that play a protective role in the process of ventilation, and the sychronisation of ventilation with other activities that are undertaken by the oropharyngeal systems including: eating, speaking and singing. Failure of the LAR to operate properly at any time after birth can lead to SIDS, pneumonia or death. Despite the critical nature of this reflex, very little is known about the central pathways and neurotransmitters involved in the management of the LAR and any disorders associated with its failure to act properly. Here, we review current knowledge concerning the medullary nuclei and neurochemicals involved in the LAR and propose a potential neural pathway that may facilitate future SIDS research. PMID:26774498

  19. Single Shot Adductor Canal Block for Postoperative Analgesia of Pediatric Patellar Dislocation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Yu; Li, Na; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative analgesia for the knee surgery in children can be challenging. Meanwhile acute pain management in pediatric patients is still often undertreated due to inadequate pain assessment or management. We reported the ultrasound-guided single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) with 0.2% ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) in addition in a series of 6 children. Patients’ age was range from 7 to 15 years old with right or left habitual patellar dislocation needing an open reduction and internal refixation. Pain assessments using Numeric Rating Scale scores on the operative limb were made preoperatively and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively at rest. Medication consumption was calculated as well. The possible complications, such as hemodynamic changes, nausea, vomiting, and dysesthesia, were also recorded at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively at rest. The pain scores were low, and analgesic medication consumption was minimal. Meanwhile, no adverse events were recorded in any of the subject. Single-injection ACB might be an optimal analgesia strategy for patellar dislocation surgery in pediatric patients. PMID:26632911

  20. Evaluation of muscle metabolic activity in the lower limb of a transfemoral amputee using a prosthesis by using (18)F-FDG PET imaging--an application of PET imaging to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamaji, Takehiko; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Tomio; Takagishi, Kenji; Endo, Keigo

    2004-07-01

    This study used FDG PET to evaluate the lower limb muscles metabolic activities of transfemoral amputees during walking with prostheses. As a preliminary study, FDG PET was applied for two normal adult volunteers to evaluate muscle activity in the lower extremities after gait exercise. This same method was applied for two amputee volunteers with prostheses. We found that FDG accumulated more in both gluteus medius muscles after gait exercise compared to other muscles in normal adult volunteers. In the skilled amputee volunteer, FDG uptake increased in the adductor and gluteus medius in the amputated side, while in the unskilled the adductor, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius showed increased FDG uptake only in the normal side. This result suggests that basic metabolic changes such as an increase in oxidative metabolism and less reliance on glycolytic activity would occur as a result of skeletal muscle training in amputees. PMID:15183449

  1. Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat.

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Yoshida, K; Nakajima, Y; Konno, A

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of the laryngeal afferent inputs in the regulation of intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization. We studied the influences of airflow and/or pressure applied to the larynx on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in ketamine-anesthetized cats. Vocalization was induced by airflow applied to the upper airway, which was isolated from the lower airway, during pontine call site stimulation. When the upper airway was open to the atmosphere through the nostrils and mouth, the airflow increased not only the vocal fold adductor and tensor activities but also the duration of these activities. The adductor and tensor activities were increased suddenly at a critical subglottic pressure level equivalent to the subglottic pressure threshold for vocalization. These effects were significantly reduced by sectioning of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve or by lidocaine application to the laryngeal mucosa. Sustained pressure applied to the isolated upper airway, when the mouth and nostrils were occluded, did not affect adductor or tensor activities. These results indicate that the afferent inputs evoked by vocal fold stretching or vibration play an important role in the motor control of intralaryngeal and respiratory muscles during vocalization. PMID:9089702

  2. Extending the use of the gracilis muscle flap in perineal reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Stephen J; Almasharqah, Riyadh; Fogg, Quentin A; Anderson, William

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum is required following oncological resections. Plastic surgical techniques can be used to restore the aesthetics and function of the perineum. The gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a substantial skin paddle, with minimal donor site morbidity. The flap is pedicled on a perforator from the medial circumflex femoral artery, giving it limited reach across the perineum. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle may free up more of the arterial pedicle, increasing its reach. On three female cadavers, bilateral gracilis flaps were raised in the standard surgical manner, giving six flaps in total. With the flaps pedicled across the perineum, the distance from the tip of each flap was measured to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The flaps were then tunnelled under the adductor longus muscle. The distances to the ASIS were measured again. The average pedicle length was greater than 7 cm. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle increased the reach by more than 4 cm on average. Cadaveric dissection has shown that tunnelling of the flap in a novel way increase its reach across the perineum. This additional flexibility improves its use clinically and is of benefit to plastic surgeons operating in perineal reconstruction. PMID:27221783

  3. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  4. Analysis of adductors angle measurement in Hammersmith infant neurological examinations using mean shift segmentation and feature point based object tracking.

    PubMed

    Dogra, D P; Majumdar, A K; Sural, S; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S; Singh, A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents image and video analysis based schemes to automate the process of adductors angle measurement which is carried out on infants as a part of Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). Image segmentation, thinning and feature point based object tracking are used for automating the analysis. Segmentation outputs are processed with a novel region merging algorithm. It is found that the refined segmentation outputs can successfully be used to extract features in the context of the application under consideration. Next, a heuristic based filtering algorithm is applied on the thinned structures for locating necessary points to measure adductors angle. A semi-automatic scheme based on the object tracking of a video has been proposed to minimize errors of the image based analysis. It is observed that the video-based analysis outperforms the image-based method. A fully automatic method has also been proposed and compared with the semi-automatic algorithm. The proposed methods have been tested with several videos recorded from hospitals and the results have been found to be satisfactory in the present context. PMID:22841364

  5. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  6. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  7. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  8. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  9. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  10. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    PubMed

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones. PMID:19026189

  11. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. PMID:25700608

  12. Adductor Canal Block for Postoperative Pain Treatment after Revision Knee Arthroplasty: A Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Schrøder, Henrik M.; Mathiesen, Ole; Henningsen, Maria H.; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T.; Dahl, Jørgen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total knee arthroplasty, may reduce pain during knee flexion (primary endpoint: at 4 h) compared with placebo after revision total knee arthroplasty. Secondary endpoints were pain at rest, morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects. Methods We included patients scheduled for revision knee arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01191593. Results We enrolled 36 patients, of which 30 were analyzed. Mean pain scores during knee flexion at 4 h (primary endpoint) were: 52±22 versus 71±25 mm (mean difference 19, 95% CI: 1 to 37, P = 0.04), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. When calculated as area under the curve (1–8 h/7 h) pain scores were 55±21 versus 69±21 mm during knee flexion (P = 0.11) and 39±18 versus 45±23 mm at rest (P = 0.43), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. Groups were similar regarding morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (P>0.05). Conclusions The only statistically significant difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593 PMID:25386752

  13. Finite-element modelling reveals force modulation of jaw adductors in stag beetles

    PubMed Central

    Goyens, J.; Soons, J.; Aerts, P.; Dirckx, J.

    2014-01-01

    Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway along the mandibles. This suggests a behavioural adaptation to prevent failure. We confirmed this by constructing finite-element (FE) models that mimic both natural bite situations as well as the hypothetical situation of tip biting without muscle force modulation. These models, based on micro-CT images, investigate the material stresses in the mandibles for different combinations of bite location and muscle force. Young's modulus of the cuticle was experimentally determined to be 5.1 GPa with the double indentation method, and the model was validated by digital image correlation on living beetles. FE analysis proves to be a valuable tool in the investigation of the trade-offs of (animal) weapon morphology and usage. Furthermore, the demonstrated bite force modulation in male stag beetles suggests the presence of mechanosensors inside the armature. PMID:25297317

  14. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  15. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  16. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  17. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  18. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  19. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  20. Effect of sloped walking on lower limb muscle forces.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    Lower limb joint loadings are increased during sloped walking compared to level walking and muscle forces are major contributors to lower limb joint forces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscle forces during sloped walking at different inclinations. Eighteen healthy male participants (27.0±4.7y, 1.80±0.05m, 74.5±8.2kg) walked at a pre-set speed of 1.1m/s on a ramp at the inclinations of 0°, ±6°, ±12° and ±18°. Kinematic data were captured with a motion capture system and kinetic data were recorded with two force plates imbedded into the ramp. A musculoskeletal model was used to compute lower limb muscle forces (normalized to body weight and gait cycle duration). During downhill walking gluteus maximus, quadriceps, soleus, peroneus and tibialis anterior muscle forces increased (p≤0.002) compared to level walking, while gluteus minimus, piriformis, adductor, iliopsoas, hamstrings and gastrocnemii muscle forces decreased (p≤0.002). Uphill walking decreased gluteus minimus, iliopsoas and tibialis anterior muscle forces (p≤0.002), while all other muscle forces increased (p≤0.002, except gluteus medius). Joint-muscle-force waveforms provided information on possible muscle contributions to joint compression forces. The most important muscles were: gluteus medius for hip forces, quadriceps and gastrocnemii for tibiofemoral forces, quadriceps for patellofemoral forces and triceps surae for ankle forces. The contribution of each muscle changed with the inclination during sloped walking compared to level walking. The current study provided important information on muscle forces during sloped walking that can be useful for rehabilitation and training procedures. PMID:27264405

  1. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  2. Cross-innervation of the thyroarytenoid muscle by a branch from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Nasri, S; Beizai, P; Ye, M; Sercarz, J A; Kim, Y M; Berke, G S

    1997-07-01

    The neuroanatomy of the larynx was explored in seven dogs to assess whether there is motor innervation to the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve (ExSLN). In 3 animals, such innervation was identified. Electrical stimulation of microelectrodes applied to the ExSLN resulted in contraction of the TA muscle, indicating that this nerve is motor in function. This was confirmed by electromyographic recordings from the TA muscle. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed improvement in vocal fold vibration following stimulation of the ExSLN compared to without it. Previously, the TA muscle was thought to be innervated solely by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This additional pathway from the ExSLN to the TA muscle may have important clinical implications in the treatment of neurologic laryngeal disorders such as adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:9228862

  3. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  4. Resisted adduction in hip neutral is a superior provocation test to assess adductor longus pain: An experimental pain study.

    PubMed

    Drew, M K; Palsson, T S; Izumi, M; Hirata, R P; Lovell, G; Chiarelli, P; Osmotherly, P G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-08-01

    The criterion of long-standing groin pain diagnoses in athletes usually relies on palpation and clinical tests. An experimental pain model was developed to examine the clinical tests under standardized conditions. Pain was induced by hypertonic saline injected into the proximal adductor longus (AL) tendon or rectus femoris (RF) tendon in 15 healthy male participants. Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as a control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Resisted hip adduction at three different angles and trunk flexion were completed before, during, and after injections. Pain provocation in the presence of experimental pain was recorded as a true positive compared with pain provocation in the non-pain conditions. Similar peak VAS scores were found after hypertonic saline injections into the AL and RF and both induced higher VAS scores than isotonic saline (P < 0.01). Adduction at 0° had the greatest positive likelihood ratio (+LR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.09-7.32) with 45° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-1.90) and 90° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-0.94) having the lowest negative LR. This study indicates that the 0° hip adduction test resisted at the ankles optimizes the diagnostic procedure without compromising diagnostic capacity to identify experimental groin pain. Validation in clinical populations is warranted. PMID:26247618

  5. Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental

  6. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  7. Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of bite force and bite performance in fossil and extinct animals is a challenging subject in palaeontology and is highly dependent on the reconstruction of the cranial myology. Furthermore, the morphology and arrangement of the adductor muscles considerably affect feeding processes and mastication and thus also have important dietary and ecological ramifications. However, in the past, the reconstruction of the (cranial) muscles was restricted to the identification of muscle attachment sites or simplified computer models. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi based on a stepwise and iterative approach. The detailed, three-dimensional models of the individual muscles allow for more accurate measurements of the muscle properties (length, cross-section, attachment angle and volume), from which muscle and bite force estimates are calculated. Bite force estimations are found to be the lowest at the tip of the snout (43–65 N) and respectively higher at the first (59–88 N) and last tooth (90–134 N) position. Nevertheless, bite forces are comparatively low for E. andrewsi, both in actual numbers as well as in comparison with other theropod dinosaurs. The results further indicate that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf-stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes. Muscle and thus bite force in E. andrewsi (and most likely all therizinosaurs) is considerably constrained by the cranial anatomy and declines in derived taxa of this clade. This trend is reflected in the changes of dietary preferences from carnivory to herbivory in therizinosaurs. PMID:23061752

  8. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. PMID:21978841

  9. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb. PMID:24356522

  10. Muscle imaging data in late-onset Pompe disease reveal a correlation between the pre-existing degree of lipomatous muscle alterations and the efficacy of long-term enzyme replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Kai Michael; Heyer, Christoph Malte; Güttsches, Anne-Katrin; Rehmann, Robert; Nicolas, Volkmar; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Kley, Rudolf Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a metabolic myopathy caused by mutations in GAA and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. There is evidence from clinical studies that enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with human recombinant alpha-glucosidase improves motor performance and respiratory function in LOPD. Objective We analyzed quantitative muscle MRI data of lower limbs to evaluate the effects of long-term ERT on muscle parameters. Methods Three symptomatic LOPD patients who received ERT for five years and four untreated presymptomatic LOPD patients were included in the study. T1-weighted MRI images were used to determine volumes of thigh and lower leg muscles. In addition, mean gray values of eight individual thigh muscles were calculated to assess the degree of lipomatous muscle alterations. Results We detected a decrease in thigh muscle volume of 6.7% (p < 0.001) and an increase in lower leg muscle volume of 8.2% (p = 0.049) after five years of ERT. Analysis of individual thigh muscles revealed a positive correlation between the degree of lipomatous muscle alterations at baseline and the increase of gray values after five years of ERT (R2 = 0.68, p < 0.001). Muscle imaging in presymptomatic patients showed in one case pronounced lipomatous alteration of the adductor magnus muscle and mild to moderate changes in further thigh muscles. Conclusions The results demonstrate that fatty muscle degeneration can occur before clinical manifestation of muscle weakness and suggest that mildly affected muscles may respond better to ERT treatment than severely involved muscles. If these findings can be validated by further studies, it should be discussed if muscle alterations detected by muscle MRI may be an objective sign of disease manifestation justifying an early start of ERT in clinically asymptomatic patients in order to improve the long-term outcome. PMID:26937398

  11. MRI in DNM2-related centronuclear myopathy: evidence for highly selective muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Schessl, Joachim; Medne, Livija; Hu, Ying; Zou, Yaqun; Brown, Mark J; Huse, Jason T; Torigian, Drew A; Jungbluth, Heinz; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2007-01-01

    Dynamin 2 has recently been recognized as a causative gene for the autosomal dominant form of centronuclear myopathy (dominant centronuclear myopathy). Here we report an affected father and daughter with dynamin 2 related AD CNM with predominantly distal onset of weakness. In addition to the diagnostic central location of myonuclei the muscle biopsy also showed core-like structures. Muscle MRI in the lower leg revealed prominent involvement of the soleus, but also of the gastrocnemius and the tibialis anterior whereas in the thigh there was a consistent pattern of selective involvement of adductor longus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, and vastus intermedius with relative sparing of vastus lateralis and medialis, sartorius, gracilis, and partly of the semitendinosus. These characteristic findings on muscle MRI confirm similar findings reported for CT imaging in dynamin 2 related dominant centronuclear myopathy and may help to differentiate this disorder from central core disease and other myopathies. PMID:17134899

  12. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  13. Changes in motor cortical excitability during human muscle fatigue.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Butler, J E; Allen, G M; Gandevia, S C

    1996-01-01

    1. The excitability of the motor cortex was investigated during fatiguing con of the elbow flexors in human subjects. During sustained contractions at 30 and 1 voluntary force (MVC), the short-latency electromyographic responses (EMG) evoke brachii and brachioradialis by transcranial magnetic stimulation increased in si EMG in the elbow flexors following the evoked muscle potential (silent period), duration during a sustained MVC but not during 30% MVCs nor during a sustained M muscle (adductor pollicis). 2. When the blood supply to brachioradialis was blocked with sphygmomanometer cuff sustained MVC, the changes in EMG responses to transcranial stimulation rapidly control values, This suggests that changes in these responses during fatigue wer small-diameter muscle afferents. 3. Tendon vibration during sustained MVCs indicated that the changes in the resp cortial stimulation were not mediated by reduced muscle spindle inputs. 4. Muscle action potentials evoked in brachioradialis by electrical stimulation cervicomedullary junction did not increase in size during sustained MVCs. Thus, cortically evoked responses during sustained MVCs reflects a change in cortical Although the silent period following cervicomedullary stimulation lengthened, it substantially shorter than the cortically evoked silent period. 5. The altered EMG responses to transcranial stimulation during fatigue suggest exitation and increased inhibition in the motor cortex. As these changes were un manipulation of afferent input they presumably result from intrinsic cortical pr altered voluntary drive to the motor cortex. Images Figure 1 PMID:8821148

  14. Hormone Therapy and Skeletal Muscle Strength: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Warren, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature that compared muscle strength in postmenopausal women who were and were not on estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT). Methods Twenty-three relevant studies were found. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated as the standardized mean difference, and meta-analyses were completed using a random effects model. Results HT was found to result in a small beneficial effect on muscle strength in postmenopausal women (overall ES = 0.23; p = .003) that equated to an ∼5% greater strength for women on HT. Among the 23 studies, various muscle groups were assessed for strength, and those that benefitted the most were the thumb adductors (ES = 1.14; p < .001). Ten studies that compared muscle strength in rodents that were and were not estradiol deficient were also analyzed. The ES for absolute strength was moderate but not statistically significant (ES = 0.44; p = .12), whereas estradiol had a large effect on strength normalized to muscle size (ES = 0.66; p = .03). Conclusion Overall, estrogen-based treatments were found to beneficially affect strength. PMID:19561145

  15. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the muscles (such as trichinosis or toxoplasmosis ) Muscle disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital ... nodosa Polymyalgia rheumatica Polymyositis - adult Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Toxoplasmosis Trichinosis Update Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: ...

  16. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  17. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  18. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  19. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  20. Force, work and power output of lower limb muscles during human maximal-effort countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Akinori; Komura, Taku; Fukashiro, Senshi; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to simulate human maximal-effort countermovement jumping with a three-dimensional neuromusculoskeletal model. The specific aim was to investigate muscle force, work and power output of major lower limb muscles during the motion. A neuromusculoskeletal model that has nine rigid body segments, 20 degrees of freedom, 32 Hill-type lower limb muscles was developed. The neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with step duration of 0.05 s. The excitation-contraction dynamics of the contractile element, the tissues around the joints to limit the joint range of motion, as well as the foot-ground interaction were implemented. A simulation was started from a standing posture. Optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass center of body after jumping up. As a result, feasible kinematics, ground reaction force profile and muscle excitation profile were generated. It was found that monoarticular muscles had major contributions of mechanical work and power output, whereas biarticular muscles had minor contributions. Hip adductors, abductors and external rotator muscles were vigorously activated, although their mechanical work and power output was minor because of their limited length change during the motion. Joint flexor muscles such as m. iliopsoas, m. biceps femoris short head and m. tibialis anterior were activated in the beginning of the motion with an effect of facilitating the generation of a countermovement. PMID:15811607

  1. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  2. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  3. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  4. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P < 0.05). In the biceps femoris muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in ARVs between the straight and curved sections for all three muscles (P > 0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles. PMID:26571039

  5. [Skeletal muscle magnetic resonance imaging study in a patient with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus developed deep aching and numbness in the right hip and lower extremity with rapid body weight loss. Neurological examination revealed weakness of the right hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscles with diminished ankle tendon reflex. We diagnosed him with diabetic lumbosacral radicuoloplexus neuropathy (DLRPN) based on neurological, radiological, and neurophysiological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles showed high intensity signals on T2-weighted images in bilateral hamstrings, adductor magnus and right tensor fasciae latae, and lower leg extensor muscles. The MRI findings suggested muscle edema caused by acute denervation. DLRPN, or diabetic amyotrophy, is known to be caused by ischemic axonal degeneration. Our patient showed good functional recovery, and abnormal MRI signals in the involved muscles mostly disappeared in parallel to the clinical course. Distribution of the denervated muscles suggested that our patient had either patchy lesions in the lumbosacaral plexus or mononeuropathy multiplex in the nerve branches. The current study highlights the potential of skeletal muscle MRI for clinical evaluation of DLRPN. PMID:25283832

  6. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  7. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-04-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  8. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C.; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-01-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  9. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  10. Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, William Z.; Perreault, Eric J.; Yoo, Seng Bum; Beer, Randall F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in neurologically intact subjects have shown that motor coordination can be described by task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as a fixed pattern of activation across a set of muscles. Arm function in severely impaired stroke survivors is characterized by stereotypical postural and movement patterns involving the shoulder and elbow. Accordingly, we hypothesized that muscle synergy composition is altered in severely impaired stroke survivors. Using an isometric force matching protocol, we examined the spatial activation patterns of elbow and shoulder muscles in the affected arm of 10 stroke survivors (Fugl-Meyer <25/66) and in both arms of six age-matched controls. Underlying muscle synergies were identified using non-negative matrix factorization. In both groups, muscle activation patterns could be reconstructed by combinations of a few muscle synergies (typically 4). We did not find abnormal coupling of shoulder and elbow muscles within individual muscle synergies. In stroke survivors, as in controls, two of the synergies were comprised of isolated activation of the elbow flexors and extensors. However, muscle synergies involving proximal muscles exhibited consistent alterations following stroke. Unlike controls, the anterior deltoid was coactivated with medial and posterior deltoids within the shoulder abductor/extensor synergy and the shoulder adductor/flexor synergy in stroke was dominated by activation of pectoralis major, with limited anterior deltoid activation. Recruitment of the altered shoulder muscle synergies was strongly associated with abnormal task performance. Overall, our results suggest that an impaired control of the individual deltoid heads may contribute to poststroke deficits in arm function. PMID:23155178

  11. Muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy M; Layzer, Robert B

    2005-10-01

    Muscle cramps are a common problem characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscle. These true cramps, which originate from peripheral nerves, may be distinguished from other muscle pain or spasm. Medical history, physical examination, and a limited laboratory screen help to determine the various causes of muscle cramps. Despite the "benign" nature of cramps, many patients find the symptom very uncomfortable. Treatment options are guided both by experience and by a limited number of therapeutic trials. Quinine sulfate is an effective medication, but the side-effect profile is worrisome, and other membrane-stabilizing drugs are probably just as effective. Patients will benefit from further studies to better define the pathophysiology of muscle cramps and to find more effective medications with fewer side-effects. PMID:15902691

  12. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injection technique for the iliopsoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Bettina; Seller, Konrad; Wild, Alexander; Jaeger, Marcus; Krauspe, Ruediger

    2003-12-01

    an injection programme which also includes other muscles like the adductors and the medial hamstrings) for pain relief, reducing care difficulties and, possibly, prevention of further decentration (Porta 2000, Foster et al. 2001, Deleplanque et al. 2002, Lubik et al. 2002). In Perthes disease, BTX-A injections in the iliopsoas muscle and the adductors may prevent a fixed deformity, which is a negative prognostic factor. PMID:14667075

  13. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the

  14. Fibrosis, adipogenesis, and muscle atrophy in congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Xiong; Tang, Sheng-Ping; Gao, Fu-Tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-Ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-Bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-Zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports maldevelopment of the

  15. Selection of optimal muscle set for 16-channel standing neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gartman, Steven J.; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    The Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veterans Affairs 8-channel lower-limb neuroprosthesis can restore standing to selected individuals with paraplegia by application of functional electrical stimulation. The second generation of this system will include 16 channels of stimulation and a closed-loop control scheme to provide automatic postural corrections. This study used a musculoskeletal model of the legs and trunk to determine which muscles to target with the new system in order to maximize the range of postures that can be statically maintained, which should increase the system’s ability to provide adequate support to maintain standing when the user’s posture moves away from a neutral stance, either by an external disturbance or a volitional change in posture by the user. The results show that the prime muscle targets should be the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, semimembranosus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, and erector spinae. This set of 16 muscles supports 42 percent of the standing postures that are attainable by the nondisabled model. Coactivation of the lateral gastrocnemius and peroneus longus with the medial gastrocnemius and of the peroneus tertius with the tibialis anterior increased the percentage of feasible postures to 71 percent. PMID:16847793

  16. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done include: Complete blood count (CBC) Other blood tests to look at muscle enzymes (creatine kinase) and possibly a test for Lyme disease or a connective tissue disorder Physical therapy may be helpful.

  17. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of muscle cramps during sports activity is not getting enough fluids. Often, drinking ... alone does not always help. Salt tablets or sports drinks, which also replenish lost minerals, can be ...

  18. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  19. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  20. Proteomic Changes in Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Tateya, Ichiro; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is a commonly performed medical intervention for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The mechanism of action of BoNT at the neuromuscular junction is well understood, however, aside from reports focused on myosin heavy chain isoform abundance, there is a paucity of data addressing the effects of therapeutic BoNT injection on the TA muscle proteome. In this study, 12 adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent unilateral TA muscle BoNT serotype A injection followed by tissue harvest at 72 hrs, 7 days, 14 days, and 56 days post-injection. Three additional rats were reserved as controls. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-MS. Vocal fold movement was significantly reduced by 72 hrs, with complete return of function by 56 days. Twenty-five protein spots demonstrated significant protein abundance changes following BoNT injection, and were associated with alterations in energy metabolism, muscle contractile function, cellular stress response, transcription, translation, and cell proliferation. A number of protein abundance changes persisted beyond the return of gross physiologic TA function. These findings represent the first report of BoNT induced changes in any skeletal muscle proteome, and reinforce the utility of applying proteomic tools to the study of system-wide biological processes in normal and perturbed TA muscle function. PMID:18442174

  1. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343022

  2. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Wesseling, Mariska; Peers, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research. PMID:24260550

  3. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  4. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  5. Capillary muscle.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-05-19

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This "hyperbolic" force-velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136-195]. Hill's heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973-976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971-973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928-935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill's equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  6. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:26244616

  7. Sevoflurane enhances neuromuscular blockade by increasing the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to neuromuscular blockers

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Zuo, Yunxia; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Pingliang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on skeletal muscle contractility. In the first part, twenty-two American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA I-II) female adult patients undergoing elective hysterectomy surgery inhaled sevoflurane 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) in succession. Neuromuscular function was assessed at each dose. In the second part, forty-four ASA I-II female adult patients were randomized into four groups: group 1 (propofol + atracurium, sevoflurane 0 MAC), and groups 2 to 4 (atracurium + sevoflurane 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MAC, respectively). In group 1, patients were anesthetized by propofol. Then 0.01 mg/kg atracurium was injected into the tested arm intravenously after the arterial blood flow was blocked using a tourniquet. For the other 3 groups, patients inhaled 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, or 2.0 MAC of sevoflurane. Then 0.01 mg/kg atracurium was injected. Neuromuscular function was recorded for the 4 groups. Neuromuscular function was assessed by acceleromyography measurement of evoked responses to train-of four (TOF) stimuli (2 Hz for 2 s applied every 12 s) at the adductor pollicis using a TOF-GuardTM neuromuscular transmission monitor. Amplitudes of first response (T1) in each TOF sequence and the ratios of fourth TOF response (T4) to the first were similar at 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, and 2.0 MAC sevoflurane. Compared to baseline, there was no significant change in the TOF value after inhaling 1.0 MAC, 1.5 MAC, or 2.0 MAC sevoflurane. Compared to group 1, there was no significant difference in atracurium onset time (time to reach TOF ratio = 0.25) in group 2 ( 5.6 ± 1.8 min vs. 6.5 ± 1.7 min, P>0.05), or degree of adductor pollicis block (subject number with TOF ratio = 0, 5 vs. 2 subjects, p = 0.3). However, inhaling 1.5 or 2.0 MAC sevoflurane decreased atracurium onset time (4.6 ± 1.5 min and 4.0 ± 1.3 min vs. 6.5 ± 1.7 min, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), and enhanced the block degree (9 and 10 vs. 2

  8. Relative Importance of Four Muscle Groups for Indoor Rock Climbing Performance.

    PubMed

    Deyhle, Michael R; Hsu, Hung-Sheng; Fairfield, Timothy J; Cadez-Schmidt, Taryn L; Gurney, Burke A; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    Little research is available to guide training programs for rock climbers. To help meet this need, we sought to determine the relative importance of 4 muscle groups for rock climbing performance. Eleven male climbers were familiarized with an indoor climbing route before 5 separate days of testing. On testing days, subjects were randomly assigned to climb with no prefatiguing exercise (control climb) or after a prefatiguing exercise designed to specifically target the digit flexors (DF), shoulder adductors (SA), elbow flexors (EF), or lumbar flexors (LF). Immediately after the prefatiguing exercise, the subject climbed the route as far as possible without rest until failure. The number of climbing moves was recorded for each climb. Surface electromyography of the target muscles was recorded during the prefatigue. Fewer climbing moves were completed after prefatigue of the DF (50 ± 18%) and EF (78 ± 22%) (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the control climb. The number of moves completed after prefatigue of the LF and SA were not statistically significant compared with the control climb (p > 0.05). The short time lapse between the end of prefatiguing exercise and the start of climbing (transit time), which may have allowed for some recovery, was not different among trials (p > 0.05). Electromyography median frequency was reduced from beginning to end of each prefatiguing exercise. These results suggest that among the muscle groups studied in men, muscular endurance of DF and EF muscle groups is especially important for rock climbing on 40° overhanging terrain. PMID:25574609

  9. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  10. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Methods Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20–45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an “upright standing” reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. Results In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Conclusion Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may

  11. Muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Yong

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by out-of-frame mutations of the dystrophin gene. Thus, it is classified asa dystrophinopathy. The disease onset is before age 5 years. Patients with DMD present with progressive symmetrical limb-girdle muscle weakness and become wheelchair dependent after age 12 years. (2)(3). On the basis of some research evidence,cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure are usually seen in the late teens in patients with DMD. Progressive scoliosis and respiratory in sufficiency often develop once wheelchair dependency occurs. Respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy are common causes of death, and few survive beyond the third decade of life. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). On the basis of some research evidence, prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 40 mg/d) or deflazacort at 0.9 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 39 mg/d), a derivative of prednisolone (not available in the United States), as a single morning dose is recommended for DMD patients older than 5 years, which may prolong independent walking from a few months to 2 years. (2)(3)(16)(17). Based on some research evidence, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, b-blockers, and diuretics has been reported to be beneficial in DMD patients with cardiac abnormalities. (2)(3)(5)(18). Based on expert opinion, children with muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels may be associated with either genetic or acquired muscle disorders (Tables 1 and 3). (14)(15) PMID:24488829

  12. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Charles, James P.; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J.; Hutchinson, John R.; Wells, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:27115354

  13. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Charles, James P; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J; Hutchinson, John R; Wells, Dominic J

    2016-01-01

    Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:27115354

  14. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (p<0.05). Peak force was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  15. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  16. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePlus

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  18. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  19. Brown muscle disease (BMD), an emergent pathology affecting Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Arcachon Bay (SW France).

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gonzalez, Patrice; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2008-08-01

    We describe an emerging pathology, brown muscle disease (BMD), which specifically affects the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Arcachon Bay (France). BMD induces a transformation of the posterior adductor muscle, which becomes infused by conchiolin and calcified, reducing the ability of clams to bury. The disease affects both types of muscular tissue, with striated muscle becoming affected to a higher degree than smooth muscle. Two indices were created to quantify the symptoms: the Muscle Print Index, used for empty and live shells, and the Final Disease Index, utilized for live clams only. Histological sections were made and observed under light microscopy to examine the muscular damage and to investigate a causal agent. Sections revealed an important inflammatory response with a large invasion of hemocytes into tissues and a heavy necrosis of muscular fibers. Additionally, molecular biology analyses were carried out to search for bacteria and protozoan agents using generic primers. In both histological and molecular assays, bacteria and protozoans were discounted. We monitored 4 sites scattered around the bay over 2 yr. The mean prevalence was <12% without seasonal variation in 3 sites against 30% and a winter peak in 1 site. The latter site was accurately surveyed and revealed that clams at the sediment surface (abnormal position) were affected 3 times more frequently than buried clams (normal position). PMID:18814547

  20. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  1. Diminished Foot and Ankle Muscle Volumes in Young Adults With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Feger, Mark A.; Snell, Shannon; Handsfield, Geoffrey G.; Blemker, Silvia S.; Wombacher, Emily; Fry, Rachel; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Park, Joseph S.; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have demonstrated altered neuromuscular function and decreased muscle strength when compared with healthy counterparts without a history of ankle sprain. Up to this point, muscle volumes have not been analyzed in patients with CAI to determine whether deficits in muscle size are present following recurrent sprain. Purpose: To analyze intrinsic and extrinsic foot and ankle muscle volumes and 4-way ankle strength in young adults with and without CAI. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Five patients with CAI (mean age, 23.0 ± 4 years; 1 male, 4 females) and 5 healthy controls (mean age, 23.8 ± 4.5 years; 1 male, 4 females) volunteered for this study. Novel fast-acquisition magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to scan from above the femoral condyles through the foot and ankle. The perimeter of each muscle was outlined on each axial slice and then the 2-dimensional area was multiplied by the slice thickness (5 mm) to calculate the muscle volume. Plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion isometric strength were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Patients with CAI were compared with healthy controls on all measures of muscle volume and strength. Extrinsic muscle volumes of patients with CAI were also compared with a normative database of healthy controls (n = 24) by calculating z scores for each muscle individually for each CAI subject. Results: The CAI group had smaller total shank, superficial posterior compartment, soleus, adductor hallucis obliqus, and flexor hallucis brevis muscle volumes compared with healthy controls as indicated by group means and associated 90% CIs that did not overlap. Cohen d effect sizes for the significant group differences were all large and ranged from 1.46 to 3.52, with 90% CIs that did not cross zero. The CAI group had lower eversion, dorsiflexion, and 4-way composite ankle strength, all with group means and associated 90

  2. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs. PMID:16856604

  3. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  4. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Camp, Ariel L; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in a novel raking prey-processing behavior found in teleosts belonging to two evolutionarily distinct lineages. Biomechanically divergent prey (elusive, robust goldfish and sedentary, malleable earthworms) were fed to knifefish, Chitala ornata (Osteoglossomorpha) and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmoniformes). Electromyography recorded MAPs from the hyoid protractor, jaw adductor, sternohyoideus, epaxialis, and hypaxialis musculature, while sonomicrometry sampled deep basihyal kinesis and contractile length dynamics in the basihyal protractor and retractor muscles. Syntheses of our results with recent analyses of cranial morphology and raking kinematics showed that raking in Salvelinus relies on an elongated cranial out lever, extensive cranial elevation and a curved cleithrobranchial ligament (CBL), and that both raking MAPs and kinematics remain entirely unmodulated-a highly unusual trait, particularly among feeding generalists. Chitala had a shorter CBL and a raking power stroke involving increased retraction of the elongated pectoral girdle during raking on goldfish. The raking MAP was also modulated in Chitala, involving an extensive overlap between muscle activity of the preparatory and power stroke phases, driven by shifts in hypaxial timing and recruitment of the hyoid protractor muscle. Sonomicrometry revealed that the protractor hyoideus muscle stored energy from retraction of the pectoral girdle for ca. 5-20 ms after onset of the power stroke and then hyper-extended. This mechanism of elastic

  6. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  7. The maximum activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, nucleoside diphosphatekinase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and arginine kinase in relation to carbohydrate utilization in muscles from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of the activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase in muscles from marine invertebrates indicates that they can be divided into three groups. First, the activities of the three enzymes are low in coelenterate muscles, catch muscles of molluscs and muscles of echinoderms; this indicates a low rate of carbohydrate (and energy) utilization by these muscles. Secondly, high activities of phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase relative to those of hexokinase are found in, for example, lobster abdominal and scallop snap muscles; this indicates that these muscles depend largely on anaerobic degradation of glycogen for energy production. Thirdly, high activities of hexokinase are found in the radular muscles of prosobranch molluscs and the fin muscles of squids; this indicates a high capacity for glucose utilization, which is consistent with the high activities of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in these muscles [Alp, Newsholme & Zammit (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 689-700]. 2. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase were measured in order to provide a qualitative indication of the importance of different processes for oxidation of glycolytically formed NADH. The muscles are divided into four groups: those that have a high activity of lactate dehydrogenase relative to the activities of phosphofructokinase (e.g. crustacean muscles); those that have high activities of octopine dehydrogenase but low activities of lactate dehydrogenase (e.g. scallop snap muscle); those that have moderate activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase (radular muscles of prosobranchs), and those that have low activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase, but which possess activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (oyster adductor muscles). It is

  8. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  10. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervous system that cause muscle function loss include: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease) Bell's palsy Botulism ... of recent progress. Curr Opin Rheum Read More Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Botulism Broken bone Guillain-Barré syndrome Muscle cramps ...

  11. Engineering skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaired. In this article, we will describe current approaches to restore the function of diseased or injured muscle through combined use of myogenic stem cells, biomaterials, and functional tissue-engineered muscle. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for expanding the future use of human cell sources toward the development of cell-based clinical therapies and in vitro models of human muscle disease. PMID:23711735

  12. Exercising with a Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: • cramping in muscles (probably related to insufficient energy supply for muscles) • pain in muscles • weakness of exercised muscles • dark urine that looks like cola, following exercise (seek ...

  13. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  14. “Target” and “Sandwich” Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen VI-related Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Ming; Jin, Su-Qin; Yi, Jun-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Juan; Lyn, He; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Yuan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Collagen VI-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies, mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM). Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen VI-related myopathies. Methods: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study. MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls). T1-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen VI-related myopathies. The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen VI gene mutations was also investigated. Results: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients. There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P = 0.033); therefore, we combined the UCMD and BM data. Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus, while the scores were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5 in gracilis, adductor longus, and sartorius, respectively. A “target” sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases, and a “sandwich” sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases. The “target” and “sandwich” signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen VI-related myopathies, respectively. Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0–3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain, and 1.0–1.5 in three of four patients with

  15. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.

  16. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  17. Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-06-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

  18. Muscle size and arterial stiffness after blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Fukumura, K; Fukuda, T; Uchida, Y; Iida, H; Meguro, M; Sato, Y; Yamasoba, T; Nakajima, T

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training (BFR-RT) causes muscle hypertrophy while maintaining arterial function in young adults. We examined the effects of BFR-RT on muscle size and arterial stiffness in older adults. Healthy subjects (ages 61-84 years) were divided into BFR-RT (n = 9) or non-training control (CON; n = 10) groups. The BFR-RT group performed 20% and 30%, respectively, of one-repetition maximal (1-RM) knee extension and leg press exercises, 2 days/wk for 12 weeks. The BFR-RT group wore elastic cuffs (120-270 mmHg) on both legs during training. Magnetic resonance imaging-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), 1-RM strength, chair stand (CS) test, and cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), an index of arterial stiffness, were measured before and 3-5 days after the final training session. Muscle CSA of the quadriceps (8.0%), adductors (6.5%), and gluteus maximus (4.4%), leg extension and leg press 1-RM strength (26.1% and 33.4%), and CS performance (18.3%) improved (P < 0.05) in the BFR-RT group, but not in the CON group. In CAVI testing, there were no changes in both two groups. In conclusion, BFR-RT improves muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not negatively affect arterial stiffness or humeral coagulation factors in older adults. PMID:23730848

  19. Late-onset myopathy of the posterior calf muscles mimicking Miyoshi myopathy unrelated to dysferlin mutation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Miyoshi myopathy, a type of distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles, has been assigned to mutations in the dysferlin gene. However, many of the late-onset limb-girdle and distal myopathies that resemble dysferlinopathy or Miyoshi myopathy remain unclassified, even after extensive immunohistological and genetic analysis. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian man with distal myopathy and exercise-induced myalgia, preferentially of the leg muscles, closely resembling the Miyoshi phenotype. Magnetic resonance imaging of his calf muscles showed typical fatty replacement of the medial heads of the gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles, with progression to the adductor longus muscles over a time course of two years. However, genetic analysis revealed that the phenotype of our patient was not related to a mutation in the dysferlin gene but to a novel homozygous splice mutation in the anoctamin 5 gene. Mutations in the anoctamin 5 gene have so far been identified only in some cases of limb-girdle and distal myopathy. Mutations in the anoctamin 5 gene have been assigned to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L, while distal Miyoshi-like phenotypes have been classified as Miyoshi myopathy type 3. Conclusion The case presented in this report further strengthens the underlying genetic heterogeneity in Miyoshi myopathy-like phenotypes and adds another family to non-dysferlin, Miyoshi myopathy type 3 of late-onset. Furthermore, our case supports the recent observation that anoctamin 5 mutations are a primary cause of distal non-dysferlin myopathies. Therefore, given the increasing number of anoctamin 5 mutations in Miyoshi-like phenotypes, genetic analysis should include an anoctamin 5 screen in late-onset limb-girdle and distal myopathies. PMID:23050857

  20. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  1. Functional anatomy of incisal biting in Aplodontia rufa and sciuromorph rodents - part 1: masticatory muscles, skull shape and digging.

    PubMed

    Druzinsky, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, rodents have been grouped into suborders distinguished largely on the basis of characteristics of the jaw adductor muscles and other features of the masticatory apparatus. The three classic suborders are: Sciuromorpha (squirrels), Myomorpha (rats and mice), and Hystricomorpha (porcupines and the South American caviomorph rodents). Protrogomorph rodents are thought to represent the primitive condition of rodent masticatory muscles. Aplodontia rufa, the mountain beaver, is the only living protrogomorphous rodent. The present work is a detailed comparison of the masticatory apparatus in A. rufa and Marmota monax, the woodchuck. But the mandibular region of A. rufa appears remarkable, unlike anything found in other rodents. Is A. rufa a reasonable representative of the primitive, protrogomorphous condition? A.rufa is a member of the aplodontoid-sciuroid clade with a wide and flat skull. The large temporalis and mandibular apophyses of A. rufa are features related to its relatively wide skull. Such features are found in less dramatic forms in other sciuromorphous species and the basic arrangement of the masticatory muscles of A. rufa is similar to the arrangement seen in sciuromorphs. PMID:20160428

  2. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  3. Femoral strain during walking predicted with muscle forces from static and dynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W Brent; Miller, Ross H; Derrick, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied muscle forces are usually obtained from static optimization (SO) methods. In this study, we compared finite element predicted femoral strains in walking using muscle forces obtained from SO to those obtained from forward dynamics (FD) simulation. The general trends in strain distributions were similar between FD and SO derived conditions and both agreed well with previously reported in vivo strain gage measurements. On the other hand, differences in peak maximum (εmax) and minimum (εmin) principal strain magnitudes were as high as 32% between FD (εmax/εmin=945/-1271με) and SO (εmax/εmin=752/-859με). These large differences in strain magnitudes were observed during the first half of stance, where SO predicted lower gluteal muscle forces and virtually no co-contraction of the hip adductors compared to FD. The importance of these results will likely depend on the purpose/application of the modeling procedure. If the goal is to obtain a generalized strain distribution for adaptive bone remodeling algorithms, then traditional SO is likely sufficient. In cases were strain magnitudes are critical, as is the case with fracture risk assessment, bone strain estimation may benefit by including muscle activation and contractile dynamics in SO, or by using FD when practical. PMID:26994784

  4. Treatment of Progressive First Metatarsophalangeal Hallux Valgus Deformity: A Biomechanically Based Muscle-Strengthening Approach.

    PubMed

    Glasoe, Ward M

    2016-07-01

    Synopsis Hallux valgus is a progressive deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that changes the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot. To date, surgery is the only treatment to correct this deformity, though the recurrence rate is as high as 15%. This clinical commentary provides instruction in a strengthening approach for treatment of hallux valgus deformity, by addressing the moment actions of 5 muscles identified as having the ability to counter the hallux valgus process. Unlike surgery, muscle strengthening does not correct the deformity, but, instead, reduces the pain and associated gait impairments that affect the mobility of people who live with the disorder. This review is organized in 4 parts. Part 1 defines the terms of foot motion and posture. Part 2 details the anatomy and biomechanics, and describes how the foot is changed with deformity. Part 3 details the muscles targeted for strengthening; the intrinsics being the abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis, and the flexor hallucis brevis; the extrinsics being the tibialis posterior and fibularis longus. Part 4 instructs the exercise and reviews the related literature. Instructions are given for the short-foot, the toe-spread-out, and the heel-raise exercises. The routine may be performed by almost anyone at home and may be adopted into physical therapist practice, with intent to strengthen the foot muscles as an adjunct to almost any protocol of care, but especially for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):596-605. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6704. PMID:27266887

  5. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  6. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (p<0.05) were used to test for differences in muscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW

  7. Muscles of chondrichthyan paired appendages: comparison with osteichthyans, deconstruction of the fore-hindlimb serial homology dogma, and new insights on the evolution of the vertebrate neck.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Ziermann, J M

    2015-03-01

    Here we present the first study comparing all the paired appendages muscles of representatives of each major extant gnathostome group. We address a crucial and enigmatic question in evolutionary and comparative anatomy: Why are the pelvic and pectoral appendages of gnathostomes, and particularly of tetrapods, in general so similar to each other? We argue that an integrative analysis of the new myological data and the information from the literature contradicts the idea that the forelimbs and hindlimbs are serial homologues. The data show that many of the strikingly similar fore- and hindlimb muscles of extant tetrapods evolved independently in each appendage because the ancestors of extant gnathostomes and osteichthyans only had an adductor and an abductor in each fin. Therefore, these data contradict the idea that at least some muscles present in the tetrapod fore- and hindlimbs were already present in some form in the first fishes with pectoral and pelvic appendages, as the result of an ancestral duplication of the paired appendages leading to a true serial homology. The origin of the pectoral girdle was instead likely related to head evolution, as illustrated by the cucullaris of gnathostomes such as chondrichthyans inserting onto both the branchial arches and pectoral girdle. Only later in evolution the cucullaris became differentiated into the levatores arcuum branchialium and protractor pectoralis, which gave rise to the amniote neck muscles trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus. These changes therefore contributed to an evolutionary trend toward a greater anatomical and functional independence of the pectoral girdle from head movements. PMID:25205543

  8. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  9. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  10. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  11. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G; Hargens, A R; Lehman, S; Rempel, D M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue. PMID:11398857

  12. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  13. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  14. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow ...

  15. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  16. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  17. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, ... shaped, and are also under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the ...

  18. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  19. Autoimmune muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Patients with polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) present with the subacute onset of symmetric proximal muscle weakness, elevated muscle enzymes, myopathic findings on electromyography, and autoantibodies. DM patients are distinguished by their cutaneous manifestations. Characteristic features on muscle biopsy include the invasion of nonnecrotic muscle fibers by T cells in PM, perifascicular atrophy in DM, and myofiber necrosis without prominent inflammation in IMNM. Importantly, these are regarded as autoimmune diseases and most patients respond partially, if not completely, to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) usually present with the insidious onset of asymmetric weakness in distal muscles (e.g., wrist flexors, and distal finger flexors), often when more proximal muscle groups are relatively preserved. Although IBM muscle biopsies usually have focal invasion of myofibers by lymphocytes, the majority of IBM biopsies also include rimmed vacuoles. While most IBM patients do have autoantibodies, treatment with immunosuppressive agents does not improve their clinical course. Along with the presence of abnormally aggregated proteins on muscle biopsy, the refractory nature and relentless course of IBM suggest that the underlying pathophysiology may include a dominant myodegenerative component. This chapter will focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the autoimmune myopathies and IBM. An emphasis will be placed on recent advances, indicating that these are a diverse family of diseases and that each of more than a dozen myositis autoantibodies is associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. PMID:27112692

  20. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, ... an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein ...

  1. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  2. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  3. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  4. Slipped and lost extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Lenart, T D; Lambert, S R

    2001-09-01

    A slipped or lost muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a marked limitation of duction and inability to rotate the eye beyond the midline. Loss of a rectus muscle can occur after strabismus surgery, trauma, paranasal sinus surgery, orbital surgery, or retinal detachment surgery. The extraocular rectus muscle most frequently slipped or lost is the medial rectus muscle. Forced ductions, active force generation, saccadic velocity studies, differential intraocular pressure measurements, and orbital imaging studies may aid in identifying a slipped or lost muscle. However, no single diagnostic test provides absolute reliability for determining a lost muscle. Slipped muscles develop when the muscular capsule is imbricated without including the muscle or muscle tendon during strabismus surgery. When the capsule is reattached to the sclera, the tendon and muscle are then free to slip posteriorally from the site of attachment. Slipped muscles are retrieved by following the thin avascular muscle capsule posteriorally until the muscle is identified. A lost muscle can be found using a traditional conjunctival approach, by an external orbitotomy, or by an endoscopic transnasal approach. Although many diagnostic maneuvers are useful in identifying a lost rectus muscle, the oculocardiac reflex is the most important. Once the lost muscle is identified, the muscle should be imbricated with a nonabsorbable synthetic suture and securely reattached to the globe. PMID:11705143

  5. Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Rhee, M S; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent of variation in, and relationships among, biochemical and palatability traits within and among 11 major beef muscles. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD), psoas major (PM), gluteus medius (GM), semimembranosus (SM), adductor (AD), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), triceps brachii (TB), infraspinatus (IS), and supraspinatus (SS) from one side of 31 Charolais x MARC III steer carcasses were vacuum-packaged, stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem, and then frozen at -30 degrees C. The 2.54-cm-thick steaks were obtained from two or three locations within muscles in order to assess biochemical traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and from near the center for sensory trait evaluation. The PM was most tender and was followed by IS in both shear force and tenderness rating (P < 0.05). The other muscles were not ranked the same by shear force and tenderness rating. The BF had the lowest (P < 0.05) tenderness rating. The PM, GM, and LD had lower (P < 0.05) collagen concentration (2.7 to 4.5 mg/g muscle) than muscles from the chuck and round (5.9 to 9.0 mg/g), except for the AD (4.9 mg/g). Desmin proteolysis was highest (P < 0.05) for BF and LD (60.7 and 60.1% degraded), and was lowest (P < 0.05) for PM (20.2%). The PM, TB, IS, RF, and ST had relatively long sarcomere lengths (> 2.1 microm), whereas the GM had the shortest (P < 0.05) sarcomere length (1.7 microm). Cooking loss was lowest (P < 0.05) for BF (18.7%) and was followed by LD and IS (20.7%); it was highest (P < 0.05) for ST (27.4%). Across all muscles, tenderness rating was highly correlated (r > 0.60) with shear force, connective tissue rating, sarcomere length, and collagen content. Within a muscle, correlations among all traits were generally highest in LD and lowest in AD. Within muscle, location effects were detected (P < 0.05) for shear force (PM, ST, BF, SM, and RF), sarcomere length (PM, ST, BF, LD, SS, IS, SM, and

  6. Thyrotoxic muscle disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Ian

    1968-01-01

    Evidence suggests that most hyperthyroid patients have a proximal myopathy. The more severe this is the more frequently are distal muscles, and ultimately, bulbar muscles involved. Probably acute thyrotoxic myopathy or encephalopathy supervenes on a previous chronic background or occurs concurrently with skeletal muscle involvement. Using careful electromyographic techniques evidence of myopathy may be found in most thyrotoxics; it disappears with adequate treatment of the primary disease. Myasthenia gravis and periodic paralysis are also associated with thyrotoxicosis and their differentiation is discussed. Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is not related to the effects of excess thyroid hormone, but is possibly due to EPS working in conjunction with LATS. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4871773

  7. Volumetric Muscle Loss.

    PubMed

    Pollot, Beth E; Corona, Benjamin T

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury is prevalent in severe extremity trauma and is an emerging focus area among orthopedic and regenerative medicine fields. VML injuries are the result of an abrupt, frank loss of tissue and therefore of different etiology from other standard rodent injury models to include eccentric contraction, ischemia reperfusion, crush, and freeze injury. The current focus of many VML-related research efforts is to regenerate the lost muscle tissue and thereby improve muscle strength. Herein, we describe a VML model in the anterior compartment of the hindlimb that is permissible to repeated neuromuscular strength assessments and is validated in mouse, rat, and pig. PMID:27492162

  8. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    MedlinePlus

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... Muscle spasticity, or spasms, causes your muscles to become stiff or rigid. It can also cause exaggerated, ...

  9. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of high energy phosphates and pH in human muscle fatigue. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G; Boska, M D; Moussavi, R S; Carson, P J; Weiner, M W

    1988-01-01

    The goal of these experiments was to investigate the relationship of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), monobasic phosphate (H2PO4-), and pH to human muscle fatigue. Phosphates and pH were measured in adductor pollicis using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance at 2.0 Tesla. The force of muscle contraction was simultaneously measured with a force transducer. The effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise were compared using two exercise protocols: 4 min sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 40 min of repeated intermittent contractions (75% MVC). The sustained maximal contraction produced a rapid decline of MVC and PCr, and was accompanied by a rapid rise of Pi, H+, and H2PO4-. Intermittent exercise produced steady state changes of MVC, pH, and phosphates. No significant changes of ATP were found in either protocol. During fatiguing exercise, PCr and Pi had a nonlinear relationship with MVC. H+ showed a more linear correlation, while H2PO4- showed the best correlation with MVC. Furthermore, the correlations between MVC and H2PO4- were similar in sustained (r = 0.70) and intermittent (r = 0.73) exercise. The highly significant linear relationship between increases of H+ and H2PO4- and the decline of MVC strongly suggests that both H+ and H2PO4- are important determinants of human muscle fatigue. PMID:3350969

  10. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  11. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in a weightless environment is studied. Topics of investigation include physiological factors of muscle atrophy in space flight, biochemistry, countermeasures, modelling of atrophied muscle tissue, and various methods of measurement of muscle strength and endurance. A review of the current literature and suggestions for future research are included.

  12. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment. PMID:25673127

  13. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your child's eyes should look normal a few weeks after the surgery. ... Surgical Approach to the Rectus Muscles. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, ... Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and ...

  14. Muscles of the Trunk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Trunk Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  15. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  16. Muscle fatigue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... above your shoulders until they drop is one exercise that may be performed during the Tensilon test. In this test, the drug Tensilon is administered, and the response in the muscles are evaluated to help diagnose myasthenia gravis or ...

  17. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  18. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  19. Diabetic Muscle Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Morcuende, José A; Dobbs, Matthew B; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Crawford, Haemish

    2000-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that is not clearly defined in the orthopaedic literature. This study is a descriptive case series of 7 new cases of diabetic muscle infarction and 55 previously reported cases in the literature. In the majority of patients, diabetic muscle infarction presents as a localized, exquisitely painful swelling and limited range of motion of the lower extremity. No cases affecting the muscles of the upper extremity have been observed. The onset is usually acute, persists for several weeks, and resolves spontaneously over several weeks to months without the need for intervention. Diabetic muscle infarction is a condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any diabetic patient with lower extremity pain and swelling without systemic signs of infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive and specific enough to make the diagnosis. Muscle biopsy and surgical irrigation and debridement are not recommended since they are associated with complications. Pain management and activity restriction in the acute phase followed by gentle physical therapy is the treatment of choice. Recurrences in the same or opposite limb are common. Although the short-term prognosis is very good and the majority of cases resolve spontaneously, the long-term survival is uncertain in this patient population. PMID:10934627

  20. Muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle after repetitive muscle activation: comparison to the biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Watanabe, Naoshi; Maeda, Sho; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle to those of the biceps brachii muscle during repetitive muscle movements. Seventeen asymptomatic female subjects participated in this study. Each subject, on separate days, undertook a 5-minute unilateral chewing gum task on the right side and a 5-minute flexion-extension exercise on the right hand with a 2kg dumbbell. Using a handheld hardness meter, muscle hardness was measured in the right masseter and in the biceps brachii muscle at eight time points (before the task, immediately after the task, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the task), and the data obtained before and after the task on each muscle were compared. Comparisons of the normalized data were also performed between the two muscles at each time point. As a result, a significant increase in muscle hardness was seen at 1 minute after the task in the biceps brachii muscle (p=0.0093). In contrast, the masseter muscle showed a tendency to lower hardness, with the lowest point of hardness occurring at 10 minutes after the task (p = 0.0160). Between the two muscles, there was a difference in the normalized data immediately after the task, and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after the task (0.01 muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle completely differed from those of the biceps brachii muscle after repetitive muscle activation. PMID:15532311

  1. Effects in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The first biological action of amylin to be described was the inhibition of insulin-stimulated incorporation of radiolabeled glucose into glycogen in the isolated soleus muscle of the rat. This antagonism of insulin action in muscle was non-competitive, occurring with equal potency and efficacy at all insulin concentrations. Amylin inhibited activation of glycogen synthase, partially accounting for the inhibition of radiolabeled glucose incorporation. However, this did not account for a low rate of labeling at higher amylin concentrations, wherein the radioglycogen accumulation was even less than in incubations where insulin was absent. The principal action of amylin accounting for reduction of insulin-stimulated accumulation of glycogen was activation of glycogen phosphorylase via a cyclic AMP-, protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathway to cause glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown). At physiological concentrations, amylin activated glycogen phosphorylase at its ED50, but because glycogen phosphorylase is present in such high activity, the resulting flux out of glycogen was estimated to be similar to insulin-mediated flux of glucosyl moieties into glycogen. Thus, in the rat, endogenous amylin secreted in response to meals appeared to mobilize carbon from skeletal muscle. Amylin-induced glycogenolysis resulted in intramuscular accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and release of lactate from tissue beds that included muscle. When muscle glycogen was pre-labeled with tritium in the three position, amylin could be shown to evoke the release of free glucose. This is made possible by glucosyl moieties cleaved at the branch points in glycogen being released as free glucose, rather than being phosphorylated, as occurs with the bulk of the glycogen glucosyls. Free glucose is free to exit cells via facilitated transport, down a concentration gradient that might exist under such circumstances. When measured by a sensitive technique utilizing efflux of labeled glucose, amylin

  2. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  3. Positronium Formation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    Positronium formation in muscle at +4°C and -4°C was examined by the measurement of the angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation. Since the positronium formation rate in ice is considerably higher than it is in water, there should be a comparable increase in the positronium formation rate in muscle tissue if recent speculation that cellular water is ordered in a semicrystalline icelike state is correct. Comparison of the angular correlation from muscle at +4°C with that from water at +4°C shows no enhancement of the positronium formation rate. Frozen muscle at -4°C shows an enhancement of the positronium formation rate of approximately half that found in ice at -4°C, indicating that most cellular water undergoes a normal water-ice transition when frozen. It is concluded therefore that cell water in muscle is not ordered in a hexagonal icelike structure. While the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cell water is in the liquid state, the hypothesis that cell water is ordered in an undetermined close packed structure which transforms to the hexagonal ice structure at or near 0°C cannot be ruled out. PMID:5436881

  4. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  5. The 6-minute walk test, motor function measure and quantitative thigh muscle MRI in Becker muscular dystrophy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia; Rubino, Daniela; Schmid, Maurice; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Jung, Hans; Bieri, Oliver; Haas, Tanja; Gloor, Monika; Fischmann, Arne; Bonati, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) has an incidence of 1 in 16 000 male births. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between validated functional scores and quantitative MRI (qMRI) of thigh muscles in 20 ambulatory BMD patients, aged 18.3-60 years (mean 31.2; SD 11.1). Clinical assessments included the motor function measure (MFM) and its subscales, as well as timed function tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the timed 10-m run/walk test. Quantitative MRI of the thigh muscles included the mean fat fraction (MFF) using a 2-point Dixon (2-PD) technique, and transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements. The mean MFM value was 80.4%, SD 9.44 and the D1 subscore 54.5%, SD 19.9. The median 6MWT was 195m, IQR 160-330.2. The median 10-m run/walk test was 7.4 seconds, IQR 6.1-9.3. The mean fat fraction of the thigh muscles was 55.6%, SD 17.4%, mean T2 relaxation times of all muscles: 69.9 ms, SD 14.4. The flexors had the highest MFF and T2 relaxation times, followed by the extensors and the adductors. MFF and global T2 relaxation times were highly negatively correlated with the MFM total, D1-subscore and 6MWT, and positively correlated with the 10 m run/walk test time (p < 0.01). Age was not correlated with MFF, global T2 relaxation time or clinical assessments. Both MFF and T2 measures in the thigh muscle were well correlated with clinical function in BMD and may serve as a surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:27209345

  6. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  7. Neural control of muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Markelonis, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cholinergic innervation regulates the physiological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms that appear to be involved in this regulation include soluble, neurally-derived polypeptides, transmitter-evoked muscle activity and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, itself. Despite extensive research, the interacting neural mechanisms that control such macromolecules as acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase remain unclear. It may be that more simplified in vitro model systems coupled with recent dramatic advances in the molecular biology of neurally-regulated proteins will begin to allow researchers to unravel the mechanisms controlling the expression and maintenance of these macromolecules.

  8. [Muscle-skeletal pain].

    PubMed

    Vygonskaya, M V; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed. The high efficacy and safety of ketorolac in treatment of nonspecific muscle/skeletal pain is demonstrated. PMID:27042717

  9. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  10. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the ...