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Sample records for adelaide australia 18-20

  1. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  2. Analysis of breastfeeding policies and practices in childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219

  3. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  4. Can the Excess Heat Factor Indicate Heatwave-Related Morbidity? A Case Study in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-03-01

    Although heatwave-related excess mortality and morbidity have been widely studied, results are not comparable spatially and often longitudinally because of different heatwave definitions applied. The excess heat factor (EHF) quantifies heatwave intensity relative to the local climate, enabling cross-regional comparisons. Previous studies have shown a strong relationship between EHFs and daily mortality during severe heatwaves. An extensive study about the relationship between EHFs and daily morbidity compared to the currently applied heatwave thresholds in Adelaide has not yet been undertaken. This paper analyzes the association of EHFs with daily morbidity between 2008 and 2014 in the Adelaide metropolitan region, South Australia, and probes three different approaches to calculate the EHF. The EHF is found to differentiate days with heatwave-related excess morbidity significantly better than other widely used weather parameters, resulting in fewer days per year with heatwave alerts than using previously proposed methods. The volume of excess morbidity can be predicted by the EHF more reliably with a model proposed for the SA Ambulance Service to support their heatwave preparation plan. PMID:26695616

  5. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  6. Basement-cover interaction in the Adelaide Foldbelt, South Australia: the development of an arcuate foldbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Geoffrey L.; Powell, Roger

    1989-02-01

    The upper Proterozoic- to Cambrian-aged sedimentary and volcanic rocks comprising the Adelaide Foldbelt were deformed and, in places, metamorphosed during the Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian Orogeny. Tectonic fabrics developed in the central portion of the foldbelt (Mt. Lofty Ranges) demonstrate westward transport during the orogeny. The sigmoidal shape outlined by the Kangaroo Is., Mt. Lofty Ranges, Olary portion of the foldbelt is interpreted to have been the result of dextral wrench faulting in the lower- to mid-Proterozoic basement. Thus, cover rocks overlying such basement wrench fault zones would have suffered a transpressional stress regime, giving rise to the observed fold axis oriented at an oblique angle to the thrust boundary. In the northern portion of the foldbelt (Northern Flinders Ranges), wrench faulting is interpreted to have accommodated considerable basement shortening which initiated a basement-cover décollement and resulted in thrust-bound pop-up structures in the cover.

  7. The effect of temperature on different Salmonella serotypes during warm seasons in a Mediterranean climate city, Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P

    2016-04-01

    Changing trends in foodborne disease are influenced by many factors, including temperature. Globally and in Australia, warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise if climate change continues. Salmonella spp. are a temperature-sensitive pathogen and rising temperature can have a substantial effect on disease burden affecting human health. We examined the relationship between temperature and Salmonella spp. and serotype notifications in Adelaide, Australia. Time-series Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the effect of temperature during warmer months on Salmonella spp. and serotype cases notified from 1990 to 2012. Long-term trends, seasonality, autocorrelation and lagged effects were included in the statistical models. Daily Salmonella spp. counts increased by 1·3% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1·013, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·008-1·019] per 1 °C rise in temperature in the warm season with greater increases observed in specific serotype and phage-type cases ranging from 3·4% (IRR 1·034, 95% CI 1·008-1·061) to 4·4% (IRR 1·044, 95% CI 1·024-1·064). We observed increased cases of S. Typhimurium PT9 and S. Typhimurium PT108 notifications above a threshold of 39 °C. This study has identified the impact of warm season temperature on different Salmonella spp. strains and confirms higher temperature has a greater effect on phage-type notifications. The findings will contribute targeted information for public health policy interventions, including food safety programmes during warmer weather. PMID:26522685

  8. Influenza B outbreak in a primary school in Adelaide, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Jane; D’Onise, Katina; Russo, Deidre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This report describes a 2011 seasonal influenza B outbreak in a metropolitan primary school in Australia with 179 students. Methods Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a questionnaire that included demographic data, details of illness, chronic health conditions and vaccination status. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as fever plus cough and/or sore throat. Analysis of ILI was undertaken with the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Seventy-two questionnaire respondents (75%) reported illness during the outbreak – 43 with ILI, giving an attack rate of 45%. There was no association between ILI and age or chronic lung disease. Six (6%) students were vaccinated against influenza before the outbreak; although four became ill, none satisfied the ILI case definition. Seven students were positive for influenza B including two confirmed as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like; one student was positive for rhinovirus and another for metapneumovirus. The recommended influenza vaccine matched the circulating influenza strains. Discussion This cohort study estimated a high ILI attack rate and demonstrated low influenza vaccine coverage within the setting of a primary school. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in addition to constitutional and respiratory symptoms, were common. PMID:23908928

  9. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 gastroenteritis linked to catered luncheons in Adelaide, South Australia, June 2005.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Combs, Barry G; Mwanri, Lillian; Holland, Ros; Delroy, Brian; Cameron, Scott; Givney, Rod C

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella sp. are important causes of foodborne illness, with restaurants and catered functions being commonly reported settings for outbreaks. In June 2005 an investigation commenced following reports of gastrointestinal illness in attendees at luncheons catered by an Adelaide café, as well as persons eating at the café itself. The investigation sought to determine the existence of an outbreak, identify a source and method of transmission and implement public health measures to prevent further cases. Lists of luncheon attendees were obtained from function organisers. A retrospective cohort study was commenced using a structured questionnaire developed from the café's menu listings. A suspected case was defined as a person developing two or more gastrointestinal symptoms after attending a luncheon catered by the café. A case series investigation was used for café diners. Of the 102 respondents, 61 (60%) met the case definition with 32 subsequently confirmed as Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 (STM 64) infections. Of the 61 cases, 59 (96%) reported eating a bread roll. STM 64 was detected in raw defrosted chicken recovered from the café's kitchen. This suggested cross-contamination from the chicken to one or more ingredients common to the bread rolls was the route of infection. To prevent further cases, perishable goods were discarded, the café was closed, the premises cleaned, then restrictions were placed on the types of foods served. This investigation's findings highlight the importance of safe food handling and hand hygiene in commercial food preparation. PMID:17330386

  10. Risk factors of direct heat-related hospital admissions during the 2009 heatwave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The extreme heatwave of 2009 in South Australia dramatically increased morbidity, with a 14-fold increase in direct heat-related hospitalisation in metropolitan Adelaide. Our study aimed to identify risk factors for the excess morbidity. Design A matched case–control study of risk factors was conducted. Setting Patients and matched community controls were interviewed to gather data on demographics, living environment, social support, health status and behaviour changes during the heatwave. Participants Cases were all hospital admissions with heat-related diagnoses during the 5-day heatwave in 2009. Controls were randomly selected from communities. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses, simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. Adjusted ORs (AORs) were estimated. Results In total, 143 hospital patients and 143 matched community controls were interviewed, with a mean age of 73 years (SD 21), 96% European ethnicity, 63% retired, 36% with high school or higher education, and 8% institutional living. The regression model indicated that compared with the controls, cases were more likely to have heart disease (AOR=13.56, 95% CI 1.27 to 144.86) and dementia (AOR=26.43, 95% CI 1.99 to 350.73). The protective factors included higher education level (AOR=0.48, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.99), having air-conditioner in the bedroom (AOR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.74), having an emergency button (AOR=0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.96), using refreshment (AOR=0.10, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.84), and having more social activities (AOR=0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.57). Conclusions Pre-existing heart disease and dementia significantly increase the risk of direct heat-related hospitalisations during heatwaves. The presence of an air-conditioner in the bedroom, more social activities, a higher education level, use of emergency buttons and refreshments reduce the risk during heatwaves. PMID:27256088

  11. Th-U-total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Adelaide rift complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemo-stratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but reliable depositional age constraints have been extremely limited. We report results of in situ Th-U-total Pb (electron microprobe) dating of detrital and authigenic monazite in two samples from the Umberatana Group (Sturtian Holowilena Ironstone and pre-Marinoan Enorama Shale) in the Central Flinders Ranges. Several texturally and chemically distinct detrital and authigenic populations are recognized. Detrital dates range from 1600 Ma to 760 Ma and most relate to well-known orogenic or igneous events in surrounding cratonic regions. Authigenic monazite grew in three or more pulses ranging from 680 Ma to 500 Ma. The date of 680 ± 23 Ma (2 σ) for the earliest generation of authigenic monazite in sandstone from the Enorama Shale (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) supports proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China, which bracket the presumed Marinoan equivalents between 655 and 635 Ma. This age is inconsistent with a Re-Os isochron age of 643 ± 2.4 Ma (2 σ) on shales near the bottom of the Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial succession, stratigraphically > 3000 m below the Enorama Shale sample, and militate against the hypothesis that the type Marinoan is correlative with the 580 Ma Gaskiers glaciation. Monazite growth near 600 Ma and again at about 500 Ma probably represent hydrothermal fluid-flow events, the latter of which also corresponds to the well-known Delamerian Orogeny during which the Adelaide sediments were

  12. Adelaide's blackbirding pathologist.

    PubMed

    Allen, P W

    1998-06-01

    Archibald Watson (1849-1940) was the inaugural Elder Professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide. He held the position from 1885 to 1919, having previously trained in Gottingen, Paris, and London under some of the most eminent physicians of those times. Before he started his medical studies, he, Dr James Patrick Murray, and several others were involved in the kidnapping ("blackbirding") of Pacific Islanders (Kanakas) to work on South Sea cotton plantations. A number of the victims were killed. Watson and two others were charged with murder and remanded in Levuka to appear in Sydney. Watson absconded, traveled to Europe, and never stood trial; the other two were convicted and sentenced to death. Watson's life as an anatomist, surgeon, pathologist, member of the Adelaide Club, world traveler, Australian Army doctor during the Boer War and World War I, fisherman, and motorcyclist was full of interest and incidents. The events surrounding the autopsy he performed on a case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and the subsequent preservation of the skeleton in the Anatomy Museum of the University of Adelaide are described. PMID:9845740

  13. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…

  14. Making the Difference. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, July 4-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truran, John M., Ed.; Truran, Kathleen M., Ed.

    Papers from the 22nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated include the following: (1) "Making Sense of Primary Mathematics" (Gillian M. Boulton-Lewis); (2) "Seeking a Rationale for Particular Classroom Tasks and Activity" (Peter Sullivan); (3) "Research in Mathematics Education in Australia: What…

  15. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good

  16. Celebrating Rural Education. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) (13th, Adelaide, South Australia, July 6-8, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Colin, Ed.; Wood, Giovanna, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 19 presentations and workshops. An introductory section includes SPERA's mission, goals, and history; a brief welcome address by SPERA president Sheila King; a list of past conference proceedings; and abstracts of presentations. The…

  17. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  18. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  19. The new Adelaide medium frequency Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.

    1993-08-01

    The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.

  20. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  1. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the…

  2. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended, as implemented by 49 CFR part 630, regarding a uniform system of... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for...

  3. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended, as implemented by 49 CFR part 630, regarding a uniform system of... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for...

  4. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended, as implemented by 49 CFR part 630, regarding a uniform system of... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for...

  5. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant... statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees must meet the...

  6. Developing a Model for the Measurement of Social Inclusion and Social Capital in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on social inclusion and social capital to develop a framework to guide the selection of items and measures for the forthcoming SA Department of Human Services Survey of Social Inclusion to be held in the region of Northern Adelaide in South Australia. Northern Adelaide is a region with areas of high socio-economic…

  7. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  8. Mycobacterium chelonae Abscesses Associated with Biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P.; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed. PMID:23968779

  9. Mycobacterium chelonae abscesses associated with biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed. PMID:23968779

  10. Making Visible the First Women in Astronomy in Australia: The Measurers and Computers Employed for the Astrographic Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.

    In Australia a significant number of women were employed to measure and compute the position of stars for the Astrographic Catalogue at Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Observatories. New archival research has provided evidence that the first women employed in astronomy in Australia were engaged due to this project.

  11. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  12. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  13. "My Business Was Not with Lost Souls and the Underprivileged": The Contribution of Colin Badger (1906-1993) to Adult Education in Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushbrook, Peter

    Colin Badger was an adult educator who contributed to Victorian adult education in Australia. After graduating from the University of Adelaide in 1936, Badger became a tutor for the South Australian Workers Education Association (WEA), where he became aware of the possibilities of adult education. After study in London, he returned to Australia to…

  14. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-08-15

    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  15. Temporal trends in drug use in Adelaide, South Australia by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Tscharke, Benjamin J; Chen, Chang; Gerber, Jacobus P; White, Jason M

    2016-09-15

    Analysis of municipal wastewater for drug metabolites can reveal the scale of drug use within communities. An Australian city with a population of 1.2million inhabitants was assessed for 4 stimulants: cocaine, methamphetamine, 3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine; 6 opioids: codeine, morphine, heroin, fentanyl, oxycodone and methadone; 11 new psychoactive substances (NPS); benzylpiperazine (BZP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), methcathinone, methylone, mephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), alpha pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA), 25C-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe; and cannabis, for up to four years between December 2011 and December 2015. Temporal trends revealed increasing usage rates of methamphetamine, cocaine, oxycodone, and fentanyl, while decreasing rates of use were observed for MDMA, BZP and methylone. Use of other opioids and cannabis was generally stable across years, while use of new psychoactive substances fluctuated without an apparent direction. Opioids and cannabis were used at a consistent level through the course of the week, while use of stimulants and some NPS increased on the weekend. Seasonal differences in use were observed for MDMA and cannabis (p$_amp_$lt;0.05) where, on average, MDMA use was approximately 90% higher in December than in other months and cannabis use was approximately 45% lower in each February. Residual month-to-month variability measures on trend-free data showed NPS use had higher variability than the stimulants and opioids. Frequent wastewater sampling and analysis over prolonged periods has yielded valuable insights into long-term drug use trends, in some instances revealed important within-year trends, and demonstrated the differing patterns of use of drugs on weekends compared to weekdays. PMID:27179320

  16. Invitational Seminar on the Delors Report: "Learning--The Treasure Within" (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, November 17, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders Univ., Adelaide. Inst. of International Education.

    This document contains information about, from, and related to a seminar that was convened to bring together senior members of all sectors of education with representatives of business to examine the "UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) Report on Education for the 21st Century" (also known as the Delors…

  17. The Adelaide VHF radar: Capabilities and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, B. H.; Candy, B.; Elford, W. G.; Hocking, W. K.; May, P. T.; Vincent, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The VHF radar at Buckland Park, South Australia commenced operation in January, 1984. The radar is located adjacent to the 2-MHz ionospheric radar. The routine method for measuring horizontal wind velocity is the space antenna technique (SA) while the Doppler technique is used to measure vertical velocities. It is possible to swing the transmitting beam in the east-west plane, allowing Doppler measurements of the EW wind component.

  18. Characteristic features of pediatric firearm fatalities--comparisons between Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Haas, Elisabeth; Marshall, Drew T; Gilbert, John D; Krous, Henry F

    2009-09-01

    Gunshot deaths in children less than 17 years of age from Adelaide, SA, Australia (1969-2005) and from San Diego County, CA, United States (1988-2005) were compared. Forty-two pediatric gunshot fatalities occurred in South Australia (1.1 cases/year; M:F = 30:12). There were 6 accidents (14%), 14 suicides (33%), and 22 homicides (52%). In San Diego there were 185 cases (c.10 cases/year; M:F = 148:37). There were 6 accidents (3%), 42 suicides (23%), 130 homicides (70%), and 7 undetermined cases (4%). The incidence of homicide was significantly higher in San Diego County compared to Adelaide (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of murder-suicides occurring in Adelaide. There were markedly more accidents and suicides involving males in Adelaide and a far higher number of male homicide victims in San Diego County compared to females. Rifles of 0.22-caliber were preferred weapons in South Australia, compared to handguns in San Diego County. PMID:19674237

  19. Presolar Grain Inventories of the Ungrouped C3 Adelaide and the CV3 RBT 04133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    Here we report the presolar grain inventories (silicates, oxides, SiC, and other C-anomalous phases) determined for Adelaide (an ungrouped C3 chondrite) and RBT 04133 (a mildly thermally altered CV3) by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging.

  20. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  1. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  2. A comparison of Australian rural and metropolitan cardiovascular risk and mortality: the Greater Green Triangle and North West Adelaide population surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Design Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004–2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004–2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Setting Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). Participants 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25–74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/− anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Results Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 5% to 30% in the 35–39 and 70–74 age groups, respectively. Similar mean 2003–2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Conclusions Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural

  3. Occurrence characteristics of medium-scale gravity waves observed in OH and OI nightglow over Adelaide (34.5°S, 138.5°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Yuan, H.; Wan, W.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a 7 year climatology describing medium-scale gravity waves observed in the menopause region covering the years from 1995 to 2001. The data comes from the OI and OH airglow observations of the three-field photometer employed at the University of Adelaide's Buckland Park, Australia (34.5°S, 138.5°E). About 1300 gravity wave events (AGW) are identified during the years 1995-2001. These AGW events usually persist for between 40 min and 4 hours. The magnitudes range from 1% to 14% of the background intensities and peak at 2% for OI observations and at 3% for OH observations. The observed periods range from 10 to 30 min, and the horizontal phase speeds range from 20 to 250 m s-1, with dominant wave scales of 17 min, 70 m s-1 for OI observations and 20 min, 40 m s-1 for OH observations. The intrinsic parameters are obtained by using medium-frequency (MF) wind data observed at the same place. The occurrence frequency of AGW events peaks at 13 min, 40 m s-1 for both OI and OH observations. The occurrence rate of gravity waves has a major peak in summer and a minor peak in winter. There is an obvious dominating southeastward direction for gravity waves, with azimuths of 160° in summer and 130° in winter. Studies for gravity waves observed in various locations show a similar tendency of propagating meridionally toward the summer pole. This implies that the tendency of propagating toward the summer pole may be a global trend for medium-scale gravity waves observed in the mesopause region. During summer, gravity waves propagate against winds measured by MF radar in their dominating direction. Using the ray tracing method, we found that the seasonal variation of winds limits the access of gravity waves to the observation height through reflection and critical coupling, which is one of the causes leading to the seasonal behavior of gravity waves observed over Adelaide.

  4. Literacy--A Focus on the Future; Proceedings of the Australian Reading Conference (1st, Adelaide, August 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Claire, Ed.; Anderson, Jonathon, Ed.

    The papers published in this volume were delivered at the First Australian Reading Conference, which was held in Adelaide in August 1975. Topics of discussion included, among others, preservice and inservice teacher education, facilities in reading, the development and use of reading materials, student motivation, children's literature, reading…

  5. Assessment and Standards in Vocational Education and Training. Conference/Workshop Report (Adelaide, Australia, October 1-3, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Ltd., Leabrook (Australia).

    These proceedings contain 17 papers from plenary sessions, workshops, and other presentations at a conference to consider and clarify major issues in assessment and standards in vocational education and training, including identification of problems and suggested solutions. A summary of discussions follows most presentations. Plenary session…

  6. Setting the Standard. International Forum on Education in Penal Systems Conference Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, April 5-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmens, Bob, Ed.; Cook, Sandy, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers presented at an international forum on education in penal systems. The following papers are included: "Burning" (Craig W.J. Minogue); "The Acquisition of Cognitive Skills as a Means of Recidivism Reduction: A Former Prisoner's Perspective" (Trevor Darryl Doherty); "CEA (Correctional Education Association)…

  7. Literacy on the Line. Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Proceedings (21st, Adelaide, Australia, September 24-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the Workplace" (Scheeres,…

  8. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in an Ageing Society. Experts Meeting Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, October 3-4, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the modern world is its changing demographic profile. In almost any policy arena, the issue of demographic change (or ageing) sits alongside globalisation, climate change and the knowledge revolution as areas which are transforming societies, including the ways in which we organise and go about our work…

  9. Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Brophy, Brian P.; Taylor, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

  10. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  11. Hunter-gatherer variability: Dental wear in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Judith; Scott, Rachel; McFarlane, Gina; Walshe, Keryn

    2013-10-01

    Often it is assumed that hunter-gatherer dentitions are dominated by heavy attrition. Recent analyses, however, have shown unexpected variability in the pattern of wear between groups. It had been previously noted that wear differed between neighboring groups on the Murray River, Australia. This analysis extends that geographic scope as well as focusing on wear across the dentition, including the premolars. The samples came from coastal and riverine regions of southern Australia. The analysis used records from the Yorke Peninsula, Adelaide Plains (Gillman site), and Euston regions. These were compared with previously published work from the Adelaide Plains and four locations on the Murray River. The results confirm the overall severity of wear but reveal systematic differences between the samples in terms of the pattern of wear. Heavy wear on the incisors and canines is observed among males from the Euston, Kaurna, Middle A, Murray Mouth, and Yorke Peninsula samples but with marked intra-individual variability. Extensive premolar wear is noted among females from Kaurna and Middle B samples as well as among males and females from Euston. It is argued that these patterns relate to gendered non-masticatory use of teeth and reliance upon bulrush (Typha spp.) and related species for both food and fiber among some groups. We argue that analyzing the degree of variability within samples and across all teeth provides a more nuanced understanding of dental wear among hunter-gatherers. PMID:23999884

  12. NEEMO 18-20: Analog Testing for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Miller, Matthew J.; Graff, Trevor G.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Halcon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of communication latencies on operations concepts, timelines, and tasks were studied. METHODS: Twelve subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were preplanned based on precursor data. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were designed to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, ST assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after data acquisition). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that allow for pre-sampling surveys enable efficient traverse execution and meaningful Mission Control Center (MCC) interaction across communication latencies and can be

  13. The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

  14. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, USA, SEPTEMBER 18-20, 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from five countries presented papers at the Second International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality Management, which was held in Sacramento, California, on September 18-20, 1990. his proceedings includes 21 papers presented in sessions on the ...

  15. WATERBORNE TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIASIS: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON SEPTEMBER 18-20, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Effects Research Laboratory and the Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a National Symposium on Waterborne Transmission of Giardiasis in Cincinnati on September 18-20, 1978. The symposium brought together sc...

  16. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  17. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Additional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following keynote addresses are include: "Some Recent TAFE National Centre Research and Development in Australian Vocational Education" (Hall); "Vocational Teacher Education: Principles,…

  18. Dreams and Dynamics. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 27-30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Sigrun Klara, Ed.; And Others

    The themes of the 22nd Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference were: "Building a Picture of Society in the Year 2000"; "Literature--Themes of the '90s Towards the Future"; "Education--Partnerships To Develop Life-Long Learners"; and "Technology into the 21st Century." The following papers were selected for publication…

  19. Educational Technology for the Clever Country. Selected Papers from the Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, October 1-3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; Steele, James, Ed.

    This proceeding includes the following 28 papers selected from the 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology: "Ecunet, Edith Cowan University's Video Conferencing Network: Two Years On" (Michael Grant); "Navigation Options in Interactive Multimedia" (John G. Hedberg & Barry Harper); "The Western Australian Networks for…

  20. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Conference Papers. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following workshop presentations are included: "Vocational Education in a Developing Country" (Theron); "From the Technical to the Critical: A New Agenda for Vocational Education Research"…

  1. Adelaide River virus nucleoprotein gene: analysis of phylogenetic relationships of ephemeroviruses and other rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cowley, J A; Walker, P J

    1995-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Adelaide River virus (ARV) genome was determined from the 3' terminus to the end of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The 3' leader sequence comprises 50 nucleotides and shares a common terminal trinucleotide (3' UGC-), a conserved U-rich domain and a variable AU-rich domain with other animal rhabdoviruses. The N gene comprises 1355 nucleotides from the transcription start sequence (AACAGG) to the poly(A) sequence [CATG(A)7] and encodes a polypeptide of 429 amino acids. The N protein has a calculated molecular mass of 49429 Da and a pI of 5.4 and, like the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) N protein, features a highly acidic C-terminal domain. Analysis of amino acid sequence relationships between all available rhabdovirus N proteins indicated that ARV and BEFV are closely related viruses (48.3% similarity) which share higher sequence similarity to vesiculoviruses than to lyssaviruses. Phylogenetic trees based on a multiple sequence alignment of all available rhabdovirus N protein sequences demonstrated clustering of viruses according to genome organization, host range and established taxonomic relationships. PMID:9049348

  2. The new medical curriculum at Flinders University, South Australia: from concept to reality.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Paul; Nicholas, Terry; Prideaux, David

    2001-01-01

    After much discussion and planning, Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia recently introduced a new Graduate-Entry Medical Program (GEMP) which centres on problem-based learning (PBL). We describe the factors that stimulated the development of this new course, discuss its aims and philosophies and provide a brief outline of its structure. Advice and practical help was freely provided by several institutions who had undertaken similarly radical curricular reform and without this, a difficult task would have been much harder. We hope that our experiences will be of interest and help to others who are considering curricular reform. PMID:11260745

  3. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  5. Inorganic pollution of the sediments of the River Torrens, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, R. J. B.; Gale, S. J.; Winchester, H. P. M.

    2006-05-01

    The River Torrens plays a vital role in the economic, social and environmental life of South Australia. The river rises on the Adelaide Hills and flows west across the Adelaide Plains, bisecting the city of Adelaide and reaching the sea at the Gulf of St Vincent. The bed sediments of the Torrens were sampled from its headwaters to the coast and analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, phosphorus and zinc. With the exception of chromium, the concentration of every metal investigated lies above the national trigger value for sediment quality at some point along the course of the river. The sediments of the headwaters exhibit high values of copper and zinc, although these probably reflect natural background conditions rather than pollution. By contrast, in the residential areas that dominate the Adelaide Plains, almost every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, some to well beyond the point of biological damage. Several residential sites, notably those downstream of the city of Adelaide, are also polluted by cadmium. Within the industrial zone around the city, every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, with concentrations at some locations far beyond the threshold for ecological damage. Several industrial sites are also polluted by cadmium and copper. There are no national guidelines against which to assess the phosphorus content of the sediments. However, there is strong evidence that human activities have had a significant impact on phosphorus levels in the river. Major cyanobacterial blooms along the lower Torrens have been linked to the release of nutrients from the sediments, and phosphorus concentrations in the water have reached dramatic levels. Much of this contamination appears to be a consequence of past pollution practices. In particular, the severe pollution along the reach immediately to the west of the city may be largely attributed to the former concentration of metallurgical and chemical industries in that area. These problems are likely to

  6. The design and construction of the University of Adelaide Bicentennial Gamma-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, R. W.; Giles, D. H.; Gregory, A. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Prescott, J. R.; Protheroe, R. J.; Smith, N. I.; Taaffe, L.; Wild, N.

    The design and construction of the 30 sq m Bicentennial Gamma Ray Telescope at Woomera South Australia is described. This novel instrument is now completed and commisioning is underway. It is designed to observe astronomical sources at energies greater than approximately 500 GeV by means of atmospheric Cerenkov light. It contains 55 spherical, glass mirrors of focal length 2.66 m arranged in three groups of 10 sq m, to focus the light onto three sets of detectors operated in fast coincidence. The recording electronics includes a rubidium clock to enable pulsars to be studied.

  7. William Henry Bragg in Adelaide: beginning research at a colonial locality.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, John

    2004-03-01

    This essay presents an account of W. H. Bragg's earliest research program in Australia during the years 1904-1907: a study of the behavior of alpha particles from radioactive decay. It is suggested that problems associated with distance and isolation played a pivotal role in Bragg's thinking and acting during this period and that his use of two "advocates," Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy, was essential to the success of the program. It is further argued that this account supports a substantial amendment of the center-periphery model of colonial science to embrace a much closer attention to place and locality; that is, it supports a polycentric model (in which the center might still be prominent). PMID:15301067

  8. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Mitchell H; Coventry, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated limb infusion (ILI) using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to “isolate” the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia), and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a “clinically significant” response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20), the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. PMID:23990731

  9. Assessing Timescales and Controls of Floodplain Evolution in Monsoonal Australia during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. H.; Preusser, F.

    2014-12-01

    Subtropical and tropical river systems are considered unique and sensitive archives for the detection of past changes in global circulation patterns due to their strategic position between significant atmospheric phenomena. In semi-arid to arid Central Australia, many of the hydrological variations have generally been attributed to variations in monsoon strength and position. While an increasing number of studies has recently addressed the reconstruction of monsoonal variations from high-resolution proxy records in tropical Australasia, very little data is available on the landscape-scale impacts such as weathering, erosion, flooding and sediment transport. Therefore, unraveling the impacts of past changes in monsoonal intensity on fluvial systems in Australia's tropical north - the 'Top End' - will substantially contribute to our understanding of cause and effect of climate change. Our study presents first results from the Adelaide River, one of the major river systems draining the 'Top End'. Here, extensive but currently inactive floodplains have accreted along the middle reaches of the catchment upstream of bedrock constrictions. Virtually no data is so far available from these floodplains although their stratigraphic and sedimentary record should contain valuable information on the late Quaternary evolution of the fluvial system in northern Australia. We have cored a transect of nine sediment profiles across the floodplains and levees associated with the Adelaide River. Based on these profiles, we (i) document their geomorphologic setting based on the analysis of high-resolution (LIDAR) elevation models and remote sensing data, (ii) establish a first stratigraphy for these floodplains based on field description, grain sizes and detailed total element data, (iii) present a chronological framework for the sediments based on luminescence dating, and (iv) discuss the significance of these results in terms of the larger-scale evolution of paleoenvironments and sea

  10. Early Palaeozoic foreland thrusting and basin reactivation at the Palaeo-Pacific margin of the southeastern Australian Precambrian Craton: a reappraisal of the structural evolution of the Southern Adelaide Fold-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöttmann, Thomas; James, Pat; Rogers, Jamie; Johnson, Tim

    1994-06-01

    Regional and detailed structural mapping, kinematic analysis and balancing and restoration of cross sections has lead to a re-interpretation of the Adelaide Fold Belt in South Australia. In this belt sedimentary rocks of the Late Proterozoic Adelaidean and Early Cambrian Normanville and Kanmantoo sequences were deposited during at least two episodes of subsidence related to major crustal attenuation. Contraction and crustal thickening accompanied by granitoid intrusions are related to the Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian orogeny. During this event both basins were reactivated ("inverted") and the sedimentary rocks are now incorporated in a WNW-verging foreland fold and thrust belt at the margin of the Proterozoic southeast Australian craton. Maximal shortening of the orogen was around 55%. Within the Adelaidean basin, shortening is dominantly accommodated by major mylonitic shear zones and reverse faults. In the Cambrian Kanmantoo basin, several thrusts are demonstrably reactivated growth faults, across which thickness changes of Cambrian sedimentary rocks are revealed by balancing and restoration of cross sections. Owing to the steep easterly dips of these faults, in the western part of the Kanmantoo basin lateral shortening of up to 58% is largely accommodated by intense folding and fold axial-planar flattening strain. Further east, strain magnitudes wane and the overall shortening of around 30% is accommodated by both, discrete thrust zones and regional folds. The basin reactivation along the Australian part of Gondwana's palaeo-Pacific craton margin reflects the rapid transition from passive to active tectonism, which possibly is a consequence of the disintegration of the formerly conjugate margins of Gondwana and Laurentia.

  11. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1980 HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA ON NOVEMBER 18-20, 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents presentations at the second EPA-sponsored symposium on iron and steel pollution abatement technology, in Philadelphia, PA, November 18-20, 1980. (The first was in Chicago, IL, in October 1979.) The symposium provided participants an opportunity to exchange in...

  12. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1983. HELD IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 18-20, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceeding document presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1983, the fifth in this series, held in Chicago on October 18-20, 1983. It provided a forum for the exchange of information on technological problems related to multimedia ...

  13. An Investigation into Associations with Attachment, Companion Pet Attachment, Empathy, and Prosocial Behaviors in 18-20 Year Old College Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines empathy, parental attachment, companion pet attachment and social behaviors in a sample of 120 students between the ages of 18-20 enrolled at Front Range Community College in Westminster CO during the fall semester 2008. The study is based on the research questions posed by Thompson and Gullone (2008) but pays particular…

  14. Using Research in the Professional Life of Mathematics Teachers. International Congress on Mathematical Education (5th, Adelaide, Australia, August 24-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.

    The papers in this monograph are grouped by the five session topics of the Using Research Group meetings. Perspectives on Using Research was first, with papers on research and the teaching job (Romberg), utility (Wheeler), review and dissemination (Dessart), preparing materials (Jurdak), and the teacher's view (Williams). The second session was on…

  15. Understanding extreme rainfall events in Australia through historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Linden; Karoly, David John

    2016-04-01

    Historical climate data recovery is still an emerging field in the Australian region. The majority of Australia's instrumental climate analyses begin in 1900 for rainfall and 1910 for temperature, particularly those focussed on extreme event analysis. This data sparsity for the past in turn limits our understanding of long-term climate variability, constraining efforts to predict the impact of future climate change. To address this need for improved historical data in Australia, a new network of recovered climate observations has recently been developed, centred on the highly populated southeastern Australian region (Ashcroft et al., 2014a, 2014b). The dataset includes observations from more than 39 published and unpublished sources and extends from British settlement in 1788 to the formation of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in 1908. Many of these historical sources provide daily temperature and rainfall information, providing an opportunity to improve understanding of the multidecadal variability of Australia's extreme events. In this study we combine the historical data for three major Australian cities - Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide - with modern observations to examine extreme rainfall variability over the past 174 years (1839-2013). We first explore two case studies, combining instrumental and documentary evidence to support the occurrence of severe storms in Sydney in 1841 and 1844. These events appear to be at least as extreme as Sydney's modern 24-hour rainfall record. Next we use a suite of rainfall indices to assess the long-term variability of rainfall in southeastern Australia. In particular, we focus on the stationarity of the teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and extreme rainfall events. Using ENSO reconstructions derived from both palaeoclimatic and documentary sources, we determine the historical relationship between extreme rainfall in southeastern Australia and ENSO, and examine whether or not this

  16. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  17. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  18. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  19. Severe heat waves in Southern Australia: synoptic climatology and large scale connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes; van Rensch, Peter; Cai, Wenju

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings a new perspective on the large scale dynamics of severe heat wave (HW) events that commonly affect southern Australia. Through an automatic tracking scheme, the cyclones and anticyclones associated with HWs affecting Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth are tracked at both the surface and upper levels, producing for the first time a synoptic climatology that reveals the broader connections associated with these extreme phenomena. The results show that a couplet (or pressure dipole) formed by transient cyclones and anticyclones can reinforce the HW similarly to what is observed in cold surges (CS), with an obvious opposite polarity. Our results show that there is a large degree of mobility in the synoptic signature associated with the passage of the upper level ridges before they reach Australia and the blocking is established, with HW-associated surface anticyclones often initiating over the west Indian Ocean and decaying in the eastern Pacific. In contrast to this result the 500 hPa anticyclone tracks show a very small degree of mobility, responding to the dominance of the upper level blocking ridge. An important feature of HWs is that most of the cyclones are formed inland in association with heat troughs, while in CS the cyclones are typically maritime (often explosive), associated with a strong cold front. Hence the influence of the cyclone is indirect, contributing to reinforce the blocking ridge through hot and dry advection on the ridge's western flank. Additional insights are drawn for the record Adelaide case of March 2008 with fifteen consecutive days above 35°C breaking the previous record by 7 days. Sea surface temperatures suggest a significant air-sea interaction mechanism, with a broad increase in the meridional temperature gradient over the Indian Ocean amplifying the upstream Rossby waves that can trigger HW events. A robust cooling of the waters close to the Australian coast also contributes to the maintenance of the blocking highs

  20. Community Music in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  1. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  2. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  3. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  4. Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual

  5. Matricides in South Australia - a 20-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-04-01

    A 20-year retrospective review of files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia was undertaken for cases of matricide occurring between the years 1985 and 2004. A total of 11 cases were identified: 10 males and 1 female. The victims were aged between 42 and 83 years (mean=61 years) and the perpetrators were aged between 15 and 53 years (mean=28.7 years). In all 11 cases weapons such as blunt objects (N=5), knives (N=5), firearms (N=3), or ligatures (N=1) were involved in the assaults, with injuries inflicted by the weapons causing death in 10 cases. In five cases trauma was caused by more than one injurious agent/action; e.g. there was evidence of immersion and burning in two cases. In four cases there were multiple (>10) significant injuries inflicted by perpetrators suffering from schizophrenia (N=2), 'mental impairment' (N=1) and a 'combination of psychiatric disorders' (N=1). One perpetrator committed suicide after killing his mother. Six of the ten surviving perpetrators were found not guilty of murder on the grounds of mental illness or impairment, and one perpetrator had the charge reduced from murder to manslaughter due to underlying mental conditions that included previous brain injury. Matricides are uncommon forms of homicide that have similar features in most communities studied. Intra-familial tensions with underlying psychiatric illness in the perpetrator are common findings. PMID:18313012

  6. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  7. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  8. Garbage In--Garbage Out. The Need for Quality in the Age of Automation. Proceedings of the Australian Library and Information Association National Cataloguing Conference (8th, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 14-16, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alan, Ed.; Bundy, Judith, Ed.

    The 17 papers in this collection address aspects of quality data and quality of service to clients and the links between the two. Two keynote addresses are included: "A Plea for Quality Cataloguing with a Consideration of the Audience for Our Product" and "Rare Book Cataloging with the Audience Again Considered" (both by J. B. Thomas III). The…

  9. International workshop on Chromosome 12 held at St. Catherine`s College, Oxford, England, September 18--20, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmill, R.

    1992-12-31

    The First International Mapping Workshop on Human Chromosome 12 was held on Sept. 18--20, 1992, at St Catherine`s College, Oxford, UK. The meeting was hosted by Ian Craig and organized by Drs. Craig, Gemmill and Kutcherlapati. It was attended by 50 participants primarily from Europe and the USA. The workshop was highly successful and achieved the major goal of fostering direct and personal interactions between investigators with strong research interests in this chromosome. Participants reviewed the status of several critical aspects of chromosome mapping and prepared consensus views of the current state of knowledge. In addition, lists of resources available for this chromosome including somatic cell hybrids, individual DNA clones and libraries and genetic markers were prepared.

  10. An odyssey of environmental pollution: the rise, fall and remobilization of industrial lead in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L.; Liqin, W.; Harvey, P. J.; Dong, C.; Rouillon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of lead in automobile gasoline resulted in more than 240,000 tonnes of lead being emitted to the Australian environment over its 70-year period of use starting in 1932. The consequences of the emissions and subsequent depositions have resulted in marked contamination of urban and peri-urban aerosols, soils, plants and humans. This paper charts these effects and examines the extent of recovery from one of the most pervasive and persistent environmental pollutants. Lead isotopic composition of Adelaide and Sydney aerosol filters show that air lead composition shifts from values that approximate Broken Hill type ores, the predominant lead source used in gasoline (1.04 206Pb/207Pb and 2.31 208Pb/207Pb), towards ratios that more closely match local uncontaminated soil and bedrock values (Adelaide ~1.19 206Pb/207Pb and ~2.50 208Pb/207Pb; Sydney ~1.15 206Pb/207Pb and 2.48 208Pb/207Pb). Proxy atmospheric measurements from historic wine, lichen and fungi samples extending over 120 years show how both concentration and composition values shifted in the middle to late 20th century to reflect petrol emissions and then recovered rapidly at the end of the century as leaded gasoline consumption declined. For example, lead in wine from South Australia fell from >100 μg/L in the 1960s and 1970s to < 5 μg/L in the 2010s due to the removal of the primary source of atmospheric lead - gasoline. However, measurement of contemporary surface soils, ash produced from wildfires and air filters demonstrate that the effect of depositions persists and industrial lead and other toxic metals (including arsenic, cadmium and nickel) are subject to frequent remobilization. Predicted increases in wildfires and the generation of lead, arsenic and cadmium toxic particulates warrants greater consideration of the risk for vulnerable populations and firefighters who are most exposed.

  11. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  12. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  13. Surgery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Clunie, G J

    1994-01-01

    More than 4000 surgeons in Australia provide services to 17.6 million people living in the world's driest continent, with a land mass comparable to that of the United States. The problem of distance has been overcome in large part for the 17% of the population who live in remote areas by modern communication systems and by the Flying Doctor and Flying Surgeon services. For the remaining population, largely clustered on the fertile eastern seaboard, surgical services rival the best in the world, and surgical training, under the control of The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, has set an example for which Australia can be justifiably proud. PMID:8279935

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in Australia: trends in socioeconomic inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status. DESIGN--Behavioural data, physical measurements, blood pressure, and lipid determination collected in three, successive multicentre cross sectional community surveys conducted in 1980, 1983, and 1989. SETTING--The six state capital cities of Australia; Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 19,315 randomly selected respondents stratified by age (25-44, 45-64) and sex. RESULTS--During the 1980s, average blood pressure declined for each level of educational attainment. Dietary messages to reduce the intake of saturated fat had little effect on the lipid profile of any population group. Height and educational attainment were positively associated. Women increased in weight from between 2 to 4 kg depending on age and educational attainment while older men experienced increases of around 2.5 kg regardless of educational attainment. Advice to avoid salt was adopted across the spectrum of educational attainment but with no suggestion that the socioeconomic gradient, which favoured the more highly educated, was diminishing. Men of all education levels responded positively to the anti-smoking initiatives of the 1980s but the relative disadvantage of those of lower education was maintained. Among women, the decline in smoking was less among those in the low education group. The prevalence of moderate to heavy drinkers was higher in men of lower educational attainment but declined significantly over the period. Walking for recreation or exercise became more popular, especially among older men of low education, while the prevalence of aerobic exercise and vigorous exercise remained largely unchanged. Overall, the clear socioeconomic gradient between leisure time physical activity and education attainment remained. CONCLUSIONS--The lower socioeconomic group has improved its risk

  15. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  16. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  17. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  18. Media Matters in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kell

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a teacher helped transform a K-12 Christian school near Sydney, Australia, from a book-bound media studies program into a hands-on learning experience for students. Various projects allow students to operate advanced equipment, evaluate their own and their peers' work, present research results to the class, and produce live media…

  19. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  20. Children's Books in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Vida

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, describes children's literature in Australia, discussing specifically the background of this literature (the country and early children's books); various influences on the literature, such as the Children's Book Council and children's and school libraries; present-day publishing, including…

  1. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory. PMID:20941881

  2. Networking in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Dorothy G.

    1976-01-01

    The last few years have seen increasing interest in library networking in Australia from a number of different groups. All the projects have concerned networks of similar libraries and no parallel to U.S.A. developments of networks encompassing a variety of types of libraries has yet appeared. (Author)

  3. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  4. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  5. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  6. Food-group consumption and colon cancer in the Adelaide Case-Control Study. I. Vegetables and fruit.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1993-03-12

    Previous epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of colon cancer. Vegetables and fruit contain a large number of potentially anti-carcinogenic substances, thus lending biological plausibility to this association. We conducted a case-control study in Australia, comparing 220 persons with histologically confirmed incident adenocarcinoma of the colon with 438 age- and gender-matched controls. Cases were identified via the South Australian Cancer Registry (1979-80); controls were randomly selected from the electoral roll. All participants completed a 141-item food-frequency questionnaire and were interviewed regarding demographic and other information. Consumption of 15 vegetable and fruit groups was investigated. Odds ratios (OR) for quartiles of consumption were derived using conditional logistic regression. All analyses were conducted separately for females and males. For females, greater intakes of onions and legumes were associated with decreased risk, with protein-adjusted OR of 0.48 and 0.53 respectively. Greater intakes of raw fruit and cabbage were associated with protein-adjusted OR of 0.76 and 0.71 respectively. For males, greater intakes of onions, green leafy vegetables, legumes, carrots and cabbage were associated with protein-adjusted OR in the range of 0.72 to 0.77. Consumption of potatoes was positively associated with risk in both genders. All 95% confidence intervals included 1.0. Analyses stratified by colon-cancer sub-site showed no strong and consistent differences between sub-sites for the vegetable and fruit associations. Results for meat, poultry, seafood, dairy foods and eggs are presented in a companion report. PMID:8449594

  7. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  8. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  9. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  10. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  11. Australia and Gondwanaland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teichert, C.

    1959-01-01

    Along the western margin of the Australian continent there exist four major sedimentary basins, filled with predominantly marine rocks from Cambrian to Tertiary in age, and up to 40,000 feet thick. Seaward these basins continue into depressions recognizable in the continental shelf and even the continental slope. Their very presence, the nature of their sediments and the composition and relationships of their fossil faunas indicate the existence of an open ocean to the west of Australia since early Paleozoic time. Composition of the Australian fossil land vertebrate faunas suggests isolation of the Australian continent since at least Permian time. ?? 1959 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  12. Earth - India and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  13. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health. PMID:26520058

  14. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Adams, Robert J.; Taylor, Anne W.; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. PMID:27213423

  15. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. PMID:27213423

  16. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  17. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Trends in stimulant use in Australia: A comparison of wastewater analysis and population surveys.

    PubMed

    Tscharke, Benjamin J; Chen, Chang; Gerber, Jacobus P; White, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Levels of community drug use are usually described by national surveys; data relied upon by decision makers in health and law enforcement. In recent years the analysis of wastewater for drugs and their metabolites has become prominent. Both methods convey unique drug use information. This paper demonstrates differences arising from the two approaches, using methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine data from the state of South Australia. The proportion of people using each drug, obtained from three prominent drug surveys, was compared with estimates of total community drug use derived by wastewater analysis. Temporal trends were compared for available years of the surveys and wastewater analysis from 2010 to 2013. Wastewater results showed methamphetamine to be the most prevalent stimulant in Adelaide, South Australia, with an average of 24.4±1.7 doses per day per 1000 inhabitants for 2013, while consumption of MDMA and cocaine were much lower at 0.52±0.12 and 0.42±0.06 doses per day per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. Survey data typically had MDMA as the most used stimulant on a proportion of the population basis. The difference in magnitude of drug use between MDMA and methamphetamine was also less apparent. Temporal trends of the proportion of the population using a drug by surveys did not generally reflect total use within the community which was observed by wastewater analysis. Survey data are excellent for describing users demographically. However, discrepancies between the proportion of the population who are users and the magnitude of drug use can lead to misrepresentation of the overall scale of use. The results from this study indicate methamphetamine was used to a much greater extent than suggested by the surveys. Together, wastewater analysis and survey data give a comprehensive view of the drug problem enabling more informed decisions on drug policy. PMID:26225740

  20. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  1. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  2. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  3. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  4. Regional Teleseismic Tomography of the Lithosphere Beneath the Murray Basin, SE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, F. M.; Houseman, G. A.; Greenhalgh, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    From March till July 1999 a portable array of 40 short period digital seismograph stations was operated across the border of Victoria and South Australia, covering the south-western part of the Murray Basin, and the southern part of the early Paleozoic Delamerian Orogen. The Murray Basin 1999 (MB99) survey forms the second stage of a major seismological project in SE Australia, which was jointly operated by Monash University and Adelaide University between 1998 and 2000. Consisting of five approximately W-E oriented receiver lines, the MB99 array measured about 2o in latitude by 3o in longitude. The main aim of the MB99 project is to map lateral variations in P-wave speeds (Vp) in the lithosphere just east of a major geological boundary (the so-called Tasman line) between the Proterozoic cratons of central Australia, and the Paleozoic Tasman orogenic belt of eastern Australia, using regional teleseis mic arrival time tomography. The highly active margins of the Australian plate provided the majority of the observed events. More than 6000 arrival times from about 170 teleseismic events were inverted for a minimum structure Vp model in the upper few 100's km using a non-linear inversion scheme and 3-D ray tracing. The most prominent positive anomaly (up to 2.5%) in Vp is found at relatively shallow depths (about 30-100 km) underneath the western part of the Murray Basin, in a coherent volume striking approximately parallel to the coastline. Crustal thinning toward the edges of the Australian continental shelf might account for a small fraction of the observed negative residuals, but the overall pattern of relative arrival time residuals, which changes strongly with back azimuth, does not suggest such a shallow high speed anomaly. A pronounced negative anomaly (about 1.5-2%) is located north of the centre of the array. Little a priori information from seismic profiling is available. (first author now at CTBTO PrepCom, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria)

  5. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them. PMID:25015592

  6. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

  7. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  8. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  9. Systematic Co-Operation between Theory and Practice in Mathematics Education. Mini-Conference at ICME 5. Topic Area Research and Teaching (Adelaide, Australia, August 25-29, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Bent; And Others

    A miniconference (consisting of four 60-minute sessions) was organized to contribute to the exploration of frames, forms, and contents of systematic cooperation and interaction between the researcher and teacher in the classroom. These proceedings of the conference include descriptions of the organization, purpose, and background of the…

  10. Research to Reality: Putting VET Research To Work. Proceedings of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) Conference (4th, Adelaide, Australia, March 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association, Alexandria.

    This document contains 95 papers and summaries of 5 poster sessions from an Australian conference on putting vocational education and training (VET) research to work. The following are among the areas covered in the papers: factors affecting VET graduates' employability over time; technical and further education (TAFE) institutes as models of…

  11. Widening Horizons: New Challenges, Directions and Achievements: Selected Papers from the National Conference on Behaviour Management and Behaviour Change of Children and Youth with Emotional and/or Behaviour Problems (6th, Adelaide, South Australia, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainsh, Mark, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.

    This collection of 19 papers offers an Australian perspective on behavior management and behavior change of children and youth with emotional and/or behavior problems. Papers are presented in two sections: national and regional perspectives, and programs and strategies for different contexts. Titles and authors include: "An Evaluation of…

  12. Australia Viewed by NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This multispectral map of Australia and surrounding seas was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer shortly after closest approach on Dec. 8, 1990 from an altitude of about 50,000 miles. The image shows various ocean, land and atmospheric cloud features as they appear in three of the 408 infrared colors or wavelengths sensed by the instrument. The wavelength of 0.873 micron, represented as blue in the photo, shows regions of enhanced liquid water absorption, i.e. the Pacific and Indian oceans. The 0.984- micron band, represented as red, shows areas of enhanced ground reflection as on the Australian continent. This wavelength is also sensitive to the reflectivity of relatively thick clouds. The 0.939- micron wavelength, shown as green, is a strong water-vapor-absorbing band, and is used to accentuate clouds lying above the strongly absorbing lower atmosphere. When mixed with the red indicator of cloud reflection, the green produces a yellowish hue; this indicates thick clouds. The distinctive purplish color off the northeast coast marks the unusually shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Here the blue denoting water absorption combines with the red denoting reflection from coral and surface marine organisms to produce this unusual color. The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft is a combined mapping (imaging) and spectral instrument. It can sense 408 contiguous wavelengths from 0.7 micron (deep red) to 5.2 microns, and can construct a map or image by mechanical scanning. It can spectroscopically analyze atmospheres and surfaces and construct thermal and chemical maps.

  13. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  14. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  15. The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P < 0.001) and the oral assessment (1.36, 1.19 to 1.55; P < 0.001) stage of selection. The UMAT preparatory activities associated with the offer of an interview were attendance of a training course by a private organisation (1.75, 1.35 to 2.27: P < 0.001), use of online services of a private organisation (1.58, 1.23 to 2.04; P < 0.001), and familiarising oneself with the process (1.52, 1.15 to 2.00; p = 0.021). The oral assessment activities associated with an offer of a place included refining and learning a personal resume (9.73, 2.97 to 31.88; P < 0.001) and learning about the course structure (2.05, 1.29 to 3.26; P = 0.022). For the UMAT, applicants who found difficulties with learning for this type of test (0.47, 0.35 to 0.63: P < 0.001), with the timing of UMAT in terms of school exams (0.48, 0.5 to 0.66; P < 0.001) and with the inability to convey personal skills with the UMAT (0.67, 0.52 to 0.86; P = 0.026) were

  16. Clavadoce (Annelida: Phyllodocidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin S; Greaves, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The first records of the phyllodocid genus Clavadoce are provided from Australia, where the fifth species in the genus is now known: Clavadoce dorsolobata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) comb. nov. which is widely distributed in intertidal habitats in southeastern Australia. Clavadoce dorsolobata was described as Eumida (Sige) dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1987 and herein transferred to Clavadoce. Five species of Clavadoce are now known world wide, four of which are from different regions on the Pacific Ocean margin, while Clavadoce cristata is from the North Atlantic. The Australian species is the first record of Clavadoce for the southern hemisphere. PMID:27395480

  17. Nursing around the world: Australia.

    PubMed

    Stein-Parbury, J

    2000-01-01

    Early nursing in Australia was influenced strongly by the British nursing tradition, characterized by an apprenticeship style of nurse education. However, this influence has been replaced by the transfer of all registered nursing education into the higher education sector. This article will discuss the development of the discipline of nursing in Australia as well as the Australian health care system and nursing work force. Nursing educational programs, registration, organizations, and research will be will be described. Finally current issues in Australian nursing and health care will be presented. PMID:11453843

  18. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  19. Nurturing and Sustaining Entrepreneurship. University, Science Park, Business and Government Partnership in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examines entrepreneurial activities in university science and technology parks that promote innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Highlights projects at the University of Adelaide and Australian government programs that support entrepreneurship. (SK)

  20. High Technology in Australia: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhon, J. G.; Shannon, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper outlines the imbalance in Australia's intellectual and high technology trade, and argues that if Australia is to move beyond being a high technology colony, a new attitude toward research and development needs to be engendered, particularly in the private sector of industry. It is noted that Australia supplies a small number of the…

  1. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  2. Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Adamopoulos, Jim; Carter, Karen; Kelly, Heath

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of 2004, acute hepatitis E virus infections diagnosed in Victoria, Australia, increased 7-fold. Of the interviewed patients with highly reactive serologic results, 90% reported recent clinically compatible illness and overseas travel. The increase is compared with a background of exposure in countries in which hepatitis E is endemic. PMID:15757573

  3. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  4. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  5. Early College Entrance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2015-01-01

    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  6. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  7. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  8. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  9. Women and Literacy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Helen; Agostinelli, Jacinta

    The experiences, attitudes, and needs of three literacy learners and one paid literacy teacher in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. The analysis was framed by the following principles: (1) literacy is a feminist issue; (2) adult literacy education is best defined as broad, general education that is grounded in language and fosters depth and…

  10. Terminology Planning in Aboriginal Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jakelin; Walsh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Australia, as far as Aboriginal languages are concerned, is not yet engaged in systematic language planning exercises. This is in contrast to other parts of the world where language planning is institutionalised and enforced. In this paper we chronicle some of the language planning exercises we have observed, been involved in, or have studied of…

  11. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  12. Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P D; Steffensen, D A; Humpage, A R; Nicholson, B C; Falconer, I R; Lanthois, B; Fergusson, K M; Saint, C P

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the water supply for Yorke Peninsula in South Australia was deemed non-potable when extracts from a proliferation of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium aff. formosum in Upper Paskeville Reservoir were found to be lethally toxic by intraperitoneal injection into mice (400 mg kg-1). Routine water quality monitoring had failed to detect the development of the Phormidium until complaints of musty taste and odour, attributable to the production of 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB), were received from the consumers. The 185 ML open-balancing storage, receiving filtered and chloraminated water from the River Murray, was isolated from the drinking water supply and a health alert was issued to approximately 15,000 consumers. The identity of the toxin(s) is thus far unknown, but clinical symptoms of toxicity in mice and chemical characteristics are distinct from the known major cyanotoxins. Preliminary characterisation of this toxin indicates that it has low solubility in water and organic solvents and is strongly associated with the particulate cellular material of the filaments. Toxicity of extracts was diminished by boiling and by treatment with chlorine, but not by chloramines. Further testing of floating cyanobacterial mats in the Torrens Lake in the city of Adelaide (Phormidium aff. formosum) and Myponga Reservoir (Phormidium aff. amoenum) in 2000/2001 was also found to be toxic by mouse bioassay. Toxicity is yet to be confirmed in monospecific cultured strains and further studies are required to identify the toxin and assess its health significance. Genetic characterisation of isolates has commenced in an attempt to classify their relatedness and to assist in the rapid identification of potentially toxic strains. PMID:11769248

  13. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  14. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  15. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  16. Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.; Barlow, B. C.; Brown, A. R.; Glikson, A. Y.; Manwaring, E. A.; Moss, F. J.; Sedmik, E. C. E.; Van Son, J.; Brett, R.; Young, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out of the Gosses Bluff structure in Central Australia, which is a typical cryptoexplosion structure. The study included detailed geologic mapping, and seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, aeromagnetic, and ground magnetic surveys. It is concluded that the structure is an eroded crater formed by a single nearly instantaneous shock event, and that the event can be explained only by impact.

  17. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…

  18. The MAGSAT project in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first version of the MAGSAT selection and reduction software was completed as well as a major enhancement to support geomagnetic vector data selection and reduction. All MAGSAT data over an area between 90 E and 180 E and between 0 and 50 S were reduced. This area includes the Australasian region and surrounding oceans. Nearly 200 profiles across Australia satisfied the criteria for data. The reduced geomagnetic field inferred to be caused by sources within the lithosphere was interpreted. During reduction, magnetic effects caused by all other causes were eliminated. Some possible correlation with major tectonic structures and known continental scale heat flow anomalies were noted.

  19. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  20. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  1. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  2. Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J W; Edyvane, K S; Boxall, V A; Hamann, M; Soole, K L

    2001-05-01

    Port Pirie is the site of the largest lead smelter in the world, depositing 250 t of zinc, and 100 t of lead annually into Spencer Gulf. Barker Inlet is adjacent to metropolitan Adelaide, and receives unknown quantities of urban and industrial discharges. Both areas are sites of major commercial and recreational fisheries, contained within delicately balanced marine wetland ecosystems, comprising large areas of mangrove and seagrass habitats. Aldrichetta forsteri and Sillago schomburgkii are major species within these fisheries and as estuarine-dependent species were chosen for this study as indicator species for the detection and monitoring of pollutant impacts in the nearshore marine ecosystems of South Australia. Seston sediment collectors were deployed at each site and analysed seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper. Flesh samples from A. forsteri and S. schomburgkii were examined seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper and the results correlated with levels found in the seston sediment at each site. Metal concentrations were also correlated with a biomarker of genotoxicity measured in the same animals (micronuclei in erythrocytes) that were reported previously. Seston levels of cadmium, lead and copper were highest at Port Pirie, followed by Barker Inlet and were lowest at Wills Creek, with cadmium undetectable at the latter site. Metals in seston varied considerably with season, with generally higher levels in winter samples. In fish flesh, metal levels followed broadly similar trends as for seston. Spearman rank correlations between metals in seston and in flesh were strongly positive. There was also a significant correlation between flesh concentrations of each metal and the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes. This study has shown that seston concentration of pollutant metals are high in areas of industrial activity, and that these levels are also reflected in metal content of fish flesh. Mean flesh levels of cadmium

  3. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2010.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,353 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2010, representing a rate of 6.1 cases per 100,000 population. While rates of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 population for TB have been maintained in Australia, since first achieved in the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. The incidence in the Australian-born Indigenous population was 7.5 per 100,000 population, which is 11 times the incidence reported in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population of 0.7 per 100,000 population. Overseas-born people accounted for 90% of all cases notified in 2010 and represented a rate of 24 per 100,000 population. International students have been recognised as an increasingly important group, representing 25% of all overseas-born cases notified in 2010, and are a focus of this report. Household or other close contact with TB or past residence in a high risk country were the most commonly reported risk factors for TB infection. Outcome data for the 2009 TB cohort indicate that treatment success was attained in more than 95% of cases. As Australia continues to contribute to global TB control it is important to maintain good centralised national reporting of TB to identify populations at risk and monitor trends in TB. PMID:25409354

  4. Routine outcome measurement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Australia has been implementing routine outcome measurement in its specialized public sector mental health services for over a decade. It uses a range of clinician-rated and consumer-rated measures that are administered at set times during episodes of inpatient, ambulatory and community residential episodes of care. Routine outcome measurement is now embedded in service delivery, and data are made available in a variety of ways to different audiences. These data are used by policy-makers and planners to inform decisions about system-wide reforms, by service managers to monitor quality and effectiveness, and by clinicians to guide clinical decision-making and to promote dialogue with consumers. Consumers, carers and the general community can use these data to ensure that services are accountable for the care they deliver. This paper describes the status quo in Australia with respect to routine outcome measurement, discusses the factors that led to its successful implementation, and considers the steps that are necessary for its continued development. PMID:25768326

  5. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  6. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  7. Geography in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the current state of the geography discipline in higher education institutions in Australia. Geography in Australia is vulnerable--and perhaps more so than in many of the other countries covered in this special issue. Reasons for this are discussed. Amidst description of a series of struggles, this article also seeks to…

  8. Language Planning and Placenaming in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Flavia

    2007-01-01

    Before colonisation Australia was fully named by its Indigenous population, but that complex network of naming was largely overlooked as Europeans introduced their own names for features and settlements. Each of Australia's states and territories now has a nomenclature authority, whose activities are coordinated through the Committee for…

  9. Compulsory Arbitration and Conciliation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Harry E.

    The responsibility for education in Australia rests with the states. Teachers in the state of New South Wales, as in other Australian states, are employed by the Public Service Board, which determines working conditions. Teachers are administered, however, under the Department of Education. Labor disputes in Australia are settled not by formal…

  10. Skilled Migration: Australia. Working Paper No. 63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Migration patterns to and from Australia are becoming complex with migration programmes increasingly targeted towards meeting the needs of the labour market and regional development. This paper provides an analysis of the permanent and temporary movements of people to and from Australia in the last three years and their impact on the skilled…

  11. Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kristopher

    2014-11-29

    Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years. PMID:25431383

  12. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  13. Genomic Comparison of Two O111:H- Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Isolates from a Historic Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Outbreak in Australia.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Lauren J; Bent, Stephen J; Petty, Nicola K; Skippington, Elizabeth; Beatson, Scott A; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W

    2016-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important cause of diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Australia's worst outbreak of HUS occurred in Adelaide in 1995 and was one of the first major HUS outbreaks attributed to a non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) strain. Molecular analyses conducted at the time suggested that the outbreak was caused by an O111:H(-) clone, with strains from later in the outbreak harboring an extra copy of the genes encoding the potent Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). Two decades later, we have used next-generation sequencing to compare two isolates from early and late in this important outbreak. We analyzed genetic content, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and prophage insertion sites; for the latter, we demonstrate how paired-end sequence data can be leveraged to identify such insertion sites. The two strains are genetically identical except for six SNP differences and the presence of not one but two additional Stx2-converting prophages in the later isolate. Isolates from later in the outbreak were associated with higher levels of morbidity, suggesting that the presence of the additional Stx2-converting prophages is significant in terms of the virulence of this clone. PMID:26729762

  14. Genomic Comparison of Two O111:H− Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Isolates from a Historic Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Outbreak in Australia

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Lauren J.; Bent, Stephen J.; Petty, Nicola K.; Skippington, Elizabeth; Beatson, Scott A.; Paton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important cause of diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Australia's worst outbreak of HUS occurred in Adelaide in 1995 and was one of the first major HUS outbreaks attributed to a non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) strain. Molecular analyses conducted at the time suggested that the outbreak was caused by an O111:H− clone, with strains from later in the outbreak harboring an extra copy of the genes encoding the potent Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). Two decades later, we have used next-generation sequencing to compare two isolates from early and late in this important outbreak. We analyzed genetic content, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and prophage insertion sites; for the latter, we demonstrate how paired-end sequence data can be leveraged to identify such insertion sites. The two strains are genetically identical except for six SNP differences and the presence of not one but two additional Stx2-converting prophages in the later isolate. Isolates from later in the outbreak were associated with higher levels of morbidity, suggesting that the presence of the additional Stx2-converting prophages is significant in terms of the virulence of this clone. PMID:26729762

  15. Space weather activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a

  16. Correlates of hysterectomy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1992-04-01

    With around one in five women undergoing hysterectomy by the age of 50, the prevalence of hysterectomy in Australia is greater than in Europe but less than in the United States. In this paper, data from a nationally representative sample survey of 2547 Australian women aged 20-59 years are employed to identify correlates of hysterectomy and tubal sterilization over the last 30 years. Physiological, socio-economic and supply-side factors all influence the propensity to undergo hysterectomy, and a comparison with the correlates of tubal sterilization reveals parallels and contrasts between the determinants of the two operations. Age and parity are important predictors of hysterectomy. In addition, use of oral contraceptives for at least five years reduces the risk of hysterectomy, as do tubal sterilization, tertiary education and birthplace in Southern Europe. Conversely, risk increases after experiencing side effects with the IUD or repeated foetal losses, or after bearing a third child before the age of 25. PMID:1604382

  17. Coal mining methods in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Continuous miner methods dominate underground while dragline stripping is today's and tomorrow's favored method on surface. Poor roof conditions in Australian underground mines and the need to operate more efficient surface mines in view of rising fuel costs are key factors in determining the mining methods for the country's premier cash commodity - coal. These and other new developments in underground and surface mining in Australia were discussed in detail at the Australian Coal Association's 1980 coal conference which was held last April in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. Two papers presented at the conference form the basis of this article; H.L. Pearce, general superintendent of the Steel Division Collieries of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, described underground mining and K.J. Foots, manager of the Utah Development Company's Blackwater mine, talked about surface mining.

  18. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  19. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-10-18

    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  20. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience. PMID:21401461

  1. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  2. Associations between perceived neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' sedentary behavior: findings from the U.S.A., Australia and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2012-05-01

    Sedentary behaviors are associated with multiple health problems, independently of physical activity. Neighborhood environment attributes might influence sedentary behaviors, but few studies have investigated these relationships. Moreover, all previous studies have been conducted within single countries, limiting environmental variability. We investigated the shape of associations between perceived neighborhood environment attributes and sedentary behavior in three countries; and whether these associations differed by country and gender. Data from U.S.A. (Seattle and Baltimore regions), Australia (Adelaide) and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. Data collection took place between 2002 and 2008. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkability and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (domain-specific physical activity, transport-related sitting and overall time spent sitting) and the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (environmental perceptions). The number of destinations within a 20 min walk from home, perceiving few cul-de-sacs, good walking and cycling facilities, and traffic safety were included in an index of motorized transport correlates. This index was linearly negatively associated with motorized transport time, so the higher the scores on the index (more activity-friendliness), the lower the amount of motorized transport. No gender- or country-differences were identified. Perceived aesthetics and proximity of destinations were included in an index of overall sitting time correlates. A linear negative relationship with overall sitting time was found, but associations were stronger for men and not significant in Belgian adults. In conclusion, consistent and expected correlates were found for motorized transport in the three countries, but results were less clear for overall sitting time. Future studies should include even more countries to

  3. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  4. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  5. Concept, Challenge, Conundrum: From Library Skills to Information Literacy. Proceedings of the National Information Literacy Conference Conducted by the University of South Australia Library and the Australian Library and Information Association Information Literacy Special Interest Group (4th, Adelaide, Australia, December 3-5, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Di, Ed.

    These proceedings from the fourth National Information Literacy Conference (Decemeber 1999) include the keynote addresses and the papers presented in workshop sessions throughout the conference. Acknowledgements by Irene Doskatsch, conference convener, that precedes the introductory piece by Alan Bundy, "Journey Without End..." is followed by…

  6. Tele-dermatology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Muir, Jim; Lucas, Lex

    2008-01-01

    Australia is a large country with a small and scattered population. Specialist dermatology services are concentrated in the capital cities and larger urban centers on the coast. This has meant access to these services for Australians in rural and remote areas has been limited to those able to travel the often long distances to their nearest dermatologist. Due to a considerable shortage of dermatologists, waiting times to see one are more than six months. The challenge was to provide a dermatology service that overcame these twin obstacles of distance and demand. Telecommunication infrastructure in Australia is good and most towns have at least one general practitioner. More than 75% of all general practices are equipped with computers and have broadband internet access.Dermatology is a specialty with few life threatening disorders. However short delays in diagnosis and management of a skin condition rarely have any serious impact on a patient's long-term health. At the same time many skin problems are distressing, and difficult to diagnose and treat. Many skin conditions last for considerable periods of time and patients need ongoing care. Due to the highly visual nature of the specialty, most skin conditions can be diagnosed from an image especially if there is some history available. This often requires a trained specialist. Paradoxically, any needed investigations such as skin biopsy or blood tests can be performed by any qualified doctor. Dermatological treatments can be instituted and monitored by these same practitioners without any specialist training. These factors make tele-medicine an ideal solution to the problems of isolation from and excess demand for specialist dermatological services. In 2004 the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) in a joint initiative with Queensland Divisions of General Practice (QDGP) set up Tele-Derm with funding from the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing under the Medical Specialist Outreach

  7. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  8. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  9. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  10. Migrant Families in Australia. Working Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, Des

    Since 1947, some 3.5 million migrants have entered Australia, giving birth to 2.2 million children. Whereas, in 1947 only 9.8% of Australia's populace were of overseas birth and less than 3% were of non-Anglo Saxon origin, by 1976, some 20% were of overseas birth, some 39% had been born overseas or had a parent born overseas, and some 25% had been…

  11. Home haemodialysis in remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Villarba, Angelina; Warr, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    The Royal Perth Hospital provides access to dialysis treatment to Indigenous Australians living in remote areas of Western Australia who are suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The Remote Area Dialysis Programme (RADP), established in 1989, relocated traditional hospital services to remote communities and introduced home or community-based therapy. This unique state-wide programme was developed in cooperation with tribal elders in Aboriginal communities, and regional medical, nursing and community health staff. Prior to RADP's establishment, these patients faced the choice of permanent relocation to Perth for dialysis treatment or death from renal failure. Development of the RADP allowed Indigenous patients with ESRD to receive dialysis treatment in their own home/community. Requirements for home haemodialysis include establishing the suitability and capability of patients, the availability of carers and an appropriate home or community environment for dialysis machine installation. This has required novel strategies to address cultural and language impediments to home therapy. The remoteness of some isolated communities has been a technical challenge for the dialysis technicians due to the uncertainty of power supply, climatic extremes and inadequate supply or poor quality of water. A specific training program has been developed to adapt to the needs of Aboriginal patients. Patients undertaking home haemodialysis face many challenges and a number of initiatives will need to be implemented to ensure the ongoing success of the programme. PMID:15601405

  12. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  13. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  14. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  15. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  16. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mcnicoll, G

    1995-11-01

    Despite having almost the highest rate of population growth among OECD countries, Australia has no explicit population policy. The potential elements of such a policy, especially with regard to immigration, family, and environment, are deeply entrenched in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for any systematic engagement and considered debate among them. Parallels to the case of Australia can be drawn with Canada and the US. Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find particularly difficult to manage. There are, however, also specific historical circumstances which led to the outcome and perpetuate the situation. Population processes and the institution of citizenship, and contested policy domains are discussed. PMID:12321981

  17. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    PubMed

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291896

  18. Reproductive health patterns: Georgia versus Australia.

    PubMed

    Asatiani, T; Abuladze, N; Ward, H; Angel, P

    2015-03-01

    The review compares a few reproductive indicators - fertility, abortion and contraception in both a developing (Georgia) and a developed (Australia) country. Fertility, abortion and contraception figures in both countries tend to reflect the attitude and the degree of development of each countries sexual health education and their use of effective contraception. Further research is required to accurately evaluate the need and access of Georgian women to modern methods of family planning and their knowledge of the benefits of modern contraception that can assist to reduce pregnancy termination rate. In Australia better insight is needed on how to facilitate a shift to more efficacious long-term contraceptives across all age groups. PMID:25879552

  19. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration." PMID:12289778

  20. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Michelle; Kennett, Brian; Sambridge, Malcolm; Stern, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate bound- ary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks.Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  1. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Stern, T.; Aitken, A. R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10 500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate boundary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks. Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  2. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  3. A Case of Language Revitalisation in "Settled" Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of language revitalisation in "settled" Australia, considers the nature of the language ecology in indigenous Australia, and advances some of the reasons for the success of this case of language revitalization. (Author/VWL)

  4. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  5. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of an Acquired Subgroup B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene, blaAIM-1, and Its Unique Genetic Context in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Dongeun; Toleman, Mark A.; Bell, Jan; Ritchie, Brett; Pratt, Rachael; Ryley, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Three clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (WCH2677, WCH2813, and WCH2837) isolated from the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, produced a metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive Etest result. All isolates were PCR negative for known MBL genes. A gene bank was created, and an MBL gene, designated blaAIM-1, was cloned and fully characterized. The encoded enzyme, AIM-1, is a group B3 MBL that has the highest level of identity to THIN-B and L1. It is chromosomal and flanked by two copies (one intact and one truncated) of an ISCR element, ISCR15. Southern hybridization studies indicated the movement of both ISCR15 and blaAIM-1 within the three different clinical isolates. AIM-1 hydrolyzes most β-lactams, with the exception of aztreonam and, to a lesser extent, ceftazidime; however, it possesses significantly higher kcat values for cefepime and carbapenems than most other MBLs. AIM-1 was the first mobile group B3 enzyme detected and signals further problems for already beleaguered antimicrobial regimes to treat serious P. aeruginosa and other Gram-negative infections. PMID:22985886

  6. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an acquired subgroup B3 metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaAIM-1, and its unique genetic context in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Australia.

    PubMed

    Yong, Dongeun; Toleman, Mark A; Bell, Jan; Ritchie, Brett; Pratt, Rachael; Ryley, Henry; Walsh, Timothy R

    2012-12-01

    Three clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (WCH2677, WCH2813, and WCH2837) isolated from the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, produced a metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive Etest result. All isolates were PCR negative for known MBL genes. A gene bank was created, and an MBL gene, designated bla(AIM-1), was cloned and fully characterized. The encoded enzyme, AIM-1, is a group B3 MBL that has the highest level of identity to THIN-B and L1. It is chromosomal and flanked by two copies (one intact and one truncated) of an ISCR element, ISCR15. Southern hybridization studies indicated the movement of both ISCR15 and bla(AIM-1) within the three different clinical isolates. AIM-1 hydrolyzes most β-lactams, with the exception of aztreonam and, to a lesser extent, ceftazidime; however, it possesses significantly higher k(cat) values for cefepime and carbapenems than most other MBLs. AIM-1 was the first mobile group B3 enzyme detected and signals further problems for already beleaguered antimicrobial regimes to treat serious P. aeruginosa and other Gram-negative infections. PMID:22985886

  7. Biodiversity in Australia: What, Where, and for How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra; Boulton, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Australia's most serious environmental problem is the loss of biological diversity, or biodiversity. Australia harbors much of the world's species diversity and has remarkably high numbers of endemic species. Reviews current threats to biodiversity and efforts to protect and enhance it in Australia. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/ASK)

  8. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  9. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  10. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  11. William C. Reeves and arbovirus research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Doherty, R L

    1987-11-01

    William C. Reeves was invited to Australia in 1952 to take part in field studies of Murray Valley encephalitis. The results of his work led to various hypotheses which directed arbovirus research in Australia for a generation. That and the people he influenced in Australia made him a major figure in the development of Australian arbovirus research. PMID:2825554

  12. 22 CFR 120.35 - Australia Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Australia Implementing Arrangement. 120.35 Section 120.35 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.35 Australia Implementing Arrangement. Australia Implementing Arrangement means...

  13. Novel measles virus genotype, East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chibo, Doris; Riddell, Michaela; Catton, Michael; Birch, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia. PMID:12095446

  14. Does Princess Adelaide Really Have Whooping Cough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Phil J.; Wendelyn, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Spectrum Community School, an alternative public high school in the North Kitsap (Washington) School District, and Omnibus School, an independent evening program in Ekaterinburg, Russia, have spent the past six years building bridges. They have traveled to each others' homes and shared each other's lives via a collaborative, engaging, and…

  15. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  16. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  18. Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Waters, Anne-Marie; Trinh, Lany; Chau, Theresa; Bourchier, Michael; Moon, Lynelle

    2013-06-01

    The results presented herein summarize the most up-to-date cardiovascular statistics available at this time in Australia. The analysis presented here is based on and extends results published in two Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) reports, namely Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011 and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) section of Australia's Health 2012. Despite significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of Australians in recent decades, CVD continues to impose a heavy burden on Australians in terms of illness, disability and premature death. Direct health care expenditure for CVD exceeds that for any other disease group. The most recent national data have been analysed to describe patterns and trends in CVD hospitalization and death rates, with additional analysis by Indigenous status, remoteness and socioeconomic group. The incidence of and case-fatality from major coronary events has also been examined. Although CVD death rates have declined steadily in Australia since the late 1960s, CVD still accounts for a larger proportion of deaths (33% in 2009) than any other disease group. Worryingly, the rate at which the coronary heart disease death rate has been falling in recent years has slowed in younger (35-54 years) age groups. Between 1998-99 and 2009-10, the overall rate of hospitalizations for CVD fell by 13%, with declines observed for most major CVDs. In conclusion, CVD disease remains a significant health problem in Australia despite decreasing death and hospitalization rates. PMID:23517328

  19. Learning around Town: Learning Communities in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Liz; Castles, Rachel; McGrath, Majella; Brown, Tony

    This booklet explains the features and benefits of learning communities and summarizes Australia's experience with them. Part 1 traces the history of learning communities from the 1970s through the present, presents several definitions of the term "learning community," lists reasons for becoming a learning community, and explains the importance of…

  20. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  1. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  2. Changing Patterns of Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspland, Tania

    2006-01-01

    This paper is designed to portray the historical development of teacher education in Australia. The paper is presented in three parts, each of which represents a "turn" in the evolution of teacher education. The first details the historical development of teacher education prior to the establishment of the first teachers college in…

  3. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  4. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  5. Evolution of Vocational Rehabilitation Competencies in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Lynda R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growth in the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services globally, as countries seek to control disability-related expenditure, yet there has been minimal research outside the United States on competencies required to work in this area. This study reports on research conducted in Australia to determine…

  6. The Adult Educator in Multicultural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassby, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian Commissioner for Community Relations describes and criticizes the Australian traditional ethnocentrism and xenophobia, pointing out that Australia is and always has been a multicultural society. He emphasizes the need for wide changes in education and notes the potential of lifelong and adult community education. (MF)

  7. New Focus for Space Research in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver

    Australia was the fourth nation to launch a spacecraft into orbit from its own territory, in 1967. Its second satellite followed 35 years later, when FedSat was launched in December 2002. Australia had and continues to have world experts in many areas of space science and technology. Several of these have participated in international missions, even sometimes with government support and funding to collaborate on designing and building an instrument for an international mission (e.g., AATSR on ESA's Envisat). Despite this Australia has no coordinated national space effort or dedicated funding for space research. Few linkages existed between Universities, Government units, and industry or across the field. This talk describes efforts to change this situation by developing the first Decadal Plan for Australian Space Science. The Plan's vision is "World-leading innovative space science and technology, strong domestic capability, and international collaborations that build Australia a long term, productive presence in Space". The talk describes the process and summarises the recommendations of the Australian space science community. These include creation of a national coordination committee (ACCSS), scientific themes and goals, and the science, education, and outreach projects necessary to accomplish them. The science projects involve ground-based assets, spacecraft missions, theory/modelling programs, and technology development and testing.

  8. Australia: Evaluation and Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, David; Stokes, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Modern Australia evolved from separate colonies, which came together as a federation a century ago. The balance of state/federal responsibilities is relevant to most aspects of Australian life. This includes higher education, where universities are largely state owned but federally funded (with government funding declining), while the other higher…

  9. Training for rural practice in Australia 1990.

    PubMed

    Hickner, J M

    1991-01-21

    There is a shortage of general practitioners in rural Australia. Several recent State and federal government reports have highlighted the difficulties of rural practice. One of the reasons commonly cited for the shortage of country doctors is the lack of appropriate training in Australia's medical schools and the Family Medicine Programme. This survey of the heads of departments of community medicine/general practice of Australia's 10 medical schools and of the State directors of the Family Medicine Programme documents the present efforts to train doctors for rural general practice. A 100% response was achieved. The responses indicate much interest and effort from the Family Medicine Programme in developing rural training schemes. Though the community medicine/general practice departments demonstrate considerable interest and innovation, they are hampered by lack of resources and negative attitudes of some specialist colleagues. Overall, the main impediments are: lack of "affirmative action" admissions policies to recruit rural students; insufficient curricular time for teaching the principles of general practice; students' lack of confidence in the procedural aspects of rural practice; lack of appropriate training posts in anaesthetics; lack of appropriate general practice training posts at regional hospitals; and lack of financial resources. Some suggestions are given to improve training for rural practice in Australia. PMID:1986187

  10. Teaching Educational Leadership and Administration in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard; Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of programmes in educational administration and leadership little is known about the resources used to teach them. This article reviews the sources currently employed in such programmes in Australia by examining the textbooks, book chapters and journal articles specified for 53 separate units (papers) offered at 15 of the key…

  11. Severe spotted fever group rickettsiosis, Australia.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J H; Hanson, Joshua P; Miller, Robert; Wenck, Drew

    2007-11-01

    We report 3 cases of spotted fever group rickettsial infection (presumed Queensland tick typhus) in residents of northern Queensland, Australia, who had unusually severe clinical manifestations. Complications included renal failure, purpura fulminans, and severe pneumonia. Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia australis may not be as benign as previously described. PMID:18217560

  12. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Australia has no Christian universities or Christian liberal arts colleges other than Australian Catholic University, which has six campuses in five cities. This paper examines one long-term attempt to set up such an institution, which ended in the project being abandoned for lack of progress. Some likely reasons for failure are identified in the…

  13. Politics of Teacher Education in NSW, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Christine E.; And Others

    This paper examines political and government changes affecting higher education in Australia, particularly as they impact upon teacher education, and with specific emphasis upon practices in New South Wales (NSW). Structural features of the governance of education at the federal and state/territory levels are outlined, noting that teacher…

  14. Outline of Vocational Training in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    Australia is a federation of six states and two territories with a population of 11.5 million. It depends heavily on agricultural export and a growing manufacturing industry. Responsibility for education lies with the state governments which are administered centrally because of sparse population. School attendance is required to age 15 with…

  15. "Whole Language" and Moral Panic in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the media and political landscapes within which "whole language" is currently constituted in Australia. Through surveying the themes and rhetoric deployed in media texts over recent years, we consider how "whole language" has been taken up as part of a wider media campaign around education generally. We consider how this…

  16. Review Essay: Inclusive Practices in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, AnneMaree

    2002-01-01

    This essay reviews "Special Education: A Matter of Choice" (Josephine Jenkinson), a book that discusses the major issues and changes that have occurred in special education in the various states and territories of Australia over the past 30 years. It is concluded that the book is an extremely useful guide. (CR)

  17. Divorce in Australia. Working Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald E.; Harrison, Margaret

    This working paper discusses the effects of recent legislative changes regarding divorce in Australia. The introduction describes the 1975 Family Law Act and gives a summary of its principles. The second section presents background information to the Act and lists the philosophical principles behind its formation. The third section describes…

  18. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  19. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  20. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  1. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  2. National Report on Australia's Higher Education Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Employment, Education and Training, Canberra.

    This document provides an official record of key events in the development of higher education in Australia from 1982-91 and documents the characteristics of the system and the individual institutions at the beginning of the 1990s. A foreword describes the Australian higher education sector, key developments of the decade, the sectoral balance,…

  3. Academic Salaries in Australia, 1967 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Trends in college faculty salaries in Australia since 1967 are examined, in real terms, for several academic ranks and in comparison with salaries of scientists, senior public service administrators and managers, and public service engineers. Faculty salary losses since a 1973 high are substantial, both over time and in comparison with other…

  4. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  5. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  6. Remote Access Laboratories in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments…

  7. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  8. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  9. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  10. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  11. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Toms, Cindy; Stapledon, Richard; Waring, Justin; Douglas, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,317 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2012 and 1,263 notifications in 2013. This represents a rate of 5.8 per 100,000 population in 2012 and 5.5 per 100,000 population in 2013 and a reversal of the upward trend in TB incidence reported since 2007. In 2012 and 2013, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications with an incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 and 18.4 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade; however, it remained reasonably steady in 2012 and 2013 with an incidence rate of 4.5 per 100,000 and 4.6 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.7 per 100,000 in 2012 and 0.8 per 100,000 in 2013. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug resistant TB cases nationally (2012: n=20; 2013: n=22) of which nearly all were identified in the overseas-born population. This report demonstrates excellent and sustained control of TB in Australia and reflects Australia's commitment to reducing the global burden of TB. PMID:26234258

  12. The Outlook for Training in Australia's Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This book, which is intended primarily for Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector, industry decision makers, and policymakers, provides an overview of occupational trends and the current training effort relating to occupations in Australian industry. Chapter 1 traces economic and labor market changes and the changing…

  13. Liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Munn, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) in Australia and New Zealand began in 1985. Over this time until December 2014, LT took place in 3700 adults and 800 children. LT is regulated with 1 unit, supported by the government, per state or region. Currently approximately 270 transplants take place per year. Organ donation rates are moderate in Australia (17 per 1 million of population) but very low in New Zealand (11 per 1 million of population). All the units share organ donors for fulminant hepatic failure cases (status 1). Recipient listing criteria and organ allocation criteria are commonly agreed to via National and Trans-Tasman agreements, which are published online. Current survival rates indicate approximately 94% 1-year survival with median survival in adults of approximately 20 years, whereas 75% of children are alive at 20 years. All units collaborate in research projects via the Australia and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry and have published highly cited articles particularly on the prevention of hepatitis B virus recurrence. Outcomes for indigenous populations have also been analyzed. In conclusion, LT in Australia and New Zealand is well developed with transparent processes related to criteria for listing and organ allocation together with publication of outcomes. Liver Transplantation 22 830-838 2016 AASLD. PMID:27028552

  14. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  15. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  16. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  17. Tertiary Education in Australia: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Kristine, Comp.

    A bibliography on tertiary education in Australia is presented. The following topics are included: tertiary education of aborigines; academic salaries; colleges of advanced education; community colleges; the constitutional and legal basis of education; courses and awards; educational policy and the politics of education; entrance requirements;…

  18. Deferring a University Offer in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John

    2009-01-01

    A trend of increasing regional disadvantage is suggested in the pattern of rising rates of deferral of university places amongst rural school-completers in Australia. Cost-related factors and financial barriers are prominent in the reasons given by these young people for deferring a place at university. These trends formed the impetus for a study…

  19. Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, Tasmania, Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Justin; McGregor, Alistair; Cooley, Louise; Ng, Jimmy; Brown, Mitchell; Ong, Chong Wei; Darcy, Catharine; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2012-09-01

    We report a case of ulceroglandular tularemia that developed in a woman after she was bitten by a ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) in a forest in Tasmania, Australia. Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica was identified. This case indicates the emergence of F. tularensis type B in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22931809

  20. Francisella tularensis Subspecies holarctica, Tasmania, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Justin; McGregor, Alistair; Cooley, Louise; Ng, Jimmy; Brown, Mitchell; Ong, Chong Wei; Darcy, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of ulceroglandular tularemia that developed in a woman after she was bitten by a ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) in a forest in Tasmania, Australia. Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica was identified. This case indicates the emergence of F. tularensis type B in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22931809

  1. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  2. An Update on SSA in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.; Gordon, N.

    2011-09-01

    At AMOS 2008 the first author presented a review of surveillance of space activities in Australia up to that date: this paper reviews significant initiatives and events that have taken place since then. In summary some major policy commitments to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) have been made and some sizeable new R&D programs have been launched to develop nascent Australian SSA capabilities. Australia has still to settle on its national requirements for SSA and space generally, however, so these initiatives have yet to evolve into substantial, enduring programs of record. In more detail, the communiqués issued at the annual Australian-US ministerial consultations in November 2010 announced an in-principle commitment to Defence collaboration on SSA and to establishing a joint space tracking facility in Western Australia: Defence in Australia is now working through setting up this facility and how it will move into SSA generally. These are part of a larger national re-engagement with space: in particular in 2009 Australia committed to developing a national space policy and allocated A40 million of funding to a new Australian Space Research Program (ASRP) to boost space research. Over 5 million from this program has been awarded to projects centred on SSA, primarily to enhance EOS’ satellite laser tracking system. In addition to these projects, the partners in an allied Defence R&D agreement that includes DSTO have agreed to a joint experiment that will fly a small formation of suitably instrumented CubeSats with the aim of, inter alia, providing ground truth for testing SSA capabilities. More generally DSTO has been supporting various aspects of Defence’s engagement with SSA, including identification of S&T in which Australia has particular expertise that could be deployed on SSA given the necessary direction. The paper outlines these recent developments, reviews relevant Australian expertise in one particular field, tracking and sensor fusion (the second

  3. History of corneal transplantation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J

    2015-04-01

    Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure. PMID:25112897

  4. Fall prevention in Australia: policies and activities.

    PubMed

    Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline F; Hill, Keith D; Lewin, Gill

    2010-11-01

    Fall prevention recommendations and plans have been prolific in Australia since 1986, but Commonwealth recommendations have rarely been acted on from a national perspective and the funds for prevention at a national level have been limited. At a state level, although increasing annually, funds for fall prevention have also remained as only a low proportion of total health spending. Several Australian states have developed their own strategic plans and their activities have developed separately and uniquely, although referring to national guidelines. This article presents a perspective of Australian fall prevention policy over time, provides insights into the current focus, and draws on some specific examples of activities from the 2 most populous Australian states (New South Wales and Victoria) and from our largest geographic state, Western Australia. PMID:20934619

  5. Australia slaps duties on PVC imports

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-12-02

    The Australian Anti-Dumping Authority (ADA0) has imposed dumping duties on imports of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin from seven countries and on certain expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads from Korea and Singapore. The decisions come at the end of two separate investigations begun earlier this year. In its first finding, the ADA concluded that there has been dumping of PVC resin from Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand, which has caused and threatens to cause material injury to the domestic PVC industry. An eighth country, Romania, was found not to have been exporting PVC to Australia. The case is the second of its kind in Australia focusing on PVC. In December 1991 the ADA found in favor of local producer sin a dumping complaint against Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US.

  6. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  7. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  9. Status of women in physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Up to 2006 there was some improvement for women in physics in Australia; since then there has been a decline. Women are underrepresented in all aspects of physics education and work, including school, university, and research laboratories. In addition, women physicists usually have lower seniority and earn less. This scenario is compounded by recent inactivity of the Australian Institute of Physics women's group since December 2010.

  10. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Enterococcal Bacteremia in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Julie C.; Daley, Denise A.; Le, Tam; Robinson, Owen J.; Gottlieb, Thomas; Howden, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Bennett, Catherine M.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Turnidge, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are a major cause of health care-associated infections and account for approximately 10% of all bacteremias globally. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteremia isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to ampicillin and the glycopeptides, and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. From 1 January to 31 December 2011, 1,079 unique episodes of bacteremia were investigated, of which 95.8% were caused by either E. faecalis (61.0%) or E. faecium (34.8%). The majority of bacteremias were health care associated, and approximately one-third were polymicrobial. Ampicillin resistance was detected in 90.4% of E. faecium isolates but was not detected in E. faecalis isolates. Vancomycin nonsusceptibility was reported in 0.6% and 36.5% of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, respectively. Unlike Europe and the United States, where vancomycin resistance in E. faecium is predominately due to the acquisition of the vanA operon, 98.4% of E. faecium isolates harboring van genes carried the vanB operon, and 16.1% of the vanB E. faecium isolates had vancomycin MICs at or below the susceptible breakpoint of the CLSI. Although molecular typing identified 126 E. faecalis pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, >50% belonged to two pulsotypes that were isolated across Australia. E. faecium consisted of 73 pulsotypes from which 43 multilocus sequence types were identified. Almost 90% of the E. faecium isolates were identified as CC17 clones, of which approximately half were characterized as ST203, which was isolated Australia-wide. In conclusion, the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP) study has shown that although they are polyclonal, enterococcal bacteremias in Australia are frequently caused by ampicillin-resistant vanB E. faecium. PMID:24391201

  12. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  13. Technical development for Australia's MOBILESAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Kim; Hart, Nick; Harrison, Steve

    1990-01-01

    With the planned introduction in Australia of the mobile satellite service in mid-1992, MOBILESAT will be the first domestic mobile satellite system with full voice and data capability to be in operation worldwide. This paper describes the technical features which have been adopted by MOBILESAT in providing a unique system optimized for land mobile operation and the technical activities which have been carried out by AUSSAT in the past three years in supporting the development of the system.

  14. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  15. First report of human anisakidosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Butcher, Andrew R

    2011-02-21

    We present the first human case of anisakidosis acquired from eating locally caught fish in Australia. A 41-year-old woman experienced gastrointestinal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea of increasing severity over 3 weeks. All symptoms resolved spontaneously after a worm was passed in her faeces. Microscopic examination showed that it was a Contracaecum species larva of the family Anisakidae. Anisakidosis should be considered in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who have recently eaten seafood. PMID:21401462

  16. Increasing Trends of Herpes Zoster in Australia

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Raina; Stein, Alicia; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Mahimbo, Abela; Cunningham, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation. Methods Australian data on general practice (GP) encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013) were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period. Results All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods). Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time. Discussion The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly. PMID:25928713

  17. Home hemodialysis in Australia: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter G; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; McDonald, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    Home hemodialysis (HD) in Australia represents 11% of the dialysis population. This percentage has declined over the last 20 years but the absolute number of home HD patients has increased since 2001. The major reason for this resurgence has been the institution of nocturnal HD at home. Predominantly, this has been as a strictly alternate day exercise, although 5-6 times per week dialysis is also practised. Short-daily HD is uncommon in Australia. Nocturnal HD now comprises 30% or more of all home HD. Most home HD in Australia is practiced without remote monitoring, using simple machines with separate reverse osmosis units. Patients tend to self-needle and not all have a "partner." The enthusiasm for nocturnal HD in particular has been fuelled by ANZDATA Registry data demonstrating a survival advantage for patients dialyzing alternate days compared with 3 times per week; and for patients dialyzing for >18 hours per week compared with 12 or 15 hours per week. PMID:18638244

  18. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  19. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. PMID:22921953

  20. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  1. Lithospheric sutures, continental fragments and hot spots revealed by a transportable seismic array experiment in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Vanacore, E. A.; Pozgay, S.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning in 1998, passive seismic arrays have been progressively deployed throughout southeast Australia in an attempt to image the 3-D seismic structure of the underlying lithosphere at high resolution. To date, over 600 stations have been deployed as part of 14 separate arrays. Station spacing on the mainland is ˜50 km, which reduces to ˜20 km in Tasmania, an island that lies at the southern tip of the continent. The majority of stations use 3-component short period sensors (1 Hz natural frequency), but several of the early arrays use vertical component short period sensors, and a number of 3-component broadband sensors are distributed throughout. In the past, teleseismic traveltime tomography has been separately applied to data from most of the arrays. More recently, the emphasis has been on joint treatment of the data, with ambient noise tomography and teleseismic traveltime tomography being applied to multiple array data. The latest developments involve the use of an irregular grid approach for traveltime tomography which incorporates global ISC traveltimes as well as relative arrival times obtained from each array, thus enabling high resolution recovery of structure where justified by the path coverage. Differential attenuation tomography is also beginning to be applied, which complements the results obtained from the traveltime tomography. To date, a wealth of features have been revealed by 3-D seismic tomography, the most significant being: (1) an easterly dipping velocity transition zone which suggests that the older Delamerian Orogen extends beneath the younger Western Subprovince of the Lachlan Orogen; (2) a distinct region of low velocity in the upper mantle north of Melbourne, which can be associated with recent Quaternary hot-spot volcanism; (3) a gradual east-southeast decrease in velocity towards the coast, which is consistent with lithospheric stretching and thinning near a passive margin; (4) a zone of high velocity north of Adelaide that may

  2. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be

  3. Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network The Australian government has announced plans to increase the nation's network of marine reserves from 27 to 60, bringing the total size of the network to 3.1 million square kilometers, Australia's environment minister Tony Burke said on 14 June. The expansion, which would place more than one third of Australia's waters under protection, requires a 60-day consultation before it can become law.

  4. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  5. The genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 (Diplopoda, Penicillata, Polyxenida) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Megan; Huynh, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The penicillate genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 is widespread, with species found in Africa, Madagascar, India and Australia. Each of the two Australian species was originally described from single samples from Western Australia. In this study, collections of Penicillata from museums in all states of Australia were examined to provide further details of the two described species, to revise the diagnoses for both the genus and the species, and to better understand the distribution of the two species in Australia. In addition, two new species Unixenus karajinensis sp. n. and Unixenus corticolus sp. n. are described. PMID:22303098

  6. Catastrophic Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M.; Magee, J. W.; Gagan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Extinction of the Australian megafauna (50ñ5ka) occurred shortly after human colonization (55ñ5ka). A link between the two has been suggested, including the possibility that landscape modification was influential, but pinpointing the role of humans remains elusive. To evaluate changes at the ecosystem level across the extinction event we utilize dietary information recorded by d13C preserved in eggshells of the extant emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a large flightless bird. Emus are opportunistic feeders; their diet reflects the range of food sources available in the weeks before nesting (June). d13C quantifies the proportion of C3 vs C4 vegetation that constitutes the emu's diet. A 150,000-year record of emu dietary intact has been reconstructed using more than 300 individuals from Lake Eyre (south-central Australia) dated by 14C, luminescence and/or racemization. Prior to 50 ka emu diet was highly variable, ranging from 100% C3 to 100% C4. However, immediately after 50 ka, emu diet shifted dramatically: the C4 contribution never exceeded 50% (n=200) after 50 ka, whereas more than half the samples older than 50 ka old contain >50% C4 dietary sources. We attribute the observed changes in emu diet to a fundamental rearrangement of the plant ecosystems in semi-arid central Australia. Such a change in plant communities may have contributed to the extinction of many dependent herbivores. The coincidence in time of megafauna extinction and ecosystem collapse shortly after human colonization suggests there may be a causal link. Development of similar records of vegetation change for other regions of Australia are currently underway to evaluate whether the Lake Eyre record reflects a continental scale reorganization of the Australian biota.

  7. Imaging crustal structure variation across southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.

    2013-01-01

    A broad-band seismic network of 28 three-component seismometers was deployed in southeastern Australia to examine variations in crustal thickness across the transition between Precambrian and Phanerozoic lithosphere. Receiver function observations and modelling of P-to-S conversions at the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) have been employed to investigate: (i) the variations in the Moho depth across southeastern Australia, and (ii) the nature of the transition between crust and mantle. Data from temporary deployments were used together with data from the few permanent broad-band stations in the region. The extraction of P-receiver functions from high-quality seismic data recorded on these stations has enabled the determination of the crustal thickness across the region. The crustal thicknesses lie in the range 28-48 km. The Moho depth is generally well correlated with the Earth surface elevation in the southeastern Australia. The Moho estimates from receiver functions are in good agreement with results from reflection profiling. The average crustal thickness is found to be around 39 km beneath the Precambrian area in the west and even thicker beneath the Lachlan Orogen in the east (~ 43 km). The average crustal thickness in between, beneath the Murray Basin is thinner ~ 32 km. Interestingly, the crust in the Mount Gambier volcanic area is rather thick ~ 41 km, suggesting that the limit between the Delamerian and western Lachlan orogens is located east of Mount Gambier. Our results favour a position for the Tasman Line generally consistent with the interpretation by Direen and Crawford (2003) and thus to the east of the location favoured by many authors. The broader crust-mantle transition and thicker crust beneath the Lachlan Orogen suggest the presence of magmatic underplating at the base of the lower crust. The intermediate nature of the crust-mantle transition also suggests magmatic underplating beneath the Gawler Craton and the Curnamona Province.

  8. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  9. Skilling Australia for the Future? A Study of Quality Assurance in Australia's Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbola, Frank Wogbe; Lambert, Daniel Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From the end of World War II until the early 1970s, vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was surprisingly static and resilient to government-led reform, due to the dominance of industry and union power. Following the oil shocks of 1973 and associated unemployment and declining union power, there have been calls on the federal and…

  10. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  11. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 8: Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis, A. M.; And Others

    The status of modern Greek in Australian society and education are detailed in this report. Chapters include discussion of these issues: the history of modern Greek in Australia (Greek immigration and settlement, public and private domains of use, language maintenance and shift, and language quality); the functions of modern Greek in Australia…

  12. Cell and gene therapy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Martiniello-Wilks, R; Rasko, J E J

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of human cells to produce cell therapeutic products for the treatment of disease is, with few exceptions, an experimental therapy. Because cell therapies involve a biological product, often with some genetic or other modification, they require extensive pre-clinical research and development. Cell therapy production processes and premises require licensing by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. In this review, timed to coincide with the international meetings of the ISCT and ISSCR in Australia, we describe some promising cell therapies currently under development. PMID:17464751

  13. Opportunities for emergency medicine training in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J M; Gaudry, P I

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities exist for graduates from the United Kingdom to undertake some of their emergency medicine training in Australia. Guidelines for graduates are presented on when to travel, how to find a position, what information one should obtain about a position, and how to acquire the necessary visa and medical registration. A successful visit takes some time to plan and requires cooperation between the negotiating parties. The graduate who undertakes training abroad can expect to benefit professionally and personally. The development of an international exchange network for trainees would streamline the process and broaden the appeal to graduates of completing some of their emergency medicine training in another country. PMID:9023622

  14. Infections in travellers arriving from Australia.

    PubMed

    McBride, William John Hannan

    2008-04-01

    An unwell traveller whose itinerary has included Australia may be infected with agents that are uniquely found in that country or by more cosmopolitan agents that exist there. This brief review will discuss some of the more common or important infectious disease diagnoses and discuss some features that can be elicited on examination or from the history that would be useful in directing investigation and treatment. Diseases discussed include epidemic polyarthritis, dengue fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, Buruli ulcer, scrub typhus and spotted fever. PMID:18321549

  15. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ergas, Henry; Paolucci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop. PMID:22312229

  16. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-10-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. PMID:26134481

  17. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  18. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  19. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  20. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  1. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  2. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  3. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians. PMID:15777145

  4. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  5. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation. PMID:26285403

  6. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  7. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  8. Diversity and Progress in School Accountability Systems in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David

    2007-01-01

    School education in Australia is a complex interplay between federal and state governments, and between government and non-government schools. This article explores the supervision of schools in Australia through school accountability systems. Utilising publicly available documents a systematic analysis of the state and territory systems for…

  9. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  10. PictureAustralia--Participating in a Collaborative Digital Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Deborah

    The PictureAustralia service is a collaboration between cultural agencies to bring their digital pictorial collections together at the one web site, hosted by the National Library of Australia. It was developed through the identification of a need for a national image discovery service. The key to the service is its cross-sectoral nature,…

  11. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  13. The Flow of American Television Materials to Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    A review of the current situation regarding the media flow between the United States and Australia shows that the traditional pattern--American content dominating the Australian media--still holds, but that there is evidence of movement by the Australians to establish their own media identity. An analysis of the television ratings for Australia's…

  14. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  15. The Many Turnings of Agricultural Extension in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Coutts, Jeff; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the development of extension as a discipline in Australia, its organization, and the ideological changes that have occurred from the second half of the nineteenth century through to the present. Design/Methodology/Approach: It considers the evolution of extension across the different states of Australia from a…

  16. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  17. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it…

  18. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia do not…

  19. Arrangements for the Recognition of Prior Learning in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toop, Leigh; Burleigh, Judi

    Developed in response to changes in Australia's vocational education and training system to help maintain a skilled and adaptable workforce, this report examines principles and practices regarding arrangements for the recognition of prior learning (RPL) in Australia. The first section of the report discusses the context of report, highlights key…

  20. Pioneering Culture: Mechanics' Institutes and Schools of Arts in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Philip C., Ed.; Laurent, John, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about the history and role of Australia's mechanics' institutes and schools of arts: "'The Light of Heaven Itself': The Contribution of the Institutes to Australia's Cultural History" (Candy); "Dispelling 'the Stagnant Waters of Ignorance': The Early Institutes in Context" (Webby); "The Melbourne Mechanics'…

  1. Inclusive Education in Australia Ten Years after Salamanca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    While many states and territories in Australia were initially a little slow to develop a strong momentum towards inclusive educational practices, this has been addressed quite dramatically in the past ten years. Acknowledging that each jurisdiction in Australia has its own department of education and determines its own educational directions this…

  2. Multicultural Education in Australia: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rod; Hill, Bob

    The historical development and current status of multicultural education in Australia are reviewed, without, however, focusing on the education of Aboriginal people. In Australia, the term multicultural education is generally understood to exclude Aborigines, a distinction in which Aboriginal educators concur as they assert the unique identity and…

  3. Australia's Adoption of Outcomes Based Education: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Australia's adoption of outcomes based education (OBE), sometimes known as Essential Learnings or outcomes and standards based education, has been at the centre of a good deal of public scrutiny and debate. In Western Australia, during 2006, the planned introduction of OBE into years 11 and 12 led to a strident and vocal media campaign, in part,…

  4. Labor Relations and Education in Two Contexts: America and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Harry E.

    1980-01-01

    Sheds light on labor relations in Australia through an examination of its governance of education, Australian teachers and unions, the history of compulsory arbitration, some contrasts between compulsory arbitration and collective bargaining, some contemplated changes in the governance of education in Australia, and some speculation about the…

  5. Vocational and Technical Education: Development of Curricula, Instructional Materials, Physical Facilities and Teacher Training with Focus on Electrical and Electronic Subjects. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Adelaide, Australia, October 6-18, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This report contains summaries and syntheses of materials from the Technical Working Group Meeting for curriculum planning and instructional materials design for vocational and technical education. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the objectives and procedures of the meeting and lists the participants. In chapter 2 are presented summaries of the…

  6. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi, A.

    1997-12-31

    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  7. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended, as implemented by 49 CFR part 630, regarding a uniform system of... related to performance or productivity data, including the development of unit cost information...

  8. Predicting the course of AIDS in Australia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P J; Wilson, S R; Swanson, C E; Cooper, D A

    1990-10-01

    There have been urgent demands for knowledge about the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Australia. Accurate predictions are important for efficient allocation and planning of limited health-care resources. Ideal data for this purpose would be reliable knowledge of the past and present incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, since the incidence of the infection is unknown predictions can only be based on historical data of the incidence of AIDS. In this article, we show the limitations of such predictions by examining a broad range of mathematical models that successfully track the observed data (1187 cases diagnosed to December 31, 1988). In addition, we describe a simple method for prediction in subgroups where the numbers of cases observed so far are small. Four models representing different forms of departure from the simple exponential model provide the best fits to the Australian AIDS data. Regional variability and a possible effect resulting from the introduction of zidovudine were incorporated into the models. Significant regional variability in the course of the epidemic was observed between New South Wales, Victoria and the rest of the country. For Australia as a whole, the doubling time changed from less than one year before mid 1987 to more than two years after this time. Model fits were improved by fitting the models to just the four years of data from 1985. The models give comparable predictions for the first year (1989) of around 600 new cases. However, by 1993 the predictions vary considerably, ranging from 500 to 2300 new cases. It is predicted that between 3100 and 6700 cases are likely to be diagnosed in Australia between 1989 and 1993. The results from the subgroup prediction demonstrate that when the observed number of cases is small, then the range of predictions for a future time interval is very wide. For reliable long-term predictions that are necessary for public health planning, basic

  9. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  10. Potential seen on Australia's Bonaparte exploration acreage

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Miyazaki, S. )

    1994-09-12

    Two of the offshore areas recently released for exploration bids by the Australian government are NT94-1 and NT94-2 covering 23,000 sq km in the oil producing Bonaparte basin off northwestern Australia 300 km northwest of Darwin. Three wells have been drilled in the two areas, including Evans Shoal-1 which made a gas discovery currently considered to be non-commercial. The results of a study by the Australian Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS) have been synthesized into the Evans Shoal Area Bulletin and Data Base. BRS interprets the available geochemical and maturation data to indicate that potential source rocks are present in the Jurassic Plover formation and Flamingo group and the Cretaceous Bathurst Island group. The paper describes the area geology, play types, and gas and oil potential.

  11. Aussat - A milestone in Australia's communication history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowland, W. L.

    1983-04-01

    The Australian national satellite system, Aussat, will commence operations in 1985 after launch of the two initial Aussat communications satellites. Australia is a member of Intelsat, which currently provides both international telephone links and television services to 50 Outback communities. The project was organized in study areas of satellite design and plans for the ground segment, major city earth stations, and minor earth stations. Aussat services will include low power DBS of radio and television, telephony, voice and data communications for minerals exploration and medical care, a school of the air, ATC links, emergency and disaster relief communications, data transfer, and voice conferencing.Initial configurations include Ku-band satellites launched by the Shuttle, with telemetry in the 12/14 GHz bands. The Aussat organization will be eventually transformed to 49 percent private ownership.

  12. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  13. Legislation for smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Woodward, S

    1985-01-01

    This historical analysis of public issues relating to smoking control in Western Australia examines relevant Western Australian state and Australian federal laws, their introduction, and their consequences. Public and political support and opinion led by the health professions resulted in two attempts to legislate against all forms of cigarette advertising in 1982 and 1983. Both attempts failed, and public support for such measures has been seen to be affected by the campaigns mounted in opposition by the tobacco and advertising industries. Other smoking control measures which have been successfully introduced in 1983 and 1984 are higher tobacco taxes and a comprehensive coordinated public education and information programme. The activities associated with the legislative initiatives resulted in a greatly increased level of community awareness of the dangers of smoking and acceptance of the need for some action on this major health problem. PMID:3924165

  14. Abortion in Australia: access versus protest.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rebecca Elizabeth; Allanson, Susie

    2004-05-01

    Currently in Australia anti-choice protesters' right to freedom of speech and freedom to protest is privileged over a woman's right to privacy and to access a health service safely, free from harassment, intimidation and obstruction. This article considers how this situation is played out daily at one Victorian abortion-providing clinic. The Fertility Control Clinic was thrown into the spotlight after the murder of its security guard by an anti-choice crusader in July 2001. Australian common law appears not to offer women protection from anti-choice protesters. By contrast, United States and Canadian "bubble" legislation sits comfortably with key constitutional rights. It would be a useful development if Australian governments passed legislation to ensure the rights, wellbeing and safety of Australian women accessing health services. Such legislation would be another step away from the misogynistic and androcentric values once central to our legislative framework. PMID:15214135

  15. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  16. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  17. Australia needs an office of academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bruce M

    Institutions investigating allegations of research misconduct are vulnerable to claims that their processes are inadequate or that they have an institutional conflict of interest. The Office of Research Integrity in the United States sets down standards for and reviews the adequacy of investigations of research misconduct by institutions; recognises that internal politics and the involvement of non-experts can lead to honest mistakes being regarded as serious misconduct; requires complainants and investigators to act "in good faith"; and reduces damaging publicity when complaints are misconceived or false. Australia needs an office of academic integrity to ensure that all complaints are thoroughly investigated; the investigative procedures meet international standards; fair processes are provided for complainants and respondents; and institutions are protected from claims of "cover-up" and institutional conflict of interest. PMID:17181506

  18. Recent firing range suicides in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Heath, Karen; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Two cases are reported from South Australia, where deaths occurred that were due to single self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head in individuals who were visiting indoor firearm ranges. Case 1: A 54-year-old man visiting an indoor firing range placed a .357 magnum handgun to his head and fired one shot. Case 2: A 23-year-old woman who was being instructed in firearm usage at an indoor firing range placed a 9 mm handgun to her head and fired one shot. In both cases, deaths were due to cerebral laceration with skull fracture. Firing ranges may be utilized by individuals who are seeking weapons for suicide attempts, and suicide may be successfully undertaken at such locations even while a victim is under direct supervision. In jurisdictions, where firearm ownership is strictly legislated, it may be that clubs can inadvertently provide access to firearms for this type of activity. PMID:22471964

  19. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier.

    The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.)

    Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea.

    The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image

  20. Growth Dynamics of Australia's Polar Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Holly N.; Rich, Thomas H.; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions. PMID:21826250

  1. Carbonate platform development in northeast Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    In northeast Australia, the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland and Marion plateaus comprise carbonate platforms separated by major rift basins. Cenozoic platform evolution has been dependent upon (1) northward drift of Australia from temperate into tropical latitudes; (2) subsidence pulses in the Eocene/Oligocene and the Pliocene/Pleistocene; (3) sea level oscillations; (4) continental and oceanic influences; and (5) paleophysiography and paleo-ocean chemistry. The evolution of each platform reflects the interaction of these factors on its development. Further, the evolution of the Queensland Plateau has markedly affected that of the Great Barrier Reef through its influence on circulation patterns. In the Eocene/Oligocene, and shelf on which the Great Barrier Reef grew protected the Marion Plateau from terrigenous influences, while in the late Miocene to early Pliocene the Marion Plateau formed the springboard from which the central and southern Great Barrier Reef developed. Models of platform development must take account of 1)early Eocene reef initiation on the Queensland Plateau concomitant with marine transgression into the adjacent rift troughs; 2)Eocene/Oligocene subsidence resulting in stepback of the reefs from the flank of the Queensland Plateau and reestablishment at higher bathymetric levels, concomitant clastic sedimentation along the tropical northern continental margin and temperate(.) carbonate progradation along the margin of the Marion Plateau; 3)extensive growth of Miocene reef complexes on the Queensland Plateau and the initiation of reef complexes on the Marion Plateau and on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef; and 4)Pliocene subsidence leading to contraction of the area of reef growth on the Queensland Plateau, with almost total drowning of the Marion Plateau and stepback of the Miocene barrier and platform reefs to their present position on the central Great Barrier Reef.

  2. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM) rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires) had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years), ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research. PMID:21138551

  3. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  4. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit. PMID:12268819

  5. Prospective Frontier basins off eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Falvey, D.A.; Hinz, K.; Willcox, J.B.; Exon, N.F.; Symonds, P.A.; Williamson, P.E.

    1986-07-01

    Eleven thousand kilometers of high-quality multichannel seismic reflection data have been gathered in four poorly known, but prospective areas off eastern Australia. The Otway basin has an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, more than half of which is in depths exceeding 500 m. Its Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary sequence is up to 10,000 m thick and is cut by large coast-parallel normal faults. The oldest marine strata are Cenomanian. The basinal area off west Tasmania covers 40,000 km/sup 2/, two-thirds of it in offshelf depths. It contains up to 6000 m of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences similar to those of the Otway basin. The Lord Howe Rise is a ribbon of continent off eastern Australia, about 2000 km long and 400 km wide. Much of its crest lies in water depths of 750-1200 m. Up to 4500 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences has been identified, and extensive faulting, related to the formation of the Tasman Sea, has formed rift basins and horst and graben areas. Simple extension was apparently dominant in the south, and oblique extension in the north. The Queensland Plateau covers 200,000 km/sup 2/, half of which is in water shallower than 1000 m. The plateau behaved as a stable block during and after the Paleogene spreading episode, which formed the Coral Sea to the northeast. About 1000 m of latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences are present above a planated surface on the plateau, and up to 5000 m in the flanking Queensland and Townsville Troughs to the southwest. The sequence beneath the planated surface is believed to contain Cretaceous rift-fill sediments in places.

  6. Co-evolution of Plant Biodiversity and Pedogeochemistry in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, E. N.; Gonzalez-Orozco, C.; Miller, J.

    2013-12-01

    With the geostatistical package geoR (Ribeiro and Diggle 2001), we used the National Geochemical Survey of Australia's 1315 reported total elemental concentrations for aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), all in mg kg-1, for the fine earth (<2 mm) fraction as determined by X-ray fluorescence, and pH1:5 (soil:water) and EC1:5 (soil:water) (de Caritat and Cooper 2011) to predict pedogeochemistry at 127,259 sites, representing presence data for 1020 Acacia species across Australia. Species in the genus Acacia are widely distributed across Australia. Here we show that strong associations exist between plant communities, individual species, and pedogeochemistry. Acacia communities in southern Australia are associated with high pH and high electrical conductivity, high total Mg on greenstone-derived soils, and high total Ca and Mg concentrations on calcareous and saline soils. Many species that tolerate extreme pedogeochemical conditions are range restricted. Both Acacia distribution and pedogeochemistry reflect climatic conditions. Species with strong correlation to local edaphic conditions present a higher potential for loss resulting from climate change, due to abiotic constraints. References de Caritat, P. & Cooper, M. (2011). National Geochemical Survey of Australia: The Geochemical Atlas of Australia. Geoscience Australia, Record 2011/20 (2 Volumes), 557 pp. Ribeiro, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001). geoR: A package for geostatistical analysis. R-News Vol 1, No 2. Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/.

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  8. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space. PMID:23138101

  9. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  10. Spatiotemporal fuzzy based climate forecasting for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, M.; Vervoort, R. W.; Minasny, B.; McBratney, A.

    2012-12-01

    Variation in weather and climate events impacts agriculture production processes, and profits across years. Therefore, seasonal rainfall prediction is an important factor for strategic and tactical decision making in agricultural, land and water resource management. This study aims to apply optimal data-driven techniques for fine resolution climate classification and forecasting over South-eastern Australia. Data were used in this study were included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data collected over 40 years from 107 weather stations in Southeast Australia acquired from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Fuzzy-k means clustering techniques (FKM) were applied on one year weekly time series. Cluster centroids and memberships of rainfall and temperature weekly time series for one year period provide meaningful and insight into weather variability in time and space over the study. Stations are grouped based on their memberships in rainfall and temperature classes. The result showed that FKM is a useful method for trend analysis and pattern discovery in space and time. Outcomes indicate improvement in the climate classification of the area at the station level. An associate project is gathering higher spatial density on-farm data. This high-resolution climate data collected at the farm scale will be analyzed similarly in the future to improve spatial resolution of our classification. The second stage of this study consists of development of a fine-resolution forecasting model for predicting rainfall. FKM was applied on a metrics which included input and output time series to extract rules and relationships between them. After classification, rules were extracted within each class based on forecasting time, space and extreme climate events followed by effective sea surface temperature anomalies. These rules and a lookup table of input and output centroids were used for rainfall prediction in the form of weekly time series for the next six months. One

  11. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  12. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... pests, and 1 mite. Fruit flies Jarvis's fruit fly (Bactrocera jarvisi). Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Lepidopteran pests Yellow peach moth (Conogethes... of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  13. Science and the governance of Australia's climate regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Rodney J.; Caripis, Lisa; Foerster, Anita; Godden, Lee; Peel, Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    The promise of a scientifically sound policy approach to tackle greenhouse-gas emissions in Australia gives hope that the country's efforts to mitigate climate change can make an effective contribution to international objectives.

  14. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  15. The Special Broadcasting Service and Australia's Ethnic Broadcasting Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklovsky, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Broadcasting services for non-English speaking peoples in Australia are reviewed both for radio and television. Broadcasting criteria for ethnic groups, funding levels, and current facilities are discussed. (RAO)

  16. Public Sector Reform in Australia and Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of public sector reform in Australia, focusing on the Commonwealth Government and Australian Public Service. Describes management reform packages, human resources management reforms, and industrial relations reforms. Discusses the impact of these changes on public libraries. (AEF)

  17. Australia/Pacific: Industry watchers expect the worst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for the Australia/Pacific area with respect to petroleum. The main observations are: ATEA forsees Australia drilling declining by nearly 50% this year compared to last; With no tax relief in sight for crude, major Aussie oil projects are delayed; New Zealand's leasing moratorium has ended, and licensing policies have improved; Australia's self-sufficiency dream vanishes as Bass Strait exports dwindle; Gulf has more finds onshore Papua/New Guinea, but well economics still questionable; Australian gas projects enjoy some insulation from poor crude markets; Jabiru find in Timor Sea due onstream, and Northwest Shelf LNG export plans continue; Australia's largest operators each announce budget cuts; rig count continues to plunge.

  18. The Australia Telescope project - Spinoffs for space-related services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. W.

    The Australia Telescope (AT) is a multimillion-dollar investment by the Federal Government into the space science of radio astronomy. The project has been officially endorsed by the Bicentennial Authority and is due for completion in 1988. The AT has been designed in Australia to make effective use of Australian resources, and Australian content will be around 80 percent. The project has stimulated the local development of space engineering capabilities, and some of these developments will be outlined in this progress report.

  19. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  20. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  1. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jewell, M; Frère, C H; Harris-Shultz, K; Anderson, W F; Godwin, I D; Lambrides, C J

    2012-11-01

    The distinction between native and introduced flora within isolated land masses presents unique challenges. The geological and colonisation history of Australia, the world's largest island, makes it a valuable system for studying species endemism, introduction, and phylogeny. Using this strategy we investigated Australian cosmopolitan grasses belonging to the genus Cynodon. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses have investigated the origin, diversity and phylogenetic history of Cynodon within Australia. To address this gap, 147 samples (92 from across Australia and 55 representing global distribution) were sequenced for a total of 3336bp of chloroplast DNA spanning six genes. Data showed the presence of at least six putatively introduced Cynodon species (C. transvaalensis, C. incompletus, C. hirsutus, C. radiatus, C. plectostachyus and C. dactylon) in Australia and suggested multiple recent introductions. C. plectostachyus, a species often confused with C. nlemfuensis, was not previously considered to be present in Australia. Most significantly, we identified two common haplotypes that formed a monophyletic clade diverging from previously identified Cynodon species. We hypothesise that these two haplotypes may represent a previously undescribed species of Cynodon. We provide further evidence that two Australian native species, Brachyachne tenella and B. convergens belong in the genus Cynodon and, therefore, argue for the taxonomic revision of the genus Cynodon. PMID:22797088

  2. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring ‘giant penguins’ after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  3. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  4. Characterising Emissions from Australia's Black Saturday Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Young, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Stevens, L.

    2009-12-01

    The “Black Saturday” fires were a set of devastating bushfires that burned across the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday the 7th of February 2009 killing 173 people. The fires continued into March when rain and cooler conditions allowed the fires to be extinguished. Smoke plumes from the Black Saturday fires were transported south eastwards eluding local ground-based remote sensing FTIR spectrometers, but were captured by a number of satellite-based sensors. OMI UV-aerosol index data show that smoke from the first intense fires separated from subsequent plumes and was transported to the north of New Zealand where it stayed for over a week before moving west across northern Australia and dissipating over the Indian Ocean in early March. Here we present an analysis of the emissions from the Black Saturday fires including total emissions estimates for a number of trace gases and a study of the aging of the smoke emitted from the first days of the fires.

  5. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  6. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  7. Web Site on Marine Connecivity Around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Scott

    2005-06-01

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), with support from the Western Australian Government, has developed an online tool for marine scientists and managers to investigate the largescale patterns of spatial connectivity around Australia that are associated with ocean current transport (,Figure 1). This tool, referred to as the Australian Connectivity Interface, or Aus-ConnIe, is expected to find applications in areas such as tracer dispersion studies (see example by Ridgway and Condie [2004](, larval dispersion and recruitment, and the development of scenarios and preliminary risk assessments for contaminant dispersion in the marine environment. After selecting a region of interest, users can investigate where material carried into that region comes from, or where material originating in that region goes to, over a range of timescales (weeks to months). These connectivity statistics are based on large numbers of particle trajctories (one million at any given time) estimated from satellite altimeter data, coastal tide-gauge data, and winds from meteorological models. Users can save the results in a variety of formats (CSV, Excel, or XML) and, as an option, may save their sessions by first registering.

  8. Physiotherapy in critical care in australia.

    PubMed

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-03-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident. PMID:22807651

  9. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  10. Venomous fish stings in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Isbister, G K

    2001-11-01

    Venomous fish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. This study investigated the clinical effects and treatment of venomous fish stings. A prospective observational case series of patients presenting with venomous fish stings was conducted in tropical northern Australia. Twenty-two fish stings were included; subjects were 3 females and 19 males; mean age 35 (range 10-63). 9 by stingrays, 8 by catfish, 1 by a stonefish, 1 by a silver scat (Selenotocota multifasciata), and 3 by unknown fish. All patients had severe pain, but less commonly erythema, 3 cases (14%); swelling, 7 cases (33%); bleeding, 5 cases (24%); numbness, 4 cases (19%); and radiating pain, 3 cases (14%). Mild systemic effects occurred in one stingray injury. Treatment included hot water immersion, which was completely effective in 73% of cases, analgesia, wound exploration and prophylactic antibiotics. Stingray injuries should be explored and debrided with large wounds, while other stings only need appropriate cleaning. The routine use of antibiotics is not recommended. PMID:11699001

  11. Diploma Training for Chemical Technicians in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampard, Mark G.

    1999-07-01

    We describe aspects of the present and past training of chemical technicians in Australia, with particular reference to that for senior technicians, technical officers, and those anticipating a career in laboratory management (i.e., diploma courses). We refer to the present study pathways for beginning science technicians leading to a full-time (or part-time equivalent) diploma course offered either by the State Departments of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) or by the universities. Credit for appropriate diploma subjects towards a university science degree is available. We emphasize the national unified nature of training according to the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which sets syllabi for subjects in conjunction with the Australian Standards Framework (ASF) levels that depend on such factors as breadth, depth, and complexity of skills and knowledge, range of activities undertaken, degree to which tasks are routine or complex, level of judgment required, and level of autonomy and responsibility for others. Recognition of the two-year diploma with suitable chemical laboratory or technology experience is through the Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI), and the letters AT (Associate Technician) RACI denote the new grade of membership of the RACI, the equivalent of the ACS in America. Sample structures for a Certificate IV and Diploma of Chemical Laboratory Technology are given.

  12. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  13. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  14. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures. PMID:26180104

  15. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  16. Polyphasic identification of cyanobacterial isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una M; Monis, Paul; McGregor, Glenn B; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Paparini, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Reliable identification of cyanobacterial isolates has significant socio-economic implications as many bloom-forming species affect the aesthetics and safety of drinking water, through the production of taste and odour compounds or toxic metabolites. The limitations of morphological identification have promoted the application of molecular tools, and encouraged the adoption of combined (polyphasic) approaches that include both microscopy- and DNA-based analyses. In this context, the rapid expansion of available sequence data is expected to allow increasingly reliable identification of cyanobacteria, and ultimately resolve current discrepancies between the two approaches. In the present study morphological and molecular characterisations of cyanobacterial isolates (n = 39), collected from various freshwater sites in Australia, were compared. Sequences were obtained for the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (16S rDNA) (n = 36), the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (rpoC1) (n = 22), and the phycocyanin operon, with its intergenic spacer region (cpcBA-IGS) (n = 19). Phylogenetic analyses identified three cyanobacterial orders: the Chroococcales (n = 8), Oscillatoriales (n = 6), and Nostocales (n = 25). Interestingly, multiple novel genotypes were identified, with 22% of the strains (17/77) having <95% similarity to available sequences in GenBank. Morphological and molecular data were in agreement at the species level for only 26% of the isolates obtained (10/39), while agreement at the genus level was obtained for 31% (12/39). Confident identification of the remaining 44% of the strains (17/39) beyond the order level was not possible. The present study demonstrates that, despite the taxonomic revisions, and advances in molecular-, and bioinformatics-tools, the lack of reliable morphological features, culture-induced pleomorphism, and proportion of misidentified or poorly described sequences in GenBank, still represent significant factors, impeding the

  17. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  18. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  19. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  20. Flow characteristics of rivers in northern Australia: Implications for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petheram, Cuan; McMahon, Thomas A.; Peel, Murray C.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAnnual, monthly and daily streamflows from 99 unregulated rivers across northern Australia were analysed to assess the general surface water resources of the region and their implications for development. The potential for carry-over storages was assessed using the Gould-Dincer Gamma method, which utilises the mean, standard deviation, skewness and lag-one serial correlation coefficient of annual flows. Runs Analysis was used to describe the characteristics of drought in northern Australia and the potential for 'active' water harvesting was evaluated by Base Flow Separation, Flow Duration Curves and Spells Analysis. These parameters for northern Australia were compared with data from southern Australia and data for similar Köppen class from around the world. Notably, the variability and seasonality of annual streamflow across northern Australia were observed to be high compared with that of similar Köppen classes from the rest of the world (RoW). The high inter-annual variability of runoff means that carry-over storages in northern Australia will need to be considerably larger than for rivers from the RoW (assuming similar mean annual runoff, yield and reliability). For example, in the three major Köppen zones across the North, it was possible (theoretically) to only exploit approximately 33% (Köppen Aw; n = 6), 25% (Köppen BSh; n = 12) and 13% (Köppen BWh; n = 11) of mean annual streamflow (assuming a hypothetical storage size equal to the mean annual flow). Over 90% of north Australian rivers had a Base Flow Index of less than 0.4, 72% had negative annual lag-one autocorrelation values and in half the rivers sampled greater than 80% of the total flow occurred during the 3-month peak period. These data confirm that flow in the rivers of northern Australia is largely event driven and that the north Australian environment has limited natural storage capacity. Hence, there is relatively little opportunity in many northern rivers to actively harvest water

  1. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. PMID:25871844

  2. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  3. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  4. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  5. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-01-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species. PMID:26623840

  6. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options. PMID:23431857

  7. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  8. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  9. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  10. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  11. In Brief: Unlocking Australia's oil and gas reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-11-01

    A collaboration to unlock stranded offshore oil and gas reserves through improved underwater pipeline design was launched in Perth, Australia, on 31 October. Called the Wealth From Oceans National Research Flagship's Collaboration Cluster on Subsea Pipelines, the A$11 million program brings together the research capabilities of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and six universities. With more than 80% of Australia's gas resources likely lying as far as 300 kilometers offshore at a depth greater than 1 kilometer, Flagship director Kate Wilson said that realizing the full potential of these resources requires developing economically viable and environmentally sound transportation technologies. ``Projects will investigate seabed characterization and morphology, structural integrity, pipeline monitoring, geohazards, and full-life reliability. This will involve everything from sophisticated computer modeling and seafloor movement prediction to understanding tsunami effects and exploring the use of autonomous underwater and remotely operated vehicles.''

  12. Heat flow measurements on the southeast coast of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, R.D.; Jaeger, J.C.; Sass, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    Three boreholes have been drilled for the Australian National University near the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. The heat flows found are 1.1, 1.0, and 1.3 ??cal/cm2sec. The errors resulting from the proximity of the sea and a lake, surface temperature change, conductivity structure and water flow have been examined. The radioactive heat production in some of the intrusive rocks of the area have also been measured. The heat flows are much lower than the values of about 2.0 found elsewhere in south eastern Australia. The lower values appear to be part of a distinct heat flow province in eastern Australia. ?? 1969.

  13. Implementation of two new resource management information systems in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessell, Stephen R.; Good, Roger B.; Hopkins, Angas J. M.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of PREPLAN, A Pristine Environment Planning Language and Simulator, for two conservation areas in Australia, Kosciusko National Park (New South Wales) and Tutanning Nature Reserve (Western Australia). PREPLAN was derived from the North American gradient modeling systems and the Forest Planning Language and Simulator (FORPLAN), but includes unique characteristics not previously available. PREPLAN includes an integrated resource management data base, modules for predicting site-specific vegetation, fuels, animals, fire behavior, and fire effects, and an English language instruction set. PREPLAN was developed specifically to provide available information and understanding of ecosystems to managers in a readily accessible and usable form, and to provide the motivation to conduct additional required research projects. An evaluation of the system's advantages and limitations is presented, and the way the utilization of such systems is improving natural area decision making throughout Australia is discussed.

  14. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  15. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century. PMID:23118313

  16. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  17. Trafficking in persons and victim health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schloenhardt, Andreas; Klug, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    This article explores the health problems experienced by victims of trafficking in persons in Australia and analyses the domestic support schemes established to assist these victims. It focuses specifically on the health of adult, female victims who constitute the majority of identified victims, and who are the principal recipients of government support services. Domestic experiences and support schemes are reviewed in the light of international law and best practice guidelines. Recommendations are made to improve the health services available to victims of trafficking in persons in Australia. PMID:22320010

  18. Risk of retraumatisation of asylum-seekers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Silove, D; McIntosh, P; Becker, R

    1993-12-01

    Australia has a long legacy of providing asylum to refugees who, it is now well established, suffer high rates of psychological and psychiatric problems requiring specialised treatment. In this paper we outline the special stressors faced by asylum-seekers who have not obtained formal refugee status and who are at risk of being forcibly repatriated. We suggest that the experiences they undergo in Australia, particularly that of prolonged detention, risk retraumatising an already vulnerable group. The implications for policy formulation are considered. PMID:8135685

  19. Project Skippy explores lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, Rob; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband seismic data from over 60 sites across the continent (Figure 1).The main goal of the Skippy Project, which is run by Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES), is to delineate the three-dimensional seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath the continent.

  20. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  1. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...

  3. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or...

  4. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  5. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  6. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  7. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  8. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Library Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  9. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

  10. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  11. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  12. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  13. Australians All: A Study Unit on Contemporary Australia for Secondary Schools [and] Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This document presents a study unit on Australia for secondary school students. A student reading examines Australia's cultural conflicts, history, 20th century development, and recent government policy. Australia's commitment to multiculturalism, the benefits of immigration, and the prospects for the future are also explored. The teacher's…

  14. Evaluation Traditions in Australia: Distillation of the Old, Wellspring of the New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation theory and practice in Australia are described. In Australia, evaluation is linked closely with government programs. Australia has benefited from the opportunity to observe evaluation in the rest of the world. However, development of a uniquely Australian perspective has been hampered by the imposition of cultural values of other…

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  20. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  1. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  2. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, S M; Jansen, C C

    2010-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin viruses) cause occasional outbreaks of encephalitis. Dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency in northern Queensland, with the largest outbreak in 50 years occurring during the 2008-2009 wet season. Of great concern are the threats posed by the importation of exotic arboviruses, such as West Nile, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses, the introduction of exotic vectors, and the potential range expansion of key Australian vectors. Environmental and anthropogenic influences provide additional uncertainty regarding the future impact of mosquito-borne pathogens in Australia. This review discusses the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response capability in Australia is provided. PMID:21144182

  3. Australia's Grand Experiment: School Reform and the National Schools Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louden, William; Wallace, John

    1997-01-01

    Australia's National Schools Project tried to facilitate restructuring by abolishing, bending, or breaking the rules that prevented schools from improving student outcomes. Since 1992, the 50-school project has expanded to over 200 sites. An evaluation of three NSP schools identifies barriers (cultural resistance and structural complexity) and…

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-60 - Mangoes from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) and fruit flies of the family Tephritidae in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. (c) The risks... of fruit must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate issued by the NPPO of Australia with..., P. adansoniae, P. mangiferae, and X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. (2) If the fruit is...

  5. Pathways: Developing the Skills of Australia's Workforce. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Hugh; Stanwick, John; Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper was originally developed to help the Training and Skills Commission in South Australia consider the pathways between elements of the vocational education and training (VET) system, how they are working and what improvements can be made. It has been revised to make it national in scope. The authors reveal that quite substantial numbers…

  6. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  7. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of…

  8. Final Year Engineering Projects in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons.…

  9. Moving Ideas and Mobile Researchers: Australia in the Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws from the ARC Discovery project called "Moving Ideas: Mobile Policies, Researchers and Connections in the Social Sciences and Humanities--Australia in the Global Context" (2006-2009). This project explored the ways that ideas travel and how knowledge transforms through travel. One aspect of the study was the critical examination of…

  10. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  11. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  12. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    PubMed

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions. PMID:20617651

  13. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  14. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  15. Intercultural Communication in Central Australia. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Kenneth

    Aboriginal discourse in central Australia is characterized by a refusal to impose a way of thinking on others, and correct discourse either carries a consensus or is abandoned. In addition, participants avoid being exposed personally in public settings, and good interactional style forbids speakers from forcing themselves on fellow participants in…

  16. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  17. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barry; And Others

    This document contains 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: (1) N.S.W. (New South Wales) Department of Agriculture Home Study Program (O'Neill); (2) Increasing Citizen Participation in Local Government (Holderness-Roddam); (3) School for Seniors (Benham and Vickers); (4) Community Living Project (Bleechmore); (5) Learning for the Less…

  18. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  19. Rank and File: Assessing Research Quality in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes recent developments in the assessment of research activity and publication in Australia. Of particular interest to readers will be the move to rank academic journals. "EPAT" received the highest possible ranking, however the process is far from complete. Some implications for the field, for this journal and…

  20. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  1. Health and Physical Education in Australia: A Defining Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum in Australia in the context of the ongoing development of a new national curriculum. Drawing on policy documents and academic commentaries it reviews and problematises the current position and prospective development of HPE in the Australian Curriculum, examining key…

  2. Sites of Contestation over Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Marie; Willis, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teacher education in Australia is subject to a great deal of policy interest at both Federal and State levels; it is also part of education policy shifts for the whole university sector. This paper explores Australian teacher education policy in terms of its governance, focusing on three current "sites of contestation": university policy,…

  3. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  4. Reflections on the Tertiary Education Sector in Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…

  5. Rural & Distance Education. A Bibliography with Particular Emphasis on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Ross

    Produced by the Rural and Distance Education (RADE) database of the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education, this bibliography is designed to support research studies and to aid teachers, administrators, support personnel, and policy makers. The 1,965 citations, which include both monographs and journal articles (some of which are already…

  6. Qualifications and the Future Labour Market in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This report has been prepared for the National Training Reform Taskforce to report on the future supply of, and requirements for, vocational education and training (VET) qualifications in Australia. It is intended to inform the next stages of reform of the sector to be considered by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). The report…

  7. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  8. Educational Policy for Citizenship in the Early Years in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailwood, Jo; Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Walker, Sue; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Understandings of young children as active and capable citizens, while evident in discourses of early childhood education and research, are not widely reflected in the policy for the early years of schooling in Australia. This paper makes an analysis of the gaps and tensions between discourses of young children as active citizens and policy for…

  9. Children's Library Services for Multicultural Societies in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayfield, Juliana

    Responding to the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Australia's population and to awakening interest in its indigenous minorities, this paper examines problems of acquisition and dissemination of children's literature to preserve the cultural heritage of minority groups. Appendices display population by age groups between 1954 and 1977,…

  10. Language Teacher Research in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…

  11. Comparing and Contrasting Primary School Playgrounds in Turkey and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancellor, Barbara; Cevher-Kalburan, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study aims to investigate aspects of school playgrounds in the city of Denizli, Turkey and in the state of Victoria, Australia. Using a survey designed for a recent study in Victoria, data was collected from a large number of schools in both settings and analysed in light of international research findings. The most significant…

  12. Inclusive Education in Australia: Rhetoric, Reality and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joanna; Boyle, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is a term that has been part of the educational discourse in Australia for almost two decades. While there is no overarching definition under which IE operates in that country, it is accepted that the meaning behind the term has shifted from being exclusively about students with a disability to now encompassing the…

  13. Quantifying Access to Services in Remote and Rural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis

    Each year commonwealth, state, and territory governments allocate millions of dollars to alleviate differing kinds of disadvantages among local communities in Australia. This paper is concerned with the allocation of resources to remote and rural areas by the Commonwealth Government on a national basis. Current formulas and resource allocation…

  14. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  15. Planning for Alternative Future Use: Some Recent Projects in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Deliberately designing alternative uses for new educational facilities has been utilized in a number of different projects in South Australia. One example is a high school designed to be converted to residential units, commercial office accommodation, and joint school and community use. (MLF)

  16. The Development of TAFE in Australia. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Gillian

    This document traces the development of Australia's technical and further education (TAFE) system, which offers a wide range of courses providing education and training for employment at the operative, trade, and paraprofessional levels, as well as general education and literacy programs. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) general…

  17. Leaning Too Far? PISA, Policy and Australia's "Top Five" Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika; Wu, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Australia has declared its ambition to be within the "top five" in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by 2025. So serious is it about this ambition, that the Australian Government has incorporated it into the "Australian Education Act, 2013". Given this focus on PISA results and rankings, we go beyond…

  18. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  19. E-Learning in Australia and Korea: Learning from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Choi, Jihee; Hong, Sun Yee; Lee, In Sook

    2004-01-01

    This project investigates the uptake of e-learning in two countries (Australia and Korea) which have experienced a rapid expansion of the use of information technology in education and training. A key finding is that although e-learning can increase flexibility and cost efficiencies in the delivery of training, it cannot on its own guarantee…

  20. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  1. Educational Accountability and Students with a Disability in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Conway, Robert

    2005-01-01

    One of the outcomes of regular education reform in Australia has been the development of a national testing program for school students. This article examines the degree to which students with a disability participate in this testing, and the extent to which the testing of students with a disability may help to achieve the National Goals of…

  2. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to make music…

  3. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  4. Benchmarking University Community Engagement: Developing a National Approach in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Steve; Langworthy, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the background and describes the processes involved in establishing a national approach to benchmarking the way universities engage with their local and regional communities in Australia. Local and regional community engagement is a rapidly expanding activity in Australian public universities and is increasingly being seen as…

  5. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  6. Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how diversity is used as a key term to describe the social and educational mission of universities in Australia. The paper suggests that we need to explore what diversity "does" in specific contexts. Drawing on interviews with diversity and equal opportunities practitioners, the paper suggests that "diversity" is used in the…

  7. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyden, Grace

    2015-01-01

    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  8. Making Inclusion Work: Autism Spectrum Australia Satellite Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.; Keane, Elaine; Clark, Trevor R.

    2008-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Australia Satellite Class Project features small specialist classes for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) within general education schools. The program incorporates individual education goals within timetable based on the general school curricula, in conjunction with a schedule of integrated activities. The aim of…

  9. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  10. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  11. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  12. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  13. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  14. International Year of Disabled Persons in Australia: Attitudes and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gething, Lindsay

    1986-01-01

    The article assesses the effects of the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP) on attitudes and integration in Australia and compares the effects of direct close contact with disabled people. Questionnaires administered before and after IYDP suggest the Year provided increased awareness but little attitude or increased integration.…

  15. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  16. The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. A strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in northern Australia and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However in early 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in mortality in approximately 10%–15% of infected horses. A WNV-like virus (WNVNSW2011) was isolated and found to be most closely related to the indigenous WNVKUN, rather than other exotic WNV strains. Furthermore, at least two amino acid changes associated with increased virulence of the North American New York 99 strain (WNVNY99) compared to the prototype WNVKUN were present in the WNVNSW2011 sequence. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNVKUN and how the epidemiology and ecology of this virus has changed. Analysis of virulence determinants of contemporary WNVKUN isolates will provide clues on where virulent strains have emerged in Australia. A better understanding of the changing ecology and epidemiology associated with the emergence of virulent strains is essential to prepare for future outbreaks of WNV disease in Australia. PMID:24287851

  17. Literacy Down Under: Voices from New Zealand and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson, Kathleen F.; Reinken, Barbara J.

    This paper describes a recent study of the literacy practices in New Zealand and Australia. Through the voices of students, teachers, administrators, parents, state agency persons, and university faculty, the literacy programs "down under" are heard and seen. The paper also discusses programs for special needs children and briefly presents reforms…

  18. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  19. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  20. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... various opportunities, and (4) to educate the participants about trade policy and regulatory matters... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing...

  1. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  2. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... consignments only and would have to be treated by irradiation to mitigate the risk of insect pests. The mangoes... treated for insect pests, except pupae and adults of the order Lepidoptera, with irradiation in accordance... all 13 insect pests associated with mangoes from Australia. Within part 305, Sec. 305.9 contains...

  3. The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

  4. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  5. Oral to Literate Traditions: Emerging Literacies in Remote Aboriginal Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Public debate on literacy in remote Indigenous Australia emphasises a narrative of failure. The discussion commonly focuses on the low literacy and numeracy benchmarks achieved in remote Indigenous schools. Little attention has been paid to the short history of literacy in isolated Indigenous societies, the shift from oral to literate traditions…

  6. Students' Reaction to Classroom Discipline in Australia, Israel, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ramon; Romi, Shlomo; Katz, Yaacov J.; Qui, Xing

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which students from Australia, Israel, and China report that their teachers' classroom disciplinary behaviour affects their attitudes towards schoolwork and the teacher. They also report how justifiable a teacher's intervention appeared. In all three settings, both punishment and aggression relate…

  7. Developments in Australia's Vocational Education and Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Chris

    Australia's national vocational education and training (VET) system and nationally funded technical and further education colleges were established in the 1970s. In the 1980s, traineeships complementing traditional apprenticeships and competency-based training were instituted. An industry-led training system was established in the 1990s. Total VET…

  8. Updated Guidelines for Training Package Developers. Australia's National Training Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This document contains the latest guidelines for developing nationally endorsed training packages for use in Australia's system of vocational education and training (VET). Discussed in section A are the following aspects of the context in which the training packages emerged: development of the National Training Framework and associated new…

  9. Online Learning on Location: Perspectives from Regional Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Roslin; Horton, Chris; McNickle, Cathy; Osborne, Janet; Scholten, Katie

    Perspectives on online learning on location in regional Australia were examined through structured interviews with 46 learners, 23 teachers, 6 managers of flexible delivery activities, 4 organization chief executive officers, and focus groups with 20 online learners. The manager interviews established that although mangers viewed online delivery…

  10. Patterns of Cultural Adjustment among Young Migrants to Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.

    2004-01-01

    In response to appeals for empirical data on culture-specific differences and developmental pathways of acculturative stress among young migrants and refugees, the present study examines the cultural adjustment patterns of ethnically diverse migrants to Australia. Two hundred and seventy three primary and high school students (comprised of…

  11. Management Analysis Paper on the Curriculum Development Centre, Canberra, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Laurie

    Australia's Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) functions within the Federal Ministry of Education to undertake and support curriculum research and development tasks and to develop and disseminate teaching and learning materials. This is accomplished through consultation and cooperation with education authorities at all levels throughout the…

  12. Refugee Settlers: Some Aspects of Australia's Changed Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claydon, Leslie F.

    Reporting on Australia's attempts to aid in the resettlement of European and Asian refugees and other immigrants, this paper focused on the progress of governmental institutions in dealing with migrant problems such as education, employment, and cultural integration. The language barrier, caused by a lack of knowledge of English by the majority of…

  13. Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia in 1831-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the knowledge-diffusion activities of colonial agricultural societies in western Australia from their foundation in 1831-1870. States that from 1829 to 1850 British settlers belonged to a society of free citizens, while from 1851-1867 the settlement changed to a convict colony. (CMK)

  14. A Curriculum Enrichment Project for Primary Schools in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jenny

    1989-01-01

    Describes a curriculum enrichment project for gifted children. Using the subject matter of the history of settlement patterns in Western Australia, factual learning is enhanced by the use of projective role playing. Emphasizes the mutual enhancement of rational knowing and imaginative identification. Identifies issues in developing curriculum…

  15. School-Leaving Decisions in Australia: A Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.

    2004-01-01

    The decision to invest in education is influenced by a large number of economic, social, family, personal and institutional factors. Many of these changed in Australia during the 1970s and 1980s. Several of the more important of these changes, such as the Equal Pay for Equal Work decision of 1969, the Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value decision of…

  16. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  17. Women in Science: The Persistence of Gender in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the need for adopting a more scientific approach to specifying and assessing academic standards in higher education. Drawing together insights from large-scale studies in Australia, it advances a definition of academic standards, explores potential indicators of academic quality and looks at approaches for setting standards. As…

  18. New Orientia tsutsugamushi strain from scrub typhus in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Odorico, D. M.; Graves, S. R.; Currie, B.; Catmull, J.; Nack, Z.; Ellis, S.; Wang, L.; Miller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a recent case of scrub typhus in Australia, Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from the patient's blood was tested by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The sequence showed a strain of O. tsutsugamushi that was quite different from the classic Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains. The new strain has been designated Litchfield. PMID:9866742

  19. MAGSAT anomaly field data of the crustal properties of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.

  20. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…