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BACKGROUND: Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide,
Hylton B Menz; Tiffany K Gill; Anne W Taylor; Catherine L Hill
The Adelaide Dental Study of Nursing Homes 1998 presents, firstly, information obtained from questionnaires mailed to practising Adelaide dentists and Directors of Nursing from Adelaide nursing homes and, secondly, oral epidemiological prevalence data from clinical dental inspections of residents from randomly selected Adelaide nursing homes. The findings highlight the poor oral health status of many nursing home residents, and the
Background The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. Methods FAMAS is a longitudinal study involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north – west regions of Adelaide. Respondents were excluded at screening if they were considered incapable of participating because of immobility, language, or an inability to undertake the study procedures. Following a telephone call to randomly selected households, eligible participants were invited to attend a baseline clinic measuring a variety of biomedical and socio-demographic factors. Beginning in 2002, these clinics are scheduled to reoccur every five years. Follow-up questionnaires are completed annually. Participants are also invited to participate in sub-studies with selected collaborators. Results Of those eligible to participate, 45.1% ultimately attended a clinic. Non-responders were more likely to live alone, be current smokers, have a higheevalence of self-reported diabetes and stroke, and lower levels of hypercholesterolemia. Comparisons with the Census 2001 data showed that participants matched the population for most key demographics, although younger groups and never married men were under-represented and elderly participants were over-represented. To date, there has been an annual loss to follow-up of just over 1%. Conclusion FAMAS allows a detailed investigation into the effects of bio-psychosocial and behavioural factors on the health and ageing of a largely representative group of Australian men.
Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A
Observations of winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (~80-110 km) measured at the geographically conjugate locations of Adelaide (35°S, 138°E) and Kyoto (35°N, 136°E) in the years 1983-1985 are used to study the hemispheric differences in the behavior of the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Comparisons of the tidal amplitude and phase parameters show that there are distinct
Background: The complex oral health problems of nursing home residents have been well documented. However, the influences on residents' oral health status, including opinions and experiences of dental professionals and nursing home staff, have not yet been adequately investigated. Methods: The baseline questionnaire component of this longitudinal study was mailed to all registered dentists practising in Adelaide and Adelaide nursing
JM Chalmers; C. Hodge; JM Fuss; AJ Spencer; KD Carter; R. Mathew
This paper examines the water consumption patterns for different types of residential dwellings and areas in Adelaide, Australia. The method uses datasets regularly collected and maintained by a number of organizations to allow water consumption patterns to be analyzed and examined over time. The results suggest that water consumption varies between different types of residential dwellings, and areas, and that
Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.
Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A
In recent times there have been changes to guidelines regarding the management of gonorrhoea, from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 and the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. Coinciding with their release we conducted a clinical audit of our treatment protocol for gonorrhoea. In 2010, local data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae indicated an increase in local isolates that were less sensitive to ceftriaxone (11.6% c.f. 5.3% in 2009). We have a long history of using 250 mg of ceftriaxone to treat all standard sites of gonorrhoea infection followed with tests of cure in all cases. In a retrospective clinical audit of an 11-year period from 2000 up to and including 2010 we identified six test-of-cure failures over 11 years after treating a total of 215 patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea. PMID:23970709
Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves. PMID:23759952
Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves.
While the full impact of climate change is uncertain, it has been widely documented to be responsible for the extreme weather conditions which are experienced in many places around the world. High temperatures during summer are the expected norm for the population living in Adelaide South Australia (SA) and if temperatures reach and remain in the upper thirties centigrade they can be expected to meet the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology definition of a "heatwave". A number of studies have shown that there is a direct link between the increase in mortality and morbidity among emergency department (ED) patient presentations and periods of extreme heat. Heatwave conditions affect individuals with particular health problems such as cardiovascular, renal or mental health which results in an increase in the patient presentations to the emergency department (ED). This paper describes the findings from the initial phase of a long-term research project investigating the effects of heatwave exposure on particular health conditions with respect to patient presentations (ICD-10 categories) to ED's in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The initial results from one public hospital during two heatwave periods experienced in 2009 are presented in this paper. The heat wave events were compared to non-heat wave periods before and after each heat wave. Demographic information as well as diagnostic descriptors are also presented. PMID:21319465
Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (?² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change.
Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (?² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change. PMID:23343978
In 1886 Adelaide Bartlett stood trial at the Old Bailey for the murder of her husband, Thomas Edwin Bartlett. The court witnessed sensational evidence and the case left questions which remain unanswered. Images p1720-a p1721-a p1723-a p1723-b
The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.
Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.
The paper focuses on women's soccer, one of the fastest growing sports in Australia, and in particular on the aspect of the ethnic background of Adelaide-based clubs. The paper aims to illustrate the shift in ethnic image that has occurred in recent years amongst Adelaide clubs, formerly associated with the Italian community, and to investigate the reason(s) behind this shift.
This paper examines prosocial and moral behaviours that underpin survival strategies and food acquisition practices among a sample of food insecure homeless youth in Adelaide, Australia. The mixed method study included a study involving in-depth interviews about food procurement and food sharing practices with homeless youth (n = 15) aged 15–24 years. Interviewees demonstrated proactive prosocial behaviours including sharing food,
Membrane fouling remains a major concern for ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment for seawater reverse osmosis (RO). The focus of this study was the optimisation of the chemical cleaning regime and any associated impact on the downstream cartridge filters (pre-RO). Different shock acidification\\/chlorination and maintenance wash (MW) regimes for the pilot UF were tested. The results of the study at the Adelaide
Mike Dixon; Vanesa Ayala; Guillermo Hijos; Con Pelekani
Objective: To describe the development of the Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES) and to report on its reliability and validity.Methods: A set of 12 driving behaviours, developed through literature review, clinical experience and expert review, were rated for self-efficacy using a Likert scale. Internal consistency was investigated using a Cronbach's alpha coefficient and construct validity by comparing ADSES scores of
In this article we compare and contrast elements of social capital across different housing tenures in an Adelaide neighbourhood. Using the results of 530 self-completion questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 people we assess perceptions of conflict across housing tenures and between socio-economic groups, feelings of acceptance and belonging in the local neighbourhood, and levels of involvement in local
Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.
Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Taylor, James [Department of Radiology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)
This study documents the cross-sectional, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures obtained at baseline for patients with severe chronic airways limitation (CAL) being assessed for home oxygen therapy (HOT) at the Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia. Two generic quality of life instruments, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) short form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36), were
A. J. Crockett; J. M. Cranston; J. R. Moss; J. H. Alpers
The importance of 33 aspects of health was evaluated by 677 people as part of a postal random population survey conducted in Adelaide, South Australia. Principal factors analysis suggested that the respondents' evaluations could be represented along four dimensions to do with: the avoidance of illness; feeling healthy; healthy lifestyle; and disease prevention activities. Generally, women, persons in older age
Although it has been suggested that the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Adelaide and the K chondrite Kakangari could be considered highly primitive, our study of their presolar grain abundances shows that both have experienced more secondary processing than other primitive chondrites with high presolar grain abundances. Presolar grains are rare in Kakangari and are present in reduced abundances in Adelaide (approximately 70 ppm for O-anomalous grains). Thermal annealing has led to widespread crystallization of their fine-grained matrices, and accounts for the partial to complete destruction of presolar grains. In addition, presolar silicates in Adelaide show elevated Fe abundances and Fe-rich rims indicative of infiltration of Fe into the grains from the surrounding matrix. This process probably also took place during annealing, most likely in the solar nebula, in a region with an enhanced dust-to-gas ratio. The most primitive meteorites, with the highest presolar grain abundances, appear to be those whose matrices contain abundant amorphous material that has escaped any significant thermal or aqueous alteration.
The Shanghai Women's HealthStudy, a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 women, which aims to evaluate the causes of cancer among Chinese women.
A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline. PMID:17737290
Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S
A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.
Gostin, V. A.; Haines, P. W.; Jenkins, R. J. F.; Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.
The Detroit Children's HealthStudy will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...
A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration among the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
The impending waterfront redevelopment of Port Adelaide is a local manifestation of a global phenomenon. Through a carefully managed place marketing process, the Port's industrial landscape is to be reconceptualized as a future landscape of cosmopolitan consumption and professional occupancy. This involves a significant transformation not only of the built environment but also the discursive identity of that waterfront landscape.
Port Adelaide is on the cusp of an urban renaissance. Once a thriving industrial centre, economic restructuring has left the Port in a vulnerable position. Suffering from the ills of economic and environmental decline, collaborative efforts between the South Australian State Government and private sector property developers have aimed to transform the Port to a cosmopolitan and progressive landscape. While
|Dental students in third (n=35) and fifth years (n=50) at Adelaide and Trinity College Dental Schools were surveyed about their experiences of assessment and their perceptions of the importance of particular aspects of assessment. Students reported on their assessment experience within their programmes by describing a critical assessment incident…
The Port Adelaide waterfront redevelopment is a property-led urban venture that is being driven by a logic and ideology of new forms of urban politics that are oriented towards post-industrial capital accumulation. While local residents are in favour of the waterfront being revitalised there is concern about the nature and scale of the redevelopment being proposed. Through a carefully managed
The Proterozoic sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline were deformed and metamorphosed during the Ordovician Delamerian Orogeny. In much of the Flinders Ranges, the relatively unmetamorphosed sediments, such as those of the Brachina and Bunyeroo formations in the Central Flinders Ranges, are only weakly magnetic. In the Mount Lofty Ranges, where peak metamorphic grades were reached, the Brachina Formation and its
A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s HealthStudy has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.
The Women's HealthStudy (WHS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a 2x2 factorial design, and conducted among 39,876 female health professionals in the United States. The WHS is sponsored by both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Participants were randomly assigned to either Vitamin E (600 IU every other day) or placebo; and to aspirin (100 mg every other day) or placebo.
The randomised controlled (or clinical) trial (RCT) is recognized as the most valid among the study designs. The use of RCT in research is widespread and well formalised. In contrast, implementations of new methods and policies in routine health care are commonly lacking a formalised design, impairing the ability to evaluate and improve health care. Use of experimental designs in health care is possible at the implementation phase of clinical or preventive action or more broad process-of-care. We propose the terminology randomised health services studies (RHS) to denote the use of a randomised design with observations in routine health care, regardless of whether randomisation is done at individual, population or process level. In contrast to RCT, the RHS should be based on the same regulative actions, funding mechanisms and ethical framework as routine health care itself. This commentary discusses the different basis, practicalities, and formalities that distinguish the RHS from the RCT. Development of a formalised framework for RHS, including distinct registration, could contribute to an increased use of valid methods in effectiveness research, thus gaining better and more direct evidence on routine medical practice. PMID:22461063
Launched in September 2010, the Ontario HealthStudy (OHS) is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The OHS is an integrated platform for investigating the complex interplay of environmental, lifestyle and genetic components that increase individual and community risk of common adult diseases.
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the health problems and reproductive outcomes of three groups of women: Theater veterans were defined as members of the Armed Forces of the United States who served as nurses in Vietnam. Era veterans w...
The contamination of the Walkerton, Ontario, municipal water with E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter in May 2000 resulted in at least 2,300 cases of gastrointestinal illness. There were 28 confirmed cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome, the most severe kidney complication. The provincial Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care determined that a study needed to be conducted on the long-term health effects associated with drinking the contaminated water. The Walkerton HealthStudy, a seven-year project, was established as a screening and treatment clinic to identify and treat those people experiencing illness and to study long-term health effects. This article describes the challenges, infrastructure support, staffing, and recruitment and retention efforts required to screen over 4,000 people in a yearly clinic visit. Clinical and laboratory algorithms are used to identify participants requiring specialist assessment. Design of the computer-based survey includes advanced data entry and display control, essential to ensuring accurate data for analysis. Findings from Years 1, 2 and 3 are briefly discussed. PMID:16035513
Jenkins, R.J.F. and Sandiford, M., 1992. Observations on the tectonic evolution of the southern Adelaide Fold Belt. In: CL. Fergusson and R.A. Glen (Editors), The Palaeozoic Eastern Margin of Gondwanaland: Tectonics of the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia and related orogens. Tectonophysics, 214: 27-36. The Mount Lofty Ranges, Fieurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island regions of South Australia expose a section
The importance of 33 aspects of health was evaluated by 677 people as part of a postal random population survey conducted in Adelaide, South Australia. Principal factors analysis suggested that the respondents' evaluations could be represented along four dimensions to do with: the avoidance of illness; feeling healthy; healthy lifestyle; and disease prevention activities. Generally, women, persons in older age groups, and persons in lower social status and education groups evaluated health more highly than others. These and other findings suggest that health evaluations depend upon illness experience and social roles. These findings have implications for health education, mass communication and medical practice.
Findings of a study of the current supply of allied health personnel in Tennessee and an investigation of training programs for such health professions are presented. The goal of the study was a plan for providing the trained personnel needed for health s...
The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different affective approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive appeal, and an effectively neutral, cognitive appeal. The three intervent...
The Port Adelaide waterfront is symbolic of a distinctive form of entrepreneurial urban governance that emphasises specific forms of capital accumulation. As in waterfront projects elsewhere in Australia and overseas, depicting Port Adelaide as an ‘urban problem’ has been critical in legitimating the public–private market-based approach to regenerating the waterfront site. This paper outlines how the ascendancy of urban governance
The purpose of the currently fluided project is: to seek to determine and validate the efficacy of a community-based educational program initiative in promoting breast health in minority and medically underserved women by educating and motivating them to ...
The redevelopment of the Port Adelaide waterfront is symbolic of a new era in institutional urban planning, one that is being driven by an entrepreneurial logic more commonly associated with a market rationality. Urban entrepreneurialism describes a complex set of discursive orientations, which are evident in the planning, delivery and financing of this waterfront revitalisation. This new urban politic is
The fifteenth biennial Conference of the Library Association of Australia was held from August 25th to 29th, 1969, in Adelaide. This proceedings volume contains many of the papers given, and summaries of many others. Five papers were presented during the ...
Health care expenditures in the U.S. totaled $1.3 trillion in the year 2000, and spending could reach $2.8 trillion, or 17% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP), by 2011, up from 13.2% of GDP in 2000. In addition, the greatest stress will come as ...
|Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…
Lung HealthStudy I, to determine the effects of Special Care, compared to Usual Care, on rate of decline in pulmonary function in a group of cigarette smokers identified as having mild abnormalities in pulmonary function. Lung HealthStudy III is to determine the long-term effec...
Results of a dental manpower study, which is part of a larger Health Manpower Study commissioned by the State Council of Higher Education, is presented in this report, which also includes information on the education of dentists, dental hygienists, dental...
HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning....
This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522
Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael
This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra (1814) is a historical novel by the Irish author Adelaide O'Keeffe that features religious conversions from paganism to Judaism, and from Judaism to Christianity. O'Keeffe stages these conversions within the context of late Enlightenment debates about the ability of rational educational approaches to inculcate religious belief. I compare Zenobia to Edgeworthâ€™s Harrington, Rousseauâ€™s Ã‰mile, Mme de
Host plants of Erwinia amylovora in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Melbourne (RBGM) and the Adelaide Botanic Gardens (ABG) were inspected for symptoms of fire\\u000a blight including dieback, and shoot and stem cankers. Forty five symptomatic plants were sampled and concurrently tested for\\u000a the presence of E. amylovora at the Institute for Horticultural Development, Victoria; Macquarie University, New South Wales;
S. JockA; B. RodoniB; M. Gillingsc; W.-S. Kim; C. Copes; P. Merriman; K. Geider
Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219
Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen
OBJECTIVES—To determine compliance with a voluntary code of practice (VCP) for restricting smoking in restaurants and to canvass the attitudes of restaurateurs towards tougher smoking restrictions.?DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996 using a telephone questionnaire.?SETTING—Metropolitan restaurants and cafés in Adelaide, South Australia.?PARTICIPANTS—276 (86.8%) of a sample of randomly selected owners and managers.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Restaurant non-smoking policies, reported and anticipated change in business, and restaurateurs' attitudes towards smoking restrictions.?RESULTS—26.8% of restaurants had a total smoking ban; 40.6% restricted smoking some other way; and 32.6% permitted unrestricted smoking. Only 15.1% of restaurants with a ban or restrictions had used the VCP to guide the development of their policy, and only half of these were complying with it. Although 78.4% of those with bans and 84.4% of those with restrictions reported that their non-smoking policy had been associated with either no change or a gain in business, only 33.3% of those allowing unrestricted smoking expected that this would be the case, if they were to limit smoking. A total of 50.4% of restaurateurs, including 45.3% of those with no restrictions, agreed that the government should ban smoking in all restaurants.?CONCLUSIONS—The VCP made an insignificant contribution to adoption of non-smoking policies, and compliance with the code was poor. Despite concerns about loss of business, there was considerable support for legislation which would ban smoking in all dining establishments.???Keywords: smoking restrictions; restaurants; environmental tobacco smoke; Australia
Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate health communication for promoting health, i.e. ‘health promoting communication’.
We audited patients with anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants during anaesthesia referred to the Department of Anaesthesia at the Royal Adelaide Hospital between the start of 2000 and the end of 2009. Of the 220 patients tested during this period, 43 had a positive intradermal test to the muscle relaxant given during their anaesthetic. The majority of these were to rocuronium and suxamethonium. Where rocuronium was the index agent, 65% of patients cross-reacted with another relaxant and 29% of patients with suxamethonium as their index agent demonstrated cross-reaction with another relaxant. PMID:22934871
This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account.
The sources of uncertainty in projecting the impacts of climate change on runoff are increasingly well recognized; however, translating these uncertainties to urban water security has received less attention in the literature. Furthermore, runoff cannot be used as a surrogate for water supply security when studying the impacts of climate change due to the nonlinear transformations in modeling water supply and the effects of additional uncertainties, such as demand. Consequently, this study presents a scenario-based sensitivity analysis to qualitatively rank the relative contributions of major sources of uncertainty in projecting the impacts of climate change on water supply security through time. This can then be used by water authorities to guide water planning and management decisions. The southern system of Adelaide, South Australia, is used to illustrate the methodology for which water supply system reliability is examined across six greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios, seven general circulation models, six demand projections, and 1000 stochastic rainfall time series. Results indicate the order of the relative contributions of uncertainty changes through time; however, demand is always the greatest source of uncertainty and GHG emissions scenarios the least. In general, reliability decreases over the planning horizon, illustrating the need for additional water sources or demand mitigation, while increasing uncertainty with time suggests flexible management is required to ensure future supply security with minimum regret.
The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health. PMID:23394189
Hughes, Toby; Bockmann, Michelle; Mihailidis, Suzanna; Bennett, Corinna; Harris, Abbe; Seow, W Kim; Lekkas, Dimitra; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Rupinskas, Loreta; Pinkerton, Sandra; Brook, Alan; Smith, Richard; Townsend, Grant C
St. Louis University School of Medicine was pleased to assist in a pilot epidemiolog~c study of the health effects of TCDD contamination in Missouri.- We worked directly with the Centers for Disease Control and the Missouri Division of Health plus St. Joseph Hospital to design and execute this study of the health effects of dioxin victims in Missouri.
Research presented in this paper uses results from an acitivity diary survey to comment on the quality of data collected in a home interview travel survey. The two surveys were conducted in Adelaide, Australia. Evidence is presented to suggest that although a period of slightly more than three years separated the two surveys, the samples were reasonably similar with respect
A study guide, consisting of two modules, designed to provide basic skills in health care delivery. Module 1 is the 'Health Core' developed for the education of anyone who comes into contact with patients in a health career. Skills mastered in this sectio...
Increasingly property led urban waterfront regeneration projects offer highly choreographed and packaged lifestyles that construct new forms of community under the guise of social sustainability. While the term 'community' is subject to multiple meanings waterfront redevelopments arguably market a concept of community expressed through the physical layout and landscaping of the waterfront site, the diversity of design and density of
Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321
In response to changing business and market trends, the health sector is currently faced with many transformations. As 'non traditional', distributed, and point of care health services are becoming more common, the need for efficient business processes and supply chains is increasing. Another case study (Burgess et al, 2003) examines ambulatory care, however the case studies of this research examine
The Agricultural HealthStudy (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...
Introduction This report describes a 2011 seasonal influenza B outbreak in a metropolitan primary school in Australia with 179 students. Methods Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a questionnaire that included demographic data, details of illness, chronic health conditions and vaccination status. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as fever plus cough and/or sore throat. Analysis of ILI was undertaken with the ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Seventy-two questionnaire respondents (75%) reported illness during the outbreak – 43 with ILI, giving an attack rate of 45%. There was no association between ILI and age or chronic lung disease. Six (6%) students were vaccinated against influenza before the outbreak; although four became ill, none satisfied the ILI case definition. Seven students were positive for influenza B including two confirmed as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like; one student was positive for rhinovirus and another for metapneumovirus. The recommended influenza vaccine matched the circulating influenza strains. Discussion This cohort study estimated a high ILI attack rate and demonstrated low influenza vaccine coverage within the setting of a primary school. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in addition to constitutional and respiratory symptoms, were common.
An indoor air pollution\\/acute respiratory healthstudy is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness\\/wellness history. At the end of the month the
J. D. Spengler; M. P. Reed; E. Leberet; B. H. Chang; J. H. Ware
|This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health education. The test covers eight subareas: (1) personal health; (2) nutrition; (3) human growth and development; (4) human sexuality and family living; (5) drugs; (6) safety, first aid, and emergency treatment; (7)…
An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory healthstudy is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...
In this study we examined the impact of trait hope on the health of 16 HIV+ individuals. In 2006, hopefulness was assessed with a comprehensive measure derived from an integrative theory of hope. At this time, we also collected self-reported health data as well as blood samples that provided an index of immunological status (CD4). Subsequently, at 8, 24, and
Anthony Scioli; Susan MacNeil; Vanessa Partridge; Elizabeth Tinker; Ethan Hawkins
In this study we examined the impact of trait hope on the health of 16 HIV+ individuals. In 2006, hopefulness was assessed with a comprehensive measure derived from an integrative theory of hope. At this time, we also collected self-reported health data as well as blood samples that provided an index of immunological status (CD4). Subsequently, at 8, 24, and
Anthony Scioli; Susan MacNeil; Vanessa Partridge; Elizabeth Tinker; Ethan Hawkins
We propose that two related sources of variability in studies of caregiving health effects contribute to an inconsistent pattern\\u000a of findings: the sampling strategy used, and the definition of what constitutes caregiving. Samples are often recruited through\\u000a selfreferral and are typically comprised of caregivers experiencing considerable distress. In this study, we examine the health\\u000a effects of caregiving in large population-based
Richard Schulz; Jason Newsom; Maurice Mittelmark; Lynda Burton; Calvin Hirsch; Sharon Jackson
Goals of work the aim of this paper was to review the initial use of Palifermin(rHu-KGF1) in a single institution, for the prevention of oral mucositis in high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.Methods the case records of the first five patients treated with Palifermin at the Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Centre were reviewed, and incidence,severity and duration of the oral mucositis were
This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e....
This report focuses on in-depth case studies of six employers, two health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and one managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO) in an effort to provide clear and well documented examples for other companies and manage...
Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective effects of tea are possibly related to its antioxidant properties or its inhibition of lipid oxidation. Green tea and pigments was also found to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy induced by renal hypertension in rat models, whose mechanisms might, at least partly, involve its modulation on nitric oxide, angiotensin II and endothelin-1. Clinical intervention trials have indicated that tea and tea extracts decreased blood lipid, improved blood flow of coronary artery, and played an important role in atherosis inhibition and prevention. Our studies also showed that tea drinking has protective effects on diabetes. White tea drinking could significantly relieve symptoms including polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss in diabetic mice, decrease fasting plasma glucose level and improve glucose tolerance. In human trial, continuous white tea drinking could significantly improve symptoms of diabetic patients, such as relieve polydipsia, decrease plasma glucose levels, both fasting and 2 hours after meal, and increase insulin secretion. The effective rate for glucose lowering is 48% in clinical study. PMID:22279681
Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 examined 8 components of school health programs: health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health and social services, nutrition services, healthy and safe school environment, faculty and staff health promotion, and family and community…
Kyle, Tonja M.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Ross, James G.; Roberts, Alice M.; Iachan, Ronaldo; Robb, William H.; McManus, Tim
|Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 examined 8 components of school health programs: health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health and social services, nutrition services, healthy and safe school environment, faculty and staff health promotion, and family and community…
Kyle, Tonja M.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Ross, James G.; Roberts, Alice M.; Iachan, Ronaldo; Robb, William H.; McManus, Tim
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...
This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…
This study examines student outcomes in the seven curriculum programs (chemical technology, dental hygiene, dental laboratory, medical laboratory, nursing, opthalmic dispensing, and radiologic technology) of the Division of Allied Health and Natural Sciences at New York City Community College. The following variables are examined: student…
An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory healthstudy is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness/wellness history. At the end of the month the calendar is returned by mail. Families participated in the survey from the time of induction (after September 1, 1984) to August 31, 1985. Coincident with the symptom survey, indoor air pollution measurements are made in each home and in the elementary schools of the participating student.
Product contains questionnaires, codebooks, and data (ASCII) produced from the School Health Policies and Program Study (SHPPS). SHPPS, conducted March through June of 1994, is a national survey of school policies and programs at the state, district, and ...
The Johns Hopkins University's Bloomberg School of Public Health has participated in the OpenCourseWare program for a number of years, and this course is one of their most recent offerings. Created by Henry Taylor and Henry Perry, these course materials introduce "students to the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries." On this course site, visitors can read through the syllabus, examine the course schedule, and look over the lecture materials. In the lecture materials area, visitors will find lecture slides and their corresponding audio files. Some of the topics covered here include the roots of community-based primary health care and women's empowerment in Afghanistan. Finally, visitors can check out some of the course readings, which are offered in the pdf format.
... Experimental Study of Health Claims on Food Packages. ... SECTION B. AWARENESS OF NUTRIENTS AND HEALTH BENEFITS. B1. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/consumerbehaviorresearch
This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent healthstudy of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk.
This case study has used the results of a review of literature to understand the persistence of poor maternal health in Rajasthan, a large state of north India, and to make some conclusions on reasons for the same. The rate of reduction in Rajasthan's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) has been slow, and it has remained at 445 per 1000 livebirths in 2003. The government system provides the bulk of maternal health services. Although the service infrastructure has improved in stages, the availability of maternal health services in rural areas remains poor because of low availability of human resources, especially midwives and clinical specialists, and their non-residence in rural areas. Various national programmes, such as the Family Planning, Child Survival and Safe Motherhood and Reproductive and Child Health (phase 1 and 2), have attempted to improve maternal health; however, they have not made the desired impact either because of an earlier emphasis on ineffective strategies, slow implementation as reflected in the poor use of available resources, or lack of effective ground-level governance, as exemplified by the widespread practice of informally charging users for free services. Thirty-two percent of women delivered in institutions in 2005-2006. A 2006 government scheme to give financial incentives for delivering in government institutions has led to substantial increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries. The availability of safe abortion services is limited, resulting in a large number of informal abortion service providers and unsafe abortions, especially in rural areas. The recent scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana provides an opportunity to improve maternal and neonatal health, provided the quality issues can be adequately addressed.
Demographic data, information on health care facilities and manpower, and proposed health goals are included in a preliminary study concerned with comprehensive health planning in a 10-county rural setting in South Dakota. The field work and technical wri...
The Medicare Study of the Cooperative Health Education Project (CHEP) was a randomized, controlled, prospective trial of self-care interventions within the Medicare population of a health maintenance organization, the Rhode Island Group Health Association...
Urban waterfront regeneration is one of the largest changes to the structure of Australian and many world cities over the last two decades. There is no comparative research which evaluates their governing with particular attention to the relationship and responsibility of quasi-public agencies and local government. This study advances the competitive-city paradigm from a focus on global cities to an
Nineteenth-century Christianity in England was both united and divided. Though Christian churches held most of the central teachings of Christianity in common, they diverged significantly in polity, theology and liturgy. For the ordinary church-going Christian, denominational divergence emerged most concretely in the public worship service, where religious principle assumed tangible form. My study of religious poetry by Nonconformist Elizabeth Barrett
The Women's Interview Study of Health (WISH), a population-based case-control study conducted during the early 1990s, focused on identifying risk factors for early onset breast cancers. The study was conducted by NCI and included newly diagnosed breast cancer patients from the SEER areas of Atlanta and Seattle and from ten counties of central New Jersey.
Aim: The objective of this study is to analyze the commitment to a more health-promoting health service and to illuminate important barriers for having a health-promoting role in daily practice, among Swedish health care professionals. Material and method: Out of a total of 3751 health professionals who are working daytime in clinical practice in the province of Västerbotten, 1810 were invited to participate in a survey. The health professionals represented eight different occupational groups: counselors, dieticians, midwives, nurses, occupational therapists, physical therapists, psychologists, and physicians. A questionnaire that operationalized perceptions found in a previous qualitative study was mailed to residential addresses of the participants. Results: The majority believed that health services play a major role in long-term health development in the population and saw a need for health orientation as a strategy to provide more effective health care. Willingness to work more in health promotion and disease prevention was reported significantly more often by women than men, and by primary health care personnel compared to hospital personnel. Among the professional groups, psychologists, occupational therapists, and physiotherapists most frequently reported willingness. The most common barriers to health promotion roles in daily practice were reported to be heavy workload, lack of guidelines, and unclear objectives. Conclusions: This study found strong support for reorientation of health services in the incorporation of a greater health promotion. A number of professions that are not usually associated with health promotion practices are knowledgeable and wish to focus more on health promotion and disease prevention. Management has a major role in creating opportunities for these professionals to participate in health promotion practices. Men and physicians reported less positive attitudes to a more health-promoting health service and often possess high positions of power. Therefore, they may play an important role in the process of change toward more health promotion in health services.
Johansson, Helene; Stenlund, Hans; Lundstrom, Lena; Weinehall, Lars
This essay presents an account of W. H. Bragg's earliest research program in Australia during the years 1904-1907: a study of the behavior of alpha particles from radioactive decay. It is suggested that problems associated with distance and isolation played a pivotal role in Bragg's thinking and acting during this period and that his use of two "advocates," Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy, was essential to the success of the program. It is further argued that this account supports a substantial amendment of the center-periphery model of colonial science to embrace a much closer attention to place and locality; that is, it supports a polycentric model (in which the center might still be prominent). PMID:15301067
The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study began in 1996. It enrolled approximately 1,200 women with early stage breast cancer and has completed 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up. Follow-up has been both active (at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years for recurrences and updates of exposure variables) and passive (yearly through the respective SEER registries for vital status and second primaries).
This report presents health service utilization rates by economic and demographic characteristics, health insurance coverage status, and health status.1 The health service utilization rates are measured by the frequencies of visits to service providers, s...
This paper looks at how the strategies of mediaand cultural studies can be applied to thehealth studies field. This relationship,however, has been met with resistance due to anumber of status debates. We argue theimportance of fostering links between these`disciplines' namely because the definition ofwhat constitutes `health' has been broadenedand is inscribed in most forms of popularmedia. Using the example of
The National Forum on the Future of Defense Health Information Systems (National Forum) held in Washington, DC in March 2008 provided a unique opportunity to conduct a case study of developing a large complex health information system. The concept of the health information system has evolved from the days to electronic hospital information system (HIS) to longitudinal health record (LHR)
This case study describes how the North Shore Massachusetts HSA has implemented a strategy for developing worksite health promotion programs - the Employee Health Promotion Project. The Employee Health Promotion Project emphasizes the need for a more heal...
This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are
Kathleen Mullan Harris; Hedwig Lee; Felicia Yang DeLeone
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief contains information on asthma relative to health education, physical education and activity, and health services. Included is data on the…
The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study
The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of
S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp
This paper reviews recent consumer studies evaluating comprehension of a novel form of food labeling, qualified health claims, now permitted by FDA. The joint goals of qualified health claims are to encourage firms to make accurate, science-based claims about the health benefits of their products while helping consumers prevent disease and improve their health through sound dietary decisions using enhanced
Jamaica is a sub-tropical country with a population of 2.2 million, ethnically and culturally related to West Africa. Its level of health in 1920 was similar to that of the poorest sub-Saharan countries today, but improved steadily during the period to 1980 and is now not far from that of many developed countries. The factors responsible for health development include basic public health measures, improved medical technology and increasing incomes, literacy and public awareness of health matters, the balance between them varying over time; the emergence of a sense of national commitment on the part of health professionals is also important. While the Jamaican case demonstrates the feasibility of health development as the basis of modest national resources it is emphasised that each country is likely to find its own path to better health. International data are used to show the wide variations between developing countries in their present access to health resources. PMID:6670003
It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…
Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Arkela-Kautiainen et al. 2005 See reference #75 Methods Relation between the Finnish MDHAQ (Finn-MDHAQ) function
This study focused on the ways in which General Revenue Sharing (GRS) has affected the health expenditures of state and local governments. In particular, it addressed three major questions: Have the levels of state and local health expenditures increased ...
Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today. PMID:24166019
Background Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technology (HIT) policy related to public health in Canada that have succeeded, to identify remaining challenges, and to suggest future directions to improve the adoption and use of HIT in the public health system. Methods A qualitative case study was performed with 24 key stakeholders representing national and provincial organizations responsible for establishing policy and strategic direction for health information technology. Results Identified benefits of HIT in public health included improved communication among jurisdictions, increased awareness of the need for interoperable systems, and improvement in data standardization. Identified barriers included a lack of national vision and leadership, insufficient investment, and poor conceptualization of the priority areas for implementing HIT in public health. Conclusions The application of HIT in public health should focus on automating core processes and identifying innovative applications of HIT to advance public health outcomes. The Public Health Agency of Canada should develop the expertise to lead public health HIT policy and should establish a mechanism for coordinating public health stakeholder input on HIT policy.
Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities. PMID:23045672
Exposure analysis and mapping of spatiotemporal pollutants in relation to their health effects are important challenges facing environmental health scientists and integrated assessment modellers. In this work, a methodological framework is discussed to study the impact of spatiotemporal ozone (O3) exposure distributions on the health of human populations. The framework, however, is very general and can be used to study
|Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…
Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…
A major challenge this century is to identify ways to reliably supply water to urban areas under the increasing pressures of population growth, urbanisation and climate change. A proper consideration of sustainability is the key to solving the urban water supply system (UWSS) problem, as it ensures that a holistic approach is taken, whereby the economic, environmental, social, technical and
|This report was written for the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It summarizes selected studies of mental health issues, focusing on the most recent studies conducted in Wisconsin and studies conducted elsewhere that examined issues relevant to the work of the committee. For each study reviewed,…
The mental health component of the countywide human services planning program of the Johnson County Regional Planning Commission in Iowa is described. The report on mental health is one in a series of eight reports outlining the program. The overall goal ...
The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094
Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L
Context Epidemiologists and public health researchers are studying neighborhood’s effect on individual health. The health of older adults may be more influenced by their neighborhoods as a result of decreased mobility. However, research on neighborhood’s influence on older adults’ health, specifically, is limited. Evidence acquisition Recent studies on neighborhood and health for older adults were identified. Studies were identified through searches databases including PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Premier, Ageline, Social Science Citation Index, and Health Source. Criteria for inclusion were: human studies; English language; study sample included adults aged ?55 years; health outcomes including mental health, health behaviors, morbidity, and mortality; neighborhood as the primary exposure variable of interest; empirical research; and studies that included >=10 neighborhoods. Air pollution studies were excluded. Five hundred thirty-eight relevant articles were published 1997–2007; 33 of these articles met inclusion criteria. Evidence synthesis The measures of objective and perceived aspects of neighborhood were summarized. Neighborhood was primarily operationalized using census-defined boundaries. Measures of neighborhood were principally derived from objective sources of data; eight studies assessed perceived neighborhood alone or in combination with objective measures. Six categories of neighborhood characteristics were socioeconomic composition, racial composition, demographics, perceived resources and/or problems, physical environment, and social environment. The studies are primarily cross-sectional and use administrative data to characterize neighborhood. Conclusions These studies suggest that neighborhood environment is important for older adults’ health and functioning.
Mobile phones have been shown effective in several public health domains. However, there are few evaluations of the effectiveness of mobile health in health promotion. Also, although many studies have referenced behavioral theory, none appears to have explicitly tested theoretical assumptions or demonstrated mechanisms of change. More robust evaluation models that incorporate theory and measurement of behavioral mediators are needed.
W. Douglas Evans; Lorien C. Abroms; Ronald Poropatich; Peter E. Nielsen; Jasmine L. Wallace
|Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. SHPPS 2006 was designed to answer the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of each school health program component at the state,…
Although it is a well-accepted notion that sport participation enhances health, the precise nature of the relationship has been unclear. Based on a national survey of Icelandic adolescents, this study evaluates the direct and indirect effects of sport participation on perceived health status. It is shown that sport participation has a substantial direct effect on perceived health, controlling for other
Thorolfur Thorlindsson; Runar Vilhjalmsson; Gunnar Valgeirsson
A study measured the connotations of selected health education related journals to their professional readers. The subjects were 250 randomly selected, college-affiliated health educators listed in "A National Directory of College and University Health Education Programs and Facilities 1981." Journals evaluated included: (1) "American College…
Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…
BACKGROUND: Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is
Douglas Moore; Alan Shiell; Tom Noseworthy; Margaret Russell; Gerald Predy
The South Africa Stress and HealthStudy (SASH) is a large psychiatric epidemiological survey that is currently underway in South Africa. It is a part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) 2000 initiative and seeks to complete interviews with a nationally representative sample of 5000 adults. The WMH initiative is obtaining population-based data on the prevalence and
David R. Williams; Allen Herman; Ronald C. Kessler; John Sonnega; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein; Hashim Moomal; Colwick M. Wilson
The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is a measure of oral-health-related quality of life developed in Australia but being used increasingly in other populations. In view of the culturally specific nature of peoples' perceptions of health, if we are to make between-population comparisons of oral-health-related quality of life, cross-cultural equivalency of the relevant instruments needs to be verified. A study
Objective: This paper provides an overview of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) and a summary of findings relating to child and adolescent mental health.Method: The CHDS is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children born in the Christchurch (New Zealand) urban region during mid 1977. This cohort has now been studied from birth to age
A large national survey has been conducted to investigate the nature and prevalence of fallacious or questionable health beliefs and practices, and the susceptibility to them. Area probability techniques are used to produce a representative sample of the ...
Numbers and locations of nonphysician, primary care practitioners (PCP's) are plotted for Idaho, Montana, Utah and Wyoming. Attitudes and legal issues affecting the present status of these new types of health care personnel are summarized. Extrapolating f...
Study objective: To identify ethical issues encountered by staff in the development and implementation of public health activities at two sites in Scotland. Design: Qualitative research study involving face to face semi-structured interviews with participants. Setting: A public health directorate in a National Health Service Trust, and a public health demonstration project in child health. Participants: Health promotion specialists, managers, nurses, public health consultants and specialists, researchers, trainees, and other public health staff. Main results: Three main categories of ethical issues were identified: paternalism, responsibilities, and ethical decision making. Consulting with the community and sharing information raised issues of paternalism and honesty. Participants identified multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Barriers to fulfilling responsibilities included meeting targets, working with partners, and political influences. Defining the limits of responsibilities posed challenges. Participants identified values for ideal decision making, but lack of time often led to a more pragmatic approach. Conclusion: These empirical findings complement and extend existing discussions of public health ethics, emphasising the complex nature of ethical issues in public health. The implications for public health policy and future research are discussed.
|In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…
|This study guide was prepared to accompany "Here's to Your Health," a telecourse focusing on lifestyle factors influencing health, which was designed to provide the tools necessary for achieving and maintaining an optimal, healthy lifestyle. For each of 27 lessons, the study guide presents learning objectives, an overview of content, study…
A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying these health effects of pesticides among farmworkers, including the difficulties in accessing the population and challenges associated with obtaining health end point data. The assessment of neurobehavioral health effects serves as one of the most common and best examples of an approach used to studyhealth outcomes in farmworkers and other populations exposed to pesticides. We review the current limitations in neurobehavioral assessment and strategies to improve these analytical methods. Emerging techniques to improve our assessment of health effects associated with pesticide exposure are reviewed. These techniques, which in most cases have not been applied to farmworker populations, hold promise in our ability to study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects in this population.
McCauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane
The relationship between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in epidemiological research. The aim of this paper is to review the data on relationship between health-related behaviors associated with religiosity and reduced mortality and morbidity. In this review beneficial effects of religiosity on specific physical and mental health diseases, focusing on coronary heart disease, cancer, depression, suicide, psychosis, and substance abuse are described. Religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning and they are associated with protective dietary habits and reduced risk of substance abuse. Religiosity can be also harmful as it is often entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders. The current published data suggests that religiosity has a favorable effect on survival, although the methodological controversies including presence of biases typical for observational research indicate that results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22779346
All Norwegian twin pairs born 1967–1974 and still living in Norway in 1992 were invited to a health questionnaire study (Q1). 2,570 pairs (65%) participated. These cohorts and the twin cohorts born 1967–1979 were invited to a new questionnaire study (Q2) in 1998. This time 3,334 pairs (53%) participated. Almost all pairs having participated in the 1998 study were invited to an interview study of mental health (MHS), taking place 1999–2004. 1,391 complete pairs (44%) participated. The questionnaire studies included extensive data on somatic health with fewer items on mental health and demography. Health-related and demographic information available from the Medical Birth Registry on all invited twins was applied to predict participation to the first study. A few registry variables indicating poor health predicted nonparticipation in Q1. Health information and demography from Q1 were tested as predictors of participation in the follow-up study (Q2). Monozygosity, female sex, being unmarried, having no children, and high education predicted participation, whereas few indicators of poor mental and somatic health and unhealthy lifestyle moderately predicted nonparticipation in Q2. No health indicators reported in Q2 predicted further participation. Standard genetic twin analyses of indicators of various mental disorders from Q2, validated by diagnostic data from the MHS, did not indicate differences in genetic/environmental covariance structures between participants and nonparticipants in MHS. In general the results show a moderate selection towards good mental and somatic health. Attrition from Q2 to the MHS does not appear to affect twin analyses of mental health related variables.
Tambs, Kristian; R?nning, Torbj?rn; Prescott, C. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Torgersen, Svenn; Harris, Jennifer R.
Physical function is a significant component of health-related quality of life among older adults. Potential correlates of healthy aging, including health behaviors and social network characteristics, were examined among 56,436 US women aged 55–72 in 1992. Healthy aging was assessed by maintenance of physical function measured by four sub-scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey: physical
Yvonne L. Michael; Graham A. Colditz; Eugenie Coakley; Ichiro Kawachi
Background: This study examines whether the adoption of a more community based model in an inner city psychiatry service is accompanied\\u000a by increasing “burnout”, deteriorating mental health and decreasing job satisfaction amongst staff. Method: Questionnaires were sent annually for 3 consecutive years to all mental health staff working in three adult mental health\\u000a sectors in inner London. Main outcome measures
D. Prosser; S. Johnson; E. Kuipers; G. Dunn; G. Szmukler; Y. Reid; P. Bebbington; G. Thornicroft
Despite more than a decade of research on medical information systems, deficiencies exist in our capability of establishing\\u000a an effective environmental health information infrastructure. In this research, we present a pilot study on creating a feasible\\u000a environmental health information infrastructure. The newly-developed environmental health information system is a web-based\\u000a platform that integrates databases, decision-making tools, geographic information systems for supporting
Ling Li; Li Xu; Hueiwang Anna Jeng; Dayanand N. Naik; Thomas Allen; Maria Frontini
To determine ways and means of facilitating horizontal and vertical mobility within New York City's Health Services Administration and selected private hospitals, a systems approach was adopted. Methodology for manpower development and training in an organizational setting related to the educational system and other accrediting institutions will…
An exploratory study into the health problems of off-reservation Indians in North Dakota, carried out in the summer of 1971, is reported. The study addressed the adequacy of health care delivery to this group; the legal, social, and cultural factors affec...
This training guide was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) to help connect research and practice in the field of adult education and family literacy. A Health and Adult Literacy and Learning (HALL)/NCSALL Health Literacy Study Circle+ is a professional development activity for adult basic education…
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2007
The Agricultural HealthStudy (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...
We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008–2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll’s taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0–1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects.
Interpretation of changes in health and health care utilization patterns across the life span depends on an understanding of the effects of age, period, and cohort. The purpose of this article is to illustrate differences among three generations of women in demographic factors, health risk factors, and health status indicators from 1996 to 2008. The article examines data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a broad-ranging project funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) and involving three age groups of women (born in the periods 1973-1978, 1946-1951, and 1921-1926) who were first surveyed in 1996 and will be surveyed every 3 years until at least 2015. Patterns in selected demographic factors (marital status and level of educational qualification), health risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index [BMI]), and health status indicators (asthma, hypertension, diabetes and depression; physical functioning and mental health scores from the SF-36) were examined to illustrate examples of biological age, generational differences, or period effects that affect all age groups and generations simultaneously. The results can be used to inform the development of responsive and effective models for both prevention and management of chronic disease, including health and aged-care systems that will meet the needs of different generations of women across their life span. PMID:20798160
This study provided a comprehensive assessment of the association between social support and health using longitudinal data from the Veterans HealthStudy. Unlike previous studies which examined the relationship between one single domain of social support with either mental or physical health, the present study assessed the effects of three different domains of social support on multiple measures of health.
Xinhua S. Ren; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; Lewis Kazis
The internationalization of health causes, conditions, and responses require the consolidation of a vigorous academic and pragmatic tradition of international health. The Unit for International Studies in Public Health constitutes an interinstitutional effort for the training of human resources, research, consulting and practice in health needs and actions that go beyond national borders and that affect two or more countries. The main objectives of the Unit are, on the one hand, to develop a conceptual framework and consolidate international health as a field of public health and, on the other, to foster international technical cooperation among the national institutions that conform the Unit and foreign universities, governments of developing and developed countries, and international organizations. The strategies of the Unit are: interinstitutional and intrainstitutional collaboration, consolidation of multidisciplinary teams, integration of research-teaching-service, and external resources fund-raising. The functioning of the Unit is based on an academic program and on an international technical cooperation program. PMID:1948418
|This report focuses on the Study of Allied Health Education (SAHE) project that was established for the purpose of designing an action plan on a national scale for allied health and nursing education. The specific task of the project was the determination of the role that community and junior colleges might fulfill in increasing ambulatory care…
RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTHSTUDY Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant? *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...
Recently, the Veterans Administration (VA) Under Secretary for Health has designated functional status as one of the domains of value for the system, given its increasing importance for clinical care. The Veterans HealthStudy (VHS) was designed to assist the VA in monitoring outcomes and measuring the case mix of patients who use the VA. The Veterans SF-36 (short form
Lewis E. Kazis; Xinhua S. Ren; Austin Lee; Katherine Skinner; William Rogers; Jack Clark; Donald R. Miller
This study provides an analysis of the quality of service provided by a university health-care center. Statistical process control charts are used to investigate the time spent by students at the various stages of the health-care process. The mean, upper and lower control limits for the mean, and the variation of the waiting-times at different stages of the health-care process
This paper uses newly collected household survey data from Accra, Ghana, to investigate whether incomes affect acute and chronic health outcomes in settings that can be considered representative for the large and rapidly growing urban centers of sub-Saharan Africa. The Time Use and HealthStudy in Accra collected information on incomes, current health status, and health care use from 5,484 persons in 1,250 households, each repeatedly sampled on a rolling basis for a period of 13 weeks. Data collection took place during September 2008-March 2010 to capture seasonal variations. The study found that incomes varied widely between households, and that a high fraction of persons lived below the poverty line. Despite this level of income poverty and an overall remarkably high burden of treatable disease, no systematic differences in self-reported and objectively measured health conditions were detected across socioeconomic groups. PMID:22927498
BACKGROUND: Falls in hospital are frequent and their consequences place an increased burden on health services. We evaluated a falls prevention strategy consisting of the introduction of volunteers to 'sit' with patients identified as being at high risk of falling. METHODS: Two four bed 'safety bays' located on medical wards in two hospitals within southern Adelaide were used. Ward fall
Lynne C Giles; Denise Bolch; Robyn Rouvray; Beth McErlean; Craig H Whitehead; Paddy A Phillips; Maria Crotty
The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program.
The database for the acute health effects of common outdoor air pollutants is rapidly increasing but important gaps still exist. Greater technical efforts and innovative studies are required to adequately characterize health effects and understand the underlying mechanisms of toxicity. Controlled human exposures provide relevant data about short-term effects and complement animal and epidemiologic investigations. Except for possibly nitrogen dioxide,
|Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…
|This curriculum guide for instructors provides a course of study (Nursing III) requisite for the third and concluding portion of a 1-year practical nursing curriculum designed to continue opportunities for career mobility in the health occupations. Content is in three sections: (1) Medical Surgical Nursing II, (2) Mental Health Nursing, and (3)…
Public health professionals require computational support to study disease outbreak dynamics and to facilitate policy and decision-making. Modeling disease outbreaks in large realistic populations is a data-intensive task that requires tremendous computational resources. This paper presents a framework of multiple source and computational modules to evaluate what-if scenarios and quantify public health actions.
|With this Career and Technology Studies (CTS) curriculum guide, secondary students in Alberta can do the following: develop skills that can be applied in their daily lives; refine career-planning skills; develop technology-related skills in community health; enhance employability skills, especially in community health; and apply and reinforce…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.
|This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4)…
Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural HealthStudy, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (...
|The focus of this summary volume reporting on several parallel studies is an application of technology to the problems of health care and the role of the university in responding to health care needs through biomedical engineering. A brief description of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is presented. A list of reports, issued by the…
National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on the Interplay of Engineering with Biology and Medicine.
Background The involvement of community pharmacists in oral health promotion is being increasingly recognised and studied. However, a large proportion of interactions in community pharmacies take place with pharmacy counter assistants rather than the pharmacist, and the role of pharmacy counter assistants in oral health promotion has received little or no attention until now.Aims To clarify the current state of
Objective: To review studies evaluating mental health first aid (MHFA) training. Method: Review of three published trials: one uncontrolled with members of the public in a city, one randomized controlled efficacy trial in a workplace setting and one cluster randomized effectiveness trial with the public in a rural area. Results: Most mental health first aiders tend to be middle-aged women
This study will provide information and analyses on the precise extent to which the population of the United States has or does not have private or public health insurance coverage. This is a controversial issue among health policy makers. Part of this co...
Background. Working conditions influence health, but previous studies on the associations between work-related factors and health behaviours are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse whether unfavourable working conditions are associated with diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking.Methods. The data derive from postal questionnaires collected in 2000–2001 from 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki
Tea Lallukka; Sirpa Sarlio-Lähteenkorva; Eva Roos; Mikko Laaksonen; Ossi Rahkonen; Eero Lahelma
Epidemiological studies of exposed human populations can provide valuable evidence of human health effects. Information has been sparse on human health effects associated with consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish. As part of its Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has funded ten projects. Of these studies, eight are epidemiologic investigations of human exposure and potential health effects from consumption of contaminated fish. To strengthen and to enhance the findings and comparability across the healthstudies, ATSDR has initiated several activities. These activities include harmonizing questionnaires, analytical protocols, human health end points, and contaminants tested. Also included is the establishment of a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program and tissue bank. These activities will allow ATSDR to enhance exposure assessment in the Great Lakes basin. In addition, these research activities allow ATSDR to evaluate and to interpret data across all the projects, including a basin-wide health risk analysis on exposure, levels of contaminants or body burden, and the potential for human health effects from exposure to Great Lakes contaminants. PMID:8843563
|Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…
This study, 'Longitudinal Comparison of Measures for Health Outcomes,' has become known as the Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study (BDHOS). Its purpose was to measure the health status and health-related quality of life of older adults in a community populat...
|This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
This paper reviews recent consumer studies evaluating comprehension of a novel form of food labeling, qualified health claims, now permitted by FDA. The joint goals of qualified health claims are to encourage firms to make accurate, science-based claims about the health benefits of their products while helping consumers prevent disease and improve their health through sound dietary decisions using enhanced nutrition information. This paper examines whether consumers can differentiate between multiple levels of health claims and determines if a front label visual aid helps consumer understanding. Results of experimental consumer attitude studies are presented which suggest that people do not perceive significant differences between the three levels of qualified claims and traditional (unqualified or SSA) health claims. An additional experiment suggests that a visual aid (report card) may be an important device to help consumers distinguish between the levels of health claims. However, thought-listing data suggests that consumers use the report card to draw inferences about overall product quality rather than the strength of scientific evidence supporting the health claim. Implications of these findings for the future regulatory oversight and marketing of functional food products are discussed. PMID:18274970
This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community. PMID:23231780
As part of this Laboratory's Longitudinal HealthStudy, the sera of 466 submariners were analyzed for 12 biochemical parameters using standardized automated procedures. In addition, a two hour glucose tolerance test was performed on each participant. Mean...
It has been argued that social class, if not dead, is at least a 'zombie category' in contemporary Western society. However, epidemiological evidence shows that class-based inequalities have either persisted or widened, despite overall improvements in the health of Western populations. This article presents an exploratory qualitative study of the individualization of class identity and health conducted in a southern English city. Findings are presented in consideration of two competing argumentative positions around which participants worked to negotiate class identity and health. The first of these positions denied the significance of class for identity and health and was associated with the individualised heroic and stoic narratives of working class identity. The second position acknowledged the reality of class relations and their implications for health and identity, being associated with structurally and politically orientated narratives of middle class identity. In sum, resistance to class was associated with talk about individual, private experience whereas the acceptance of class was linked to discussion of health as a wider social or political phenomenon. This evidence lends qualified support to the individualization thesis: inequalities in health existing on structural or material levels are not simply reproduced, and indeed in some contexts may even juxtapose, accounts of social identity in interview and focus group contexts. Class identity and health are negotiated in lay talk as participants shift argumentatively back and forth between competing positions, and public and private realms, in the attempt to make sense of health and illness. The promotion of greater awareness and interest in health inequalities within wider public discourse may well help support attempts to tackle these injustices. PMID:15246166
Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations.
This study investigates the association of several inflammatory markers with subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in older men and women. Data are from the baseline assessment of 3,045 well-functioning persons aged 70 to 79 years, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The study sample was divided into 3 groups: “cardiovascular disease” (diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary
Matteo Cesari; Brenda W. J. H Penninx; Anne B Newman; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Barbara J Nicklas; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Russell P Tracy; Susan M Rubin; Tamara B Harris; Marco Pahor
As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452
The Adelaide Rift Complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemostratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses ("snowball Earth") and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but precise ages on igneous units do not yet exist. We report preliminary results of in situ Th-U-total Pb electron microprobe dating of monazite in sandstones within the Holowilena Ironstone ("older" Sturtian glacial at Enorama Creek) and at the top of the Enorama Shale (youngest pre-Marinoan, interglacial clastics at Elatina Creek). Several distinct populations are recognized. First, rounded cores with high Th, U, and Y + HREE abundances are interpreted as igneous or metamorphic detrital grains and yield ca. 1590 Ma, ca. 1280-1300 Ma, and ca. 1040 Ma dates related to well-known orogenic events in surrounding cratonic regions. A second group also occurs as "cores" but contains significantly lower U and Y + HREE, characteristics that may be indicative of an authigenic origin. Some rounded domains may represent "recycled" authigenic grains and yield dates of ca. 880 Ma and ca. 760 Ma. However, a subset observed in the Enorama sample occurs as very small (~2 x 10 microns), euhedral lathes that are unlikely to have survived a detrital history and yield a date of 680 +/-23 Ma. The youngest population forms very low Th and U, inclusion-rich overgrowths with ca. 500 Ma dates (Delamerian Orogeny) that probably grew hydrothermally. The recognition of "recycled" authigenic monazite further emphasizes the detail in textural and petrological documentation that is required for accurate geochronological interpretations. The date of 680 +/-23 Ma (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) is confirming of proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China.
This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710
Objectives We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ HealthStudy participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = ?0.18, ?0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women.
James, Peter; Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine
Summary We studied the potential of community-based health insurance (CHI) to contribute to the performance of health financing systems. The international empirical evidence is analysed on the basis of the three health financing subfunctions as outlined in the World Health Report 2000: revenue collection, pooling of resources and purchasing of services. The evidence indicates that achievements of CHI in each
BACKGROUND: Health care for cancer patients is primarily shaped by health care professionals. This raises the question to what extent health care professionals are aware of patients' preferences, needs and values. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent there is concordance between patients' preferences in cancer care and patients' preferences as estimated by health care professionals.
Hester Wessels; Alexander de Graeff; Klaske Wynia; Miriam de Heus; Cas LJJ Kruitwagen; Saskia CCM Teunissen; Emile E Voest
|Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.
BACKGROUND: Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in
Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness.
Background Depression and anxiety disorders have a high disease burden and as many as 15% of young people report mental health problems. Binge drinking, which is a particularly harmful way of consuming alcohol, is common among secondary school students. The aim of this study was to examine the association between binge drinking and self-reported mental health in boys and girls aged 12 to 18 years. Findings This cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected by the Community Health Service (GGD) Brabant Zuidoost, the Netherlands, in 2007. In this Youth Survey, 10 090 randomly selected adolescents aged 12 tot 18 years were each sent a letter, a questionnaire, and a user name and log-in code for if they preferred to complete the Internet version of the questionnaire. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), a short 5-item questionnaire to detect feelings of depression and anxiety. Participants were asked about current alcohol consumption, their relationship with their parents, drug use, and sociodemographic data. Corrected for confounders, binge drinking and mental health problems were associated in the 12 to 15 year old girls (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.86-3.17, p = 0.000) and boys (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.19-2.27, p = 0.003). The majority of the 16 to 18 year old adolescents had been binge drinking in the previous 4 weeks (69.6% boys and 56.8% girls). In this age group, boys with mental health problems were less likely to be classified as binge drinkers than were boys without mental health problems (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.87, p = 0.005). No such association between binge drinking and mental health was found in girls of this age. Conclusion Girls and boys aged 12-15 years were classified as binge drinkers significantly more often when they reported poor mental health. Because binge drinking damages the brain, especially at a young age, it is important that health professionals are alert to possible binge drinking when young adolescents report mental health problems and should ask their patients about their drinking behaviour. Likewise, if youngsters under 16 present with binge drinking, they should be asked whether they are anxious or depressed.
Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715
Introduction. The study gathered information on work load among women public health workers and factors associated with this in Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha, Ernakulam, Malappuram and Wayanad districts of Kerala. An increasing number of nurses were reported to have occupational hazards and are suffering from back injuries due to lifting and moving patients. A study in Australia found work and age related
Researchers and practitioners frequently use readability formu- las to predict the suitability of health-related texts for consumers (e.g., patient instructions, informed consent documents). How- ever, the appropriateness of using readability formulas? origi- nally developed for students and educational texts? for lay audiences and health-related texts remains to be validated. In this exploratory study, we compared two methods of assessing the
Darren Gemoets; Graciela Rosemblat; Tony Tse; Robert Logan; Lister Hill
The air quality in Beijing and associated health effects have been of some concern to the world for many years. Chinese researchers have undertaken a series of studies related to health effects. Evidence suggests that the air quality has improved vastly in recent years. The annual levels of ambient SO2, NO2 and PM10 were 36, 49 and 122 mcg\\/m in
Agroecosystem health derives from a combination of biophysical and socioeconomic conditions that jointly influence such properties\\u000a as productivity, sustainability, stability, and equitability. In this case study, we describe and analyze a method to quantify\\u000a agroecosystem health through a combination of geographically referenced data at various spatial scales. Six key variables\\u000a were hypothesized to provide a minimum set of conditions required
Krishna Prasad Vadrevu; John Cardina; Fred Hitzhusen; Isaac Bayoh; Richard Moore; Jason Parker; Ben Stinner; Deb Stinner; Casey Hoy
Forty?five percent of Nigeria's population is under age 15. This study employed a questionnaire to learn the level of reproductive health knowledge of 416 male and female Nigerian students ages 10 through 16.The Chi?square statistical procedure was used as demographic characteristics were related to reproductive health knowledge among the pre?teen and teenage youth. Statistically significant (p #lt 0.05) relationships were
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care-seeking behaviour. Strained economy was stated to be a factor of the utmost importance affecting the management of DM and thus health. To develop cost-effective and optimal diabetes care in a country with limited resources, not only educational efforts based on individual beliefs are needed but also considering systemic and structural conditions in order to promote health and to prevent costly consequences of DM.
Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant healthstudy.
BACKGROUND: In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain). Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of
Stephanie J Brown; Judith M Lumley; Ellie A McDonald; Ann H Krastev
Objectives. This study examined the association between caregiving for disabled or ill family members, estimated to occur in more than 22 million US households, and change in mental health. Methods. We assessed 4-year change in mental health among 37742 Nurses' HealthStudy participants with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36. Results. Women who provided 36 or more weekly hours of
Carolyn C. Cannuscio; Camara Jones; Ichiro Kawachi; Graham A. Colditz; Lisa Berkman; Eric Rimm
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The internet is an increasingly important source of mental health-related information, and has the potential to be harnessed as a tool to support self-care and informed decision-making. Yet little is known about the motivations and attitudes of users. We therefore undertook a qualitative interview study with a purposive sample of mental health service users with internet experience, to explore issues with respect to mental health-related internet use. One of the prime motivations for online mental health seekers was to find experiential information from other people with similar problems. This information allowed users to know they were not alone, and to instill hope that others in the same situation had recovered. Benefits of the internet as an information source included convenience, privacy and anonymity. Problems related more to misuse of the internet rather than concerns over inaccuracy. Such qualitative work is important in an emerging research area to understand internet use better. PMID:17911888
Published by the Virtual Health Care Team at the University of Missouri Ã¢ÂÂ Columbia School of Health Professions and created by Lorilie A. Weber-Hardy, the purpose of this case is to "test the knowledge and to build confidence in the advanced respiratory care practitioner's ability to critically think and perform in the care of a pediatric near-drown patient." In this case, a six-year-old boy has fallen into a freshwater lake and users are guided through the case in order to identify what equipment and procedures are needed for intubation and to raise the child's body temperature. The "Bibliography" section leads users to further online resources for more information. This case study along with all the cases available from the Virtual Health Care Team, are excellent additions to a classroom activity or assessment in order to help students prepare for health care careers.
To explore the information needs of rural health professionals, a retrospective study was undertaken of 1,224 document delivery requests made during the course of three outreach projects in west and central Illinois. The 547 unique journals from which the articles were requested were analyzed for frequency of request, subject content, and inclusion on core lists. These rural health professionals were found to request current information on a wide range of topics in clinical medicine, nursing, health administration, allied health, social sciences, and basic sciences. While 10% of the titles filled 37% of the requests, 58% of the titles were requested once and filled 26% of the requests. A high correlation with Abridged Index Medicus and Brandon/Hill list titles was found, but titles from either of these lists could fill no more than 30% of the total requests. Besides demonstrating the complex information needs of rural health professionals and depicting the difficulty of building a collection to support them, the study exemplifies a method for need-based journal collection development and begins to identify titles commonly requested in a rural health setting.
Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.
Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon
Background. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of forearm bone loss and its relationship to markers of bone turnover and sex steroids in normal men. This was a longitudinal study over a median interval of 41 months. The study was conducted in Adelaide, Australia. Study participants were 123 healthy male subjects, between the ages of 20
F. Scopacasa; J. M. Wishart; A. G. Need; M. Horowitz; H. A. Morris; B. E. C. Nordin
This article provides an overview of recent U.S. cohort studies on air pollution and health and discusses design issues related to the study hypothesis, exposure assessment, confounder assessment, and effect modification. The article argues that, given the potential long-term effects of air pollution on survival and the enormous costs of achieving further air pollution reductions, it would be shortsighted not
This studystudied cultural competence training needs in a health services system in California. Results indicated that the major training needs were related to (1) cultural factors that affect consumers' access to services, (2) ethnic and cultural beliefs, traditions, and customs, (3) training for interpreters, and (4) cross- cultural communication. Significant differences were found in regard to administrator and staff
Miguel A. Perez; Antonio Gonzalez; Helda Pinzon-Perez
In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health. PMID:19215915
Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing.
We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural HealthStudy, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...
Primary Health Care is essential health care based on delivering integrated health services (curative and preventive). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted this approach in 1980, and by the year 1987 the Ministry of Health had established 1477 Primary Health Care centers. The expansion in Primary Health Care created a need for various types of evaluation. Theorists recommended the study
Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45–60-year-old white-collar employees of the Whitehall II Study from London (n=3397), Helsinki HealthStudy
Tea Lallukka; Eero Lahelma; Ossi Rahkonen; Eva Roos; Elina Laaksonen; Pekka Martikainen; Jenny Head; Eric Brunner; Annhild Mosdol; Michael Marmot; Michikazu Sekine; Ali Nasermoaddeli; Sadanobu Kagamimori
Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy.
This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the Workplace" (Scheeres,…
|This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the Workplace" (Scheeres,…
BACKGROUND: US schools employ an estimated 6.7 million workers and are thus an ideal setting for employee wellness programs. This article describes the charac- teristics of school employee wellness programs in the United States, including state-, district-, and school-level policies and programs. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6
This study analyses printed educational material on cholesterol, food and health-related lifestyle changes used in primary care in southern Sweden. Two theoretically grounded perspectives are used: orientation of knowledge and rhetoric. According to the first one, the material contained many examples of abstract and detailed knowledge, such as tables of energy contents, and a little less of action-oriented and detailed
Staffan Selander; Margareta Troein; John Finnegan; Lennart Råstam
BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. METHODS: Key informant interviews were conducted with
Kalpana M Nair; Lisa Dolovich; Kevin Brazil; Parminder Raina
BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers
Annette AM Gerritsen; Inge Bramsen; Walter Devillé; Loes HM van Willigen; Johannes E Hovens; Henk M van der Ploeg
Objectives While substantial research has demonstrated the poor health status of homeless populations, the health status of vulnerably\\u000a housed individuals is largely unknown. Furthermore, few longitudinal studies have assessed the impact of housing transitions\\u000a on health. The health and housing in transition (HHiT) study is a prospective cohort study that aims to track the health and\\u000a housing status of a representative
Stephen W. Hwang; Tim Aubry; Anita Palepu; Susan Farrell; Rosane Nisenbaum; Anita M. Hubley; Fran Klodawsky; Evie Gogosis; Elizabeth Hay; Shannon Pidlubny; Tatiana Dowbor; Catharine Chambers
A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order.
Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress. Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.
Doaee, SH; Olyaeemanesh, A; Emami, SH; Mobinizadeh, M; Abooee, P; Nejati, M; Zolani, GS
PURPOSE A key component of primary care improvement efforts is timely access to care; however, little is known regarding the effects of extended (evening and weekend) office hours on health care use and outcomes. We examined the association between reported access to extended office hours and both health care expenditures and mortality. METHODS We analyzed data from individuals aged 18 to 90 years responding to the 2000–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys reporting access or no access to extended hours via a usual source of care in 2 successive years (year 1 and year 2; N = 30,714). Dependent variables were year 2 total health care expenditures and, for those enrolled in 2000–2005, all-cause mortality through 2006. Covariates were year 1 sociodemographics and health care use, and year 2 health insurance, health status, and chronic conditions. We conducted further analyses, progressively adjusting for year 2 use, to explore mechanisms. RESULTS Total expenditures were 10.4% lower (95% confidence interval, 7.2%–13.4%) among patients reporting access to extended hours in both years vs neither year. Adjustment for year 2 prescription drug expenditures, and to a lesser extent, office visit–related expenditures (but not total prescriptions or office visits, or emergency and inpatient expenditures) attenuated this relationship. Extended-hours access was not statistically associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Respondents reporting a usual source of care offering evening and weekend office hours had lower total health care expenditures than those without extended-hours access, an association related to lower prescription drug and office visit–related (eg, testing) expenditures, without adverse effects on mortality. Although requiring further study, extended office hours may be associated with more judicious use of health care resources.
Jerant, Anthony; Bertakis, Klea D.; Fenton, Joshua J.; Franks, Peter
Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation. Conclusions Maternal age and mode of conception are not associated with pregnancy health and health service use when sociodemographic factors are considered.
The findings of a study of mortality and natality indicators of child health status in Rhode Island are presented. A review of the literature on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health status focuses on mortality and natality, morbi...
S. G. Martin N. E. Russell C. K. Clay P. M. Densen
Study objective: To determine the involvement in civil society groups (CSGs) and the impact of this on health. Design: Case study, cross sectional, self completion questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Setting: Residents in two suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Participants: Every household (1038) received a questionnaire asking the adult with the next birthday to complete it. A total of 530 questionnaires were returned. Sixteen questionnaire respondents were also interviewed. Main results: 279 (53%) questionnaire respondents had been involved in a CSG in the past 12 months, 190 (36%) in locally based CSGs, and 188 (35%) in CSGs outside the area. Eleven of the 16 interviewees had been involved in a CSG. A path analysis examined the relation between demographic variables, CSG involvement, and mental and physical health, as measured by the SF-12. Physical health was negatively associated with CSG involvement and older age, and positively associated with working full time or part time and higher education level. Mental health was positively associated with older age, working full time or part time, and higher income but negatively associated with having a child under 18, speaking a language other than English and higher education level. Very few interviewees made a direct link between CSGs and positive individual health outcomes, though some positive community level outcomes were noted. More consistent were reports of the detrimental effects of CSG involvement on mental and physical health. Conclusions: Involvement in CSGs was significant but not always positive for health. It is possible that CSG involvement is good for a community but not necessarily for the individual.
Background Social theories suggest that neighborhood quality affects health. Observer ratings of neighborhoods should be subjected to psychometric tests. Methods African American Health (AAH) study subjects were selected from two diverse St. Louis metropolitan catchment areas. Interviewers rated streets and block faces for 816 households. Items and a summary scale were compared across catchment areas and to the resident respondents' global neighborhood assessments. Results Individual items and the scale were strongly associated with both the catchment area and respondent assessments. Ratings based on both block faces did not improve those based on a single block face. Substantial interviewer effects were observed despite strong discriminant and concurrent validity. Conclusion Observer ratings show promise in understanding the effect of neighborhood on health outcomes. The AAH Neighborhood Assessment Scale and other rating systems should be tested further in diverse settings.
Andresen, Elena M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Schootman, Mario; Miller, J Philip; Miller, Douglas K
A questionnaire survey was carried out in 1991 in Wessex regional health authority of a sample of private patients having inpatient treatment in eight independent hospitals, and in pay beds in three National Health Service hospitals. A total of 649 patients replied (response rate 60.7%). Sixty respondents to the questionnaire were also interviewed. The aim of the study was to discover which groups of people chose private care rather than using the NHS, and why. In view of the current emphasis on consumerism in health care, the study also aimed to examine how patients exercised choice in a market situation and how well informed they were when they did so. The questionnaire asked about the role and influence of the general practitioner in patients' decisions to use private health care for treatment. The largest group of respondents were in the 36-50 years age group (34.2%). Of the respondents 59.9% were women, 54.1% were in social class 2 and 77.3% were married or cohabiting. The most common reason for using private health care for treatment was to avoid NHS waiting lists (61.5% of respondents) although they did not necessarily know how long that wait would have been. Patients sought their general practitioner's opinion about whether to use private health care in 187 cases (28.8%). The majority of the 649 patients (71.2%) had decided to use private health care before consulting the general practitioner. However, patients were influenced by their general practitioner's advice on the choice of consultant and choice of hospital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill evaluated five curricular models designed to improve education for health sciences librarianship. Three of the models enhanced existing degree and certificate programs, and two were new programs for working information professionals. Models were developed with input from experts and a Delphi study; the marketability of the models was tested through surveys of potential students and employers; and recommendations were made as a guide to implementation. The results demonstrated a demand for more specialized curricula and for retraining opportunities. Marketing data showed a strong interest from potential students in a specialized master's degree, and mid-career professionals indicated an interest in postmaster's programs that provided the ability to maintain employment. The study pointed to the opportunity for a center of excellence in health sciences information education to enable health sciences librarians to respond to their evolving roles.
Lipscomb, C E; Moran, B B; Jenkins, C G; Cogdill, K W; Friedman, C P; Gollop, C J; Moore, M E; Morrison, M L; Tibbo, H R; Wildemuth, B M
The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs. PMID:22924201
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill evaluated five curricular models designed to improve education for health sciences librarianship. Three of the models enhanced existing degree and certificate programs, and two were new programs for working information professionals. Models were developed with input from experts and a Delphi study; the marketability of the models was tested through surveys of potential students and employers; and recommendations were made as a guide to implementation. The results demonstrated a demand for more specialized curricula and for retraining opportunities. Marketing data showed a strong interest from potential students in a specialized master's degree, and mid-career professionals indicated an interest in postmaster's programs that provided the ability to maintain employment. The study pointed to the opportunity for a center of excellence in health sciences information education to enable health sciences librarians to respond to their evolving roles. PMID:9934529
Lipscomb, C E; Moran, B B; Jenkins, C G; Cogdill, K W; Friedman, C P; Gollop, C J; Moore, M E; Morrison, M L; Tibbo, H R; Wildemuth, B M
Background: Cohort Norway (CONOR) containing blood samples and standardised health and exposure variables of about 170,000 subjects, is based on data from health surveys in different parts of Norway. In all participants mental distress is measured by seven questions modified after various mental health measure- ment instruments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the agreement between these
Anne Johanne Søgaard; Ingvar Bjelland; Grethe S. Tell; Espen Røysamb
Objective In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. Methods A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. Results All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Discussion Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.
The health status of underprivileged young females is a global concern. This intervention study in rural Upper Egypt used an integrated approach to develop a model for primary care health promotion services to female adolescents. An initial household survey and focus group discussions identified the health problems of a sample of 671 adolescent women aged 12-20 years recruited from one village. Interventions included training courses for health care providers on relevant health topics and on client-provider interaction skills; community and local authority mobilization; and health education sessions and a special record system for the women. An increase was seen in the utilization of primary care services. PMID:20218145
El Nouman, A; El Derwi, D; Abdel, Hai R; Abou Zeina, H
We have shown that an interactive microcomputer system using noninvasive cardiovascular measurements during exercise is both possible and practical. Experimental use of the system has verified our choice of variables as appropriate for automatic generation of a cardiovascular data base, but additional studies are required to determine the system's sensitivity for assessing health-effect decrements.
Petrovick, M.L.; Kizakevich, P.N.; Stacy, R.W.; Haak, E.D. Jr.
We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…
We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…
Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.
Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural HealthStudy cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses. Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...
In the Agricultural HealthStudy we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...
|This study of 543 English teachers and school executives examined teachers' occupational motivation, satisfaction, and health and tested a model of teacher satisfaction developed in Australia in a previous research phase. Teachers came from schools representative of all types of schools and all levels of socioeconomic status. Teachers completed a…
Background and Purpose—Evidence is mounting linking cerebrovascular disease with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Lesions in both white and gray matter have been associated with depressive symptoms and major depression. We sought to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and white and gray matter lesions in subjects participating in the Cardiovascular HealthStudy. Methods—In a sample of 3660 men and
David C. Steffens; Michael J. Helms; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan; Gregory L. Burke
The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in
Han K. Kang; Nancy A. Dalager; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson; Genevieve M. Matanoski; Sukon Kanchanaraksa; Peter S. J. Lees
BACKGROUND: The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates.
Ellen Kjelsberg; Paal Hartvig; Harald Bowitz; Irene Kuisma; Peder Norbech; Aase-Bente Rustad; Marthe Seem; Tom-Gunnar Vik
Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' HealthStudy (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the managing of emergencies pertinent to public health which is critical to the well-being of a society; as such, the management mechanisms employed should be of great interest and significance for research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper first relies on extensive literature to describe the mechanism used in the USA from
Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmersÂ¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...
Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmersÂ¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...
|This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.|
Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris
While public policies seek to promote active transportation, there is a lack of information on the social and environmental factors associated with the adoption of active transportation modes. Moreover, despite the consensus on the importance of identifying obesogenic environmental factors, most published studies only take into account residential neighborhoods in the definition of exposures. There are at least three major reasons for incorporating daily mobility in public health research: (i) to identify specific population groups, including socially disadvantaged populations, who experience mobility or spatial accessibility deficits; (ii) to study the environmental determinants of transportation habits and investigate the complex relationships between transportation (as a source of physical activity, pollutants, and accidents) and physical activity and health; and (iii) to improve the assessment of spatial accessibility to resources and exposure to environmental hazards by accounting for daily trajectories for a better understanding of their health effects. There is urgent need to develop novel methods to better assess daily mobility. The RECORD Study relies on (i) an electronic survey of regular mobility to assess the chronic exposure to environmental conditions over a relatively long period, and (ii) Global Positioning System tracking to evaluate precisely acute environmental exposures over a much shorter period. The present article argues that future research should combine these two approaches. Gathering scientific evidence on the relationships between the environments, mobility/transportation, and health should allow public health and urban planning decision makers to better take into account the individual and environmental barriers to the adoption of active transportation and to define innovative intervention strategies addressing obesogenic environments to reduce disparities in excess weight. PMID:23845204
Many studies have found that clinicians require access to medical knowledge sources while viewing data in their patients' health records. To address this need, we have been developing links to various on-line health information resources from our Web-based clinical information system (WebCIS). Clinicians can access these resources through a "Health Resources" Web page or use context-sensitive "infobuttons" that automatically link to specific resources. To assist in understanding how clinicians interact with these two mechanisms, we have been exploring the use of an automated approach to answer questions about usage for guiding the further development of links to resources. In this paper, we discuss the use of a knowledge discovery technique (CIS Usage Mining) to obtain usage statistics from log files that record interactions with health resources and infobuttons in WebCIS, describe a Web-based interface developed to present the results, and summarize how the results could be applied. The availability of effective links to on-line medical knowledge sources from the patient health record can assist in resolving information needs, potentially improving patient care and decision-making. PMID:17102263
Chen, Elizabeth S; Bakken, Suzanne; Currie, Leanne M; Patel, Vimla L; Cimino, James J
Background Ensuring the sexual and reproductive health of the population is essential for the wellbeing of a nation. At least three aspects of sexual and reproductive health are among the key policy issues for present Australian governments: maintaining and increasing the birth rate; reducing the abortion rate; and preventing and controlling Chlamydia infections. The overall aim of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Health and Relationships is to document the natural history of the sexual and reproductive health of the Australian adult population. Methods/design A nationally representative sample of Australian adults 16–64 years of age was selected in a two-phase process in 2004–2005. Eligible households were identified through random digit dialling. We used separate sampling frames for men and women; where there was more than one eligible person in a household the participant was selected randomly. Participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview that typically took approximately 25 minutes to complete. The response rate was 56%. A total of 8,656 people were interviewed, of whom 95% (8243) agreed to be contacted again 12 months later. Of those, approximately 82% have been re-contacted and re-interviewed in 2006–07 (Wave Two), with 99% of those agreeing to be contacted again for Wave Three. Discussion ALSHR represents a significant advance for research on the linked topics of sexual and reproductive health. Its strengths include the large sample size, the inclusion of men as well as women, and the wide age range of the participants.
Smith, Anthony MA; Pitts, Marian K; Shelley, Julia M; Richters, Juliet; Ferris, Jason
The database for the acute health effects of common outdoor air pollutants is rapidly increasing but important gaps still exist. Greater technical efforts and innovative studies are required to adequately characterize health effects and understand the underlying mechanisms of toxicity. Controlled human exposures provide relevant data about short-term effects and complement animal and epidemiologic investigations. Except for possibly nitrogen dioxide, the clinical data for ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulates (H2SO4) at contemporary levels indicate potentially untoward or adverse physiologic or clinical responses in healthy individuals and sensitive groups such as children, adolescents, and asthmatic patients. Exercise, duration, and other exposure factors may potentiate pollutant effects on symptoms, lung function, nonspecific bronchial reactivity, mucociliary clearance, and BAL markers of inflammation. Continued animal, clinical, and epidemiologic research of both short- and long-term health effects is clearly needed to support or limit future regulatory decisions regarding the quality of outdoor air.152 references.
Gong, H. Jr. (Department of Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles (United States))
|This paper describes the development of an updated state curriculum for health education in Alabama. The process involved: (1) selecting 24 members to the Health Education and Physical Education State Course of Study Committee; (2) forming two working subcommittees (for health education and physical education); (3) understanding task requirements…
Geiger, Brian F.; Myers, Ouida; Atchison, Jody H.; LaFollette, Judy L.
In many countries, educational and health policies currently highlight the need to develop schools towards health promotion settings for pupils and school staff. The aim of this three-year follow-up study was to investigate teachers' assessments of goal attainment and possible changes in health promotion practices in the Finnish schools that…
Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Jakonen, Sirkka; Vertio, Harri
As one article in a series on Global Mental Health Practice, Simone Honikman and colleagues from South Africa provide a case study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project, which delivered mental health care to pregnant women in a collaborative, step-wise manner, making use of existing resources in primary care.
Simone Honikman; Thandi van Heyningen; Sally Field; Emily Baron; Mark Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Social environment and health status are related, and changes affecting social relations may also affect the general health state of a group. During the past few years, several events have affected the relationships between Muslim immigrants and the non-immigrant population in many countries. This study investigates whether the health status of the Moroccan and Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands
Majda Lamkaddem; Peter M. Spreeuwenberg; Walter L. Devillé; Marleen Foets; Peter P. Groenewegen
Background Measures of neighborhood deprivation used in health research are typically based on conventional area-based SES. Purpose The aim of this study is to examine new data and measures of SES for use in health research. Specifically, assessed property values are introduced as a new individual-level metric of wealth and tested for their ability to substitute for conventional area-based SES as measures of neighborhood deprivation. Methods The analysis was conducted in 2010 using data from 1922 participants in the 2008– 2009 survey of the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS). It compared the relative strength of the association between the individual-level neighborhood wealth metric (assessed property values) and area-level SES measures (including education, income, and percentage above poverty as single variables, and as the composite Singh index) on the binary outcome fair/poor general health status. Analyses were adjusted for gender, categoric age, race, employment status, home ownership, and household income. Results The neighborhood wealth measure was more predictive of fair/poor health status than area-level SES measures, calculated either as single variables or as indices (lower DIC measures for all models). The odds of having a fair/poor health status decreased by 0.85 [0.77, 0.93] per $50,000 increase in neighborhood property values after adjusting for individual-level SES measures. Conclusions The proposed individual-level metric of neighborhood wealth, if replicated in other areas, could replace area-based SES measures, thus simplifying analyses of contextual effects on health.
Moudon, Anne Vernez; Cook, Andrea J.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam
This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.
Objective To evaluate the policy making process, implementation by NHS organisations, and patients’ and carers’ experiences of efforts to introduce an internet accessible personal electronic health record (HealthSpace) in a public sector healthcare system.Design Mixed method, multilevel case study.Setting English National Health Service; the basic HealthSpace technology (available throughout England) and the advanced version (available in a few localities where
Trisha Greenhalgh; Susan Hinder; Katja Stramer; Tanja Bratan; Jill Russell
Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880
Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali
Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients.
Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali
Background: Estimates of health problems of the elderly in developing countries are required from time to time to predict trends in disease burden and plan health care for the elderly. Developing countries have a poor track record of equitable distribution of health care. Marginalized groups living in urban slums and rural villages have poor penetration of health services. Aims: To identify the geriatric health problems in samples drawn from a slum and a village, and also to explore any gender and urban–rural difference morbidity. Subject and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out by house to house survey of all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a village in the field practice area of a teaching hospital. The total elderly population in these two areas was 407, with an almost equal representation from urban slum and rural area. Information (most of them self-reported) was collected in a pre-tested instrument, which has been used earlier in a World Health Organization multicentric study in India. Categorical variables were summarized by percentages. Associations were explored with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Female elders outnumbered the male elders; widows outnumbered widowers. Tobacco use was very high at 58.97% (240/407). Visual impairment (including uncorrected presbyopia) was the most common handicap with prevalence of 83.29% (339/407), with males more affected than females (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.32-4.87). Uncorrected hearing impairment was also common. Urinary complaints were also more common in males (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.93-3.04). More rural elders were living alone than their urban counterpart (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.23-6.86). History of weight loss was higher in the rural areas, while tendency to obesity was higher in the urban areas. An appreciable number 29.2% (119/407) had unoperated cataract. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (125/407); 12% (49/407) had diabetes; 7.6% (31/407) gave history of ischemic heart disease, males more than females (OR = 3.75, 95% CI 1.62-8.82). A large proportion, 32.6%, (133/407) had dental problems. Almost half of the population gave history of depression. Conclusion: A large number of unmet health needs, such as unoperated cataract, uncontrolled hypertension, uncorrected hearing impairment and tobacco use, exist in marginalized groups. Health interventions for these are needed in developing countries. Preventive services such as tobacco cessation campaigns among the elderly should also get priority.
This paper investigates the relationship between institutional trust in the health-care system, i.e. an institutional aspect of social capital, and self-rated health, and whether the strength of this association is affected by access to health-care services. The 2004 public health survey in the Scania region of Sweden is a cross-sectional study; a total of 27,963 respondents aged 18–80 years answered
Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health.
Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T
Methods: Participants in the Veterans HealthStudy, a 2-year longitudinal study, were recruited from a repre- sentative sample of patients receiving ambulatory care at 4 VA facilities in the New England region. The Veter- ans HealthStudy patients received questionnaires of health status, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey; and a health examination, clini- cal assessments,
Lewis E. Kazis; Donald R. Miller; Jack Clark; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Avron Spiro III; Susan Payne; Graeme Fincke; Alfredo Selim; Mark Linzer
The Shanghai Men’s HealthStudy (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s HealthStudy (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.
|In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among…
Introduces an issue that examines state-, district-, and school-level policies and practices for eight school health program components, summarizing findings from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 by component (health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health/social services, food service, school…
|Introduces an issue that examines state-, district-, and school-level policies and practices for eight school health program components, summarizing findings from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 by component (health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health/social services, food service, school…
A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…
The purpose to this study was to examine the relationship between gender role orientation and physical health among young adults. One hundred forty-five undergraduates (103 females, 42 males) completed a measure of gender role orientation (Bem Sex Role Inventory), self-reported physical health (Personal Health Questionnaire), health related behaviors (Health Behaviors Inventory), and neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Inventory). The sample consisted of
The Health Economics Resource Center (HERC) is a national resource center for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health economics research, providing support for the Cooperative Studies Programs (CSP) and the Health Services Research and Development Serv...
Beginning in July 2005, several major medical journals, including the Journal of Medical Internet Research, will only consider trials for publication that have been registered in a trial registry before they started. This is to reduce publication bias and to prevent selective reporting of positive outcomes. As existing clinical trial registers seem to be unsuitable or suboptimal for eHealthstudies, a free International eHealthStudy Registry (IESR) has been set up, allowing registration of trials (including non-randomized studies) in the field of health informatics and assigning an International eHealthStudy Number (IESN). The IESR should meet the requirements of journal editors for a-priori registration of a study. We hope IESR will become the preferred choice for registration of eHealthstudies and, as an secondary benefit, will become an international repository of ongoing eHealth projects, thereby enhancing global collaboration and reducing duplication of effort.
|Explores the problem of health care utilization from both the structural and personal perspectives. Analyzes traditional health care beliefs and practices, and the interplay between these beliefs and practices and the modern health care system. (Author/RLV)|
The Nurses' HealthStudy was designed as a prospective follow-up study to examine relations between contraception and breast cancer. With follow-up questionnaires mailed every 2 years, investigators have added extensive details of lifestyle practices. The study, currently in its 20th year, has maintained high follow-up with > 90% of participants responding to each of the follow-up cycles since 1988. The relations between use of hormones, diet, exercise, and other lifestyle practices have been related to the development of a wide range of chronic illnesses among women. This review describes the methods used to follow up the study participants and summarizes the major findings that have been described over the first 20 years of the study. We highlight additional areas added to the study in recent years to address emerging issues in women's health. Special emphasis is placed on the recent findings from the study, including relations between weight gain and heart disease, diabetes, and mortality, the lack of relation between calcium and osteoporotic fractures, and the positive relation between postmenopausal use of hormones and risk of breast cancer. PMID:9065374
The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994–2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.
Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers.
This study appraises the implementation of the health promotion components of the NSW State Plan and State Health Plan. Four case studies were conducted in a sample of Area Health Services (AHSs). Mixed methods were used and data triangulated where possible. This study found that AHSs share the state policies’ vision of a greater focus on health promotion\\/prevention on paper,
The purpose of this study was to explore community healthcare competency of public health nurses (PHNs) and related factors in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design was adopted to collect data. A community healthcare competency scale for PHNs was developed by the researchers based on a review of the literature to measure PHN competency (self-assessed) and task frequency rates. The instrument earned a content validity index score of .90, Cronbach's alpha of .97, split-half reliability of .95, and test-retest reliability of .97. The questionnaire was sent to 369 head nurses, who distributed copies to PHNs. A total of 2,956 questionnaires were sent out, with a return rate of 67.03%. Results indicate that (1) the PHNs scored high in cooperation with community-based healthcare services, community resources integration, and operation of community group and low on the ability to apply biostatistics, community health promotion activities initiation, and application of epidemiology; (2) implemented task frequency, years of work as a PHN, job position, education level and health station location were all significantly related to respondent competency scores. Results suggest that further examination is needed in the areas of years of work and training courses for incoming personnel and that further investigation of on-the-job training given by various locations of health stations is necessary in order to devise a training model for PHNs. PMID:19061175
BACKGROUND: While the adverse impact of a history of a foot ulcer on physical health among persons with diabetes is well known, little is known about the association between foot ulcer, perceived health and psychological distress. Results from various studies are difficult to compare as different study designs, samples and\\/or different questionnaires have been used. The aim of this study
Marjolein M Iversen; Kristian Midthjell; Grethe S Tell; Torbjørn Moum; Truls Østbye; Monica W Nortvedt; Sverre Uhlving; Berit R Hanestad
In the Agricultural HealthStudy, information on participant live births was largely provided by female partners of male private applicators. At the Iowa site, such information was available for 13,599 (42.9%) of 31,707 applicators. To improve identification of live births among Iowa participants, we used a probabilistic and deterministic approach to link available demographic data from 31,707 households and information
Paul A. Romitti; Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway; William T. Budelier; Charles F. Lynch; Soman Puzhankara; Donna Wong-Gibbons; Jane A. Hoppin; Michael C. R. Alavanja
Background: The Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study has evaluated the determinants of dementia among 3,608 participants that had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 1991 and were followed to 1998–1999. Methods: There were 480 incident dementia cases, 330 (69%) were classified as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Results: In univariate analysis, low scores on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE)
Lewis H. Kuller; Oscar L. Lopez; Anne Newman; Norman J. Beauchamp; Greg Burke; Corinne Dulberg; Annette Fitzpatrick; Linda Fried; Mary N. Haan
Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid interpretation, we will undertake qualitative work with 15 young people, including interviews, non-participant observation and diary collection. Discussion This study will evaluate the effect of service components of transitional care, rather than evaluation of specific models that may be unsustainable or not generalisable. It has been developed in response to numerous national and international calls for such evaluation.
BACKGROUND: School health education can effectively help reduce the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students and have a positive influence on students' academic performance. This article describes the characteristics of school health education policies and programs in the United States at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health
|Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…
The body, in the occidental culture, was for many centuries rejected, feared and devaluated; today, differently, it is super valued and became a precious good, for this reason it is well-taken care of and shaped, due to successes and virtues of the individual contemporary being attributed to it. In the search for an ideal body, many people look for aesthetic surgeries as solution for their problems and improvement of their self-esteem. This article aims to understand the relation of the aesthetic surgery with the Public Health and the promotion of health. We carried out a qualitative study, using the case study method, with the objective of understanding the underlying beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and cultural processes to the narratives of the college's students submitted to aesthetic surgery and of the plastic surgeons. The results demonstrate that the body must be understood as something more complex than the physical and visible body, because many of those who look for aesthetic surgery continue unsatisfied, seeing that their dissatisfactions attributed to their body are also a matter of them being attributed to their soul. We conclude that aesthetic beauty is becoming a medical subject and that aesthetic surgery is a question of public health, as the results depend on the motivations and expectations of who searches for this procedure. PMID:20169234
Leal, Virginia Costa Lima Verde; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Amorim, Rosendo Freitas de; Montagner, Miguel Angelo
Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a major contribution to the field of knowledge transfer and implementation science.
Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their worse mental health. Future public health professionals should be better prepared for coping with the challenges they face during their studies. Universities must facilitate this process by providing helping services targeted at those with highest risk, and developing training to improve coping skills. Social support is also a potentially amenable determinant of mental health during higher education.
|The School health policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of suicide prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and…
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of violence prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and…
This report presents the results of the serum dioxin analysis of the Air Force HealthStudy 1987 examination cycle. Its purpose is to determine whether long-term health effects are associated with serum dioxin levels for the participants in the study. For...
A. S. Brockman M. B. Lustik R. H. Roegner S. C. Henderson W. D. Grubbs
Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations.
Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.
Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed.
Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain HealthStudy is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain HealthStudy is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function. PMID:23735309
|Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…
Children, because of age?related reasons, are a vulnerable population, and protecting their health is a social, scientific and emotional priority. The increased susceptibility of children and fetuses to environmental (including genotoxic) agents has been widely discussed by the scientific community. Children may experience different levels of chemical exposure than adults, and their sensitivity to chemical toxicities may be increased or decreased in comparison with adults. Such considerations also apply to unborn (fetal exposure) and newborn (neonatal exposure) children. Therefore, research on children is necessary in both clinical and environmental fields, to provide age?specific relevant data regarding the efficacy and safety of medical treatments, and regarding the assessment of risk from unintended environmental exposure. In this context, the stakeholders are many, including children and their parents, physicians and public health researchers, and the society as a whole, with its ethical, regulatory, administrative and political components. The important ethical issues are information of participants and consent to participate. Follow?up and protection of data (samples and information derived from samples) should be discussed in the context of biobanks, where children obtain individual rights when they become adults. It is important to realise that there are highly variable practices within European countries, which may have, in the past, led to differences in practical aspects of research in children. A number of recommendations are provided for research with children and environmental health. Environmental research with children should be scientifically justified, with sound research questions and valid study protocols of sufficient statistical power, ensuring the autonomy of the child and his/her family at the time of the study and later in life, if data and samples are used for follow?up studies. When children are enrolled, we recommend a consent dyad, including (1) parental (or legal guardian) informed consent and (2) the child's assent and/or informed consent from older minors. For evaluation of the studies including children, a paediatrician should always be involved in the research ethics committee.
Merlo, D F; Knudsen, L E; Matusiewicz, K; Niebroj, L; Vahakangas, K H
BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health and Medical Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran has undertaken a reform of its health system, in which-lower level managers are given new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized system. To support these efforts, a United Kingdom-based university was contracted by the World Health Organization to design a series of courses for health managers
Maye Omar; Nancy Gerein; Ehsanullah Tarin; Christopher Butcher; Stephen Pearson; Gholamreza Heidari
Internet-based discussion forums provide access to health information and social support, and serve as a resource for others. This investigation analyzed health-oriented Aboriginal Internet discussion forum (Forum A; Forum B) conversations. The findings were framed with Nutbeam's model of health literacy. Discussions within Forum B were centralized around issues of political activism and advocacy regarding Aboriginal health care. Activity in
Health technology assessment (HTA) is one of the major research enterprises of late modernity, reaching into fields of previously autonomous professional practice, and critically interrogating the organisation and delivery of health care. The ‘evaluation’ of new health technologies within the field of HTA is increasingly a normative political expectation, as discourses of ‘evidence-based’ practice run through health policy in the
Carl May; Maggie Mort; Tracy Williams; Frances Mair; Linda Gask
BACKGROUND: Primary health care system is the basic core of public service provision in Iran. This study aimed to assess clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in Tehran, the capital of Iran, as a metropolitan. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study in 2009-10, four urban primary health care clinics were selected through stratified random sampling. Four hundred participants were interviewed in the selected clinics about their satisfaction with the primary health care services and setting. Six domains of satisfaction including accessibility to services, continuity of care, humaneness of staff, comprehensiveness of care, provision of health education and effectiveness of services were calculated from selected variables. The descriptive statistics, chi-square and t-tests were used when appropriate. RESULTS: The mean age of users of health services was 31.3 years (SD=9.6). Thirteen percent of participants were male. The most common reasons for asking health services reported as vaccination, family planning and children care. Overall, primary health care services were suitable for eighty percent of the participants. The mean and standard deviation for Access to services was 2.11 (SD=3.44), continuity of care was -0.35 (SD=3.49), humanness of staff was 3.93 (SD=5.70), comprehensiveness of care was -0.53 (SD=3.66), provision of health educational materials was -1.45 (SD=3.64) and effectiveness of services was 4.30 (SD=7.47). CONCLUSIONS: Primary health care is a comprehensive and suitable strategy to provide health services in public health. Package of services in primary health care may affect clients’ satisfaction. Using family doctors may improve the indices.
Objective To examine adoption of telehealth in a rural public health district and to explain how the innovation became sustainable. Study Setting Longitudinal, qualitative study (1988–2008) of the largest public health district in Georgia. Study Design Case study design provided deep insights into the innovation's social dynamics. Punctuated equilibrium theory helped present and make sense of the process. We identified antecedent conditions and outcomes, and we distinguished between episodes and encounters based on the disruptive effects of events. Data Collection Twenty-five semistructured interviews with 19 decision makers and professionals, direct observations, published papers, grant proposals, technical specifications, and other written materials. Principal Findings Strong collaboration within the district, with local community, and with external partners energized the process. Well-functioning outreach clinics made telehealth desirable. Local champions cultivated participation and generative capability, and overcame barriers through opportunistic exploitation of technological and financial options. Telehealth usage fluctuated between medical and administrative operations in response to internal needs and contextual dynamics. External agencies provided initial funding and supported later expansion. Conclusions Extensive internal and external collaboration, and a combination of technology push and opportunistic exploitation, can enable sustainable rural telehealth innovation.
Singh, Rajendra; Mathiassen, Lars; Stachura, Max E; Astapova, Elena V
The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers. PMID:22858819
Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da
ObjectiveTo evaluate how the regulatory environment and health system organisation, financing and provider payment systems influence the delivery of mental health services in the Sverdlovsk region of the Russian Federation.
David McDaid; Yvevgeniy Aleksievich Samyshkin; Rachel Jenkins; Angelina Potasheva; Alexey Nikiforov; Rifat Ali Atun
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. METHODS: In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight
Tiffany L Gary-Webb; Kesha Baptiste-Roberts; Luu Pham; Jacqueline Wesche-Thobaben; Jennifer Patricio; F Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Arleen F Brown; LaShanda Jones; Frederick L Brancati
A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn. PMID:17193808
As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with
Xinhua S. Ren; Lewis Kazis; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Susan Pendergrass
The results of a questionnaire survey of the health information use and views of 723 subscribers of a digital interactive television service are presented. Subscribers using the service had access to the Living Health channel, a content database (mostly text) on a wide range of health topics. The questionnaire was distributed to Telewest subscribers in the Birmingham area. Sixty-seven per
David Nicholas; Paul Huntington; Peter Williams; Barrie Gunter
The need for home health care has been increasing in Japan and the application of various techniques such as medical informatics are desired to support home health care services. Therefore, we developed an information system for health evaluation of the elderly including patients at home by applying a multifunctional telephone set and an IC memory card, by which complaints, symptoms,
H. Inada; H. Horio; K. Nakazawa; Y. Sekita; T. Yamanaka; E. Harasawa; H. Hosaka; K. Ishikawa
|The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…
Gender-based inequalities in health have been frequently documented. This paper examines the extent to which these inequalities reflect the different social experiences and conditions of men's and women's lives. We address four specific questions. Are there gender differences in mental and physical health? What is the relative importance of the structural, behavioural and psychosocial determinants of health? Are the gender
European colonisation had a devastating effect on the health and well-being of indigenous people in Australia. The history of Aboriginal health research has reflected the history of colonisation; research has understandably been viewed with distrust. The need for accurate statistics and improved understanding of health problems is clear, but obtaining them is not easy. In this paper we describe the
Wendy Holmes; Paul Stewart; Anne Garrow; Ian Anderson; Lisa Thorpe
The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…
Background Heavy carrying and lifting (HCL) is a common activity among farmers that may be related to health. The aim of this study was to examine HCL as a proxy for occupational physical activity (PA) among farm residents. The secondary objective was to evaluate PA based on HCL. Methods Data from 21,296 farmers and 30,951 spouses in the Agricultural HealthStudy examined the relationship between HCL and farm activities and individual/farm characteristics. HCL was categorized as ?1 or <1 hours per day. The association between HCL and farm activities (15 for farmers; 16 for spouses) and individual/farm characteristics was examined using adjusted logistic regression. To evaluate PA, we created a PA activity index using metabolic equivalents for HCL, and compared PA weekly averages with national guidelines. Results In adjusted results, most farm activities were significantly associated with HCL. Based on HCL, farmers had a median of 1.5 hours and spouses 0.5 hours of vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA per day. Most farmers (94%) and about 60% of spouses meet or exceed 2008 national guidelines for vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA. Conclusion Findings suggest the HCL measure may be useful as a PA metric in future studies of occupational PA among farm residents.
Laditka, Sarah B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Alavanja, Michael; Lee, Duck-chul; Hoppin, Jane A.
Rotating night-shift work, which can disrupt circadian rhythm, may adversely affect long-term health. Experimental studies indicate that circadian rhythm disruption might specifically accelerate brain aging; thus, we prospectively examined shift-work history at midlife as associated with cognitive function among older women in the Nurses' HealthStudy. Women reported their history of rotating night-shift work in 1988 and participated in telephone-based cognitive interviews between 1995 and 2001; interviews included 6 cognitive tests that were subsequently repeated 3 times, at 2-year intervals. We focused on shift work through midlife (here, ages 58-68 years) because cognitive decline is thought to begin during this period. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we evaluated mean differences in both "average cognitive status" at older age (averaging cognitive scores from all 4 interviews) and rates of cognitive decline over time across categories of shift-work duration at midlife (none, 1-9, 10-19, or ?20 years). There was little association between shift work and average cognition in later life or between shift work and cognitive decline. Overall, this study does not clearly support the hypothesis that shift-work history in midlife has long-term effects on cognition in older adults. PMID:24076971
Devore, Elizabeth E; Grodstein, Francine; Schernhammer, Eva S
This pilot study aimed to explore how physicians understand men's avoidance of mental health counselling services and to elicit physicians’ views on pairing mental health assessment with routine physical examination. Initially, physicians’ views on men's avoidance of mental health counselling services were explored through a focus group. A short survey exploring views on pairing mental health assessment with a routine
Many health professionals and policymakers in Africa lack access to the information needed to make evidence-based decisions for effective health care. This study collected qualitative data from 75 key informants and members of two focus groups in Senegal on various aspects of health information needs, particularly in family planning and reproductive health, including information sources, strategies, and systems to transfer
Amadou Hassane Sylla; Elizabeth T. Robinson; Laura Raney; Karim Seck
This study investigated how symptoms of insomnia are related to use of health care services and medications. Data on insomnia symptoms, use of a range of health care services, and potential confounders were gathered from 47,700 individuals aged 20 to 89. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was higher among health care users across a range of health professionals. The frequency
Børge Sivertsen; Steinar Krokstad; Arnstein Mykletun; Simon Øverland
|The School Health Policies and Programs Study assessed health education, physical education, health services, food service, and policies prohibiting violence, tobacco use, and alcohol and other drug use at state, district, school, and classroom levels. State questionnaires found several common themes across the components of school health…
Objectives. We explored long-term health consequences of age at sexual initia- tion and of abstinence until marriage to evaluate empirical support for the claim that postponing sexual initiation has beneficial health effects. Methods. We analyzed data from the 1996 National Sexual Health Survey, a cross- sectional study of the US adult population. We compared sexual health outcomes among individuals who
Theo G. M. Sandfort; Mark Orr; Jennifer S. Hirsch; John Santelli
SUMMARY A case study over a 4-week period reviewed health items reported in the Australian newspaper, The (Brisbane) Courier Mail, under the two broad categories of public health and the medical model. Content analysis was utilized to assess 19 criteria which measured prominence, content, stakeholders, orientation of reporting and tone of items. The findings suggest that public health, including health
In October 1992, the American College of Physician Executives sponsored a study tour to Berlin, Germany, and Amsterdam, Holland. Meetings were held with government officials, third-party payers, and providers, and onsite visits were made at hospitals, clinics, and academic centers. The purpose was to study the health care delivery system in those countries and to share some insights with the countries' hosts on the U.S. system. Beginning in this issue of the journal, 5 of the 10 study tour participants describe their impressions of the tour and of the health care systems in the countries that were visited. This first report compares the health care delivery systems of the United States, Germany, and Holland. In subsequent reports, the German and Dutch health care systems will be described in greater detail and the ability of the United States to adopt European health care systems will be assessed. PMID:10127408
Cross-national surveys have the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of adolescent health. The Health\\u000a Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was among the first international studies established in three countries in\\u000a 1983 and growing to more than 40 countries for the seventh wave of fieldwork in 2005\\/06. The original aim of the study has\\u000a remained largely
The Agricultural HealthStudy (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...
|The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National…
This paper explores the electronic health record (EHR) implementation process as well as application and utilization impact within two selected healthcare institutions in Malaysia using a case study approach. Data were collected through observations and a series of interviews with the hospitals' IT administrators and health practitioners. The results are presented in the form of descriptive analysis of the EHR
The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National…
PurposeThe purpose of this pilot study was to assess the knowledge base of an urban community health center population on the link between nutrition and eye health to determine current habits and then utilize this information for an educational intervention.
This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…
BACKGROUND: In this study we examined whether (1) the neighbourhood aspects of access to amenities, neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood disorder, and neighbourhood social cohesion are associated with people's self rated health, (2) these health effects reflect differences in socio-demographic composition and\\/or neighbourhood deprivation, and (3) the associations with the different aspects of the neighbourhood environment vary between men and women. METHODS:
Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings.
...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...
...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...
|Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting…
Background Post-conflict mental healthstudies in low-income countries have lacked pre-conflict data to evaluate changes in psychiatric morbidity resulting from political violence. Aims This prospective study compares mental health before and after exposure to direct political violence during the People’s War in Nepal. Method An adult cohort completed the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in 2000 prior to conflict violence in their community and in 2007 after the war. Results Of the original 316 participants, 298 (94%) participated in the post-conflict assessment. Depression increased from 30.9 to 40.6%. Anxiety increased from 26.2 to 47.7%. Post-conflict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 14.1%. Controlling for ageing, the depression increase was not significant. The anxiety increase showed a dose–response association with conflict exposure when controlling for ageing and daily stressors. No demographic group displayed unique vulnerability or resilience to the effects of conflict exposure. Conclusions Conflict exposure should be considered in the context of other types of psychiatric risk factors. Conflict exposure predicted increases in anxiety whereas socioeconomic factors and non-conflict stressful life events were the major predictors of depression. Research and interventions in post-conflict settings therefore should consider differential trajectories for depression v. anxiety and the importance of addressing chronic social problems ranging from poverty to gender and ethnic/caste discrimination.
Kohrt, Brandon A.; Hruschka, Daniel J.; Worthman, Carol M.; Kunz, Richard D.; Baldwin, Jennifer L.; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Acharya, Nanda Raj; Koirala, Suraj; Thapa, Suraj B.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Robkin, Navit; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Nepal, Mahendra K.
As the decade ended, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were increasing in popularity as a means of health care delivery. These groups take many forms, so it is important for the analyst to see if the efficiency and financial results for these different forms vary. The four major forms are profit vs. not-for-profit, chain vs. non-chain, group/staff vs. individual practice association (IPA), and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. Using a nationwide database of all the HMOs in the United States, the article compares liquidity rates, leverage ratios, profitability ratios, marketing, and per member ratios across the four groups using paired t tests. The two classifications that showed the most differences were group/staff vs. IPA and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. IPAs have a better liquidity position and lower leverage ratios than group/staff but their administrative costs are higher and the time to receive payments and to pay debts is higher. Non-federally qualified have somewhat higher liquidity ratios and higher profitability ratios. These significant differences in financial outcomes indicate that studies of HMOs should segment different major forms of organizations and study them separately before trying to show the effects of different policies on HMO efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:10845389
Background The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia has been publishing Health and Health related indicators of the country annually since 1987 E.C. These indicators have been of high importance in indicating the status of health in the country in those years. However, the trends/patterns of these indicators and the factors related to the trends have not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In addition, there were minimal efforts to develop a model for predicting future values of Health and Health related indicators based on the current trend. Objectives The overall aim of this study was to analyze trends of and develop model for prediction of Health and Health related indicators. More specifically, it described the trends of Health and Health related indicators, identified determinants of mortality and morbidity indicators and developed model for predicting future values of MDG indicators. Methods This study was conducted on Health and Health related indicators of Ethiopia from the year 1987 E.C to 2000 E.C. Key indicators of Mortality and Morbidity, Health service coverage, Health systems resources, Demographic and socio-economic, and Risk factor indicators were extracted and analyzed. The trends in these indicators were established using trend analysis techniques. The determinants of the established trends were identified using ARIMA models in STATA. The trend-line equations were then used to predict future values of the indicators. Results Among the mortality indicators considered in this study, it was only Maternal Mortality Ratio that showed statistically significant decrement within the study period. The trends of Total Fertility Rate, physician per 100,000 population, skilled birth attendance and postnatal care coverage were found to have significant association with Maternal Mortality Ratio trend. There was a reversal of malaria parasite prevalence in 1999 E.C from Plasmodium Falciparum to Plasmodium Vivax. Based on the prediction from the current trend, the Millennium Development Goal target for under-five mortality rate and proportion of people having access to basic sanitation can be achieved. Conclusion The current trend indicates the need to accelerate the progress of the indicators to achieve MDGs at or before 2015, particularly for Maternal Health and access to safe water supply.
This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…
McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia
Cancer incidence is an outcome of interest in studies assessing the health impact of polluted sites, for which an example is represented by SENTIERI Project. Incidence data are characterized by better diagnostic quality and are not influenced by survival factors, furthermore they allow the investigation of high-survival neoplasms (i.e. childhood cancer) and rare malignancies. Furthermore, the study of incidence is more informative than mortality for non-lethal tumours, therefore it represents an advancement in respect to the study of mortality completed in SENTIERI Project. In the last decade in Italy some environmental epidemiology studies used cancer register data, for example the Biancavilla (Sicily) investigation on fluoro-edenite related mesothelioma and the study in an area of Naples Province where hazardous waste was extensively dumped. In this frame, ISS planned some collaborative studies with Siracusa, Mantua and Ferrara cancer Registries, where three major polluted sites are located. Following these pilot studies an ISS-AIRTUM (Italian Association of Cancer Registries) collaborative study has been planned. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention, devoted to the Project. PMID:22166301
Comba, P; Fazzo, L; Fusco, M; Benedetti, M; Pirastu, R; Ricci, P
Evaluating the success of major funding programs from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remains a vexing challenge. We propose a set of criteria to evaluate epidemiological studies that fit within the discovery, development, and delivery paradigm introduced by the NIH. We apply these criteria to the Nurses’ HealthStudy (NHS), a large epidemiological cohort study initiated in the 1970s to evaluate the associations between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer and between diet and other lifestyle factors and risk of cancer overall. Our evaluation suggests that the NHS has led to important changes in health practice, and it underscores the need to develop metrics that are suitable to the evaluation of large epidemiological cohort studies.
Evaluating the success of major funding programs from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remains a vexing challenge. We propose a set of criteria to evaluate epidemiological studies that fit within the discovery, development, and delivery paradigm introduced by the NIH. We apply these criteria to the Nurses' HealthStudy (NHS), a large epidemiological cohort study initiated in the 1970s to evaluate the associations between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer and between diet and other lifestyle factors and risk of cancer overall. Our evaluation suggests that the NHS has led to important changes in health practice, and it underscores the need to develop metrics that are suitable to the evaluation of large epidemiological cohort studies. PMID:18577745
... fewer side effects than other radiation treatments Health Information Technology Patients treated for heart failure in the emergency ... prescribing but barriers to adoption still exist Health information technology-supported quality improvement initiative reduces some ambulatory care ...
\\u000a According to World Health Organization (1948), health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being\\u000a and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In terms of this definition, urban health is referred to as the health\\u000a of population living in the city or town (Galea and Vlahov 2005). More than half of the world population
Background Mounting evidence linking aspects of social capital to health and wellbeing outcomes, in particular to reducing health inequities, has led to intense interest in social capital theory within public health in recent decades. As a result, governments internationally are designing interventions to improve health and wellbeing by addressing levels of social capital in communities. The application of theory to practice is uneven, however, reflecting differing views on the pathways between social capital and health, and divergent theories about social capital itself. Unreliable implementation may restrict the potential to contribute to health equity by this means, yet to date there has been limited investigation of how the theory is interpreted at the level of policy and then translated into practice. Methods The paper outlines a collaborative research project designed to address this knowledge deficit in order to inform more effective implementation. Undertaken in partnership with government departments, the study explored the application of social capital theory in programs designed to promote health and wellbeing in Adelaide, South Australia. It comprised three case studies of community-based practice, employing qualitative interviews and focus groups with community participants, practitioners, program managers and policy makers, to examine the ways in which the concept was interpreted and operationalized and identify the factors influencing success. These key lessons informed the development of practical resources comprising a guide for practitioners and briefing for policy makers. Results Overall the study showed that effective community projects can contribute to population health and wellbeing and reducing health inequities. Of specific relevance to this paper, however, is the finding that community projects rely for their effectiveness on a broader commitment expressed through policies and frameworks at the highest level of government decision making. In particular this relationship requires long term vision, endorsement for cross-sectoral work, well-developed relationships and theoretical and practical knowledge. Conclusions Attention to the practical application of social capital theory shows that community projects require structural support in their efforts to improve health and wellbeing and reduce health inequities. Sound community development techniques are essential but do not operate independently from frameworks and policies at the highest levels of government. Recognition of the interdependence of policy and practice will enable government to achieve these goals more effectively.
Although housing conditions were an integral part of the emergence of the Public Health movement, there has been relatively little research on the relationship between housing and health compared to that on social inequalities in general. This is surprising in view of the fact that one of the major links between social inequalities and health is adverse housing conditions. Findings
The linkage between marital quality (marital adjustment and marital satisfaction) and mental health (midlife crisis symptoms and life satisfaction) as well as perceived health status in 378 Chinese married couples over 2 years was examined. Results showed that marital adjustment and marital satisfaction were concurrently related to midlife crisis symptoms, life satisfaction, and perceived health at Time 1 and Time
|This article assesses the relative importance of several factors believed to reduce the likelihood of health insurance coverage among working Latinos in California, including cost, immigration history, availability of insurance, beliefs about insurance, and beliefs about health and health care. According to a survey of 1,000 randomly selected…
Greenwald, Howard P.; O'Keefe, Suzanne; DiCamillo, Mark
Objective: To identify key issues in the mental health policy development process in Cambodia that will contribute to an increased understanding of how mental health policy gets on the public policy agenda, how it stays there and why policy implementation fails or succeeds. The research was formative because mental health policy analysis is a young and newly emerging discipline.Method: A
Alexis Stockwell; Harvey Whiteford; Clare Townsend; Donald Stewart
|The present paper analyses press releases, news reports and health plans to show how health communication functions in perpetuating dominant racist structures. The paper is mainly concerned with how normal science and health practices can become an instrument for justifying racism and reproducing it in our societies. The examples demonstrate that…
La Parra Casado, Daniel; Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo
The Center for Health Administration Studies (CHAS) at the University of Chicago offers health and demographic statistics and raw data for Chicago and Illinois as well as an annotated index of local and national health-policy related data. The site also offers information about CHAS and the University of Chicago Graduate Program in Health Administration and Policy, and schedules of health policy workshops and other related local events.
Purpose: To present a set of multi-item indicators and associated reliability estimates derived from early research with survey data from adolescents participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health).Methods: Add Health provides information on the health and health-related behaviors of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents, as well as on individual-level and contextual factors that either
Renee E Sieving; Trisha Beuhring; Michael D Resnick; Linda H Bearinger; Marcia Shew; Marjorie Ireland; Robert W Blum
The Journey Project, part of the Virginia Commonwealth University Libraries' Social Work Information Specialist in Context Fellowship, was designed to merge social work and consumer health librarianship skills in order to improve the provision of health information to patients. A resource notebook was created encompassing the many dimensions of cancer health information. A social work informationist distributed the notebooks and provided individualized consultations with respect to patients' health information needs. Areas of congruence as well as key differences between social work and consumer health librarianship emerged during the course of the project. Merging the two professions into the role of a social work informationist increased the ability to attend holistically to clients' health information needs. PMID:19159008
The Agricultural HealthStudy (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.
Conclusion Clearly, much work needs to be done to address the diverse and sometimes unique on-line information needs of public health\\u000a professionals and health policy analysts. In some cases, there are needs for complex new knowledge bases created via linkages\\u000a among multiple databases (e.g., public health-relevant geographic information systems).\\u000a \\u000a However, in many other cases, what is needed is a more systematic
Patrick W. O'Carroll; Marjorie A. Cahn; Ione Auston; Catherine R. Selden
Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children.
Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L
Undocumented migrants face major barriers in accessing prevention and health care. Whereas the association between low socioeconomic\\u000a status and poor health is well documented only few studies have addressed specific health issues in undocumented migrants.\\u000a The aim of the present study is to describe sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva. This\\u000a descriptive cross sectional study included
Paul Sebo; Yves Jackson; Dagmar M. Haller; Jean-Michel Gaspoz; Hans Wolff
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of a 2-year integrated health promotion-health protection work-site intervention on changes in dietary habits and cigarette smoking.\\u000aMETHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention study used the work site as the unit of intervention and analysis; it included 24 predominantly manufacturing work sites in Massachusetts (250-2500 workers per site). Behaviors were assessed in self-administered surveys (n
Glorian Sorensen; Anne M. Stoddard; Mary K. Hunt; James R. Hebert; Judith K. Ockene; Jill Spitz Avrunin; Jay S. Himmelstein; S. Katharine Hammond
Objective To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of 326 children and adolescents aged 6–17 years living in home-based\\u000a foster care in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia with the HRQL of a random sample of 3,582 children aged 6–17 years living\\u000a in the community in Australia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method In both groups, HRQL was assessed using the 50-item version of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) completed
Josephine A. Carbone; Michael G. Sawyer; Amelia K. Searle; Philip J. Robinson
Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical activity may benefit from greater insight in the tensions between health behaviours and masculinity.
We examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three candidate hypertension genes, alpha-adducin (ADD1/G460W), beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2/Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3/C825T), with retinal arteriolar calibre (an intermediate marker of chronic hypertension) and venular calibre. Data in 1842 participants (1554 whites and 288 African Americans) aged 69-96 years from the Cardiovascular HealthStudy with genotype and retinal vascular calibre data were included. A computer-assisted method was used to measure retinal vascular calibre. We analysed four SNPs and multilocus interaction for three genes. All SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in whites and African Americans. The study had sufficient power to detect 0.5% of the total variance of retinal vascular calibre contributed by each SNP in the total population, except for the GNB3 gene variant. No significant associations between these SNPs in the genes studied and mean retinal arteriolar and venular calibre were found in single-gene or multilocus analysis (for example, age-, gender-, race-adjusted mean retinal arteriolar calibre was similar between participants who were ADD1/460W homozygotes and ADD1/G allele carriers, 166.2 vs 167.7 microm). In conclusion, this study found no evidence of an association of SNPs in candidate hypertension genes studied here with retinal vascular calibre. PMID:19148102
Sun, C; Wang, J J; Islam, F M; Heckbert, S R; Klein, R; Siscovick, D S; Klein, B E K; Wong, T Y
Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ HealthStudy (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors.
This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457
For many people living in developing nations, illness represents a permanent threat to their income earning capacity and, therefore, their livelihood .Health insurance has been progressively more recognized as a tool to finance healthcare provision in the developing world. The high demand for good quality healthcare and the extreme underutilization of existing health services have given rise to the need
This report surveys Minnesota laws relating to the use of health manpower. It presents a summary of Minnesota licensure laws as they apply to categories of health personnel and paramedical personnel currently unrecognized by the law. An analysis is also made of malpractice decisional law to examine whether such laws prohibit or inhibit optimal…
American Rehabilitation Foundation, Minneapolis, Minn. Inst. for Interdisciplinary Studies.
Background: Because of the widespread access to health information on the Internet, researchers have begun to investigate e-health literacy skills among college students. Preliminary findings indicate that the general population of college students may not have adequate skills to sufficiently search for, locate, and/or evaluate electronic sources…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of
Sunny Hyucksun Shin; Erika M. Edwards; Timothy Heeren
Objective To illuminate findings of the survey of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers by exploring their health?related beliefs and experiences. Design Qualitative study of a purposive subsample from in?depth interviews using framework analysis. Setting The homes or alternative community settings of the participants in five geographically dispersed study locations in England. Participants 27 Gypsies and Travellers with an experience of ill health, purposively sampled from a larger population participating in an epidemiological survey of health status. Results The experience of poor health and daily encounters of ill health among extended family members were normalised and accepted. Four major themes emerged relating to health beliefs and the effect of lifestyle on health for these respondents: the travelling way; low expectations of health; self?reliance and staying in control; fatalism and fear of death. These themes dominated accounts of health experience and were relevant to the experience. These themes add richness to the health status data and inform our understanding. Conclusions Among Gypsies and Travellers, coherent cultural beliefs and attitudes underpin health?related behaviour, and health experiences must be understood in this context. In this group, ill health is seen as normal, an inevitable consequence of adverse social experiences, and is stoically and fatalistically accepted. The provision of effective healthcare and improvement of poor health in Gypsies and Travellers will require multi?agency awareness of these issues.
We use data from the Whitehall II Study to examine the joint evolution of health status and economic status over the life course. We study the links between health and socioeconomic status in childhood and health and employment status at older ages. We find early life socioeconomic status is significantly associated with health over the life course, even though selection into Whitehall mutes the effects of childhood. In addition, we find that current position in the civil service is not associated with future self-assessed health, but current self-assessed health is significantly associated with promotion in the civil service.
The cultural aspects of health promotion are important in policy development as well as in assessing effectiveness of health promotion activities. The discourses on promoting health and well-being in journalism reflect the health promotion culture in society. This article illustrates how health promotion is portrayed by 147 newspaper items from the two Finnish quality dailies during the period 2002-2004 and introduces a semiotic Actantial Model of Health Promotion (AMHP) for studyinghealth promotion cultures. The most popular news themes on health promotion were physical and social environment, welfare services, nutrition and obesity, and mental well-being. The actants (actors, actions and abstract factor) of health promotion were identified and the AMHP with seven key actants (generator, health-object, public, tool, executor, threat and obstacle) was constructed. The model sheds light on two sides of health promotion discourses in journalism. The dominant culture of health promotion was represented by policy actions, information, education and scientific research, which were defined by health experts, decision-makers and researchers. Representations of the opposite culture--'the otherness' of health promotion included external harmful factors and unhealthy behaviours, mentalities opposed to being health-oriented, rationally uncontrolled living, disorder, disharmony and insecurity. The opposing factors were presented by people and institutions lacking the will, ability or motivation for a health-oriented life. To understand better the values of health promotion, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of the opposite side of health promotion culture, because the current dominant values can be described more clearly by the boundaries--by 'otherness'. The study argues that the AMHP can be used as a semiotic method to identify the value dimensions and the boundaries between the dominant and the opposite discourses of health promotion in various communications such as advertising and health education. Also, it provides a tool for the analysis of the media's role in 'victimization' or 'heroization' of various population groups. PMID:16567361
Exposure assessment during and after acute chemical incidents and disasters is essential for healthstudies that may follow. During chemical incidents, the focus usually lies on risk assessment and afterward attention shifts toward possible (long-term) health effects. This may lead to insufficient available data on exposure to study the association between exposure and health outcome, and collection of additional exposure
Sim Bongers; Nicole A H Janssen; B Reiss; L Grievink; E Lebret; H Kromhout
BACKGROUND: Social capital may influence health and the patterns of association differ according its dimension such as cognitive, behavioral, bridging or bonding. There is a few numbers of studies in Latin America which comprise these aspects of social capital and health. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and self-rated health among youth, and
Carolina M Borges; Ana Cristina V Campos; Andrea D Vargas; Efigênia F Ferreira; Ichiro Kawachi
This qualitative study examined the meaning and knowledge of health among older adult Russians who have immigrated to the US. Prior studies have shown that this group has a high rate of chronic disease and low compliance with preventative health behaviors. However, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs about health among Russian immigrants that may be driving their
BACKGROUND: Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional,
Kathleen M Griffiths; Helen Christensen; Anthony F Jorm
...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time...health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the âNoticesâ section of the...
The occupational healthstudy performed in Obilich, Kosova, Yugoslavia, evaluated the potential health impact of the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility on the workers and on public health. The effect of exposures to various chemical agents in the working environment generated in the coal gasification process was studied in exposed and control worker populations. A detailed assessment of
M. T. Brandt; J. O. Jackson; C. R. Sutcliffe; O. Jr. White; E. T. Premuzic; S. C. Morris; M. A. Haxhiu; A. Abazi; M. Jockic; B. Jonuzi
The Old Order Amish population is growing, yet little is known about their cardiovascular health care practices. This ethnographic study explored their cardiovascular knowledge, beliefs, and health care practices. This study showed that the Amish have distinct beliefs and practices which affect their cardiovascular health, and that culturally appropriate education is needed. PMID:22015339
|Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
|Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
BACKGROUND: The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. METHODS: The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on
|This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…
Research has revealed significant variation in both the quality of clinical care and the health status of populations. We conducted a study to determine if variations in the quality of clinical care can be quantitatively linked to variations in health status, at the patient and the population level. This study, conducted at health facilities in four municipalities in Macedonia, collected
John W. Peabody; Robert J. Nordyke; Fimka Tozija; Jeff Luck; Jorge A. Muñoz; Anne Sunderland; Karen DeSalvo; Ninez Ponce; Charles McCulloch
Background Full sharing of the electronic health record with patients has been identified as an important opportunity to engage patients in their health and health care. The My HealtheVet Pilot, the initial personal health record of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, allowed patients and their delegates to view and download content in their electronic health record, including clinical notes, laboratory tests, and imaging reports. Objective A qualitative study with purposeful sampling sought to examine patients’ views and experiences with reading their health records, including their clinical notes, online. Methods Five focus group sessions were conducted with patients and family members who enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oregon. A total of 30 patients enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot, and 6 family members who had accessed and viewed their electronic health records participated in the sessions. Results Four themes characterized patient experiences with reading the full complement of their health information. Patients felt that seeing their records positively affected communication with providers and the health system, enhanced knowledge of their health and improved self-care, and allowed for greater participation in the quality of their care such as follow-up of abnormal test results or decision-making on when to seek care. While some patients felt that seeing previously undisclosed information, derogatory language, or inconsistencies in their notes caused challenges, they overwhelmingly felt that having more, rather than less, of their health record information provided benefits. Conclusions Patients and their delegates had predominantly positive experiences with health record transparency and the open sharing of notes and test results. Viewing their records appears to empower patients and enhance their contributions to care, calling into question common provider concerns about the effect of full record access on patient well-being. While shared records may or may not impact overall clinic workload, it is likely to change providers’ work, necessitating new types of skills to communicate and partner with patients.
Schwartz, Erin; Tuepker, Anais; Press, Nancy A; Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nichol, W. Paul
As one of the fastest growing cities in Pearl River Delta of southern China, Shenzhen accommodates a higher percentage and increasing number of internal migrants, mainly coming from the inland areas. The public health issues that challenge its local government include the special population structure, high incidence of infectious diseases, high prevalence of mental problems, rising chronic disease burdens, and maternal and children's health issues, although progress has been made in the past years. The health authority of Shenzhen has realized that provision of high quality equitable public health services to its residents, including migrants is of high priority, and should be supported by innovations in the health insurance system and establishment of community-based primary care networks. Making changes within the national-level health reform framework and learning from international experiences are necessary and important. PMID:21256365
Introduction Following twenty years of economic and social growth, Liberia's fourteen-year civil war destroyed its health system, with\\u000a most of the health workforce leaving the country. Following the inauguration of the Sirleaf administration in 2006, the Ministry\\u000a of Health & Social Welfare (MOHSW) has focused on rebuilding, with an emphasis on increasing the size and capacity of its\\u000a human resources for
BackgroundPublic health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.Methodology\\/Principal Findings70 participants took part
David Carlton Taylor-Robinson; Ffion Lloyd-Williams; Lois Orton; May Moonan; Martin OFlaherty; Simon Capewell
Background. The relationship between smoking and mental health remains unclear.Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study and a cohort study on the possible association of smoking and mental health in 782 workers. Using a questionnaire including the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and items related to the smoking state, the association between smoking and mental health was evaluated separately in
Lebanon's experience in the development of its health care system over the last century is reviewed; inasmuch as experiences can be generalizable, the case of Lebanon reflects the attempts of middle-income countries to balance the public and private sectors' roles in health care. Lebanon's health care system followed a predictable trend that was accelerated and intensified by the civil disturbances during the past decade. Its main feature has been the absence of a coherent and sustained health policy that promotes a stable and long-lasting relationship between the public and the private sectors in health. The role of the State has been most effective during periods of political, social and economic stability, when serious planning efforts could be undertaken and resultant policies be implemented. An effective partnership between the State and the private sector is recommended for the reconstruction of Lebanon's health care system, as well as for other countries with a strong private sector involvement in health care. PMID:2681264
Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations\\u000a with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level\\u000a SES and health status and depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term\\u000a weight loss among
Tiffany L Gary-Webb; Kesha Baptiste-Roberts; Luu Pham; Jacqueline Wesche-Thobaben; Jennifer Patricio; F Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Arleen F Brown; LaShanda Jones-Corneille; Frederick L Brancati
Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.
Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR). Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.89) and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52). Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.
Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite.
The study was conceived in relation to a concern over the growing gap between the needs of chronic patients and the availability of care from the current health care system in Korea. Patients with agonizing chronic pain, discomfort, despair and disability are left with helplessly unprepared families with little help from the acute care oriented health care system after discharge from hospital. There is a great need for the development of an alternative means of quality care that is economically feasible and culturally adaptable to our society. Thus, the study was designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of home health care as an alternative to bridge the existing gap between the patients' needs and the current practice of health care. The study specifically purports to test the effects of home care on health expenditure, readmission, job retention, compliance to health care regime, general conditions, complications, and self-care knowledge and practices. The study was guided by the operations research method advocated by the Primary Health Care Operations Research Institute (PRICOR) which constitutes 3 stages of research: namely, problem analysis solution development, and solution validation. The first step in the operations research was field preparation to develop the necessary consensus and cooperation. This was done through the formation of a consulting body at the hospital and a steering committee among the researchers. For the stage of problem analysis, the Annual Report of Seoul National University Hospital and the patients records for last 5 years were reviewed and selective patient interviews were conducted to find out the magnitude of chronic health problems and areas of unmect health care needs to finally decide on the kinds of health problems to study. On the basis of problem analysis, the solution development stage was devoted to home care program development asa solution alternative. Assessment tools, teaching guidelines and care protocols were developed and tested for their validity. The final stage was the stage of experimentation and evaluation. Patients with liver diseases, hemiplegic and diabetic conditions were selected as study samples. Discharge evaluation, follow up home care, measurement and evaluation were carried out according to the protocols of care and measurement plan for each patient for the period of 6 months after discharge. The study was carried out for the period from Jan. 1987 to Dec. 1989. The following are the results of the study presented according to the hypotheses set forth for the study; 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2232446
Hong, Y S; Lee, E O; Lee, S W; Kim, M J; Hong, K J
Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health.
The Health and Ecological Effects Subcommittee (HEES) of the Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis (Council), of the Science Advisory Board, has reviewed precursors to the first Prospective Study: Report to Congress. The HEES concludes that the approach to the health/ecological effects assessment lacks a framework for ecological evaluations. The Agency should develop a comprehensive methodology for valuing natural resources and ecological services, incorporating contemporary ecological thinking and findings. The HEES encourages the Agency to explore valuations at the watershed level or large (or other scales of concern) to avoid double-counting of pollutant effects and interactions among pollutants.
Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions The results provide grounds for expecting the NIH Public Access Policy to have a positive impact on EBP and health care more generally given that between a quarter and a third of participants in this study (1) frequently accessed research literature, (2) expressed an interest in having greater access, and (3) were aware of the policy and expect it to have an impact on their accessing research literature in the future. Results also indicate the value of promoting a greater awareness of the NIH policy, providing training and education in the location and use of the literature, and continuing improvements in the organization of biomedical research for health personnel use.
This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American, and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of SES and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of SES on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the “rights and freedoms gradient of health” in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.
This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American, and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of SES and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of SES on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the "rights and freedoms gradient of health" in recognition of this latter construct's crucial role in determining both physical and mental health. PMID:23162498
|Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) leaving institutions pass through a transition stage that makes them vulnerable to inadequate health care. They enter into community care under general practitioners (GPs) who are often untrained and inexperienced in their needs. Specifically designed health reviews may be of assistance to both…
Background: Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting \\
Alla Keselman; Tony Tse; Jon Crowell; Allen Browne; Long Ngo; Qing Zeng
Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) leaving institutions pass through a transition stage that makes them vulnerable to inadequate health care. They enter into community care under general practitioners (GPs) who are often untrained and inexperienced in their needs. Specifically designed health reviews may be of assistance to both…
Cross-sectional analyses of all 4,235 ADL/IADL impaired respondents, age 60+, in the 1984 National Health Interview Survey on Aging (SOA) revealed that certain ADL/IADL limitations were most strongly associated with Home Health Care (HHC) use. Those with ...
The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…
Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.
|The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…
Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.
The relationship of self-reported foot problems to health, mental health, and functional mobility was explored in a representative sample of 111 adults, aged 50 through 87, living in a multi-ethnic urban area. One-third of the respondents reported having problems with their feet. Analyses supported the prediction that foot complaints were significantly related to greater psychological distress and that for most
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention and health promotion. In Sweden the network started in 1996, and involves mainly hospitals and primary care. The network members collaborate in task forces, one of which is working on the tobacco issue. There is limited evidence on the value of working within an HPH organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of members of the Swedish HPH network tobacco task force. Focus group interviews with task force members were analyzed using implementation theory. Three themes, overall experiences of working with tobacco issues, experiences of working with "free from tobacco in connection with surgery", and experiences of work in the HPH tobacco task force, emerged from the interviews. The results show that working with the tobacco issue in the context of health-promoting hospitals and health services met with difficulties involving the following important factors: evidence, context, facilitation and adopter characteristics. Leadership, one contextual factor, at national and local level, seems to be crucial if the work is going to succeed. The tobacco task force of the HPH network is an important facilitator supporting the task. PMID:21556199
Carlfjord, Siw; Kristenson, Margareta; Lindberg, Malou
The worldwide Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) network was initiated by the World Health Organizations in the late 1980s. The goal of the network is to change the focus of health services from curing patients to also embrace disease prevention and health promotion. In Sweden the network started in 1996, and involves mainly hospitals and primary care. The network members collaborate in task forces, one of which is working on the tobacco issue. There is limited evidence on the value of working within an HPH organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of members of the Swedish HPH network tobacco task force. Focus group interviews with task force members were analyzed using implementation theory. Three themes, overall experiences of working with tobacco issues, experiences of working with “free from tobacco in connection with surgery”, and experiences of work in the HPH tobacco task force, emerged from the interviews. The results show that working with the tobacco issue in the context of health-promoting hospitals and health services met with difficulties involving the following important factors: evidence, context, facilitation and adopter characteristics. Leadership, one contextual factor, at national and local level, seems to be crucial if the work is going to succeed. The tobacco task force of the HPH network is an important facilitator supporting the task.
Carlfjord, Siw; Kristenson, Margareta; Lindberg, Malou
This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.
James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.
The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive\\u000a data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0–17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical\\u000a examinations and tests, questionnaires filled
The grant provides for continued follow-up for and research on the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) of 51,529 men who completed an extensive dietary questionnaire first in 1986 and again in 1990, 1994,1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. The program project grant also supports the food composition database and nutrient analysis system used by the Nurses' HealthStudy, Nurses' HealthStudy II, and many other studies.
We synthesized findings relating health outcomes and genetic variants of the sex steroid hormone pathway in women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genetics Study. The SWAN Genetics Study, a component of the longitudinal SWAN study, describes selected genetics characteristics of health-related attributes during the menopausal transition in African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women. At
MaryFran R. Sowers; Angela L. Wilson; Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez; Sharon R. Kardia
Concerned about evidence-based health informatics, the authors conducted a limited pilot survey attempting to determine how many IT evaluation studies in health care are never published, and why. A survey distributed to 722 academics had a low response rate, with 136 respondents giving instructive comments on 217 evaluation studies. Of those studies, half were published in international journals, and more than one-third were never published. Reasons for not publishing (with multiple reasons per study possible) included: “results not of interest for others” (1/3 of all studies), “publication in preparation” (1/3), “no time for publication” (1/5), “limited scientific quality of study” (1/6), “political or legal reasons” (1/7), and “study only conducted for internal use” (1/8). Those reasons for non-publication in health informatics resembled those reported in other fields. Publication bias (preference for positive studies) did not appear to be a major issue. The authors believe that widespread application of guidelines in conducting health informatics evaluation studies and utilization of a registry for evaluation study results could improve the evidence base of the field.
Objective Patellofemoral (PF) joint OA is strongly correlated with lower extremity disability and knee pain. Risk factors for pain and structural progression in patellofemoral OA are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine the association between patella malalignment and its relation to pain severity, and PF OA disease progression. Methods We conducted an analysis of data from the Health ABC knee OA study. Health ABC is a community based, multi-center cohort study of 3,075 Caucasian and Black men and women aged 70–79 at enrollment. Weight bearing skyline knee x-rays were obtained in a subset (595) of subjects, with and without knee pain, at year 2 and year 5 (mean follow-up 36 months). Films were read paired, and patellofemoral osteophytes (OST) and narrowing (JSN) were scored on a 0–3 scale using the OARSI atlas. We defined progression of PF OA as any increase in JSN score. 3 measures of patella malalignment were made: sulcus angle; patella tilt angle; and patella subluxation medially or laterally (bisect offset). Knee symptoms were assessed using a knee specific WOMAC knee pain subscale. We assessed the relationship between baseline patella malalignment and pain severity (linear regression for WOMAC) and compartment specific PF OA progression (logistic regression for dichotomous outcomes). We classified continuous measures of patella alignment into quartile groups. We performed multivariable adjusted logistic regression models, including age, gender and BMI to assess the relation of baseline patella alignment to the occurrence of PF JSN progression using generalized estimating equations. Results The subjects had a mean age 73.6 (SD 2.9), BMI 28.8 (SD 4.9), 40.3% male, and 46% were Black. Medial displacement of the patella predisposed to medial JSN progression; odds for each quartile 1, 1.2, 1.2, 2.2 (p for trend=0.03), whilst protecting from lateral JSN progression; odds for each quartile 1, 0.7, 0.6, 0.4 (p for trend=0.0004). Increasing patella tilt protected from medial JSN progression; odds for each quartile 1, 0.8, 0.5, 0.2 (p<0.0001) and trended to increasing pain severity (p=0.09). Conclusion Patella malalignment is associated with PF disease progression. Medial displacement and tilt of the patella predisposes to medial JSN progression, whilst lateral displacement is predictive of lateral JSN progression. The influence of patella malalignment has important implications since it is potentially modifiable through footwear, taping and/ or knee bracing.
This study analyses health damages from particulate pollution and the corresponding social costs. The analyses, which are based on transferring dose–response functions to Norway, is made within an integrated approach, where the economic impacts of the health damages are handled separately from the non-economic welfare effects. We find that the social costs of health damages in Oslo are significant, and
The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N = 4943) were from a longitudinal
Laurie Chassin; Jon T. Macy; Dong-Chul Seo; Clark C. Presson; Steven J. Sherman
The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…
Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.
This paper uses data from the National Child Development Study to propose an empirical implementation of the concept of inequality of opportunity in health. Drawing on the distinction between circumstance and effort variables in John Roemer's work on equality of opportunity, circumstances are proxied by parental socio-economic status and childhood health; effort is proxied by health-related lifestyles and educational attainment.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The
Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn
Patient satisfaction is an important measure of service quality in health care systems. Patients' perceptions about health care systems seem to have been largely ignored by health care managers in developing countries. The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure patient satisfaction in Turkey. A questionnaire was developed and a total of 1100
Purpose – This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for, health data and related standards in
|The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…
Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.
BACKGROUND: It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL) of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measuring HRQL in general injury populations with a generic health state measure to summarize existing knowledge.
Suzanne Polinder; Juanita A Haagsma; Eefje Belt; Ronan A Lyons; Vicki Erasmus; Johan Lund; Ed F van Beeck
Given that the health of many immigrants declines after increasing years in their host countries and that there may be gender differences in these experiences, this exploratory study's main objective was twofold: a) assess the relationship between acculturative stress and negative health (ie both mental and physical) and b) determine if there were any gender differences in these stress-health relationships.
This study examined whether children who become homeless differ from other low-income children in their mental health service use before and after their first homeless episode, and to what extent homelessness is associated with an increased likelihood of mental health service use. Differences between children with and without new onset of sheltered homelessness in the use of mental health services
Jung Min Park; Stephen Metraux; Dennis P. Culhane; David S. Mandell
Youth lay health advising, a form of support or helping, is an important potential resource for preventive intervention. This article describes a case study of a youth lay health advising program designed to provide high school students with support and guidance to handle challenges and concerns related to their health and quality of life. First, the planning, program development, and
Jannette Berkley-Patton; Stephen B. Fawcett; Adrienne Paine-Andrews; Lori Johns
This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
This paper examines various health effects of photochemical air pollution in Japan, primarily through the review of epidemiological studies. Health effects discussed include subjective respiratory symptoms, respiratory function testing, ocular effects, and hospital diagnostic tests. The downward trend in oxidant cautions and paralleled health effects, as reported by the Japanese Environmental Agency, are discussed. The methods determined by Japanese ordinance
Masayuki Imai; Katsumi Yoshida; Dennis J. Kotchmar; Si Duk Lee
SUMMARY With the increase in media reports and rapid diffusion of the Internet, the skills in finding and utilizing health infor- mation (health literacy; HL) are becoming important in maintaining and promoting health. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a brief measure to assess major components of communicative and critical HL among Japanese office workers, in order
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing
The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…
Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.
|Little is known about the quality of online sexual health information, how young people access the Internet to answer their sexual health questions, or an individual's ability to sort through myriad sources for accurate information. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how college students search for online sexual health…
Buhi, Eric R.; Daley, Ellen M.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; Smith, Sarah A.
|A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.
|Hudson Valley Migrant Health (HVMH) (a Public Health Service program) collaborated with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) on a study of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis among migrant farmworkers in the mid-Hudson region of New York. CDC research personnel…
|The National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment conducted a study to examine how Americans use health care services and to determine national patterns of health expenditures and insurance coverage. Data were obtained from the National Medical Care Expenditure Survey interviews conducted with 14,000 randomly…
This study was conducted under the auspices of the Subcommittee on Risk Communication and Education of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs (CCEHRP) to determine how Public Health Service (PHS) agencies are communicating information about health risk, what factors contributed to effective communication efforts, and what specific principles, strategies, and practices best promote more effective health risk
OBJECTIVE--To determine if the oil spillage from the tanker Braer had any immediate health effects on the exposed resident population. DESIGN--Cohort study with a comparison against controls, exposure status being assigned on the basis of geographical location. SETTING--Rural Shetland. SUBJECTS--All those resident on or after 5 January 1993 (day 0) within 4.5 km of the site of tanker's grounding. Controls matched for sex and age were drawn from a general practice list 95 km distant. OUTCOME MEASURES--Demographic details; smoking and alcohol consumption; perception of health and reported presence or absence of specific symptoms; peak expiratory flow; results of haematology, liver and renal function tests, and blood and urine toxicology. RESULTS--Of subjects contacted, 420 (66%) exposed people and 92 (68%) controls were studied; 56 non-attenders were surveyed. Principal health effects arose on days 1 and 2 and were headache, throat irritation, and itchy eyes. No significant differences between those exposed and controls were found for any of the biological markers. Toxicological studies did not show any exposures that are known to affect human health. CONCLUSIONS--The study confirmed the anecdotal reports of certain acute symptoms. No evidence of pulmonary, haematological, renal, or hepatic damage was detected at the population level. Toxicological samples from exposed people did not find levels known to affect human health. Further studies are required to ascertain whether there have been any long term effects on the population.
The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level.
Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla
This report presents an overview of the second grant year of the Tennessee HealthStudies Agreement. During the second year of the HealthStudies Agreement, the dose reconstruction feasibility study will be completed. The State and the ORHASP will plan a strategy for identifying opportunities to perform analytical epidemiological studies in the Oak Ridge area to determine if adverse health outcomes have occurred as a result of ORR operations.
Background There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost-effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 frontline clinical officers, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses in Kitui district (Eastern province) and Thika and Nyeri districts (Central province) in Kenya. The study was conducted in health facilities providing integrated HIV and reproductive health services (post-natal care and family planning). All interviews were conducted in English, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results Providers reported delivering services in provider-level and unit-level integration, as well as a combination of both. Provider experiences of actual integration were mixed. At personal level, providers valued skills enhancement, more variety and challenge in their work, better job satisfaction through increased client-satisfaction. However, they also felt that their salaries were poor, they faced increased occupational stress from: increased workload, treating very sick/poor clients, and less quality time with clients. At operational level, providers reported increased service uptake, increased willingness among clients to take an HIV test, and reduced loss of clients. But the majority also reported infrastructural and logistic deficiencies (insufficient physical room space, equipment, drugs and other medical supplies), as well as increased workload, waiting times, contact session times and low staffing levels. Conclusions The success of integration primarily depends on the performance of service providers which, in turn, depends on a whole range of facilitative organisational factors. The central Ministry of Health should create a coherent policy environment, spearhead strategic planning and ensure availability of resources for implementation at lower levels of the health system. Health facility staffing norms, technical support, cost-sharing policies, clinical reporting procedures, salary and incentive schemes, clinical supply chains, and resourcing of health facility physical space upgrades, all need attention. Yet, despite these system challenges, this study has shown that integration can have a positive motivating effect on staff and can lead to better sharing of workload - these are important opportunities that deserve to be built on.
Background There is considerable potential for health research to contribute to improved health services, programs, and outcomes; the policies of health research funding agencies are critical to achieving health gains from research. The need for research to better address health disparities in Indigenous people has been widely recognised. This paper: (i) describes the policy changes made by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) from 1997 to 2002 to improve funding of Aboriginal health research (ii) examines catalysts for the policy changes (iii) describes the extent to which policy changes were followed by new models of research and (iv) outlines issues for Indigenous health policy in the future. Methods This study had two parts: (i) semi-structured interviews were conducted over a four -month period with seven individuals who played a leading role in the policy changes at NHMRC during the period 1997–2002, to describe policy changes and to examine the catalysts for the changes; (ii) a case study was undertaken to evaluate projects by recipients of NHMRC People Support awards and NHMRC Capacity Building Grants in Population Health Research to examine the types of research being undertaken five years after the policy changes were implemented. The proposals of these researchers were assessed in terms of whether they reported intending to: evaluate interventions; engage Indigenous community members and organisations; and build research capacity among Indigenous people. Results Seven policy changes over a period of five years were identified, including those to: establish an ethical approach to working with Indigenous people; increase the influence of Indigenous people within NHMRC; encourage priority research directed at improving Indigenous health; and recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research as a priority area including a commitment to an expenditure target of 5% of annual funds. Seven catalysts for this change were identified. These included: a perceived lack of effective response to the health needs of Indigenous people; a changed perception of the role of NHMRC in encouraging research to maximise health gains; and leadership within the organisation. The case study analysis demonstrated that 45% of all People Support recipients intend to engage Indigenous community members and organisations in consultation, 26% included an evaluation of an intervention and two (6.5%) were granted to an individual from an Indigenous background. Six of seven Population Health Capacity Building Grants that were awarded to study Indigenous health between 2004 and 2006 included an intervention component; these grants supported 34 researchers from Indigenous backgrounds. Conclusion NHMRC made significant policy changes from 1997 to 2002 to better support Indigenous health as a result of external pressure and internal commitment. The policy changes have made some progress in supporting better research models particularly in improving engagement with Indigenous communities. However, there remains a need for further reform to optimise research outcomes for Indigenous people from research.
de la Barra, Sophia Leon; Redman, Sally; Eades, Sandra
The article presents a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latino older adults. The study explored staff perceptions on the clinic development and the context within an immigrant multicultural community. The study used in-depth, semistructured interviews with support staff, clinical social workers, and administrators. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic content analysis. The mental health clinic formation was perceived by staff as an ecological process stemming from the needs of the Latino immigrant senior clients. A close knit and interdependent culture allowed the clinic to adjust to diversity and changing cultural contexts. PMID:22852993
This paper was prepared for the Employment Conditions and Health Inequalities Knowledge Network (EMCONET), part of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We describe the Brazilian context of employment conditions, labor conditions and health, their characteristics and causal relationships. The social, political and economic factors that influence these relationships are also presented with an emphasis on social inequalities, and how they are reproduced within the labor market and thereby affect the health and wellbeing of workers. A literature review was conducted in SciELO, LILACS, Google and Google Scholar, MEDLINE and the CAPES Brazilian thesis database. We observed that there are more workers operating in the informal sector than in the formal sector and these former have no social insurance or any other social benefits. Work conditions and health are poor in both informal and formal enterprises since health and safety labor norms are not effective. The involvement of social movements and labor unions in the elaboration and management of workers' health polices and programs with universal coverage, is a promising initiative that is underway nationwide. PMID:22218587
Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Oliveira, Roberval Passos de; Machado, Jorge H; Minayo-Gomez, Carlos; Perez, Marco An