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1

Prevalence and correlates of foot pain in a population-based study: the North West Adelaide health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of foot pain in the general community. The aims of this study were therefore to determine the prevalence, correlates and impact of foot pain in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. METHODS: The North West Adelaide Health Study is

Catherine L Hill; Tiffany K Gill; Hylton B Menz; Anne W Taylor

2008-01-01

2

Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide,

Hylton B Menz; Tiffany K Gill; Anne W Taylor; Catherine L Hill

2008-01-01

3

The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS): Design, procedures & participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. METHODS: FAMAS is a longitudinal study involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living

Sean A Martin; Matthew T Haren; Sue M Middleton; Gary A Wittert

2007-01-01

4

Predicting high achievers in the University of Adelaide, Australia, Bachelor of Oral Health program, 2002-09.  

PubMed

The Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) commenced at the University of Adelaide in 2002. The degree was formed by combining the Diploma in Dental Therapy and the Diploma and Advanced Diploma in Dental Hygiene. This preliminary study measured the predictive value of the selection criteria against students' academic performance at the end of each enrollment year of the B.O.H. program. Predictive indicators were prior academic achievement (i.e., tertiary entrance ranking [TER], university grade point average, or Special Tertiary Admissions Test scores) and the admission cognitive test score (i.e., Undergraduate Medical Admissions Test [UMAT] and Oral Assessment [OA] ranking). Predictive indicators were compared with the students' level of academic achievement across the three-year program. The aim of this study was to determine if prior academic achievement, cognitive test scores, and oral assessment predicted high level of academic achievement for B.O.H. students. The TER was found to be a strong predictor for academic performance after controlling for age, gender, type of applicant, and student preference in the first year along with older students (>25 years) and a higher UMAT score. Raising the TER cut-off for entry to the program should be considered, along with less emphasis on the OA and UMAT, because such a change would have little impact on achievement and would increase the pool of applicants. PMID:23225684

Gardner, Suzanne P; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

2012-12-01

5

Yaitya tirka madlanna warratinna: exploring what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to meet the sexual health needs of young Aboriginal women in Adelaide.  

PubMed

Young Aboriginal women are consistently identified as having poorer health outcomes and access to sexual health services than non-Indigenous Australians. Yet the literature is particularly silent on what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to work well with young urban Aboriginal women. This paper reports on a qualitative pilot study undertaken by a non-Indigenous nurse in Adelaide. The participatory action research methods used in this study were sensitive to the history of problems associated with research in Aboriginal communities. A reference group of Elder Aboriginal women and Aboriginal health workers guided all aspects of the study. A partnership approach between the researcher and the Reference Group ensured that the methods, analysis, and final report were culturally safe. Three groups participated in this study: Elders and Aboriginal health workers; young Aboriginal women, and sexual health nurses. All participants acknowledged the importance of nurses being clinically competent. However, the overarching finding was a lack of a clear model of cultural care to guide health service delivery. Three interrelated themes emerged from the data to support this contention. These were: the structural and personal importance of establishing and maintaining trustworthy relationships between nurses, Aboriginal health workers and Elders; the recognition that Aboriginal culture does exist, and is important in urban areas; and the importance of gender considerations to understanding urban women's health business. A partnership approach was recommended as a way to use these findings to develop a transparent cultural model of care. Further research is currently being undertaken to progress this agenda. PMID:18074767

Kelly, Janet; Luxford, Yoni

2007-07-01

6

Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) Knowledge in General Practice: a cross-sectional study of Western Adelaide general practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background With evidence to support early assessment and management of TIAs, the role of the general practitioner (GP) needs to be considered in developing a TIA service in Western Adelaide. We thus aimed to determine GP knowledge of TIA assessment and management and identify perceived barriers, in order to tailor subsequent GP education and engage primary care in the co-ordinated care of TIA patients. Findings A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all GPs (n?=?202) in the Adelaide Western General Practice Network. Response frequencies were calculated for all variables, and associations examined by univariate analysis. 32 GPs responded. All respondents correctly identified early risk of stroke following a TIA. Difficulty accessing neurological expertise was identified as a barrier (40.6?%), as was a lack of GP knowledge (18.8?%). Areas for improvement included access to neurologists (36.7?%), relevant guidelines and education (43.3?%). Conclusions Diagnosis of TIA is difficult and this study highlights the need for further education and practical guidelines for GPs. With this training, GPs could be better equipped to assess and manage TIAs effectively in the community in consultation with stroke physicians. PMID:22676859

2012-01-01

7

Fisher in Adelaide.  

PubMed

R. A. Fisher spent much of his final 3 years of life in Adelaide. It was a congenial place to live and work, and he was much in demand as a speaker, in Australia and overseas. It was, however, a difficult time for him because of the sustained criticism of fiducial inference from the early 1950s onwards. The article discusses some of Fisher's work on inference from an Adelaide perspective. It also considers some of the successes arising from this time, in the statistics of field experimentation and in evolutionary genetics. A few personal recollections of Fisher as houseguest are provided. This article is the text of a article presented on August 31, 2012 at the 26th International Biometric Conference, Kobe, Japan. PMID:24502277

Mayo, Oliver

2014-06-01

8

The University of Adelaide Description  

E-print Network

. Adelaide is also the gateway to Australia's Outback. #12;Living Costs Average rental cost per week: AUS$90.00 The general cost of living in Australia is cheaper than the UK. A breakdown of living costs is available

Bristol, University of

9

JAVA PROGRAMMING University of Adelaide, Australia  

E-print Network

JAVA PROGRAMMING Ken Hawick University of Adelaide, Australia Present Address: Massey University in the Java programming language and environment, focusing on the core language features. A number of worked example programs will be used as the main vehicle for exposition of the Java programming language features

Hawick, Ken

10

VISUALISING THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT IN ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Motor Vehicle Theft (MVT) in Australia is as a serious problem with high social and economic costs. MVT is neither unique nor random, but rather tends to be unevenly distributed and has a spatial-temporalpattern. This study assesses and explains the spatio-temporal distribution of MVT within metropolitan Adelaide based on MVT incidences that occurred in 1999. In this exploratory spatial

Leakha M. Henry; Brett A. Bryan

2000-01-01

11

H.E.A.M.S., the Adelaide High Energy Astrophysics Muon System. Roger Clay1  

E-print Network

ascension. Figure The variation over a sidereal (by the stars) day of the muon rate. This is the averageH.E.A.M.S., the Adelaide High Energy Astrophysics Muon System. Roger Clay1 , Neville Wild1 astrophysical muon detection systems operated at the University of Adelaide. The Adelaide detectors have

Adelaide, University of

12

The City as a Site of Women Teachers' Post-Suffrage Political Activism: Adelaide, South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the political activism of three women teachers, Lizzie Hales, Phebe Watson and Adelaide Miethke, in the city of Adelaide, South Australia, during the post-suffrage era. With the exception of Adelaide Miethke, none of these women are known to historians who are interested in post-suffrage feminism, and in the history of education the focus has been mostly

Lynne Trethewey; Kay Whitehead

2003-01-01

13

Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. PMID:23656732

Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

2014-12-01

14

An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 gastroenteritis linked to catered luncheons in Adelaide, South Australia, June 2005.  

PubMed

Salmonella sp. are important causes of foodborne illness, with restaurants and catered functions being commonly reported settings for outbreaks. In June 2005 an investigation commenced following reports of gastrointestinal illness in attendees at luncheons catered by an Adelaide café, as well as persons eating at the café itself. The investigation sought to determine the existence of an outbreak, identify a source and method of transmission and implement public health measures to prevent further cases. Lists of luncheon attendees were obtained from function organisers. A retrospective cohort study was commenced using a structured questionnaire developed from the café's menu listings. A suspected case was defined as a person developing two or more gastrointestinal symptoms after attending a luncheon catered by the café. A case series investigation was used for café diners. Of the 102 respondents, 61 (60%) met the case definition with 32 subsequently confirmed as Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 (STM 64) infections. Of the 61 cases, 59 (96%) reported eating a bread roll. STM 64 was detected in raw defrosted chicken recovered from the café's kitchen. This suggested cross-contamination from the chicken to one or more ingredients common to the bread rolls was the route of infection. To prevent further cases, perishable goods were discarded, the café was closed, the premises cleaned, then restrictions were placed on the types of foods served. This investigation's findings highlight the importance of safe food handling and hand hygiene in commercial food preparation. PMID:17330386

Moffatt, Cameron R M; Combs, Barry G; Mwanri, Lillian; Holland, Ros; Delroy, Brian; Cameron, Scott; Givney, Rod C

2006-01-01

15

A Pervasive Wireless Knowledge Management Solution to Address Urban Health Inequalities with Indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A recent study by Adelaide Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Health (Gallaher et al., In Our Own Backyard: Urban Health Inequalities and Aboriginal Experiences of Neighbourhood Life, Social Capital and Racism, 2009) revealed some alarming findings concerning the health status of these groups. One of the key health areas that requires\\u000a attention is that of chronic diseases in general and

Nilmini Wickramasinghe; Indrit Troshani; Steve Goldberg

16

Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: daniel.roos@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Taylor, James [Department of Radiology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

2012-01-01

17

A comparison of Australian rural and metropolitan cardiovascular risk and mortality: the Greater Green Triangle and North West Adelaide population surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Design Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004–2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004–2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Setting Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). Participants 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25–74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/? anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Results Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 5% to 30% in the 35–39 and 70–74 age groups, respectively. Similar mean 2003–2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Conclusions Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural/regional areas. Needs assessments are required for different settings to elucidate relative contributions of the multiple determinants of risk and appropriate cardiac healthcare strategies to improve outcomes. PMID:23975263

Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A

2013-01-01

18

Shanghai Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Women's Health Study, a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 women, which aims to evaluate the causes of cancer among Chinese women.

19

Nurses' Health Study (1976-)  

Cancer.gov

Additional Information The Nurses' Health Study was launched in 1976, when 121,700 registered nurses, aged 30-55 years, responded to a mailed questionnaire regarding their health and lifestyle. Women continue to be followed via questionnaires every 2 years. Incident cases of cancer and selected other diagnoses are documented by reviewing medical records.

20

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration among the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

21

DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...

22

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

23

A field study of sleep and fatigue in a regular rotating 12-h shift system S.D. Baulk a,b,*, A. Fletcher a,1  

E-print Network

A field study of sleep and fatigue in a regular rotating 12-h shift system S.D. Baulk a,b,*, A. Fletcher a,1 , K.J. Kandelaars a,1 , D. Dawson a , G.D. Roach a a Centre for Sleep Research, University Institute for Sleep Health, Repatriation General Hospital, Daws Road, Daw Park, Adelaide, SA 5041, Australia

24

NYU Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s Health Study has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.

25

Women's Health Study (WHS)  

Cancer.gov

The Women's Health Study (WHS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a 2x2 factorial design, and conducted among 39,876 female health professionals in the United States. The WHS is sponsored by both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Participants were randomly assigned to either Vitamin E (600 IU every other day) or placebo; and to aspirin (100 mg every other day) or placebo.

26

Ontario Health Study (OHS)  

Cancer.gov

Launched in September 2010, the Ontario Health Study (OHS) is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The OHS is an integrated platform for investigating the complex interplay of environmental, lifestyle and genetic components that increase individual and community risk of common adult diseases.

27

Impact ejecta horizon within late Precambrian shales, Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

Gostin, V. A.; Haines, P. W.; Jenkins, R. J. F.; Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.

1986-07-01

28

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

29

Curriculum Vitae -Dr. Gavin Peter Rowell Nationality: Australian (born 20 June 1969, Adelaide, Australia)  

E-print Network

citations. - Hirsch index or H-index of 53 according to NASA Astrophysical Data System (adsabs, Australia) Address: High Energy Astrophysics Group, School of Chemistry & Physics, The University: http://www.physics.adelaide.edu.au/astrophysics/gpr/ Career Overview: - (2012 - cont) Level C Senior

Adelaide, University of

30

Student experiences of assessment in two problem?based dental curricula: Adelaide and Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental students in third (n?=?35) and fifth years (n?=?50) at Adelaide and Trinity College Dental Schools were surveyed about their experiences of assessment and their perceptions of the importance of particular aspects of assessment. Students reported on their assessment experience within their programmes by describing a critical assessment incident and their response to it, and also rated assessment purposes and

Tracey Winning; Elaine Lim; Grant Townsend

2005-01-01

31

3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. 1 3-D inversion of magnetic induced polarization data  

E-print Network

3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. 1 3-D inversion of magnetic induced polarization data@geop.ubc.ca doug@geop.ubc.ca INTRODUCTION The magnetic induced polarization (MIP) is used as an alternative method to derive information relating to the induced polarization characteristics of the subsurface through

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

32

An Aboriginal family and community healing program in metropolitan Adelaide: description and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates the process, impacts and outcomes of an Aboriginal Family and Community Healing (AFCH) Program based in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The evaluation used participatory action oriented methodology, mixed methods and multiple data sources. The AFCH comprised complex and dynamic activities for Aboriginal men, women and youth built around community engagement, and hosted by the regional

Inge Kowanko; Terry Stewart; Charmaine Power; Rosalie Fraser; Ida Love; Trevor Bromley

33

XXII ICTAM, 2529 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia DRAG ON A SHIP AND MICHELL'S INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

XXII ICTAM, 25�29 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia DRAG ON A SHIP AND MICHELL'S INTEGRAL Ernie Tuck resistance of thin ships. We show that when combined with the standard ITTC technique for estimation by first-order thin-ship [i.e. Michell] theory are rather consistent in comparison with experimental data

Stokes, Yvonne

34

Exploration of the perceptions, barriers and drivers of pharmacogenomics practice among hospital pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia.  

PubMed

There is little literature regarding the barriers to the uptake of pharmacogenomics (PG) in pharmacy practice, especially with respect to Australia. To date, pharmacists have seldom been engaged in discussions of these issues. This study aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding of these barriers by interviewing pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia. Ethics approved semistructured interviews were carried out with 21 public hospital pharmacists. Analysis of the data identified themes including: confidence to engage in PG, clinician acceptance of a pharmacist PG role, and the importance of timely and relevant PG education. Interviewees thought that pharmacists could have a greater participation in PG in the future, but they questioned whether this would be possible at the moment given, among other factors, existing time and work constraints. PMID:24018620

Dias, M M; Ward, H M; Sorich, M J; McKinnon, R A

2014-06-01

35

Laypersons' evaluation of health: an exploratory study of an Australian population.  

PubMed Central

The importance of 33 aspects of health was evaluated by 677 people as part of a postal random population survey conducted in Adelaide, South Australia. Principal factors analysis suggested that the respondents' evaluations could be represented along four dimensions to do with: the avoidance of illness; feeling healthy; healthy lifestyle; and disease prevention activities. Generally, women, persons in older age groups, and persons in lower social status and education groups evaluated health more highly than others. These and other findings suggest that health evaluations depend upon illness experience and social roles. These findings have implications for health education, mass communication and medical practice. PMID:2348154

Worsley, A

1990-01-01

36

HEALTH STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST  

E-print Network

Public Speaking for the Health Professions PSYC 322 Health Psychology PSYC 270 Biological Psychology SOC Psychology ESS 325 Exercise and Disease ESS 330 Exercise and Health Promotion ESS 360 Exercise and HealthyHEALTH STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST Name: ID#: Expected Graduation Date: Course Number

Galles, David

37

Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies -Health Sciences Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology in Health and Health Care (3) 3 Health ScienceRoadmap: Integrated Health Studies - Health Sciences ­ Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSC] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog Year: 2013­2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last

Sheridan, Scott

38

Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies -Health Sciences Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology in Health and Health Care (3) 3 Health ScienceRoadmap: Integrated Health Studies - Health Sciences ­ Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSC] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last

Sheridan, Scott

39

Responding to racism: Insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006\\/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism

Anna M. Ziersch; Gilbert Gallaher; Fran Baum; Michael Bentley

2011-01-01

40

Adventist Health Study-2  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

41

Udaipur Health Study  

E-print Network

This data set contains data on the health histories of, and access to healthcare facilities for, individuals located in the Udaipur districts of Rajasthan, India. Data was collected at the household level, as well as at ...

Abhijit Banerjee

2007-10-05

42

Iowa Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

43

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

44

Study Guide in Health Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

45

HEALTH STUDIES www. pdx.edu/sch  

E-print Network

HEALTH STUDIES www. pdx.edu/sch Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Science in Health Studies Bachelor of Arts in Health Studies Minor in Community Health Areas of Concentration: Community Health Education Health Sciences Physical Activity/Exercise School Health " e programs in the School

46

Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies Health Services Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Six: [15 Credit Hours] NURS 45010 Health Care Policy and Delivery Systems or NURS 46000 Health Care Policy 3 NURS 46000 regional campuses only Human Development Elective 3 See note 2 on page 2 HealthRoadmap: Integrated Health Studies ­ Health Services ­ Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSV] College

Sheridan, Scott

47

FACULTY of HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF HEALTH STUDIES  

E-print Network

and research programs are supported through excellent relationships with health care and community agencies will be dedicated to teaching (70%), primarily related to the areas of public health management, policy and ethicsFACULTY of HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF HEALTH STUDIES The Faculty of Health Sciences, School

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

48

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

49

Singapore Chinese Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.

50

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

51

Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.  

PubMed

This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

2011-10-01

52

school of nursing and health studies  

E-print Network

school of nursing and health studies lead gloBallY first Year entry rn-to-Bsn (Bachelor of science studies #12;school of nursing and health studies The University of Washington Bothell opens the door their studies. WhY Pursue Your health career at uW Bothell? aBout the school of nursing and health studies #12

Manchak, John

53

Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion  

PubMed Central

Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate health communication for promoting health, i.e. ‘health promoting communication’. PMID:23363566

2013-01-01

54

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2011-10-01

55

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

56

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2013-10-01

57

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2010-10-01

58

Simultaneous Observations of the Phase-Locked Two Day Wave at Adelaide and Cerro Pachon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase locked two day wave (PL/TDW) during austral summer is the most dramatic large scale event of the upper mesosphere. The PL/TDW wave can achieve amplitudes exceeding 70 m/s and involve the entire southern hemisphere and much of the northern hemisphere. The winds accelerate over a period of about 1 week and are accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the two-day wave period at close to 48 hours. We have examined meteor wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30S, 70.1W) and MF radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7S, 138.6E) located at similar latitudes. We find a remarkable coincidence between the oscillations. When adjustments for the separation in longitude are made the oscillations are nearly in phase. The amplitude of the oscillation is significantly greater at Chili, where winds approach 100 m/s. The diurnal tide is greatly diminished at both locations. These observations support the explanation that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability of the diurnal tide (Walterscheid and Vincent, JGR, 1996). We will also present analysis of airglow data for the two-day wave at both locations.

Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Vincent, R. A.; Franke, S. J.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Zhao, Y.

2013-12-01

59

Adelaide River virus nucleoprotein gene: analysis of phylogenetic relationships of ephemeroviruses and other rhabdoviruses.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the Adelaide River virus (ARV) genome was determined from the 3' terminus to the end of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The 3' leader sequence comprises 50 nucleotides and shares a common terminal trinucleotide (3' UGC-), a conserved U-rich domain and a variable AU-rich domain with other animal rhabdoviruses. The N gene comprises 1355 nucleotides from the transcription start sequence (AACAGG) to the poly(A) sequence [CATG(A)7] and encodes a polypeptide of 429 amino acids. The N protein has a calculated molecular mass of 49429 Da and a pI of 5.4 and, like the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) N protein, features a highly acidic C-terminal domain. Analysis of amino acid sequence relationships between all available rhabdovirus N proteins indicated that ARV and BEFV are closely related viruses (48.3% similarity) which share higher sequence similarity to vesiculoviruses than to lyssaviruses. Phylogenetic trees based on a multiple sequence alignment of all available rhabdovirus N protein sequences demonstrated clustering of viruses according to genome organization, host range and established taxonomic relationships. PMID:9049348

Wang, Y; Cowley, J A; Walker, P J

1995-04-01

60

A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

2003-01-01

61

Men's Health Studies: Origins and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the development of men's health studies, situating its development in a general historical context; discussing the study of men's health within the context of critical feminist theories and theories of men and masculinities; outlining and illustrating a relational theory for understanding men's health in an effort to integrate this study

Sabo, Don

2000-01-01

62

The pilot Missouri health effect study  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. Louis University School of Medicine was pleased to assist in a pilot epidemiolog~c study of the health effects of TCDD contamination in Missouri.- We worked directly with the Centers for Disease Control and the Missouri Division of Health plus St. Joseph Hospital to design and execute this study of the health effects of dioxin victims in Missouri.

Karen B. Webb

1984-01-01

63

Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY  

E-print Network

162 #12;Form A Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY CENTERS FOR DISEASE Service is conducting a nationwide health study of Vietnam-era Army veterans that was mandated by Congress health prob.=ms evident at birth in my child. The promise of complete confidentiality is contained

64

Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual temperature is - 3 °C. Permafrost thickness was calculated to range between 112 and 157 m, depending on the heat flow values adopted. The presence of sub-sea permafrost cannot be excluded considering the depth of the shelf around Rothera Point and its glacial history.

Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

2014-11-01

65

The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P?

2013-01-01

66

SCHOOL HEALTH POLICIES AND PROGRAM STUDY (SHPPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels....

67

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

68

Nurses' Health Study I and Nurses' Health Study II  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

69

The Nurses' Health Study: lifestyle and health among women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nurses' Health Study has grown from a simple questionnaire-based study initiated in 1976 to a rich resource of information collected over 29 years. Important details about lifestyle have been collected throughout the study and, as the study has progressed, blood samples and DNA from buccal cells have been collected and stored. Tumour samples have also been collected from participants

Susan E. Hankinson

2005-01-01

70

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

and physical sciences. In addition to food science, nutrition in health, medical nutrition therapyPublic Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food

Raina, Ramesh

71

Changes in use of time, activity patterns, and health and wellbeing across retirement: design and methods of the life after work study  

PubMed Central

Background Retirement is a major life transition during which people restructure everyday activities; however little is known about this. The primary aim of the Life After Work study is to comprehensively measure changes in time use and patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and its associations with health and wellbeing, across the retirement transition. Methods/Design A target sample of 120 participants aged 50 years and over will be recruited in two Australian state capital cities, Adelaide and Brisbane. Participants will undertake a battery of assessments approximately 3 months prior to retirement, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-retirement. Measures will include self-reported use of time (using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults), objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour (using Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers), self-reported health and well-being (using a battery of questionnaires including the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Australian Unity Personal Well-being Index (AUPWI), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS21), Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), retirement circumstances and socio-demographic characteristics, objectively assessed anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), and resting blood pressure. Multivariate mixed models will be used to examine changes in use of time, health and well-being across retirement. Discussion The results will provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle and policy interventions to address and improve health and well-being in retirement. PMID:24112244

2013-01-01

72

Women's attitudes to and perceptions of oral health and dental care during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess pregnant women's opinions on and percep- tions of oral health and their relationship to oral hygiene and dental care practices. Methods: Questionnaire survey on perceived oral health, oral hygiene and utilization of dental services among 649 nulliparae attending for antenatal care at all public antenatal clinics in Adelaide, South Australia. Results: Women rated their general health significantly

Marc J. N. C. Keirse; Kamila Plutzer

2010-01-01

73

CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...

74

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food in Food Studies. Students' academic programs move outside of the classroom to gain hands-on experiences

Mather, Patrick T.

75

In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Adelaide at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented summarizing the in vitro fertilization experience at the University of Adelaide, Australia. Initial attempts utilizing the normal cycle were unsuccessful in obtaining a pregnancy. Since 1982 the overall ongoing pregnancy rate has been 21% per embryo transfer, 16% per laparoscopy, and 12% per treatment cycle. A detailed description of presently utilized methodology is presented.

John K. Kerin; Graham M. Warnes; Patrick Quinn; Christine Kirby; Regan Jeffrey; Colin D. Matthews; Robert F. Seamark; Karl Texler; Basil Antonas; Lloyd W. Cox

1984-01-01

76

Global Wind Power Conference September 18-21, 2006, Adelaide, Australia Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, first  

E-print Network

Global Wind Power Conference September 18-21, 2006, Adelaide, Australia Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, first results of IEA collaboration Hannele Holttinen1.holttinen@vtt.fi Abstract: An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been

77

Follow Up Study of Health Science Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study conducted to assess (1) the status of health science graduates of Towson State University (Maryland) and (2) their impressions of the value of courses offered within the department as they pertained to their present health education job positions. Seventy-three graduates from the period 1971 to 1976, grouped…

McMahon, Joan D.; Peregoy, Stephen

78

Cohort profile: the Helsinki Health Study.  

PubMed

The Helsinki Health Study cohort was set up to enable longitudinal studies on the social and work related determinants of health and well-being, making use of self-reported as well as objective register data. The target population is the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among employees reaching 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years of age in each year. The number of responders at baseline was 8960 (80% women, response rate 67%). Additional age-based health examination data were available. A follow up survey was conducted in 2007 yielding 7332 responders (response rate 83%). Measures of health include health behaviours, self-rated health, common mental disorders, functioning, pain, sleep problems, angina symptoms and major diseases. Social determinants include socio-demographics, socio-economic circumstances, working conditions, social support, and work-family interface. Further register linkages include sickness absence, hospital discharge, prescribed drugs, and retirement updated at the end of 2010. The cohort allows comparisons with the Whitehall II study, London, UK, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study from western Japan. The cohort data are available for collaborative research at Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. PMID:22467288

Lahelma, Eero; Aittomäki, Akseli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lallukka, Tea; Martikainen, Pekka; Piha, Kustaa; Rahkonen, Ossi; Saastamoinen, Peppiina

2013-06-01

79

Workplace health concerns: a focus group study.  

PubMed

Addresses the workplace health concerns of employees at an Acute Hospital Trust. The research conducted utilised a focus group methodology to investigate the health concerns of multidisciplinary groups of health care workers (n = 27). The findings indicate that the concern for the majority was workplace stress. Stressors that were identified as important to the groups were for example, the nature of the work they were undertaking, staffing levels, volume of the work, management styles and their work environments. Health promotion and prevention topics such as motivation and health status, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, nutrition and weight control and physical exercise were seen of subsidiary concern. Limitations of the study are given. Future research in the subject area is identified. PMID:10747454

Jinks, A M; Daniels, R

1999-01-01

80

Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food  

PubMed Central

Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

2013-01-01

81

Posttraumatic stress disorder and health: a preliminary study of group differences in health and health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful health behaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthful behaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and health behaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross-sectional, case–control study of health indicators and self-reported health behaviors in a community and military veteran sample was used. Results Based on a structured psychiatric interview, 25 participants had PTSD, and the remaining 55 without PTSD served as the comparison group. Participants were 40 years old on average and 45% were female. Multivariate analysis of variance analyses revealed that participants with PTSD had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.004), had more alcohol use (p = 0.007), and reported fewer minutes of vigorous exercise (p = 0.020) than those without PTSD. Chi-square analysis of diet content and eating behavior constructs found that individuals with PTSD ate fewer fruits (p = 0.035) and had more guilt after overeating (p = 0.006). Conclusions These findings replicate prior research on the link between PTSD and negative health outcomes and engagement in harmful health behaviors and highlight the need for further examination of the association between PTSD and other health behaviors like diet content, eating behaviors, and exercise. PMID:24070007

2013-01-01

82

Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies Health Services Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

requirement if not satisfied earlier Semester Six: [15 Credit Hours] NURS 45010 Health Care Policy and Delivery Systems or NURS 46000 Health Care Policy 3 NURS 46000 regional campuses only Human Development for the Health Professions 3 PHIL 40005 Health Care Ethics 3 General Electives (upper division) 9 Should

Sheridan, Scott

83

Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies Health Care Administration and Systems -Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

34180 Human Resource Management 3 PSYC 41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology of HealthRoadmap: Integrated Health Studies ­ Health Care Administration and Systems - Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HCAS] College of Education, Health, and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog

Sheridan, Scott

84

Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study  

PubMed Central

Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pal-?rjan

2013-01-01

85

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health.  

PubMed

In May 1997, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The President's action underscores that in the 25 years since its public revelation, the study has moved from a singular historical event to a powerful metaphor that symbolizes racism in medicine, misconduct in human research, the arrogance of physicians, and government abuse of black people. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study also has implications for women's health. Discussion of the study usually ignores its impact on the wives of the victims. In addition, African-American women may be more reluctant to participate in clinical trials because of the shadow cast by the syphilis study and other incidents of medical abuse. Finally, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study reminds us that the battle against racism must be an integral part of the campaign to improve women's health. PMID:9354052

Gamble, V N

1997-01-01

86

Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health is to investigate the relationship between diet, lifestyle factors, molecular markers, and cancer incidence in Canada. The cohort was established predominantly by recruiting alumni from the Universities of Alberta, Toronto, and Western Ontario between 1995 and 1998, but also includes a small contingent recruited mostly in 1992 through the Canadian Cancer Society.

87

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

88

Discrimination and health in an English study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the relationship between education, racial discrimination and health among white (n=227), African Caribbean (n=213) and Indian and Pakistani (n=233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds, England, as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures of discrimination included any physical attack, verbal abuse and a combined variable, any discrimination due to race,

M. Kelaher; Sheila Paul; Helen Lambert; Waqar Ahmad; Yin Paradies; George Davey Smith

2008-01-01

89

A Study of Occupational Stress and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of claims by telegraphists' unions in a large Australian communications organization that their members suffered various forms of ill-health as a result of stresses imposed by their work, sickness absence, medical and environmental studies of the occupation were undertaken. Records of absence over a period of 2.5 years in all telegraphists in the organization, and in random samples of

D. FERGUSON

1973-01-01

90

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

91

Tea and Health: Studies in Humans  

PubMed Central

Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

2014-01-01

92

Official Master's of Public Health Environmental Health Science Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

3 ENVH 7233 EXPOSURE AND IMPACT ANALYSIS 3 ENVH 7234 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY 3Official Master's of Public Health ­ Environmental Health Science Program of Study Form PUBH 6541 BIOSTATISTICS 4 PUBH 6532 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 PUBH 6533 EPIDEMIOLOGY 3

Hutcheon, James M.

93

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Management HLTHST 431 Quality Issues in Health Care HLTHST 450 Current Issues in Health Policy 3 3 3 3 3 3 3Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name 3 Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206

Barrash, Warren

94

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Management HLTHST 431 Quality Issues in Health Care HLTHST 450 Current Issues in Health Policy 3 3 3 3 3 3 3Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name 3 Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206

Barrash, Warren

95

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

431 Quality Issues in Health Care HLTHST 450 Current Issues in Health Policy 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction

Barrash, Warren

96

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of Macroeconomics ECON 202 Environmental Health HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 207 Nutrition HLTHST 304 Public Health HLTHST 356

Barrash, Warren

97

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk. PMID:3691438

Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

1987-01-01

98

EHS-Net Ground Beef Study National Center for Environmental Health / Environmental Health Services Branch  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Ground Beef Study National Center for Environmental Health / Environmental Health Services Branch Ground Beef Handling in Restaurants 1 EHS-Net Ground Beef Study Protocol P.I. Carol Selman #12;EHS-Net Ground Beef Study National Center for Environmental Health / Environmental Health Services Branch Ground

99

Heat-related deaths in Adelaide, South Australia: review of the literature and case findings - an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

Heat waves are not uncommon in Australia, but the event of 2009 was particularly severe and ranks third of the 21 recorded heat wave events in south-eastern Australia in terms of the resulting mortality and morbidity. This is a review of Coronial autopsy findings in South Australia (which has an area of nearly 1 million square kilometres with a population of 1.6 million that predominantly resides within the region of the capital: Adelaide) during the period of the 2009 heat wave. Fifty-four post-mortem examinations were performed on cases in which exposure to high ambient temperature was regarded as having caused or significantly contributed to the death. The findings (including results of toxicological and biochemical analyses, where available) are reviewed and compared with the post-mortem examination findings in 22 deaths over the same period not attributed to the effects of heat. There were no specific autopsy findings that distinguished heat-related from non heat-related deaths. The lack of specific post-mortem findings increases the reliance on scene investigation in order to be able to categorise a death as being heat-related. A checklist for scene investigators is proposed in order to assist with collection of relevant data to assist the Coronial investigation process. PMID:24485426

Herbst, Jonathon; Mason, Kerryn; Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D; Charlwood, Cheryl; Heath, Karen J; Winskog, Carl; Langlois, Neil E I

2014-02-01

100

A policy at the University of Adelaide for student objections to the use of animals in teaching.  

PubMed

In veterinary medical education, the use of animals or cadaveric tissue as a component of teaching practice is common. Teachers are required, during the process of ethical review, to apply the 3 Rs principle (replacement, refinement, reduction) whenever they consider using animals during a teaching exercise. This often involves use of replacement strategies, such as utilization of video footage or simulation-based training. However, aside from legislative or ethical requirements imposed by a country's regulatory framework on the institution, students are often the key advocates for using alternative teaching practices that do not make use of animals. This has prompted many institutions with veterinary and other life sciences teaching programs to develop student-conscientious objection policies to the use of animals in teaching. In this article, we discuss the procedures implemented to make provision for student-conscientious objectors at a new Australian Veterinary School, at the University of Adelaide. We also describe the processes to provide information to students and faculty on this issue and to facilitate information gathering on alternatives. PMID:23475412

Whittaker, Alexandra L; Anderson, Gail I

2013-01-01

101

Study design and sampling in the Veterans Health Study.  

PubMed

There are numerous choices to be made in the design of studies examining the impact of healthcare on patient-reported outcomes. We describe considerations in the design of the Veterans Health Study (VHS), a large-scale longitudinal observational study of healthcare in the Veterans Health Administration (VA). We also consider sampling issues, and discuss the broader theoretical and practical implications of our choices. The VHS was an observational study with a prospective longitudinal design. Subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional sample of the VA patient population, and identified when they came to ambulatory care clinics for a medical visit. Participating patients were contacted by telephone, and scheduled for an interview conducted at the clinic. Prior to the interview they completed a mailed questionnaire. The clinic interview included brief clinical assessments of selected study medical conditions, a medical history interview, limited health examination, and assessments of health status, health-related quality of life, process-of-care measures related to utilization of services, and other patient characteristics. Patients were empaneled and followed over time. Their health was monitored with brief mailed questionnaires completed at 3-month intervals, and with annual patient reassessments at 12 and 24 months. This design had several strengths. Its comprehensiveness and observational nature allowed for examination of a broad range of outcomes and processes of care as they occur in routine practice in the VA system. Study effects on outcomes should be minimal and the longitudinal design permitted the examination of changes in health status and evaluation of the extent to which changes in patients' illnesses and their treatments were associated with changes in outcomes. Many aspects of this study's design were innovative, reflecting careful consideration of design choices and lessons learned from previous outcomes research studies. Choices made in the design of the VHS can serve as models for future studies of the effects of healthcare on patient-reported outcomes. PMID:15069995

Miller, Donald R; Skinner, Katherine M; Kazis, Lewis E

2004-01-01

102

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

lifestyles, disease prevention, public interest in food policy, growing and aging populations, and diet and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Food Studies

Raina, Ramesh

103

Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

1983-01-01

104

EVALUATIVE STUDY OF WEB BASED PERSONAL HEALTH RECORD SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the importance of personal health records in health care. The research will identify and give an overview of personal health records available online. Authors have conducted evaluative study of selected web based personal health record systems to analyse the current status of personal health record systems available in healthcare industry.

Khin Than Win; Goran Selakovic

105

Department of Health and Behavior Studies Teachers College  

E-print Network

that education invariably proceeds within a social context and that matters of health and nutrition are of vital population-wide health status cannot be achieved without learning and literacy skills. Thus, the mission health and literacy; Health Studies, which focuses on health promotion and disease prevention

Qian, Ning

106

Functional health literacy among primary health-care patients: data from the Belgrade pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Over the last decade, health literacy has become a vibrant area of research. Our objective was to evaluate health literacy and its association with socio-demographic variables, self-perception of health and the presence of chronic conditions in primary health-care patients. Methods A cross-sectional study among 120 patients was conducted in two primary health-care centers. The test of functional health literacy

Aleksandra Jovic-Vranes; Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic; Jelena Marinkovic

2009-01-01

107

Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);

Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young

2005-01-01

108

Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level school health services policies and practices regarding: organization, staffing, and facilities; required services; school based health clinics and other sites; immunizations; screening; medication administration; HIV; student health records; special…

Brener, Nancy D.; Burstein, Gale R.; DuShaw, Martha L.; Vernon, Mary E.; Wheeler, Lani; Robinson, Judy

2001-01-01

109

Conceptualization and Measurement of Health for Children in the Health Insurance Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discusses the conceptualization and measurement of the health status of children (0 to 13 years of age) in terms of physical, mental, and social health and general health perceptions. The discussion is based on Health Insurance Study (HIS) questionnaire data collected from a sample of 8000 people (enrolled in one of the HIS insurance…

Eisen, Marvin; And Others

110

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name ID# Date 3 Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of Macroeconomics/HLTHST 102 Global Environmental Health HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 207 Nutrition HLTHST 304 Public

Barrash, Warren

111

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date 3 Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of Macroeconomics/HLTHST 102 Global Environmental Health HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 207 Nutrition HLTHST 304 Public

Barrash, Warren

112

Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

2013-01-01

113

Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health

Mario Cardano; Giuseppe Costa; Moreno Demaria

2004-01-01

114

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Asthma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief contains information on asthma relative to health education, physical education and activity, and health services. Included is data on the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

115

A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of

S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp

1980-01-01

116

Dissecting Qualified Health Claims: Evidence From Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent consumer studies evaluating comprehension of a novel form of food labeling, qualified health claims, now permitted by FDA. The joint goals of qualified health claims are to encourage firms to make accurate, science-based claims about the health benefits of their products while helping consumers prevent disease and improve their health through sound dietary decisions using enhanced

Neal H. Hooker; Ratapol Teratanavat

2008-01-01

117

Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

Smith, David J.

2005-01-01

118

Lunar semidiurnal tide at Adelaide and Wuhan at 80 to 100 km height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar tides in the atmosphere have been an interesting subject despite of their small amplitude because not only the tide-generating source is well known but also lunar tides are present in the atmosphere. Although having a much smaller amplitude than solar tides, lunar tides are also present in the atmosphere. Lunar tides are attractive for theoretical and observational studies because

X. J. Niu; J. G. Xiong; W. X. Wan; B. Q. Ning; L. B. Liu; R. A. Vincent

2004-01-01

119

Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.  

PubMed

Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities. PMID:23045672

Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

2012-10-16

120

A qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system  

PubMed Central

Background Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technology (HIT) policy related to public health in Canada that have succeeded, to identify remaining challenges, and to suggest future directions to improve the adoption and use of HIT in the public health system. Methods A qualitative case study was performed with 24 key stakeholders representing national and provincial organizations responsible for establishing policy and strategic direction for health information technology. Results Identified benefits of HIT in public health included improved communication among jurisdictions, increased awareness of the need for interoperable systems, and improvement in data standardization. Identified barriers included a lack of national vision and leadership, insufficient investment, and poor conceptualization of the priority areas for implementing HIT in public health. Conclusions The application of HIT in public health should focus on automating core processes and identifying innovative applications of HIT to advance public health outcomes. The Public Health Agency of Canada should develop the expertise to lead public health HIT policy and should establish a mechanism for coordinating public health stakeholder input on HIT policy. PMID:23705692

2013-01-01

121

William Henry Bragg in Adelaide: beginning research at a colonial locality.  

PubMed

This essay presents an account of W. H. Bragg's earliest research program in Australia during the years 1904-1907: a study of the behavior of alpha particles from radioactive decay. It is suggested that problems associated with distance and isolation played a pivotal role in Bragg's thinking and acting during this period and that his use of two "advocates," Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy, was essential to the success of the program. It is further argued that this account supports a substantial amendment of the center-periphery model of colonial science to embrace a much closer attention to place and locality; that is, it supports a polycentric model (in which the center might still be prominent). PMID:15301067

Jenkin, John

2004-03-01

122

SPACE UTILIZATION STUDY -EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES  

E-print Network

SPACE UTILIZATION STUDY - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES UNIVERSITY School of Medicine & Health Sciences - Space Utilization Study Grand Forks, ND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SUITAb of Medicine and Health Sciences. It currently contains nearly 380,000 GSF (Gross Square Feet) with multiple

Delene, David J.

123

Official Master's of Public Health Biostatistics Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health Biostatistics Program of Study Form Student Name PUBH 6541 BIOSTATISTICS 4 PUBH 6532 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 PUBH 6533 EPIDEMIOLOGY 3 REQUIRED PROGRAM CONCENTRATION COURSES ­ 18 credits BIOS 6135 TOPICS OF INFERENCE IN BIOSTATISTICS 3

Hutcheon, James M.

124

Comparative case studies of health reform in England  

E-print Network

Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health ...........................................................................40 Chapter 3: Policy and Literature Review to Great (DH 2009)..............................................................59 3.3 Literature Review

Birmingham, University of

125

HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

126

Study on Student Health Literacy Gained through Health Education in Elementary and Middle Schools in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…

Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin

2012-01-01

127

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

128

Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.  

PubMed

Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N?=?141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries. PMID:22497661

Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

2012-07-01

129

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2012-10-01

130

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2011-10-01

131

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2010-10-01

132

The Georgia Health Education Study: A Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary review of the Georgia Health Education Study is a statistical presentation of scores achieved by over four thousand freshman college students in the university system of Georgia to questions on health knowledge. Data compiled from the administration of the Fast-Tyson Health Knowledge Test (1975 revision) indicates that subject…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Health and Safety.

133

MEDINFO 2007 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics  

E-print Network

. Engelbrecht, A. Geissbuhler, C. Lovis and G. Mihalas (Eds.), Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics Building Sustainable Health Systems Part 2 EditedMEDINFO 2007 #12;Studies in Health Technology and Informatics This book series was started in 1990

Hansen, René Rydhof

134

The South Africa Stress and Health Study: Rationale and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH) is a large psychiatric epidemiological survey that is currently underway in South Africa. It is a part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) 2000 initiative and seeks to complete interviews with a nationally representative sample of 5000 adults. The WMH initiative is obtaining population-based data on the prevalence and

David R. Williams; Allen Herman; Ronald C. Kessler; John Sonnega; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein; Hashim Moomal; Colwick M. Wilson

2004-01-01

135

Health Sciences Graduate Programs and Postdoctoral Studies FHS Research Plenary  

E-print Network

Health Sciences Graduate Programs and Postdoctoral Studies FHS Research Plenary fhs, Dept. of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences Research Scientist, Public Health Agency of Canada "Snow and the Science Dwarfs" [MDCL 1305/1307] Plan to attend the Inaugural McMaster University, Faculty of Health

Thompson, Michael

136

Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

2010-01-01

137

A Follow-Up Study of Former Student Health Advocates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student health advocates (SHAs) are high school students who, under the supervision of the school nurse, provide health education and health promotion activities to other students via a peer education model. This 3-year follow-up study explored how the SHA experience influences career choice and attitudes of the participants. It also examined what…

Streng, Nancy J.

2007-01-01

138

Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study  

PubMed Central

Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in terms of relative importance. PMID:24093348

Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

2013-01-01

139

Ethical issues in public health: a qualitative study of public health practice in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To identify ethical issues encountered by staff in the development and implementation of public health activities at two sites in Scotland. Design: Qualitative research study involving face to face semi-structured interviews with participants. Setting: A public health directorate in a National Health Service Trust, and a public health demonstration project in child health. Participants: Health promotion specialists, managers, nurses, public health consultants and specialists, researchers, trainees, and other public health staff. Main results: Three main categories of ethical issues were identified: paternalism, responsibilities, and ethical decision making. Consulting with the community and sharing information raised issues of paternalism and honesty. Participants identified multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Barriers to fulfilling responsibilities included meeting targets, working with partners, and political influences. Defining the limits of responsibilities posed challenges. Participants identified values for ideal decision making, but lack of time often led to a more pragmatic approach. Conclusion: These empirical findings complement and extend existing discussions of public health ethics, emphasising the complex nature of ethical issues in public health. The implications for public health policy and future research are discussed. PMID:15143108

Rogers, W

2004-01-01

140

Building consensus about eHealth in Slovene primary health care: Delphi study  

PubMed Central

Background Slovenia's national eHealth strategy aims to develop an efficient, flexible and modern health care informatics framework that would be comparable to the most successful EU countries. To achieve this goal, the gap between availability and usage of information and communication technology by primary care physicians needs to be reduced. As recent efforts show, consensus on information and communication technology purpose and usage in primary care needs to be established before any national information and communication technology solutions are developed. The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate measures in implementation of Slovene national eHealth strategy and to suggest an appropriate model for success by using the three round Delphi study. Methods An e-mail based, three-round Delphi study was undertaken to achieve consensus from a selected sample of nationally recognized experts from the fields of primary health care and medical informatics. The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate measures and key obstacles in implementation of eHealth in Slovene primary health care by using the Delphi study. Results High levels of consensus on the majority of suggested measures were achieved among all study participants, as well as between the subgroups of experts from primary health care and medical informatics. All aims of the three-round Delphi study on eHealth implementation in Slovenian primary health care were achieved. Conclusions The three round decision Delphi process has proven to be effective for developing outcomes, ranking key priorities in primary care eHealth development, and achieving consensus among the most influential experts in that field. This consensus is an important contribution to future national eHealth strategies in the field of primary health care. PMID:21501514

2011-01-01

141

A descriptive study on health workforce performance after decentralisation of health services in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Uganda, like many developing countries, is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However, serious challenges prove to hamper the attainment of these goals, particularly the health related MDGs. A major challenge relates to the human resources for health. The health system in Uganda was decentralised in the 1990s. Despite the health sector reforms, the services have remained significantly deficient and performance of health workers is thought to be one of the contributing factors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the performance of health workers after decentralisation of the health services in Uganda in order to identify and suggest possible areas for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey, using quantitative research methods was utilised. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 276 health workers in the districts of Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo in Eastern Uganda. The health workers included doctors, clinical officers, professional nurses and midwives. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. The data was analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and included both univariate and bivariate analysis. The results were presented in tabular and text forms. Results The study revealed that even though the health workers are generally responsive to the needs of their clients, the services they provide are often not timely. The health workers take initiatives to ensure that they are available for work, although low staffing levels undermine these efforts. While the study shows that the health workers are productive, over half (50.4%) of them reported that their organisations do not have indicators to measure their individual performance. The findings indicate that the health workers are skilled and competent to perform their duties. In general, the results show that health workers are proficient, adaptive, proactive and client-oriented. Conclusion Although Uganda is faced with a number of challenges as regards human resources for health, the findings show that the health workers that are currently working in the health facilities are enthusiastic to perform. This may serve as a motivator for the health workers to improve their performance and that of the health sector. PMID:23134673

2012-01-01

142

Health behaviors, social networks, and healthy aging: Cross-sectional evidence from the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical function is a significant component of health-related quality of life among older adults. Potential correlates of healthy aging, including health behaviors and social network characteristics, were examined among 56,436 US women aged 55–72 in 1992. Healthy aging was assessed by maintenance of physical function measured by four sub-scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey: physical

Yvonne L. Michael; Graham A. Colditz; Eugenie Coakley; Ichiro Kawachi

1999-01-01

143

A Case–Control Study of Home Foreclosure, Health Conditions, and Health Care Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though rates of foreclosure are at a historic high, relatively little is known about the link between foreclosure and health.\\u000a We performed a case–control study to examine health conditions and health care utilization in the time period prior to foreclosure.\\u000a Homeowners who received a home foreclosure notice from 2005 to 2008 were matched (by name and address) to a university

Craig Evan Pollack; Shanu K. Kurd; Alice Livshits; Mark Weiner; Julia Lynch

144

ASSESSING EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...

145

Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study  

Cancer.gov

The VIP is a long-term project intended for health promotion of the population of the county of Västerbotten (approximately 254,000 inhabitants). All individuals 40, 50, and 60 years of age in the county are invited for screening. They are asked to complete a questionnaire concerning various lifestyle factors, including diet, and to donate a blood sample to be frozen for later research purposes.

146

Design of the Japan Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Occupational Cohort Study of Women's Health in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Nurses' Health Study (JNHS) is a prospective occupational cohort study investigating the effects of lifestyle and healthcare practices on women's health. It was initiated in 2001, with a six-year entry period and a proposed ten-year follow-up. Participants comprise female registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, public health nurses, and midwives, aged 25 yr or over at the baseline survey.

Kunihiko HAYASHI; Hideki MIZUNUMA; Toshiharu FUJITA; Shosuke SUZUKI; Setsuko IMAZEKI; Kota KATANODA; Yasuhiro MATSUMURA; Toshiro KUBOTA; Takeshi ASO

2007-01-01

147

Study of Environmental Health Problems in Korea Using Integrated Environmental Health Indicators  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008–2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll’s taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0–1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects. PMID:23892549

Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

2013-01-01

148

Social support, social selection and self-assessed health status: results from the veterans health study in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided a comprehensive assessment of the association between social support and health using longitudinal data from the Veterans Health Study. Unlike previous studies which examined the relationship between one single domain of social support with either mental or physical health, the present study assessed the effects of three different domains of social support on multiple measures of health.

Xinhua S. Ren; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; Lewis Kazis

1999-01-01

149

Leadership Changes Reinvigorate Cleveland's Health Care Market. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

New leaders at Cleveland’s two major hospital systems—the Cleveland Clinic Health System (CCHS) and University Hospitals Health System (UHHS)—have helped strengthen the organizations’ financial positions and soothe long-standing rivalries, according to a new report from the Community Tracking Study.

Sally Trude; Gloria J. Bazzoli; Jon B. Christianson; Anneliese M. Garland; rea Staiti; Erin Fries Taylor

2005-01-01

150

Health Status in VA Patients: Results from the Veterans Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Veterans Administration (VA) Under Secretary for Health has designated functional status as one of the domains of value for the system, given its increasing importance for clinical care. The Veterans Health Study (VHS) was designed to assist the VA in monitoring outcomes and measuring the case mix of patients who use the VA. The Veterans SF-36 (short form

Lewis E. Kazis; Xinhua S. Ren; Austin Lee; Katherine Skinner; William Rogers; Jack Clark; Donald R. Miller

1999-01-01

151

PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

152

The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children. PMID:22029735

2011-01-01

153

Income and Health in Accra, Ghana: Results from a Time Use and Health Study  

PubMed Central

This paper uses newly collected household survey data from Accra, Ghana, to investigate whether incomes affect acute and chronic health outcomes in settings that can be considered representative for the large and rapidly growing urban centers of sub-Saharan Africa. The Time Use and Health Study in Accra collected information on incomes, current health status, and health care use from 5,484 persons in 1,250 households, each repeatedly sampled on a rolling basis for a period of 13 weeks. Data collection took place during September 2008–March 2010 to capture seasonal variations. The study found that incomes varied widely between households, and that a high fraction of persons lived below the poverty line. Despite this level of income poverty and an overall remarkably high burden of treatable disease, no systematic differences in self-reported and objectively measured health conditions were detected across socioeconomic groups. PMID:22927498

Fink, Gunther; Weeks, John R.; Hill, Allan G.

2012-01-01

154

Maternal literacy and health behavior: a Nepalese case study.  

PubMed

This article addresses the question of whether literacy could be mediating the relationships of schooling to maternal health behavior in populations undergoing demographic transition. Recent studies in which literacy was directly assessed suggest a literacy pathway to demographic change. The literacy skills of 167 urban and rural mothers of school-aged children in Lalitpur District of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal were assessed by tests of reading comprehension, academic language proficiency, health media skills and health narrative skill, as part of studies in the urban and rural communities that included a maternal interview and ethnographic fieldwork on the contexts of family life, health care and female schooling. Regression analysis of the data indicates the retention of literacy skills in adulthood and their influence on health behavior; ethnographic evidence shows that selective bias in school attainment does not account for the results. Further direct assessment studies are recommended. PMID:14672599

LeVine, Robert A; LeVine, Sarah E; Rowe, Meredith L; Schnell-Anzola, Beatrice

2004-02-01

155

Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

2008-01-01

156

Sexual health after spinal cord injury: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, Brown TT, Hayat MJ, Fiedler IG. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1043-51. Objectives: To clarify sexuality issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify the appropriate timing of sexual health interventions. Design: Longitudinal analysis of the survey responses of persons with SCI at 4 intervals

Thomas L. Fisher; Prakash W. Laud; Margaret G. Byfield; Traci T. Brown; Matthew J. Hayat; Irma G. Fiedler

2002-01-01

157

Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study: 1993 - 2007  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (...

158

Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

Chapman, Larry S.

2003-01-01

159

Community Health. Guide to Standards and Implementation. Career & Technology Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With this Career and Technology Studies (CTS) curriculum guide, secondary students in Alberta can do the following: develop skills that can be applied in their daily lives; refine career-planning skills; develop technology-related skills in community health; enhance employability skills, especially in community health; and apply and reinforce…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

160

A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population. Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years). Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate). Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes), and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables. Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, p < 0.001), smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001), or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001)) showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001) or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001) decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect. Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease. PMID:25289193

Dogisso, Tadesse Washo; Dysvik, Elin; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

2014-01-01

161

Using administrative health data to monitor potential adverse health effects in environmental studies.  

PubMed

Following episodes of environmental contamination, health professionals are limited in their ability to detect adverse health effects in surrounding communities due to lack of relevant baseline health data, resources, and appropriate control populations. The objective of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of using administrative health data for these purposes. The Manitoba Health Services Commission's (MHSC) database is comprehensive since universal health care is free in Canada. As part of an evaluation of two proposed hazardous waste treatment sites, the feasibility of using MHSC's data was tested by (a) defining the two study and control sites through use of MHSC's population registry and (b) determining baseline morbidity rates through analysis of MHSC's physician visit payment files; diagnoses were coded using ICD-9-CM. The results indicated that there were some differences between the groups studied in the age- and sex-standardized morbidity rates of diagnoses potentially influenced by exposures to chemicals. Use of administrative data provided by a national health service is an inexpensive and efficient way to create and follow potentially exposed cohorts residing in defined communities. Despite limitations related to small populations in exposed communities and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria by physicians, this method should be explored further in environmental studies. PMID:8055836

Scherer, K; Kraut, A; Yassi, A; Wajda, A; Bebchuk, J

1994-08-01

162

Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions Poor and good health influence early retirement via several different pathways. To prolong working life, a dialogue between employers and employees and tailored work-related interventions may be helpful. PMID:23551994

2013-01-01

163

The need for the "new health geography" in epidemiologic studies of environment and health.  

PubMed

Growth during the past decade in what can be broadly referred to as social and environmental epidemiologic research has been an important contributor to an emerging understanding of environment and health relationships. While the incorporation of geographic information systems as well as concepts such as "neighborhoods" might be viewed as evidence of social epidemiology moving closer to health geography, I argue that the two fields are not well aligned. Health geography has much more to contribute to studies of environment and health, and attention by social epidemiologists to those potential contributions could help rectify this misalignment. This paper suggests a number of geographic perspectives on health and environment that could create useful connections between geography and public health, via social epidemiology. To illustrate this potential, I use an ongoing study of a Texas community exposed to a large petrochemical complex-an inquiry constructed in the mode of social epidemiology - as a case in point. I apply several perspectives and concepts from geography to the case study. Cultural ecology, discourse materialized, political ecology, and territoriality are used to assess the Texas City situation and suggest important types of understandings that can enhance the social epidemiology approach to environment and health. I conclude with a discussion of the prospects for a social epidemiology infused with this type of geographic thought and analysis. PMID:17208033

Cutchin, Malcolm P

2007-09-01

164

78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

2013-05-30

165

78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

2013-04-24

166

Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Objectives: Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father’s educational level (P < 0.045), mother’s educational level (P < 0.021), and mother’s occupation (P < 0.008). Conclusions: Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

2014-01-01

167

Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

2010-01-01

168

Family Troubles Tied to Poorer Dental Health, Study Discovers  

MedlinePLUS

... Dental Health, Study Discovers The more physical, verbal aggression there was in the home, the more cavities ... children in troubled families, where violence and verbal aggression are a common part of the daily landscape, ...

169

Failed Infertility Treatment Linked to Worse Mental Health in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... Sofia Gameiro, a lecturer at the School of Psychology at Cardiff University in Wales, said in a news release. "These patients could be advised to seek additional support from mental health professionals and patient support networks." The study, published ...

170

Hmong Adults Self-Rated Oral Health: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975, the Hmong refugee population in the U.S. has increased over 200%. However, little is known about their dental\\u000a needs or self-rated oral health (SROH). The study aims were to: (1) describe the SROH, self-rated general health (SRGH), and\\u000a use of dental\\/physician services; and (2) identify the factors associated with SROH among Hmong adults. A cross-sectional\\u000a study design with

Christopher Okunseri; Marcie Yang; Cesar Gonzalez; Warren LeMay; Anthony M. Iacopino

2008-01-01

171

Musculoskeletal pain in Japan: prospective health diary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to understand musculoskeletal pain events and the use of health care services, including complementary\\u000a and alternative medicine (CAM) in Japan. We conducted a prospective cohort study for a 1-month period using a health diary\\u000a in a random sample of adults. Of the 2,226 adults, 1,065 (48%) reported new musculoskeletal pain events. The mean number

Yasuharu Tokuda; Sachiko Ohde; Osamu Takahashi; Masaaki Shakudo; Haruo Yanai; Takuro Shimbo; Shunichi Fukuhara; Shigeaki Hinohara; Tsuguya Fukui

2007-01-01

172

Mental health consumers and caregivers as instructors for health professional students: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported effect of consumer and caregiver-led education for pharmacy students\\u000a and to explore the goals, challenges and benefits of mental health consumer educators providing education to health professional\\u000a students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Five focus groups (mean duration 46 min, SD 22 min) were held with 23 participants (11 undergraduate pharmacy students, 12\\u000a mental health consumer educators)

Claire L. O’Reilly; J. Simon Bell; Timothy F. Chen

173

"Health, Aging and Environments" aims to bring together the resonant fields of health studies, gerontology, aging studies and other disciplines that focus on social studies of health, aging, and  

E-print Network

"Health, Aging and Environments" aims to bring together the resonant fields of health studies, gerontology, aging studies and other disciplines that focus on social studies of health, aging, and environments, in the broadest sense. Such disciplines include, but are not limited to, health and social

Haykin, Simon

174

Analyzing the health care cost curve: a case study.  

PubMed

This case study uses data from a self-insured employer plan to perform an analysis into the properties of the health care cost curve. The analysis shows that one statistical property of the health care cost curve is that costs rise continuously, not on an annual or monthly basis. Graphical analysis indicates that managed care techniques used to restrain costs can also smooth utilization, producing the continuously growing cost curve observed. The analysis further illustrates that there is no one "cost curve"-analysis must be segmented by population. Finally, the power of predictive models to fit the cost curve varies by population. To the extent that these results generalize to other health plans, this analysis should be used to inform the implementation of strategies to bend the cost curve. Population health management programs and health policy should be based on continuous analysis and adaption rather than implemented as one-off changes. PMID:23672232

Lieberthal, Robert D

2013-10-01

175

CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

176

A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n?=?210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important finding of this study is the large number of Baby Boomers who indicated that they would be happy to work part-time or never retire. Policies and continued dialogue aimed at making the workplace a safe, flexible and welcoming environment to accommodate this wish, and to entice others to take up this option over complete withdrawal from the labour force, is required. PMID:24731726

2014-01-01

177

Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

2009-01-01

178

Can volunteer companions prevent falls among inpatients? A feasibility study using a pre-post comparative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Falls in hospital are frequent and their consequences place an increased burden on health services. We evaluated a falls prevention strategy consisting of the introduction of volunteers to 'sit' with patients identified as being at high risk of falling. METHODS: Two four bed 'safety bays' located on medical wards in two hospitals within southern Adelaide were used. Ward fall

Lynne C Giles; Denise Bolch; Robyn Rouvray; Beth McErlean; Craig H Whitehead; Paddy A Phillips; Maria Crotty

2006-01-01

179

The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.  

PubMed

As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

2012-06-01

180

The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.  

PubMed

In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

2011-09-01

181

Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks  

PubMed Central

Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

2013-01-01

182

Validation Studies of the Black Women's Health Study PAQ  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

183

Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies  

PubMed Central

In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

2007-01-01

184

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...representatives conduct medical examinations of individuals...course of a health effects study and the examination reveals a positive significant medical finding, the individual...of the findings of all medical examinations for each...individual. (d) All studies and results of...

2013-10-01

185

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...representatives conduct medical examinations of individuals...course of a health effects study and the examination reveals a positive significant medical finding, the individual...of the findings of all medical examinations for each...individual. (d) All studies and results of...

2012-10-01

186

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...representatives conduct medical examinations of individuals...course of a health effects study and the examination reveals a positive significant medical finding, the individual...of the findings of all medical examinations for each...individual. (d) All studies and results of...

2011-10-01

187

THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY: COLLABORATIVE HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The abstract describes the collaborative effort between the NCI, the NIEHS, the U.S. EPA, and NIOSH to conduct the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). The AHS is a prospective epidemiological study to identify factors that may affect the rate of cancer and other diseases among farme...

188

Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in

Petra Verdonk; Hannes Seesing; Angelique de Rijk

2010-01-01

189

Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)  

PubMed Central

Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

2012-01-01

190

Bodyweight Changes Are Associated with Reduced Health Related Quality of Life: The Hordaland Health Study  

PubMed Central

There is lack of studies investigating the association between bodyweight changes and health related quality of life (HRQL). The aim was to study the effect of relative changes in bodyweight over time on HRQL. In the Hordaland Health Study, 9276 men and 10433 women aged 40–47 years were included. Weight and height were measured and information on bodyweight changes during the last 5 years, physical activity and smoking was obtained from self–administered questionnaires including the Medical Outcomes Study MOS short form-12 including a Physical health Composite Score (PCS) and a Mental health Composite Score (MCS). Increasing bodyweight changes were associated with marked reduced scores in PCS and MCS also after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and smoking. Men and women with a variation in weight with more than 15% during the last 5 years reported a mean score of MCS that was 0.48 standard deviation (SD) (3.9/8.1) and 0.35 SD (3.1/8.9) lower than those reporting a variation in weight less than 5%. No major differences were found between those who at date of examination were at the lower and higher end of the reported weight interval. There were no significant differences in the associations between men and women. Our findings confirm that increasing bodyweight changes are associated with reduced physical and mental health beyond what is related to BMI itself. PMID:25303082

Hervik Thorbj?rnsen, Gunhild; Riise, Trond; ?yen, Jannike

2014-01-01

191

Case Study of an Integrated Framework for Quantifying Agroecosystem Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroecosystem health derives from a combination of biophysical and socioeconomic conditions that jointly influence such properties\\u000a as productivity, sustainability, stability, and equitability. In this case study, we describe and analyze a method to quantify\\u000a agroecosystem health through a combination of geographically referenced data at various spatial scales. Six key variables\\u000a were hypothesized to provide a minimum set of conditions required

Krishna Prasad Vadrevu; John Cardina; Fred Hitzhusen; Isaac Bayoh; Richard Moore; Jason Parker; Ben Stinner; Deb Stinner; Casey Hoy

2008-01-01

192

Results of a Study of the Practices Governing the Financing of Capital Projects by Health Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1979, the Wisconsin Health Facilities Authority (the Authority) and the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) studied the practices governing the financing of capital projects by health facilities. The needs, methods, and results of health ca...

1980-01-01

193

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study. PMID:22401814

2012-01-01

194

RNA polymerase (L) gene and genome terminal sequences of ephemeroviruses bovine ephemeral fever virus and Adelaide River virus indicate a close relationship to vesiculoviruses.  

PubMed

The sequence of the RNA genome of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) was determined from the start of the L (polymerase) gene to the end of the untranslated 5' trailer sequence, completing the sequence of the 14900 nucleotide (nt) genome. The 6470 nt L gene encodes a single long ORF of 2144 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 249766 Da. The 70 nt BEFV 5' trailer region displays partial terminal complementarity with the 3' leader sequence and contains a 26 nt direct repeat of the U-rich domain of the 3' leader region. The 47 nt 5' trailer region of Adelaide River virus (ARV) displays terminal sequence similarity to the BEFV trailer and partial terminal complementarity with the ARV 3' leader sequence, but does not contain the direct repeat sequence. The BEFV L protein contains all characteristic sequence motifs of amino acid blocks I-VI, conserved among RNA polymerase proteins of single-stranded (-) RNA viruses, separated by regions of lower homology. Phylogenetic analysis using the complete BEFV L protein sequence indicated a closer relationship to vesicular stomatitis virus than to rabies virus. Sequence comparison of two conserved central domains encompassing blocks II and III and block VI of the BEFV and ARV L proteins indicated they are closely related. An extended phylogenetic analysis using the block III sequence, confirmed the relationship of these ephemeroviruses to vesiculo- and lyssaviruses and to other single-stranded (-) RNA viruses. PMID:11074128

Dhillon, J; Cowley, J A; Wang, Y; Walker, P J

2000-09-01

195

Maternal health study: a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain). Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of

Stephanie J Brown; Judith M Lumley; Ellie A McDonald; Ann H Krastev

2006-01-01

196

Reverberations of Family Illness: A Longitudinal Assessment of Informal Caregiving and Mental Health Status in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the association between caregiving for disabled or ill family members, estimated to occur in more than 22 million US households, and change in mental health. Methods. We assessed 4-year change in mental health among 37742 Nurses' Health Study participants with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36. Results. Women who provided 36 or more weekly hours of

Carolyn C. Cannuscio; Camara Jones; Ichiro Kawachi; Graham A. Colditz; Lisa Berkman; Eric Rimm

2002-01-01

197

Cohort profile: the housing regeneration and health study.  

PubMed

A cohort comprising residents of a housing regeneration and health programme was created from routinely collected data using a system which allows us to anonymously link housing data to individuals and their health. The regeneration programme incorporating four rolling work packages runs from 2009 to 2014. The main intervention cohort we describe here contains the 18 312 residents of 9051 residences at baseline. The cohort will be followed continuously through routine health data (demographics, mortality, hospital admissions and general practitioner records including prescriptions) with periodic updates of housing regeneration intervention data. Here, we describe the baseline data for the primary health outcomes of emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and injuries for those aged ?60 years. We will compare the health of residents within the homes before and after the housing regeneration work has taken place, and we will calculate the change in health service costs with use of hospital and General Practitioners (GP) services. We will also use a difference in differences approach to assess changes in comparison with comparator cohorts. These data will be accessible at the end of the study period in 2016. Further information about this study can be obtained from Ronan Lyons; r.a.lyons@swansea.ac.uk. PMID:23179304

Rodgers, Sarah E; Heaven, Martin; Lacey, Arron; Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Jones, Kerina H; Palmer, Stephen R; Phillips, Ceri J; Smith, Robert; John, Ann; Davies, Gwyneth A; Lyons, Ronan A

2014-02-01

198

Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.  

PubMed

This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. PMID:22218227

Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

2012-02-01

199

Regional health information networks: the Wisconsin Health Information Network, a case study.  

PubMed Central

It is projected that by the turn of the century, ninety percent of diagnostic procedures and seventy percent of therapeutic procedures will occur outside a hospital setting [2,3]. Additionally, according to a 1992 study by Arthur D. Little, during any given physician office visit, as much as 30 percent of the required diagnostic data and information required by the physician is unavailable [4]. Driven by ever increasing demands for convenience and accessibility, health care continues to evolve into an environment where the importance of data and its relative availability to the requester are diverging. This paper will present the concept of a regional or community health information network (RHIN or CHIN). Specifically, the Wisconsin Health Information Network (WHIN) will be used as a case study. PMID:7949958

Pemble, K. R.

1994-01-01

200

77 FR 67823 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: NEXT Generation Health Study; Correction Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request: NEXT Generation Health Study; Correction Notice Summary...Collection Title: NEXT Generation Health Study. Type of Information Collection...adolescents and influences on their health. The study has collected information on...

2012-11-14

201

75 FR 42455 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice...October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Centers...Executive Secretary, Safety and Occupational Health Study Section,...

2010-07-21

202

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Data from health and safety studies. 720.90 Section...Information § 720.90 Data from health and safety studies. (a) Information...to information included in a health and safety study, unless the...

2013-07-01

203

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Data from health and safety studies. 720.90 Section...Information § 720.90 Data from health and safety studies. (a) Information...to information included in a health and safety study, unless the...

2011-07-01

204

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Data from health and safety studies. 720.90 Section...Information § 720.90 Data from health and safety studies. (a) Information...to information included in a health and safety study, unless the...

2012-07-01

205

Roadmap: Communication Studies Health Communication Bachelor of Arts  

E-print Network

Communication 3 COMM 26000 Criticism of Public Discourse or COMM 35852 Intercultural Communication or COMMRoadmap: Communication Studies ­ Health Communication ­ Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College of Communication and Information School of Communication Studies Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated

Sheridan, Scott

206

Roadmap: Communication Studies Health Communication Bachelor of Arts  

E-print Network

Criticism of Public Discourse or COMM 35852 Intercultural Communication or COMM 35912 GenderRoadmap: Communication Studies ­ Health Communication ­ Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College of Communication and Information School of Communication Studies Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated

Sheridan, Scott

207

PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

208

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.  

PubMed

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health. PMID:19215915

Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

2009-04-01

209

Family Data and Research in the Health and Retirement Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss the data in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) that can be used to study family change and intergenerational family relationships and offer suggestions about what might be done to enhance the uses of the HRS family data going forward. A number of family demographic behaviors are altering the family context of more recent cohorts of the HRS.

Suzanne Bianchi

2011-01-01

210

Adverse Oral Health and Cognitive Decline: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Periodontal disease has been associated with poorer cross-sectional cognitive function and is correlated with adverse vascular outcomes, but has received little prospective investigation in relation to cognitive decline. Design Analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study Participants and measurements We examined the prospective association between a range of oral health parameters and cognitive function using data on 1053 participants who were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at year 1 (baseline) and year 3, and had participated in a comprehensive periodontal examination at year 2. We investigated 3MS decline from year 3 to 5 in 947 (89.9%) participants. Covariates included age, sex, education, race, cardiovascular disease/risk and depressive symptoms. Results Most indicators of adverse oral health at year 2 were associated with cognitive impairment based on averaged 3MS scores <80 for years 1 and 3, but these associations were substantially confounded by education and race. Higher gingival index, a measure of gingival inflammation, at year 2 remained independently associated with this definition of cognitive impairment and, in fully adjusted analyses, was also an independent predictor of a 5+ point cognitive decline from years 3 to 5. Conclusion Periodontitis may be a risk factor for cognitive decline. Gingivitis is reversible and periodontitis to some degree is preventable and controllable when manifest. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify potential underlying mechanisms and oral health interventions that potentially might ameliorate cognitive decline. PMID:23405916

Stewart, Robert; Weyant, Robert J.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B.

2012-01-01

211

Mental health service users' experiences of diabetes care by Mental Health Nurses: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This paper is a report of a study exploring mental health service users' (MHSUs') experiences of diabetes care. Diabetes is a growing clinical concern in mental health nursing practice. However, little is known about MHSUs' experience of diabetes care. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were held between June and October 2011, with seven MHSUs who had diabetes. Participants reported experiences of stigma and diagnostic overshadowing (DO) when reporting symptoms of diabetes or when feeling unwell. Participants also encountered a split between their mental health and diabetes care needs, which resulted in a lack of holistic or integrated care. All participants mentioned experiencing complications of diabetes even to the extent of diabetic ketoacidosis. Mental health nurses (MHNs) must critically reflect on their attitudes towards service users that report physical symptoms to ensure that stigma and DO do not constitute barriers to appropriate screening and treatment. The complex relationship that exists between mental illness and diabetes requires MHNs to ensure physical and mental health care are wholly integrated and not split. Education needs are apparent so that symptoms and complications can be recognized and treated accordingly. PMID:24548452

Nash, M

2014-10-01

212

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health  

E-print Network

on Health Systems and Policy, Managing for Health and Global Health. Global Health topics include: · Poverty · Disability and mental health · Health financing and donor funding · Health care for humanitarian crisis for global, regional, national and sub-national health policy and planning, governance and administration

Levi, Ran

213

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01

214

Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study  

PubMed Central

Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

215

Older Inmates' Pursuit of Good Health: A Focus Group Study  

PubMed Central

A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order. PMID:20795581

Steffensmeier, Darrell

2012-01-01

216

Extended Office Hours and Health Care Expenditures: A National Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A key component of primary care improvement efforts is timely access to care; however, little is known regarding the effects of extended (evening and weekend) office hours on health care use and outcomes. We examined the association between reported access to extended office hours and both health care expenditures and mortality. METHODS We analyzed data from individuals aged 18 to 90 years responding to the 2000–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys reporting access or no access to extended hours via a usual source of care in 2 successive years (year 1 and year 2; N = 30,714). Dependent variables were year 2 total health care expenditures and, for those enrolled in 2000–2005, all-cause mortality through 2006. Covariates were year 1 sociodemographics and health care use, and year 2 health insurance, health status, and chronic conditions. We conducted further analyses, progressively adjusting for year 2 use, to explore mechanisms. RESULTS Total expenditures were 10.4% lower (95% confidence interval, 7.2%–13.4%) among patients reporting access to extended hours in both years vs neither year. Adjustment for year 2 prescription drug expenditures, and to a lesser extent, office visit–related expenditures (but not total prescriptions or office visits, or emergency and inpatient expenditures) attenuated this relationship. Extended-hours access was not statistically associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Respondents reporting a usual source of care offering evening and weekend office hours had lower total health care expenditures than those without extended-hours access, an association related to lower prescription drug and office visit–related (eg, testing) expenditures, without adverse effects on mortality. Although requiring further study, extended office hours may be associated with more judicious use of health care resources. PMID:22966101

Jerant, Anthony; Bertakis, Klea D.; Fenton, Joshua J.; Franks, Peter

2012-01-01

217

The health and housing in transition study: a longitudinal study of the health of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in three Canadian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  While substantial research has demonstrated the poor health status of homeless populations, the health status of vulnerably\\u000a housed individuals is largely unknown. Furthermore, few longitudinal studies have assessed the impact of housing transitions\\u000a on health. The health and housing in transition (HHiT) study is a prospective cohort study that aims to track the health and\\u000a housing status of a representative

Stephen W. Hwang; Tim Aubry; Anita Palepu; Susan Farrell; Rosane Nisenbaum; Anita M. Hubley; Fran Klodawsky; Evie Gogosis; Elizabeth Hay; Shannon Pidlubny; Tatiana Dowbor; Catharine Chambers

218

A study of satisfaction among primary health care patients in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary Health Care is essential health care based on delivering integrated health services (curative and preventive). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted this approach in 1980, and by the year 1987 the Ministry of Health had established 1477 Primary Health Care centers. The expansion in Primary Health Care created a need for various types of evaluation. Theorists recommended the study

Ahlam A. Mansour; Muneera H. Al-Osimy

1993-01-01

219

Review of health information technology usability study methodologies  

PubMed Central

Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user–task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system–task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user–task–system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user–task–system–environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user–task–system–environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation. PMID:21828224

Bakken, Suzanne

2011-01-01

220

A study of health beliefs and practices of the Yoruba.  

PubMed

The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs. PMID:22924201

Adepoju, Joseph A

2012-01-01

221

Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation. Conclusions Maternal age and mode of conception are not associated with pregnancy health and health service use when sociodemographic factors are considered. PMID:23565589

2013-01-01

222

The Saskatchewan rural health study: an application of a population health framework to understand respiratory health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory disease can impose a significant burden on the health of rural populations. The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) is a new large prospective cohort study of ages 6 and over currently being conducted in farming and non-farming communities to evaluate potential health determinants associated with respiratory outcomes in rural populations. In this article, we describe the rationale and methodology for the adult component. The study is being conducted over 5 years (2009–15) in two phases, baseline and longitudinal. The baseline survey consists of two components, adults and children. The adult component consists of a questionnaire-based evaluation of individual and contextual factors of importance to respiratory health in two sub populations (a Farm Cohort and a Small Town Cohort) of rural families in Saskatchewan Rural Municipalities (RMs). Clinical studies of lung function and allergy tests are being conducted on selected sub-samples of the two cohorts based on the positive response to the last question on the baseline questionnaire: “Would you be willing to be contacted about having breathing and/or allergy tests at a nearby location?”. We adopted existing population health theory to evaluate individual factors, contextual factors, and principal covariates on the outcomes of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Findings Of the RMs selected to participate, 32 (89%) out of 36 RMs and 15 (94%) out of 16 small towns within the RMs agreed to participate. Using the mail out survey method developed by Dillman, we obtained completed questionnaires from 4264 households (8261 individuals). We obtained lung function measurements on 1609 adults, allergy skin test information on 1615 adults; both measurements were available on 1549 adults. We observed differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual, contextual factors and covariates. Discussion There are differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual and contextual factors and other variables of importance. The findings of the SRHS will improve knowledge of respiratory disease etiology, assist in the development and targeting of prevention programs, and in planning health services with farm and small town populations. PMID:22852584

2012-01-01

223

COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENDPOINTS IN SWIMMERS' HEALTH STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...

224

COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENPOINTS IN SWIMMER'S HEALTH STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...

225

Care Coordination: A Case Study Linking Primary Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate, through a case study, how York Community Services (YCS) is a leader in the delivery ofprimary health care through its integration ofhealth, legal and social services. YCS is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. YCS's mandate is to serve populations that have traditionally been on the margins ofsociety and therefore have had difficulty

Monica M. Lancaster; David P. Thow

2001-01-01

226

Divorce and Death: A Case Study for Health Psychology.  

PubMed

Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588

Sbarra, David A; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita

2012-12-01

227

Divorce and Death: A Case Study for Health Psychology  

PubMed Central

Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588

Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita

2012-01-01

228

MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

229

Integrated Care in College Health: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.

Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris

2008-01-01

230

Gothenburg Center for Epidemiologic Studies on Mental and Physical Health  

E-print Network

disease Work area 2: Mental disorders over the lifecourse Work area 3: Overweight and obesity overEpiLife Gothenburg Center for Epidemiologic Studies on Mental and Physical Health Interacting over the Lifecourse Göteborgs epidemiologiska centrum för forskning om samspel mellan mental och fysisk hälsa i ett

Harding, Karin

231

Health Behaviors of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)

Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves

2002-01-01

232

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

233

Wayne State University Division of Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies  

E-print Network

Wayne State University Division of Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies Physical Education adviser at least one time each academic year. 2. Students must earn a "C" or better in all major and minor perform one (not both) of their student teaching placements in an "on-the-job" capacity only if: (a

Berdichevsky, Victor

234

US army chemical corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in

Han K. Kang; Nancy A. Dalager; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson; Genevieve M. Matanoski; Sukon Kanchanaraksa; Peter S. J. Lees

2001-01-01

235

Neighborhood environments, mobility, and health: towards a new generation of studies in environmental health research.  

PubMed

While public policies seek to promote active transportation, there is a lack of information on the social and environmental factors associated with the adoption of active transportation modes. Moreover, despite the consensus on the importance of identifying obesogenic environmental factors, most published studies only take into account residential neighborhoods in the definition of exposures. There are at least three major reasons for incorporating daily mobility in public health research: (i) to identify specific population groups, including socially disadvantaged populations, who experience mobility or spatial accessibility deficits; (ii) to study the environmental determinants of transportation habits and investigate the complex relationships between transportation (as a source of physical activity, pollutants, and accidents) and physical activity and health; and (iii) to improve the assessment of spatial accessibility to resources and exposure to environmental hazards by accounting for daily trajectories for a better understanding of their health effects. There is urgent need to develop novel methods to better assess daily mobility. The RECORD Study relies on (i) an electronic survey of regular mobility to assess the chronic exposure to environmental conditions over a relatively long period, and (ii) Global Positioning System tracking to evaluate precisely acute environmental exposures over a much shorter period. The present article argues that future research should combine these two approaches. Gathering scientific evidence on the relationships between the environments, mobility/transportation, and health should allow public health and urban planning decision makers to better take into account the individual and environmental barriers to the adoption of active transportation and to define innovative intervention strategies addressing obesogenic environments to reduce disparities in excess weight. PMID:23845204

Chaix, B; Méline, J; Duncan, S; Jardinier, L; Perchoux, C; Vallée, J; Merrien, C; Karusisi, N; Lewin, A; Brondeel, R; Kestens, Y

2013-08-01

236

Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study  

PubMed Central

Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

2011-01-01

237

[The individual health of male teenagers studying at secondary school].  

PubMed

Mental health, physical development, physiological constants, somatic health and chronic case rates were studied in graduating-class schoolboys aged 16 (n = 63) and 17 (n = 82) years. The prevailing temperament in 17-year-old teenagers was hyperthymic and that in 16-year-olds was labile and introverted. The majority of the surveyed young men were extroverts, emotionally stable with a moderate useful level of situational and personal anxiety. More than 70.0% of the young men showed high social adaptation and low autonomic lability. 17-year-old young men had retarded processes as shown by moderate-low and moderate rates ofphysical development and disharmony. The most of teenagers had moderate and above-moderate levels of somatic health and a vital index that characterizes good functional, adaptive capacities of the cardiorespiratory system. PMID:22834276

Zarytovskaia, N V; Kalmykova, A S

2012-01-01

238

Adelaide river rhabdovirus expresses consecutive glycoprotein genes as polycistronic mRNAs: new evidence of gene duplication as an evolutionary process.  

PubMed

A 3914 nucleotide region of the Adelaide River virus (ARV) genome, located immediately downstream of the M2 gene, has been cloned and sequenced. The region contains two long open reading frames (ORFs). The first encodes a protein comprising 660 amino acids which shares extensive sequence homology with the virion G protein of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) and less but significant homology with other rhabdovirus glycoproteins. The size and structural characteristics of the product indicate that it represents the 90-kDa ARV virion G protein. The second ORF encodes a polypeptide of 609 residues with nine potential glycosylation sites which is most closely related to the BEFV non-structural glycoprotein (GNS). In infected mammalian cells, the ARV G and GNS genes are transcribed primarily as a polycistronic mRNA which appears to extend from the consensus sequence (AACAG) at the start of the G gene to the next recognized polyadenylation signal (CATG[A]7) located 697 nucleotides downstream of the GNS protein termination codon. Less abundant mRNAs which appeared to initiate at consensus sequences immediately preceding and following the GNS ORF and terminate at the same polyadenylation signal were also detected. Polyadenylation-like sequences at the end of each ORF do not appear to be recognized as transcription stop signals. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ARV G and GNS glycoproteins, like those of BEFV, are structurally related and appear to have evolved at different rates from a common ancestral gene. A copy-choice mechanism, involving upstream relocation of the polymerase during replication, is proposed to account for the evolution of the tandem glycoprotein genes. PMID:8337841

Wang, Y; Walker, P J

1993-08-01

239

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

1987-03-01

240

The teeth and faces of twins: providing insights into dentofacial development and oral health for practising oral health professionals.  

PubMed

The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses, exciting opportunities are opening up to unravel the causes of problems in craniofacial growth and common oral diseases in human populations. PMID:24117977

Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D

2014-06-01

241

Adult day health care evaluation study: methodology and implementation. Adult Day Health Care Evaluation Development Group.  

PubMed Central

The Adult Day Health Care Evaluation Study was developed in response to a congressional mandate to study the medical efficacy and cost effectiveness of the Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) effort in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Four sites providing ADHC in VA facilities are participating in an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Three years of developmental work prior to the study addressed methodological issues that were problematic in previous studies. This developmental work resulted in the methodological approaches described here: (1) a patient recruitment process that actively recruits and screens all potential candidates using empirically developed admission criteria based on predictors of nursing home placement in VA; (2) the selection and development of measures of medical efficacy that assess a wide range of patient and caregiver outcomes with sufficient sensitivity to detect small but clinically important changes; and (3) methods for detailed, accurate, and efficient measurement of utilization and costs of health care within and outside VA. These approaches may be helpful to other researchers and may advance the methodological sophistication of long-term care program evaluation. PMID:1991678

Hedrick, S C; Rothman, M L; Chapko, M; Inui, T S; Kelly, J R; Ehreth, J

1991-01-01

242

Obesity predicts primary health care visits: a cohort study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), its association with chronic disease, and its impact on health services utilization in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, from 1998 to 2002. A data linkage study was conducted involving a provincial health survey linked to 2 health care use administrative databases. The study population comprised 2345 adults between the ages of 20 and 64 years. Self-reported height and weight measures and other covariates, including chronic diseases, were obtained from a provincial survey. BMI categories include: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9), obese class I (BMI 30-34.9), obese class II (BMI ? 35), and obese class III (BMI ? 40). Survey responses were linked with objective physician and hospital health services utilization over a 5-year period. Weight classifications in the study sample were as follows: 37% normal, 39% overweight, 17% obese, and 6% morbidly obese. The obese and morbidly obese were more likely to report having serious chronic conditions after adjusting for age and sex. Only the morbidly obese group (BMI ? 35 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher number of visits to a general practitioner (GP) over a 5-year period compared to the normal weight group (median 22.0 vs. 17.0, P<0.05). Using multivariate models and controlling for the number of chronic conditions and other relevant covariates, being morbidly obese remained a significant predictor of GP visits (P<0.001), but was not a predictor for visits to a specialist or any type of hospital use. The increase in the prevalence of obesity is placing a burden at the primary health care level. More resources are needed in order to support GPs in their efforts to manage and treat obese adults who have associated comorbidities. PMID:22088164

Twells, Laurie K; Bridger, Tracey; Knight, John C; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Barrett, Brendan

2012-02-01

243

Leadership for Primary Health Care. Levels, Functions, and Requirements Based on Twelve Case Studies. Public Health Papers No. 82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book considers the role of and the need for primary health care leadership, drawing upon case studies and research from the World Health Organization (WHO) communities. The differing levels and functions of leadership in primary health care are delineated, with particular emphasis given to regarding the leadership concept as "effective…

Flahault, Daniel; Roemer, Milton I.

244

A study of alternative health care use for gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

The discomfort and frustration often experienced by patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders may lead many to seek alternative health care (AHC). This study was conducted to describe AHC use by patients with GI disorders in a convenience sample (N = 73) from a tertiary hospital in Florida. AHC was explored within social exchange theory. Measurement instruments included the Alternative Health Care Gastrointestinal Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Alternative Health Care Use Questionnaire, and Alternative Health Care Advantages/Disadvantages Questionnaire. The study indicated that 32 subjects (43%) had used AHC for their GI disorders during the past 2 years. Most frequently used AHC included relaxation therapy, herbs, lifestyle diets, megavitamins, massage, and home remedies. There was a greater use of AHC by young persons (t = 2.39, p = .02) and by those not retired (chi 2 = 4.58, p = .03). AHC was associated with perceived rewards (r = .38, p = .03) and perceived profits (r = .38, p = .03). AHC was not associated with type or duration of GI disorder or other demographic variables. Subjects specifically cited benefits with relaxation therapy, vegetarian diets, spiritual healing, fish oil for inflammatory bowel disease, and use of milk thistle for hepatitis. PMID:11096804

Giese, L A

2000-01-01

245

Learn LocaLLy, Lead GLobaLLy bachelor of arts in Health Studies  

E-print Network

Generation of LeaderSHip in pubLic HeaLtH The University of Washington Bothell's Bachelor of Arts in Health �AdvancedstudyinPublicHealth, Nursing,Medicine,SocialWork,or other health professions #12;AdLearn LocaLLy, Lead GLobaLLy bachelor of arts in Health Studies HeaLtH StudieS #12;be part of a new

Manchak, John

246

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

247

Involvement in civil society groups: Is it good for your health?  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To determine the involvement in civil society groups (CSGs) and the impact of this on health. Design: Case study, cross sectional, self completion questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Setting: Residents in two suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Participants: Every household (1038) received a questionnaire asking the adult with the next birthday to complete it. A total of 530 questionnaires were returned. Sixteen questionnaire respondents were also interviewed. Main results: 279 (53%) questionnaire respondents had been involved in a CSG in the past 12 months, 190 (36%) in locally based CSGs, and 188 (35%) in CSGs outside the area. Eleven of the 16 interviewees had been involved in a CSG. A path analysis examined the relation between demographic variables, CSG involvement, and mental and physical health, as measured by the SF-12. Physical health was negatively associated with CSG involvement and older age, and positively associated with working full time or part time and higher education level. Mental health was positively associated with older age, working full time or part time, and higher income but negatively associated with having a child under 18, speaking a language other than English and higher education level. Very few interviewees made a direct link between CSGs and positive individual health outcomes, though some positive community level outcomes were noted. More consistent were reports of the detrimental effects of CSG involvement on mental and physical health. Conclusions: Involvement in CSGs was significant but not always positive for health. It is possible that CSG involvement is good for a community but not necessarily for the individual. PMID:15143118

Ziersch, A; Baum, F

2004-01-01

248

Organisational justice and health of employees: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health. PMID:12499453

Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T

2003-01-01

249

Linking Health Screening to Health Education Learning Modules for Elementary School Students: A Feasibility Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty fourth-grade students were pretested and posttested as to their health knowledge. An experimental group was taught about health through an "Instructional Module in Health Screening Procedures and Personal Health Care," while the control group received traditional health screening and instruction. Students learning from the module scored…

Feuerstein, Paula; Galli, Nicholas

1983-01-01

250

Exploring health stakeholders' perceptions on moving towards comprehensive primary health care to address childhood malnutrition in Iran: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the multifaceted aspect of child malnutrition, a comprehensive approach, taking social factors into account, has been frequently recommended in health literature. The Alma-Ata declaration explicitly outlined comprehensive primary health care as an approach that addresses the social, economic and political causes of poor health and nutrition. Iran as a signatory country to the Alma Ata Declaration has established primary health care since 1979 with significant progress on many health indicators during the last three decades. However, the primary health care system is still challenged to reduce inequity in conditions such as child malnutrition which trace back to social factors. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of the Iranian health stakeholders with respect to the Iranian primary health care performance and actions to move towards a comprehensive approach in addressing childhood malnutrition. Health stakeholders are defined as those who affect or can be affected by health system, for example health policy-makers, health providers or health service recipients. Methods Stakeholder analysis approach was undertaken using a qualitative research method. Different levels of stakeholders, including health policy-makers, health providers and community members were interviewed as either individuals or focus groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret and compare/contrast the viewpoints of the study participants. Results The results demonstrated that fundamental differences exist in the perceptions of different health stakeholders in the understanding of comprehensive notion and action. Health policy-makers mainly believed in the need for a secure health management environment and the necessity for a whole of the government approach to enhance collaborative action. Community health workers, on the other hand, indicated that staff motivation, advocacy and involvement are the main challenges need to be addressed. Turning to community stakeholders, greater emphasis has been placed on community capabilities, informal link with other social sectors based on trust and local initiatives. Conclusion This research provided a picture of the differences in the perceptions and values of different stakeholders with respect to primary health care concepts. The study suggests that a top-down approach, which still exists among health policy-makers, is a key obstacle that delays, and possibly worse, undermines the implementation of the comprehensive strategy codified by the Alma-Ata Declaration. A need to revitalise primary health care to use its full potential and to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches by narrowing the gap between perceptions of policy makers and those who provide and receive health-related services is crucial. PMID:19236720

Javanparast, Sara; Coveney, John; Saikia, Udoy

2009-01-01

251

Social capital, trust in the health-care system and self-rated health: The role of access to health care in a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between institutional trust in the health-care system, i.e. an institutional aspect of social capital, and self-rated health, and whether the strength of this association is affected by access to health-care services. The 2004 public health survey in the Scania region of Sweden is a cross-sectional study; a total of 27,963 respondents aged 18–80 years answered

Mohabbat Mohseni; Martin Lindstrom

2007-01-01

252

Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Served by the Department of Veterans Affairs: Results From the Veterans Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Participants in the Veterans Health Study, a 2-year longitudinal study, were recruited from a repre- sentative sample of patients receiving ambulatory care at 4 VA facilities in the New England region. The Veter- ans Health Study patients received questionnaires of health status, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey; and a health examination, clini- cal assessments,

Lewis E. Kazis; Donald R. Miller; Jack Clark; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Avron Spiro III; Susan Payne; Graeme Fincke; Alfredo Selim; Mark Linzer

1998-01-01

253

US Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results.  

PubMed

The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in Vietnam as members of the Army Chemical Corps and a comparison cohort of Army Chemical Corps personnel who served elsewhere. A total of 2872 Vietnam veterans and 2737 non-Vietnam veterans who served in the Army Chemical Corps were identified for inclusion in a telephone health interview survey with a random 20% sample of veterans receiving serum dioxin and other congeners assessments. In a feasibility study which included 284 Vietnam veterans and 281 non-Vietnam veterans, 100 serum assessments were conducted of which 95 were included in the analysis. Vietnam veterans with a history of spraying herbicides were found to have a statistically significant elevation in their current serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations compared to non-Vietnam veterans without a spray history (P = 0.05). Other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins levels were comparable to the levels found in the non-Vietnam veterans. This feasibility study demonstrated that serum dioxin concentrations from a sample of the study participants can be used to identify exposure variables in the health survey that can serve as a surrogate measure of phenoxyherbicide exposure. PMID:11372888

Kang, H K; Dalager, N A; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Matanoski, G M; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lees, P S

2001-01-01

254

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

255

Maternal Health in Gujarat, India: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

Vora, Kranti S.; Ramani, K.V.; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

2009-01-01

256

Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415

Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti

2009-01-01

257

Clinical Social Franchising Case Study Series: DKT's Andalan Indonesia 1 The Global Health Group  

E-print Network

Clinical Social Franchising Case Study Series: DKT's Andalan Indonesia 1 The Global Health GroupKt's andalan indonesia #12;Copyright © 2012 The Global Health Group The Global Health Group Global Health Email: ghg@globalhealth.ucsf.edu Website: globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group Ordering

Klein, Ophir

258

Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay

Susan C Duerksen; Amy Mikail; Laura Tom; Annie Patton; Janina Lopez; Xavier Amador; Reynaldo Vargas; Maria Victorio; Brenda Kustin; Georgia Robins Sadler

2005-01-01

259

Readability Study of Client Health Education Materials: A Resource for Assuring the Effectiveness of Written Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…

Johnson, Hans H.; And Others

260

Faith-Based Health Education Project: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working with faith communities in health promotion is widely acclaimed and yet not readily practiced. This article describes a study conducted among four faith communities to determine the process required for sustainable faith-based programs. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 12 community volunteers who participated to identify their perceptions of the project. Two staff members were also interviewed to identify the

Georgia N. L. Johnston

2003-01-01

261

Aspirin Use and Incident Stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Randomized clinical trials testing aspirin in relatively low-risk, middle-aged people have consistently shown small increases in stroke associated with aspirin use. We analyzed the relationship between the regular use of aspirin and incident ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among people aged 65 years or older participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods—We conducted a multivariate analysis of incident stroke

R. A. Kronmal; R. G. Hart; T. A. Manolio; R. L. Talbert; N. J. Beauchamp; A. Newman

2010-01-01

262

APPLICATION FOR SCHOLARSHIPS Health Science Studies, Pre-Professional Studies, and Environmental & Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Studies Optometry Chiropractics Pharmacy Clinical Laboratory Science Physical Therapy Dental Hygiene program as listed above. I authorize the Financial Aid Office to release, upon request, information

Barrash, Warren

263

Measuring health outcomes of adolescents: report from a pilot study.  

PubMed

There is a need to understand the practicality, validity and reliability of using utility measures with children and adolescents. We designed a pilot study in order to help guide the selection of an appropriate health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaire for adolescents to be used in the context of a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of family therapy versus standard treatment for adolescents aged 11-17 years. The pilot study was carried out on a school sample of adolescents in the same age range as the RCT. Adolescents were asked to fill in three HRQoL questionnaires: the standard EQ-5D, the licensed Health Utilities Index HUI, and the child-friendly version of the standard EQ-5D: the EQ-5D for youth (EQ-5D-Y). This report explores the problems with the language and concepts embodied within those HRQoL questionnaires and open discussion regarding how we can value the health of adolescents for cost-utility analysis in a larger study. PMID:21785871

Oluboyede, Yemi; Tubeuf, Sandy; McCabe, Chris

2013-02-01

264

The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints  

PubMed Central

Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and social movements. Further research on the value of community control of PHC services and the types of policy, resource and managerial environments that support action on social determinants is warranted by this study’s findings. PMID:23663304

2013-01-01

265

Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services  

PubMed Central

Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid interpretation, we will undertake qualitative work with 15 young people, including interviews, non-participant observation and diary collection. Discussion This study will evaluate the effect of service components of transitional care, rather than evaluation of specific models that may be unsustainable or not generalisable. It has been developed in response to numerous national and international calls for such evaluation. PMID:23875722

2013-01-01

266

76 FR 48872 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement...Health Study (HCHS)/ Study of Latinos (SOL). Type of Information Collection Request...Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) will identify risk factors for...

2011-08-09

267

Fact Sheet University Undergraduate satac.edu.au 1 The University of Adelaide -programs open to special entry  

E-print Network

to special entry Fact Sheet University Undergraduate satac.edu.au 1 SATAC code Course/Program STAT Personal Dental Surgery Compulsory Not considered Not considered UMAT & interview 324391 Development Studies - programs open to special entry Fact Sheet University Undergraduate satac.edu.au 2 SATAC code Course

Mayer, Wolfgang

268

Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

Background The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia. Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum. Methods A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation. Results Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery. Conclusion Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation. PMID:23761998

Alanazi, Abdullah Foraih

2012-01-01

269

Improving population health one person at a time? Accountable care organisations: perceptions of population health--a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Objective This qualitative interview study explored perceptions of the phrases ‘population health’, ‘public health’ and ‘community health’. Setting Accountable care organisations (ACOs), and public health or similar agencies in different parts of the USA. Participants Purposive sample of 29 interviewees at four ACOs, and 10 interviewees at six public health or similar agencies. Results Interviewees working for ACOs most often viewed ‘population health’ as referring to a defined group of their organisation's patients, though a few applied the phrase to people living in a geographical area. In contrast, interviewees working for public health agencies were more likely to consider ‘population health’ from a geographical perspective. Conclusions Conflating geographical population health with the health of ACOs’ patients may divert attention and resources away from organisations that use non-medical means to improve the health of geographical populations. As ACOs battle to control costs of their population of patients, it would be more accurate to consider using a more specific phrase, such as ‘population of attributed patients’, to refer to ACOs’ efforts to care for the health of their defined group of patients. PMID:24770586

Noble, Douglas J; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Casalino, Lawrence P

2014-01-01

270

Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have significant meaning for future public health programs, which should be more tailored with use of such knowledge on behavioral clustering via e.g. Transfer Learning. PMID:24305509

2013-01-01

271

Personnel for Health Care: Case Studies of Educational Programmes. Public Health Papers No. 70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovations in the training of community health personnel that emphasize the importance of the development of health personnel able and willing to serve the community by providing health care, promoting health, preventing disease, and caring for those in need are examined. The need for effective and efficient training programs relevant to present…

Katz, F. M., Ed.; Fulop, T., Ed.

272

Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

2009-01-01

273

Occupational Mental Health: A Study of Work-Related Mental Health among Clinical Nurses  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper reports a study performed to investigate and assess the mental health as well as the demographic characteristics of nurses to examine their mental health status based on four physical, anxiety, social-function and depression items. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was accomplished on 86 nurses working at three hospitals, affiliated to Iranian health ministry, in Ilam city(western Iran) all the cases were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data was collected by a two-part questionnaire containing individual data and GHQ -28 Standardized Questionnaire. The GHO-28 was developed by Goldberg, in 1978, as a screening tool to detect those likely to have or be at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The GHQ-28 is a 28-item measure of emotional distress in medical settings. Analysis was done by SPSS 18 software. Results: The majority of participants were females(50.6 vs.49.4) of 35-40 years old(27.2% ), 84 percent were married(vs.16%), 35.8 percent with 10-15 years of record(vs.33.3% less than 5), 22.2% with 5-10, and 8.6% with more than 15-years of work record. The majority of participants have worked in surgical wards of hospitals. The analysis of GHQ results showed that 43.2%(n=35) of participants were suspected to suffer from mental disorders(vs.56.8% n=46 healthy participants); of all the suspected cases, 12.3% were supposed to have physical symptoms, 16% anxiety symptoms, 42% social dysfunction, and 6.2% symptoms of depression. In general, the participants demonstrated a Mean±SD of mental health score equal to 23.65±9.43. Conclusion: Research results showed that the high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among nurses is alarming. It was concluded that providing efficient adequate and appropriate support services for this group can result in more healthy nurses as well as promotion of public health. PMID:25386506

Taghinejad, Hamid; Kikhavani, Sattar; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Azadi, Arman

2014-01-01

274

Characteristics associated with self-rated health: The CARDIA Study  

E-print Network

rated  health  category)   Age  (years)   Fast  food    health   category   N   0  poor  SRH   1  good  SRH   Total   Fast  food  health  problem  (self)   Chronic  burden  –  on  going  financial  strain   Age   Fast  food  

Nayak, Shilpa

2012-01-01

275

Gastrointestinal symptoms in a Japanese population: A health diary study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the nature of consequent utilization of health care services in a Japanese population. METHODS: Using self-report, we conducted a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population over a one-month period to determine the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms of all kinds and resultant health care utilization. Both information on visits to physicians and use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies were collected. RESULTS: From a total of 3568 in the recruitment sample, 3477 participants completed a health diary (response rate 97%). The data of 112 participants with baseline active gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the analysis, leaving 3365 participants in the study. The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms was 25% and the mean number of symptomatic episodes was 0.66 in a month. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, constipation and dyspepsia were the most frequent symptoms. Female gender, younger age, and low baseline quality of life were risk factors for developing these symptoms. The participants were more likely to treat themselves, using dietary, complementary or alternative medicines, than to visit physicians, except in the case of vomiting. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in the Japanese population, with an incidence of 25%. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, constipation and dyspepsia are the most frequent symptoms. Risk factors for developing these symptoms include female gender, younger age, and low baseline quality of life. PMID:17278223

Tokuda, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Ohde, Sachiko; Shakudo, Masaaki; Yanai, Haruo; Shimbo, Takuro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Hinohara, Shigeaki; Fukui, Tsuguya

2007-01-01

276

Maternal health study: a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain). Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of a first child. Methods/design The Maternal Health Study is a longitudinal study designed to fill in some of the gaps in current research evidence regarding women's physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth. A prospective pregnancy cohort of >1500 nulliparous women has been recruited in early pregnancy at six metropolitan public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia between April 2003 and December 2005. In the first phase of the study participants are being followed up at 30–32 weeks gestation in pregnancy, and at three, six, nine, 12 and 18 months postpartum using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Women consenting to extended follow-up (phase 2) will be followed up six and 12 months after any subsequent births and when their first child is four years old. Study instruments incorporate assessment of the frequency and severity of urinary and bowel symptoms, sexual health issues, perineal and abdominal pain, depression and intimate partner violence. Pregnancy and birth outcome data will be obtained by review of hospital case notes. Discussion Features of the study which distinguish it from prior research include: the capacity to identify incident cases of morbidity and clustering of health problems; a large enough sample to detect clinically important differences in maternal health outcomes associated with the method of birth; careful exposure measurement involving manual abstraction of data from medical records in order to explore mediating factors and possible causal pathways; and use of a variety of strategies to improve ascertainment of health outcomes. PMID:16608507

Brown, Stephanie J; Lumley, Judith M; McDonald, Ellie A; Krastev, Ann H

2006-01-01

277

Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a major contribution to the field of knowledge transfer and implementation science. PMID:20416054

2010-01-01

278

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition

Raina, Ramesh

279

Analysis and interpretation of airglow and radar observations of quasi-monochromatic gravity waves in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Adelaide, Australia (35°S, 138°E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of wave-driven fluctuations in emissions from the OH Meinel (OHM) and O2 Atmospheric band were made with a narrow-band airglow imager located at Adelaide, Australia (35S, 138E) during the period April 1995 to January 1996. Simultaneous wind measurements in the 80-100 km region were made with a co-located MF radar. The directionality of quasi-monochromatic (QM) waves in the mesopause region is found to be highly anisotropic, especially during the solstices. During the summer, small-scale QM waves in the airglow are predominately poleward propagating, while during winter they are predominately equatorward. The directionality inferred from a Stokes analysis applied to the radar data also indicates a strong N-S anisotropy in summer and winter, but whether propagation is from the north or south cannot be determined from the analysis. The directionality of the total wave field (which contains incoherent as well as coherent features) derived from a spectral analysis of the images shows a strong E-W component, whereas, an E-W component is essentially absent for QM waves. The prevalence of QM waves is also strongly seasonally dependent. The prevalence is greatest in the summer and the least in winter and correlates with the height of the mesopause; whether it is above or below the airglow layers. The height of the mesopause is significant because for nominal thermal structures it is associated with a steep gradient in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency that causes the base of a lower thermospheric thermal duct to be located in the vicinity of the mesopause. We interpret the QM waves as waves trapped in the lower thermosphere thermal duct or between the ground and the layer of evanescence above the duct. Zonal winds can deplete the thermal duct by limiting access to the duct or by negating the thermal trapping. Radar measurements of the prevailing zonal wind are consistent with depletion of zonally propagating waves. During winter, meridional winds in the upper mesophere and lower thermosphere are weak and have no significant effect on meridionally propagating waves. However, during summer the winds in the duct region can significantly enhance ducting of southward propagating waves. The observed directionality of the waves can be explained in terms of the prevailing wind at mesopause altitudes and the seasonal variation of distant sources.

Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Vincent, R. a.; Reid, I. m.; Woithe, J.; Hickey, M. P.

1999-04-01

280

Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

2014-01-01

281

APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

282

Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.  

PubMed

Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function. PMID:23735309

Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

2013-07-15

283

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Food Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of food safety, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services; and (3)…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

284

Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

Yi, Yong Jeong

2012-01-01

285

Effects of chronic cocaine use on physical health: a prospective study in a general population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined long-term effects of chronic cocaine use on physical health in the general population. The current study assesses the effects of chronic cocaine use by the late twenties on physical health by the mid thirties in a longitudinal cohort from the general population. Measures of physical health included self-reported health status, cardiovascular, neurological, and somatic symptoms, and

Kevin Chen; Lawrence M. Scheier; Denise B. Kandel

1996-01-01

286

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health...the evaluation of scientific or medical studies and after receiving the...

2012-07-01

287

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health...the evaluation of scientific or medical studies and after receiving the...

2013-07-01

288

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health...the evaluation of scientific or medical studies and after receiving the...

2010-07-01

289

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health...the evaluation of scientific or medical studies and after receiving the...

2011-07-01

290

Changes in health and primary health care use of Moroccan and Turkish migrants between 2001 and 2005: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Social environment and health status are related, and changes affecting social relations may also affect the general health state of a group. During the past few years, several events have affected the relationships between Muslim immigrants and the non-immigrant population in many countries. This study investigates whether the health status of the Moroccan and Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands has changed in four years, whether changes in health status have had any influence on primary health care use, and which socio-demographic factors might explain this relationship. Methods A cohort of 108 Turkish and 102 Moroccan respondents were interviewed in 2001 and in 2005. The questionnaire included the SF-36 and the GP contact frequency (in the past two months). Interviews were conducted in the language preferred by the respondents. Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Results The mental health of the Moroccan group improved between 2001 and 2005. Physical health remained unchanged for both groups. The number of GP contacts decreased with half a contact/2 months among the Turkish group. Significant predictors of physical health change were: age, educational level. For mental health change, these were: ethnicity, age, civil status, work situation in 2001, change in work situation. For change in GP contacts: ethnicity, age and change in mental and physical health. Conclusion Changes in health status concerned the mental health component. Changes in health status were paired with changes in health care utilization. Among the Turkish group, an unexpected decrease in GP contacts was noticed, whilst showing a generally unchanged health status. Further research taking perceived quality of care into account might help shedding some light on this outcome. PMID:18230157

Lamkaddem, Majda; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M; Deville, Walter L; Foets, Marleen; Groenewegen, Peter P

2008-01-01

291

Planning and change: a Cambodian public health case study.  

PubMed

This paper questions the appropriateness of highly structured strategic planning approaches in situations of complexity and change, using the Cambodian German Health Project as a case study. Based on participant observation and organisational analysis in the Cambodian public health sector, the paper examines the rhetoric of values, objectives and strategies outlined in the original project documents and their assumptions and implications, and the responses to the changing political situation. It demonstrates the limitations of these planning processes in complex situations of high uncertainty, with little reliable information and a rapidly changing environment. Having highlighted the limitations of the strategic planning process in these circumstances, the paper recommends changes that shift the focus away from planning towards informed strategic management, that monitors the changing environment and is given freedom to respond to emerging risks and opportunities. The Cambodian German Health Project was initiated in October 1995 as a bilateral health aid project between the German government and the government of the Kingdom of Cambodia, but was disrupted by the "events of 5-6 July, 1997", as the military action is officially described. Project planning had included an intensive goal oriented planning process (ZOPP) undertaken in collaboration with counterparts from the Ministry of Health, Provincial Health Departments and other bilateral, international and non-government stakeholders. Following the military action, the project was initially suspended, then substantially re-drafted within a new framework of assistance, and eventually re-established after an interval of eight months. The paper will examine these planning processes and responses in the light of Mintzberg's (1994 The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: Prentice-Hall) argument that strategic planning fails because of three conceptual fallacies implicit in the process: (1) The fallacy of predeterminism allows planners to assume that goals, results, appropriate activities and required inputs can confidently be predicted based on past and current experience, when the reality is that both the internal and external environments are subject to change that may not be predictable. (2) The fallacy of detachment suggests that the functions of planning and implementation are discrete management functions, and that objective, rational decisions in determining activities and inputs are sufficient to successfully achieve project goals and results. (3) The fallacy of formalisation provides an expectation that the processes of planning will "capture" the creative insight required for successful strategic development, and reach a binding consensus despite the complex interactions and relationships that characterise bilateral aid projects. PMID:11128261

Hill, P S

2000-12-01

292

It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1) Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2) Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3) Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4) The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions towards their involvement in interdisciplinary research. A well thought-out rationale for interdisciplinary research, and strategies to utilize the contribution of each researcher involved were seen as facilitators towards maximizing the benefits that could be derived from interdisciplinary research. PMID:18501005

Nair, Kalpana M; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Raina, Parminder

2008-01-01

293

Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia  

E-print Network

-14 December 2001 Prediction of Yacht Roll Motion at Zero Forward Speed K. Klaka1 , J. Krokstad1 and M College, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250 AUSTRALIA. Now at QinetiQ, UK Abstract The roll motion of a yacht which is not borne out by the full scale trials. Introduction The roll motion of a yacht at zero Froude

294

Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources. PMID:21070641

2010-01-01

295

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

2011-01-01

296

[Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies].  

PubMed

The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers. PMID:22858819

Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da

2012-06-01

297

Sustainable Rural Telehealth Innovation: A Public Health Case Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine adoption of telehealth in a rural public health district and to explain how the innovation became sustainable. Study Setting Longitudinal, qualitative study (1988–2008) of the largest public health district in Georgia. Study Design Case study design provided deep insights into the innovation's social dynamics. Punctuated equilibrium theory helped present and make sense of the process. We identified antecedent conditions and outcomes, and we distinguished between episodes and encounters based on the disruptive effects of events. Data Collection Twenty-five semistructured interviews with 19 decision makers and professionals, direct observations, published papers, grant proposals, technical specifications, and other written materials. Principal Findings Strong collaboration within the district, with local community, and with external partners energized the process. Well-functioning outreach clinics made telehealth desirable. Local champions cultivated participation and generative capability, and overcame barriers through opportunistic exploitation of technological and financial options. Telehealth usage fluctuated between medical and administrative operations in response to internal needs and contextual dynamics. External agencies provided initial funding and supported later expansion. Conclusions Extensive internal and external collaboration, and a combination of technology push and opportunistic exploitation, can enable sustainable rural telehealth innovation. PMID:20459449

Singh, Rajendra; Mathiassen, Lars; Stachura, Max E; Astapova, Elena V

2010-01-01

298

Health technology assessment in its local contexts: studies of telehealthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health technology assessment (HTA) is one of the major research enterprises of late modernity, reaching into fields of previously autonomous professional practice, and critically interrogating the organisation and delivery of health care. The ‘evaluation’ of new health technologies within the field of HTA is increasingly a normative political expectation, as discourses of ‘evidence-based’ practice run through health policy in the

Carl May; Maggie Mort; Tracy Williams; Frances Mair; Linda Gask

2003-01-01

299

Training evaluation: a case study of training Iranian health managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health and Medical Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran has undertaken a reform of its health system, in which-lower level managers are given new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized system. To support these efforts, a United Kingdom-based university was contracted by the World Health Organization to design a series of courses for health managers

Maye Omar; Nancy Gerein; Ehsanullah Tarin; Christopher Butcher; Stephen Pearson; Gholamreza Heidari

2009-01-01

300

Page 1 | B.S. in Public Health | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.S. in Public Health  

E-print Network

Page 1 | B.S. in Public Health | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.S. in Public Health Academic Plan of Study College of Health & Human Services Department of Public Health Sciences publichealth required prior to declaration. Focus on completing Public Health prerequisite curriculum prior to applying

Raja, Anita

301

Farming Activities and Carrying and Lifting: The Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy carrying and lifting (HCL) is a common activity among farmers that may be related to health. The aim of this study was to examine HCL as a proxy for occupational physical activity (PA) among farm residents. The secondary objective was to evaluate PA based on HCL. Methods Data from 21,296 farmers and 30,951 spouses in the Agricultural Health Study examined the relationship between HCL and farm activities and individual/farm characteristics. HCL was categorized as ?1 or <1 hours per day. The association between HCL and farm activities (15 for farmers; 16 for spouses) and individual/farm characteristics was examined using adjusted logistic regression. To evaluate PA, we created a PA activity index using metabolic equivalents for HCL, and compared PA weekly averages with national guidelines. Results In adjusted results, most farm activities were significantly associated with HCL. Based on HCL, farmers had a median of 1.5 hours and spouses 0.5 hours of vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA per day. Most farmers (94%) and about 60% of spouses meet or exceed 2008 national guidelines for vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA. Conclusion Findings suggest the HCL measure may be useful as a PA metric in future studies of occupational PA among farm residents. PMID:22232503

Laditka, Sarah B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Alavanja, Michael; Lee, Duck-chul; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

302

The Outcome of Health Anxiety in Primary Care. A Two-Year Follow-up Study on Health Care Costs and Self-Rated Health  

PubMed Central

Background Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. Methodology/Principal Findings 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18–65 consulting their family physicians (FPs) for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N?=?21) and severe Health anxiety (N?=?81) and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N?=?59) were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N?=?968). Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale). They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36). The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41–78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred significantly less health care costs than the group of patients with a well-defined medical condition. Conclusions/Significance Severe Health anxiety was found to be a disturbing and persistent condition. It is costly for the health care system and must be taken seriously, i.e. diagnosed and treated. This study supports the validity of recently introduced new criteria for Health anxiety. PMID:20352043

Fink, Per; ?rnb?l, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

2010-01-01

303

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

304

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2013 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

305

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2012 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

306

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2014 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

307

SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

308

Health Status and Satisfaction With Health Care: A Longitudinal Study Among Patients Served by the Veterans Health Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with

Xinhua S. Ren; Lewis Kazis; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Susan Pendergrass

2001-01-01

309

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Foundations 3 UF 200 Civic and Ethical Foundations 3 DLM MATH 254 Applied Statistics with Computers 3 DLN BIOL Introduction to Health Informatics HLTHST 300 Pathophysiology HLTHST 314 Health Law and Ethics CID HLTHST 382 Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

310

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Foundations 3 UF 200 Civic and Ethical Foundations 3 DLM MATH 254 Applied Statistics with Computers 3 DLN BIOL Introduction to Health Informatics HLTHST 300 Pathophysiology HLTHST 314 Health Law and Ethics CID HLTHST 382 Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab

Barrash, Warren

311

Catalyzing Transdisciplinary Studies in Public Health: A College Health Survey and Data Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, educators, and service providers recognize that health behaviors and conditions are interdependent, yet they are too often addressed compartmentally. This “silo” approach is unfortunate because it leads to inefficiencies and less effective approaches to prevention. This article describes a process designed to promote better understanding of the interrelatedness of health behaviors and outcomes through a multidimensional Internet-based health survey

Ruth A. Gassman; Jon Agley; Jeanne D. Johnston; Susan E. Middlestadt; Marieke van Puymbroeck; Ahmed H. YoussefAgha

2012-01-01

312

Distance from the Primary Health Center: A GIS method to study geographical access to health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial distance from the dependent Primary Health Center is a crude but objective measure of geographical accessibility to Primary Health care facilities. This report describes a method for calculation of distances between the PHC and the population it serves using the data available from the local health authorities and the Swedish Central Statistical Bureau. The Swedish annual population registration records

S. Kohli; K. Sahlén; Å. Sivertun; O. Löfman; E. Trell; O. Wigertz

1995-01-01

313

Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959

2012-01-01

314

Midlife insomnia and subsequent mortality: the Hordaland health study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Methods Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40–45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR?=?3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR?=?4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR?=?1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (<6.5 hours) was particularly high, whereas insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Conclusions Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low-threshold interventions should consequently be a prioritized task for public health policy. PMID:25024049

2014-01-01

315

Measuring the health and health behaviours of adolescents through cross-national survey research: recent developments in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-national surveys have the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of adolescent health. The Health\\u000a Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was among the first international studies established in three countries in\\u000a 1983 and growing to more than 40 countries for the seventh wave of fieldwork in 2005\\/06. The original aim of the study has\\u000a remained largely

Chris Roberts; Candace Currie; Oddrun Samdal; Dorothy Currie; Rebecca Smith; Lea Maes

2007-01-01

316

An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

2012-01-01

317

Post-migration geographical mobility, mental health and health service utilisation among Somali refugees in the UK: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration is known to be associated with poor health outcomes for certain marginalised and socially disadvantaged populations. This paper reviews a number of reasons why residential mobility in the ‘host’ country may be associated with poor mental health for refugee populations and reports on a qualitative study of Somalis living in London, UK, and their beliefs about the relationship between

Nasir Warfa; Kamaldeep Bhui; Tom Craig; Sarah Curtis; Salaad Mohamud; Stephen Stansfeld; Paul McCrone; Graham Thornicroft

2006-01-01

318

Health inequalities as a foundation for embodying knowledge within public health teaching: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy required to contribute effectively to it. Their knowledge of this subject, their understanding and interpretation of how it could be taught, was not fully understood. Methodology This research aimed to understand how public health nurse educators’ professional knowledge could be conceptualised and to develop a substantive theory of their knowledge of teaching public health, using a qualitative data analysis approach. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews (n=26) were conducted with eleven university-based PHNEs. Results Integrating public health into all aspects of life was seen as central to the knowing and teaching of public health; this was conceptualised as ‘embodying knowledge’. Participants identified the meaning of embodying knowledge for teaching public health as: (a) possessing a wider vision of health; (b) reflecting and learning from experience; and (c) engaging in appropriate pedagogical practices. Conclusion The concept of public health can mean different things to different people. The variations of meaning ascribed to public health reflect the various backgrounds from which the public health workforce is drawn. The analysis indicates that PHNEs are embodying knowledge for teaching through critical pedagogy, which involves them engaging in transformative, interpretive and integrative processes to refashion public health concepts; this requires PHNEs who possess a vision of what to teach, know how to teach, and are able to learn from experience. Their vision of public health is influenced by social justice principles in that health inequalities, socioeconomic determinants of health, epidemiology, and policy and politics are seen as essential areas of the public health curriculum. They believe in forms of teaching that achieve social transformation at individual, behavioural and societal levels, while also enabling learners to recognise their capacity to effect change. PMID:23809694

2013-01-01

319

Long Term Health Study for Oil Spill Clean-up Workers and Volunteers  

MedlinePLUS

... With Us A long term health study for oil spill clean-up workers and volunteers Follow-up underway! ... health study for individuals who helped with the oil spill cleanup, took training, signed up to work, or ...

320

75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addition, the observational study will complement the clinical...Individuals or households and health care providers. Type...Observational Study Participants...941 1 .083 79 Health Care Providers \\1...appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or...

2010-01-20

321

Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

322

40 CFR 725.92 - Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...

2012-07-01

323

40 CFR 725.92 - Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 725.92 - Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...

2011-07-01

325

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Degree 3 Yr Program of Study (NP, Psych/Mental Health)  

E-print Network

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Degree 3 Yr Program of Study (NP, Psych/Mental Health) Fall Clinical I (Psych/Mental Health) 6 (3 lec; 3 clinical lab) 11 credits Fall (Semester 4) 610 Health Care Informatics 3 632 Advanced Clinical II (Psych/Mental Health) 6 (3 lec; 3 clinical lab) 674 DNP Scholarly

Dyer, Bill

326

Health literacy and self-care of patients with heart failure: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Inadequate health literacy, or difficulty in obtaining and understanding health information, may be a barrier in educating patients about their heart failure. ^ Objectives. The first objective of this study was to model the relationship between health literacy, health locus of control, years of formal education, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care in patients with heart failure. The second objective of

Aleda M Chen

2011-01-01

327

Implementation of the health center concept in a rural community: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive health center integrates inpatient, outpatient, and public health services within the same medical and administrative structure. While health centers have been widely delveloped in other countries, only limited implementation has occured in the United States. This case study documents the successful implementation of the health center concept in a sparsely populated area of northwestern New Mexico. This remote

Richard A. Reid; Edward E. Bartlett; Richard Kozoll

1981-01-01

328

Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928) representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 %) had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 %) were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 %) received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %). The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 %) or behavioural-cognitive (26 %) nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %). Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %). Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention) did (p < 0.001). Most inmates had a number of defined problem areas, with substance use, depression, anxiety, and personality disorders most prevalent. Three percent of all inmates were treated for a psychotic disorder. Remand prisoners averaged 14 sessions per week per 100 inmates, while sentenced inmates and those on preventive detention averaged 22 and 25 sessions per week per 100 inmates, respectively. Five out of six psychiatric health services estimated the inmates' psychiatric therapy needs as adequately met, both overall and in the majority of individual cases. Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should take other important informants, including the inmates themselves, into consideration. PMID:16759383

Kjelsberg, Ellen; Hartvig, Paal; Bowitz, Harald; Kuisma, Irene; Norbech, Peder; Rustad, Aase-Bente; Seem, Marthe; Vik, Tom-Gunnar

2006-01-01

329

Assessing availability of scientific journals, databases, and health library services in Canadian health ministries: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries. Objectives To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. Methods From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors. Results We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries’ average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries (i.e. Manitoba Health, Northwest Territories Department of Health and Social Services, Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services and Yukon Department of Health and Social Services). Conclusions There is inequity in availability of peer-reviewed research in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. This inequity could present a problem, as each province and territory is responsible for formulating and implementing evidence-informed health policies and services for the benefit of its population. PMID:23514333

2013-01-01

330

California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

2012-01-01

331

[Methodology of studying health based on population register].  

PubMed

Morbidity among the Moscow population receiving medical care at clinical hospital No. 85 and among workers, particularly those occupationally exposed to harmful factors, has been studied using an original system of automated processing of medical statistical information. The structure and incidence of the major groups of diseases has been studied in comparison with the mean data for Moscow. Total morbidity of adults and adolescents in 1998 was 1408/1000, which is close to the level for the whole Moscow (1396/1000). Morbidity among men was 1249/1000, which is lower than among women (1595/1000), while the incidence of diseases with temporary disability, primary invalidity, and mortality are higher among men. Population health is better in a relatively closed and socially protected population attached to a single institution in Moscow than in Russia in general; specifically, the incidence of infectious diseases and injuries is lower. PMID:10761420

Tarasova, G V; Tseka, O S; Maslennikov, M F; Ladygina, I D

2000-01-01

332

Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

2000-01-01

333

Health Woes to Worsen Due to Climate Change, Study Warns  

MedlinePLUS

... years, goes on to argue that reductions in fossil fuel combustion could result in substantial health and economic benefits. The three major fossil fuels are coal, oil and natural gas. "The health ...

334

Emergency preparedness training for public health nurses: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbia Center for Public Health Preparedness, in partnership with the New York City Department of Health, recently developed\\u000a an emergency preparedness training program for public health workers. A pilot training program was conducted for a group of\\u000a school health nurses and evaluated using a pre\\/posttest design. A surprising finding was that 90% of the nurses reported at\\u000a least one

Kristine A. Qureshi; Jacqueline A. Merrill; Robyn R. M. Gershon; Ayxa Calero-Breckheimer

2002-01-01

335

An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

2011-01-01

336

Risk factors for skin cancers: a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We examined the associations of constitutional risk factors and sun exposure with the risks of three types of skin cancer simultaneously and evaluated the interaction between constitutional susceptibility and sun exposure in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (200 melanoma, 275 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 283 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 804 controls). Information

Jiali Han; Graham A Colditz; David J Hunter

2006-01-01

337

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

338

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies PHE/KIN Strength and Conditioning Stream  

E-print Network

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies PHE/KIN Strength and Conditioning Stream EARN CREDITS several years, the School of Kinesiology and Health Studies has been offering for credit, an academic mini and the School of Kinesiology and Health Studies and will provide students with hands-on learning in a highly

Abolmaesumi, Purang

339

nursenorthern Northern Illinois University School of Nursing and Health Studies 2012  

E-print Network

nursenorthern Northern Illinois University School of Nursing and Health Studies 2012 #12;A as the new Chair of the School of Nursing and Health Studies at NIU. Nursing at Northern has a long. The School of Nursing and Health Studies continues to grow. Last year, 151students graduated from NIU

Kostic, Milivoje M.

340

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort Karine Pérès1 studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Sociological Traditions in the Study of Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

355 Sociological accounts of the utilization of mental health services echo the conceptual frameworks and language that have long been the domain of the discipline. There is a rich tradition of research describing individuals who use care and their interactions with health care professionals and the institutions that define the mental health care system. This body of research demonstrates that

Donna D. McAlpine; Carol A. Boyer

342

Multicenter Study of Limited Health Literacy in Emergency Department Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of limited health literacy and its association with sociodemographic variables in emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in three Boston EDs. The authors enrolled consecutive adult patients during two 24-hour periods at each site. They measured health literacy by the short version of the Test of Functional Health

Adit A. Ginde; Scott G. Weiner; Daniel J. Pallin; Carlos A. Camargo Jr

2008-01-01

343

Why Employed Latinos Lack Health Insurance: A Study in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the relative importance of several factors believed to reduce the likelihood of health insurance coverage among working Latinos in California, including cost, immigration history, availability of insurance, beliefs about insurance, and beliefs about health and health care. According to a survey of 1,000 randomly selected…

Greenwald, Howard P.; O'Keefe, Suzanne; DiCamillo, Mark

2005-01-01

344

Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.  

PubMed

All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work. "Organizations that understand their business processes are having no trouble whatsoever justifying the cost of optical storage-based information management systems," said Thornton May, director of imaging research at Nolan Norton Institute. "It is only confusing to organizations that do not have a feel for what is happening in the flow of work in the company. If an organization has on-line performance measurements with regard to time, cost, quality, error rates, and customer service, the move to optical image and data management technology is a no-brainer."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10119028

Kohn, D

1992-05-01

345

Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-01

346

Maternal Cultural Participation and Child Health Status in a Middle Eastern Context: Evidence from the Urban Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The negative effect of poverty on child health has been well established. However, rapid urbanization in developing countries prompts new research questions relating to socio-cultural practices and other related variables in these settings. Objective To examine the association between maternal cultural participation and child health status in impoverished neighbourhoods of Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1,241 mothers with children under 5 years was conducted from randomly selected households in three impoverished neighbourhoods of diverse ethnic and religious make-up. The outcome variable was child health status (good/bad) as assessed by the mother. Maternal variables, including cultural participation, education, demographic, and environmental/structural factors were studied. Descriptive statistics and bivariate associations were provided using Pearson’s ?2 tests. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were then obtained from binary logistic regression models. Results Two indicators of maternal cultural participation, namely watching entertaining television and attending movies/art exhibitions, were found to be significantly associated to child health status after controlling for other risk factors. The quality of water, the quality of local health services, and maternal education were also significantly associated with child health status. Household income, child gender, and household dampness had no significant association with child health status in this context. Conclusion Maternal cultural participation was a significant predictor of child health status in impoverished urban communities. Improving child health through culturally focused interventions for mothers, especially in deprived areas, may be great. PMID:17291314

Khawaja, Marwan; Barazi, Rana; Linos, Natalie

2006-01-01

347

The relationship between self-rated health and objective health status: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the public health field. However, whether SRH can reflect the objective health status is still debatable. We aim to reveal the relationship between SRH and objective health status in the general population. Methods We assessed the relationship between SRH and objective health status by examining the prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and some health-related factors in different SRH groups. Data were collected from 18,000 residents randomly sampled from the general population in five cities of China (3,600 in each city). SRH was assessed by a single-item health measure with five options: “very good,” “good,” “fair,” “bad,” and “very bad.” The differences in prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and health-related factors between the “healthy” (very good plus good), “relatively healthy” (fair), and “unhealthy” (bad plus very bad) groups were examined. The odds ratios (ORs) referenced by the healthy group were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of all diseases was associated with poorer SRH. The tendency was more prominent in cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, visual impairment, and mental illnesses with larger ORs. Residents with abnormalities in laboratory parameters tended to have poorer SRH, with ORs ranging from 1.62 (for triglyceride) to 3.48 (for hemoglobin among men) in a comparison of the unhealthy and healthy groups. Most of the health-related factors regarded as risks were associated with poorer SRH. Among them, life and work pressure, poor spiritual status, and poor quality of interpersonal relationships were the most significant factors. Conclusions SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. PMID:23570559

2013-01-01

348

Radiation worker health study: Scoping phase: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a scope of work for an epidemiologic study of the health of workers at nuclear utilities. We propose a study of cancer mortality among electric utility personnel assigned to nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of the study is to provide information to assist in maintaining a healthy work environment in electric utilities; such information would also help to resolve some uncertainties about the effects of low-level ionizing radiation by providing direct observation of human beings exposed at low doses and dose rates. Workers at each nuclear generating station would be identified from company records, their dose histories would be collected, and their vital status would be ascertained as well as cause of death, if deceased. This study would be historical in that past records would be used and prospective in that employees would continue to be followed in future years. Our estimates indicate that a study population composed of employees and contractors at all commercial nuclear generating stations would total approximately 2,000,000 person-years of observation and would be adequate to detect (or exclude) a 50 percent increase in leukemia with reasonable statistical power. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Dreyer, N.A.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Loughlin, J.E.

1988-11-01

349

Center for Health Administration Studies (CHAS) at the University of Chicago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Health Administration Studies (CHAS) at the University of Chicago offers health and demographic statistics and raw data for Chicago and Illinois as well as an annotated index of local and national health-policy related data. The site also offers information about CHAS and the University of Chicago Graduate Program in Health Administration and Policy, and schedules of health policy workshops and other related local events.

1998-01-01

350

Privatisation in reproductive health services in Pakistan: three case studies.  

PubMed

Privatisation in Pakistan's health sector was part of the Structural Adjustment Programme that started in 1998 following the country's acute foreign exchange crisis. This paper examines three examples of privatisation which have taken place in service delivery, management and capacity-building functions in the health sector: 1) large-scale contracting out of publicly-funded health services to private, not-for-profit organisations; 2) social marketing/franchising networks providing reproductive health services; and 3) a public-private partnership involving a consortium of private players and the government of Pakistan. It assesses the extent to which these initiatives have contributed to promoting equitable access to good quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. The paper concludes that these forms of privatisation in Pakistan's health sector have at best made available a limited range of fragmented reproductive health services, often of sub-optimal quality, to a fraction of the population, with poor returns in terms of health and survival, especially for women. This analysis has exposed a deep-rooted malaise within the health system as an important contributor to this situation. Sustained investment in health system strengthening is called for, where resources from both public and private sectors are channelled towards achieving health equity, under the stewardship of the state and with active participation by and accountability to members of civil society. PMID:21111347

Ravindran, T K Sundari

2010-11-01

351

Enhancing health programme efficiency: a Cambodian case study.  

PubMed

In 1995, the Cambodian Urban Health Care Association (CUHCA) was set up as facilitator between private health care providers and patients, guaranteeing good quality health care and fair pricing to patients and providing training and logistic support to providers. Providers were engaged on a fee-for-service basis and competition encouraged. CUHCA's objectives followed the same line of thought as the 1993 World Development Report, aiming at influencing the unregulated private health care market through competition mechanisms. But soon after the start of the project the basic problem was recognized to be not the absence of effective government regulation but rather that consumers lack the requisite knowledge to make good choices in the market for health services. CUHCA had not adequately addressed the demand for health services. The original supply-side strategy of improving health services by increasing competition was a failure. In order to improve CUHCA's health programme efficiency the association's objectives were subsequently redefined and its functioning reorganized. CUHCA now tries to educate consumers and provides good quality services so that consumers will be able to act on the basis of their newly acquired knowledge. CUHCA's health centres serve as model clinics for first-line health care. Community educators organize information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Staff help school teachers to improve formal health education in schools and CUHCA assists local leaders in sanitation development. Only full-time personnel are employed, encouraging team spirit and communication with the target population. Salaries are based on team performance. The CUHCA programme demonstrates that, depending on the market situation, health programme models need to address both the supply and the demand for services in order to be efficient. Where consumers lack essential knowledge to make appropriate choices in the health service market, interventions should focus on health education and social marketing and provide models of quality care catering to informed consumer choice. PMID:10187596

Stuer, F

1998-09-01

352

Harvest for Health Gardening Intervention Feasibility Study in Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and functional decline. Evidence suggests that a healthful diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve health in this population. Methods We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate a vegetable gardening intervention that paired 12 adult and child cancer survivors with Master Gardeners to explore effects on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, quality-of-life, and physical function. Throughout the year-long study period, the survivor-Master Gardener dyads worked together to plan/plant 3 gardens, harvest/rotate plantings, and troubleshoot/correct problems. Data on diet, physical activity, and quality-of-life were collected via surveys; anthropometrics and physical function were objectively measured. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed with a structured debriefing survey. Results The gardening intervention was feasible (robust enrollment; minimal attrition) and well-received by cancer survivors and Master Gardeners. Improvement in 3 of 4 objective measures of strength, agility, and endurance was observed in 90% of survivors, with the following change scores (median [interquartile range]) noted between baseline and 1-year follow-up: hand grip test (+4.8 [3.0, 6.7] kg), 8 foot Get-Up-and-Go (?1.0 [?1.8, ?0.2] seconds), 30-second chair stand (+3.0 [?1.0, 5.0] stands), and 6-minute walk (+38 [20, 160] feet). Increases of ?1 fruit and vegetable serving/ day and ?30 minutes/week of physical activity were observed in 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusion These preliminary results support the feasibility and acceptability of a mentored gardening intervention and suggest that it may offer a novel and promising strategy to improve fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and physical function in cancer survivors. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our results. PMID:23438359

Blair, Cindy K.; Madan-Swain, Avi; Locher, Julie L.; Desmond, Renee A.; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Affuso, Olivia; Glover, Tony; Smith, Kerry; Carley, Joseph; Lipsitz, Mindy; Sharma, Ayushe; Krontiras, Helen; Cantor, Alan; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

2013-01-01

353

Research Resources for Graduate Students in Kinesiology and Health Studies Librarian for Kinesiology and Health Studies: Michele Chittenden chittend@queensu.ca  

E-print Network

Research Resources for Graduate Students in Kinesiology and Health Studies Librarian for Kinesiology and Health Studies: Michele Chittenden chittend@queensu.ca Office: Stauffer Library, room 120b useful results): Example: ethics NOT bioethics 2 #12;3 Subject Headings Many Kinesiology

Graham, Nick

354

The need for the “new health geography” in epidemiologic studies of environment and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth during the past decade in what can be broadly referred to as social and environmental epidemiologic research has been an important contributor to an emerging understanding of environment and health relationships. While the incorporation of geographic information systems as well as concepts such as “neighborhoods” might be viewed as evidence of social epidemiology moving closer to health geography, I

Malcolm P. Cutchin

2007-01-01

355

Health Professions Education Linkages: Community-Based Primary Care Training. State Policy Reports. Health Policy Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report synthesizes a number of policy and implementation issues raised during a forum on the development of partnerships between community and migrant health centers (C/MHCs) and health professions education programs to support community-based primary care training. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, while chapter 2 provides an overview of…

Curley, Timothy; And Others

356

E-Health Literacy Competencies among Undergraduate Health Education Students: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Because of the widespread access to health information on the Internet, researchers have begun to investigate e-health literacy skills among college students. Preliminary findings indicate that the general population of college students may not have adequate skills to sufficiently search for, locate, and/or evaluate electronic sources…

Hanik, Bruce; Stellefson, Michael

2011-01-01

357

Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical activity may benefit from greater insight in the tensions between health behaviours and masculinity. PMID:21092090

2010-01-01

358

Can the right to health inform public health planning in developing countries? A case study for maternal healthcare from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in developing countries despite international advocacy, development targets, and simple, affordable and effective interventions. In recent years, regard for maternal mortality as a human rights issue as well as one that pertains to health, has emerged. Objective We study a case of maternal death using a theoretical framework derived from the right to health to examine access to and quality of maternal healthcare. Our objective was to explore the potential of rights-based frameworks to inform public health planning from a human rights perspective. Design Information was elicited as part of a verbal autopsy survey investigating maternal deaths in rural settings in Indonesia. The deceased's relatives were interviewed to collect information on medical signs, symptoms and the social, cultural and health systems circumstances surrounding the death. Results In this case, a prolonged, severe fever and a complicated series of referrals culminated in the death of a 19-year-old primagravida at 7 months gestation. The cause of death was acute infection. The woman encountered a range of barriers to access; behavioural, socio-cultural, geographic and economic. Several serious health system failures were also apparent. The theoretical framework derived from the right to health identified that none of the essential elements of the right were upheld. Conclusion The rights-based approach could identify how and where to improve services. However, there are fundamental and inherent conflicts between the public health tradition (collective and preventative) and the right to health (individualistic and curative). As a result, and in practice, the right to health is likely to be ineffective for public health planning from a human rights perspective. Collective rights such as the right to development may provide a more suitable means to achieve equity and social justice in health planning. PMID:20027244

D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Nurul Qomariyah, Siti

2008-01-01

359

The meaning of occupational health among human resources professionals--a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The study findings provide clear rationale for employing occupational health nurses as specialists in understanding occupational health, particularly in the areas of information seeking (e.g., identifying health resources and best practices) and illness or disability management (e.g., managing complex cases and addressing psychosocial factors). Occupational health nurses can assist human resources professionals to direct their energies to administrative and cultural features within their organizations that impact the health of employees and that clearly fall within their realm of expertise (e.g., working to create a workplace climate of genuine concern for employees). Occupational health nurses can provide aggregate information on the health of the work force to strategically encourage, direct, and harness employer investments in workplace health. Finding ways to translate and communicate workplace health information so it is accessible and useable by employers to direct decision making is a key role for occupational health nurses. PMID:16800405

Blizzard, Kim

2006-06-01

360

A Prospective Study of Church Attendance and Health Over the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the current study was to help clarify the previously ambiguous results concerning the relationship between church attendance and later physical health. Design: The current study examined the effect of church attendance on 4 different indicators of later health in a sample of inner city men followed throughout their lifecourse. Measures of previous health status, mood, substance

Laura B. Koenig; George E. Vaillant

2009-01-01

361

Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

2010-01-01

362

Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional,

Kathleen M Griffiths; Helen Christensen; Anthony F Jorm

2009-01-01

363

Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access Among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health

Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

2005-01-01

364

PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies  

E-print Network

1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences

Sheridan, Jennifer

365

Media coverage of health issues and how to work more effectively with journalists: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. METHODS: The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on

Julie Leask; Claire Hooker; Catherine King

2010-01-01

366

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

367

The Long Reach of Childhood Health and Circumstance: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study  

PubMed Central

We use data from the Whitehall II Study to examine the joint evolution of health status and economic status over the life course. We study the links between health and socioeconomic status in childhood and health and employment status at older ages. We find early life socioeconomic status is significantly associated with health over the life course, even though selection into Whitehall mutes the effects of childhood. In addition, we find that current position in the civil service is not associated with future self-assessed health, but current self-assessed health is significantly associated with promotion in the civil service. PMID:22228912

Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

2011-01-01

368

Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study  

PubMed Central

Background This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. Methods/Design The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600), as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands. The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization), mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study) and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose. This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees. PMID:15070416

Gerritsen, Annette AM; Bramsen, Inge; Deville, Walter; van Willigen, Loes HM; Hovens, Johannes E; van der Ploeg, Henk M

2004-01-01

369

Health-related beliefs and experiences of Gypsies and Travellers: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To illuminate findings of the survey of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers by exploring their health?related beliefs and experiences. Design Qualitative study of a purposive subsample from in?depth interviews using framework analysis. Setting The homes or alternative community settings of the participants in five geographically dispersed study locations in England. Participants 27 Gypsies and Travellers with an experience of ill health, purposively sampled from a larger population participating in an epidemiological survey of health status. Results The experience of poor health and daily encounters of ill health among extended family members were normalised and accepted. Four major themes emerged relating to health beliefs and the effect of lifestyle on health for these respondents: the travelling way; low expectations of health; self?reliance and staying in control; fatalism and fear of death. These themes dominated accounts of health experience and were relevant to the experience. These themes add richness to the health status data and inform our understanding. Conclusions Among Gypsies and Travellers, coherent cultural beliefs and attitudes underpin health?related behaviour, and health experiences must be understood in this context. In this group, ill health is seen as normal, an inevitable consequence of adverse social experiences, and is stoically and fatalistically accepted. The provision of effective healthcare and improvement of poor health in Gypsies and Travellers will require multi?agency awareness of these issues. PMID:17325396

Van Cleemput, Patrice; Parry, Glenys; Thomas, Kate; Peters, Jean; Cooper, Cindy

2007-01-01

370

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative  

E-print Network

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P

Tang, Hua

371

Studying the striving and opposing forces in newspaper journalism: the actantial model of health promotion.  

PubMed

The cultural aspects of health promotion are important in policy development as well as in assessing effectiveness of health promotion activities. The discourses on promoting health and well-being in journalism reflect the health promotion culture in society. This article illustrates how health promotion is portrayed by 147 newspaper items from the two Finnish quality dailies during the period 2002-2004 and introduces a semiotic Actantial Model of Health Promotion (AMHP) for studying health promotion cultures. The most popular news themes on health promotion were physical and social environment, welfare services, nutrition and obesity, and mental well-being. The actants (actors, actions and abstract factor) of health promotion were identified and the AMHP with seven key actants (generator, health-object, public, tool, executor, threat and obstacle) was constructed. The model sheds light on two sides of health promotion discourses in journalism. The dominant culture of health promotion was represented by policy actions, information, education and scientific research, which were defined by health experts, decision-makers and researchers. Representations of the opposite culture--'the otherness' of health promotion included external harmful factors and unhealthy behaviours, mentalities opposed to being health-oriented, rationally uncontrolled living, disorder, disharmony and insecurity. The opposing factors were presented by people and institutions lacking the will, ability or motivation for a health-oriented life. To understand better the values of health promotion, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of the opposite side of health promotion culture, because the current dominant values can be described more clearly by the boundaries--by 'otherness'. The study argues that the AMHP can be used as a semiotic method to identify the value dimensions and the boundaries between the dominant and the opposite discourses of health promotion in various communications such as advertising and health education. Also, it provides a tool for the analysis of the media's role in 'victimization' or 'heroization' of various population groups. PMID:16567361

Aarva, Pauliina; Tampere, Marja Pakarinen

2006-06-01

372

Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741

Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

2014-09-01

373

[Indoor air pollution and health: study of various problems].  

PubMed

Human beings are living between 70 and 90% inside of premises, where numerous air pollutants are existing: some of them have outdoor sources (industry, domestic burning, car traffic), some are produced indoors by human activities and equipment, by animals, or by various materials, products and furniture. According to their nature, they are listed as biological, physical or chemical pollutants. About health, serious poisonings and acute effects attributed to indoor air pollutants, and even short term effects (like sick building syndrome, infectious illness, pneumopathies,...), can be relatively easy to distinguish. Inversely the involvement of these pollutants in long term effects (like chronic bronchitis, asthma, cancers,...) is more difficult to establish. During the last 15 years we carried out several studies, which allowed us to separate the chemical air contaminants into two categories: those produced outdoors (sulphur dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, nitrates), of whom we calculated the penetration coefficients, and those from both origin, outside and inside (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, aldehydes, particles, cadmium, vanadium, sulphates, ammonium salts). Aldehydes, which present important health risks, were especially investigated: in an office where several cigarettes were burning the measured concentrations were high in comparison with the threshold values existing in some foreign countries; in a cafeteria they were relatively low. To estimate the impregnation of non smokers by environmental tobacco smoke, we also determined, during same spaces of time, on the one hand nicotine in air, on the other hand nicotine and its metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed people. We thus observed that, in "real" situations, this impregnation is as a general rule extremely low. PMID:8038995

Viala, A

1994-01-01

374

Fish Health Study Ashtabula River Natural Resource Damage Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The Ashtabula River is located in northeast Ohio, flowing into Lake Erie at Ashtabula, Ohio. Tributaries include Fields Brook, Hubbard Run, Strong Brook, and Ashtabula Creek. The bottom sediments, bank soils and biota of Fields Brook have been severely contaminated by unregulated discharges of hazardous substances. Hazardous substances have migrated downstream from Fields Brook to the Ashtabula River and Harbor, contaminating bottom sediments, fish and wildlife. There are presently more than 1,000,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediment in the Ashtabula River and Harbor, much of which originated from Fields Brook. Contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethenes, hexachlorobutadiene, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic chemicals, heavy metals and low level radionuclides. A Preassessment Screen, using existing data, was completed for the Ashtabula River and Harbor on May 18, 2001. Among the findings was that the fish community at Ashtabula contained approximately 45 percent fewer species and 52 percent fewer individuals than the Ohio EPA designated reference area, Conneaut Creek. The Ashtabula River and Conneaut Creek are similar in many respects, with the exception of the presence of contamination at Ashtabula. The difference in the fish communities between the two sites is believed to be at least partially a result of the hazardous substance contamination at Ashtabula. In order to investigate this matter further, the Trustees elected to conduct a study of the status and health of the aquatic biological communities of the Ashtabula River and Conneaut Creek in 2002-2004. The following document contains brief method descriptions (more detail available in attached Appendix A) and a summary of the data used to evaluate the health status of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected from the above sites.

Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Baumann, P.C.

2006-01-01

375

Th-U-total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adelaide rift complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemo-stratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but reliable depositional age constraints have been extremely limited. We report results of in situ Th-U-total Pb (electron microprobe) dating of detrital and authigenic monazite in two samples from the Umberatana Group (Sturtian Holowilena Ironstone and pre-Marinoan Enorama Shale) in the Central Flinders Ranges. Several texturally and chemically distinct detrital and authigenic populations are recognized. Detrital dates range from 1600 Ma to 760 Ma and most relate to well-known orogenic or igneous events in surrounding cratonic regions. Authigenic monazite grew in three or more pulses ranging from 680 Ma to 500 Ma. The date of 680 ± 23 Ma (2 ?) for the earliest generation of authigenic monazite in sandstone from the Enorama Shale (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) supports proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China, which bracket the presumed Marinoan equivalents between 655 and 635 Ma. This age is inconsistent with a Re-Os isochron age of 643 ± 2.4 Ma (2 ?) on shales near the bottom of the Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial succession, stratigraphically > 3000 m below the Enorama Shale sample, and militate against the hypothesis that the type Marinoan is correlative with the 580 Ma Gaskiers glaciation. Monazite growth near 600 Ma and again at about 500 Ma probably represent hydrothermal fluid-flow events, the latter of which also corresponds to the well-known Delamerian Orogeny during which the Adelaide sediments were folded into their present structural pattern.

Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

2010-01-01

376

Health Status, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context, and Premature Mortality in the United States: The National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether the risk of premature mortality associated with living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods varies according to the health status of individuals. Methods. Community-dwelling adults (n?=?566?402; age?=?50–71 years) in 6 US states and 2 metropolitan areas participated in the ongoing prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, which began in 1995. We used baseline data for 565?679 participants on health behaviors, self-rated health status, and medical history, collected by mailed questionnaires. Participants were linked to 2000 census data for an index of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. The main outcome was all-cause mortality ascertained through 2006. Results. In adjusted survival analyses of persons in good-to-excellent health at baseline, risk of mortality increased with increasing levels of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. Neighborhood socioeconomic mortality disparities among persons in fair-to-poor health were not statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, educational achievement, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Conclusions. Neighborhood socioeconomic inequalities lead to large disparities in risk of premature mortality among healthy US adults but not among those in poor health. PMID:21852636

Schootman, Mario; Major, Jacqueline M.; Torres Stone, Rosalie A.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Park, Yikyung; Lian, Min; Messer, Lynne; Graubard, Barry I.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur

2012-01-01

377

A case study of a distance-based public health nursing/community health nursing practicum.  

PubMed

Facilitating a distance-based public health/community health nursing practicum for RN to BSN students posed challenges and opportunities. Challenges included time involved in arranging the practicum, relationship building with agencies and staff, communicating with students, and the need for flexible practicum scheduling. Exposure to practice models from across the nation allowed students to compare and contrast these public health nursing models. Programs planning to offer this type of course should consider faculty workload particularly during the semester prior to teaching the practicum. PMID:15860072

Vandenhouten, Christine; Block, Derryl

2005-01-01

378

Health care study on industry perspective on health reform. The Boston Consulting Group.  

PubMed

Many senior health care executives support President Clinton's health care reform objectives, although they question the government's ability to execute reform and control escalating health care costs, according to a survey released by The Boston Consulting Group. The survey also revealed that the majority of those interviewed endorse managed competition and believe that universal coverage is the right goal to pursue. Seventy-five CEOs or senior executives at some of the nation's largest teaching and community hospitals, HMOs, pharmaceutical companies, and medical suppliers were interviewed by The Boston Consulting Group for the survey. PMID:10129689

1993-11-01

379

Marijuana and Health. Report of a Study by a Committee of the Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Sciences Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, written for the general public, presents the results of a 15-month study of the health-related effects of marijuana. The introduction describes the goals and procedure for the study, including the composition of the 22-member steering committee and its functions, and the sources of information used for the study, i.e., published…

Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

380

The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health. PMID:20507632

2010-01-01

381

Enabling pathways to health equity: developing a framework for implementing social capital in practice  

PubMed Central

Background Mounting evidence linking aspects of social capital to health and wellbeing outcomes, in particular to reducing health inequities, has led to intense interest in social capital theory within public health in recent decades. As a result, governments internationally are designing interventions to improve health and wellbeing by addressing levels of social capital in communities. The application of theory to practice is uneven, however, reflecting differing views on the pathways between social capital and health, and divergent theories about social capital itself. Unreliable implementation may restrict the potential to contribute to health equity by this means, yet to date there has been limited investigation of how the theory is interpreted at the level of policy and then translated into practice. Methods The paper outlines a collaborative research project designed to address this knowledge deficit in order to inform more effective implementation. Undertaken in partnership with government departments, the study explored the application of social capital theory in programs designed to promote health and wellbeing in Adelaide, South Australia. It comprised three case studies of community-based practice, employing qualitative interviews and focus groups with community participants, practitioners, program managers and policy makers, to examine the ways in which the concept was interpreted and operationalized and identify the factors influencing success. These key lessons informed the development of practical resources comprising a guide for practitioners and briefing for policy makers. Results Overall the study showed that effective community projects can contribute to population health and wellbeing and reducing health inequities. Of specific relevance to this paper, however, is the finding that community projects rely for their effectiveness on a broader commitment expressed through policies and frameworks at the highest level of government decision making. In particular this relationship requires long term vision, endorsement for cross-sectoral work, well-developed relationships and theoretical and practical knowledge. Conclusions Attention to the practical application of social capital theory shows that community projects require structural support in their efforts to improve health and wellbeing and reduce health inequities. Sound community development techniques are essential but do not operate independently from frameworks and policies at the highest levels of government. Recognition of the interdependence of policy and practice will enable government to achieve these goals more effectively. PMID:23714388

2013-01-01

382

Telecommunications as a Means to Access Health Information: An Exploratory Study of Migrants in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers’ access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers’ preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. Design and Methods A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Results Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community. PMID:25170467

Greenstock, Louise; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Bingham, Amie; Naccarella, Lucio; Elliott, Kristine; Morris, Michal

2012-01-01

383

Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

1996-02-01

384

Lessons from the look action for health in diabetes study.  

PubMed

The Look Action for Health in Diabetes AHEAD Study was designed as a long-term randomized controlled clinical trial and powered to detect differences in cardiovascular outcomes, the primary cause of early morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes, among subjects randomized to receive an intensive lifestyle intervention or a control group of diabetes support and education. The study was terminated early due to the absence of any difference in the primary outcome, defined as a composite of the first postrandomization occurrence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, or angina requiring hospitalization. However, important secondary favorable outcomes were observed in those receiving the intensive lifestyle intervention. This included more weight loss, greater fitness, less disability, less depression, reductions in sleep apnea and urinary incontinence, better glycemic control, and more subjects experiencing diabetes remission. These results underscore the importance of lifestyle interventions as a component of diabetes therapy. Long-term follow-up of Look AHEAD participants is planned, despite discontinuation of the intensive lifestyle program. PMID:24910828

Korytkowski, Mary T

2013-12-01

385

Seafood processing in South Africa: a study of working practices, occupational health services and allergic health problems in the industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work practices, occupational health services and allergic health problems among workplaces which process seafood in Western Cape province of South Africa were examined. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 68 workplaces that were sent a self-administered postal survey questionnaire. Workplaces reporting a high prevalence of work-related symptoms associated with seafood exposure were also inspected. Forty- one (60%) workplaces responded

M. F. Jeebhay; A. L. Lopata; T. G. Robins

386

Lessons from case studies of integrating mental health into primary health care in South Africa and Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income\\u000a countries (LMICs), implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation\\u000a framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration\\u000a sites.

Inge Petersen; Joshua Ssebunnya; Arvin Bhana; Kim Baillie

2011-01-01

387

The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.Design Health impact assessment study.Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.Participants 181 982 Bicing subscribers.Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity,

David Rojas-Rueda; Audrey de Nazelle; Marko Tainio; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen

2011-01-01

388

Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center Case Study 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arroyo Fresco (AF) is a community health center (CHC) serving western Arizona from 11 clinics and 4 mobile service vans. CHCs, established over the past 40 years in underserved areas in all 50 states, are nonprofit, community-owned health care organizatio...

2006-01-01

389

Occupational Health and Industrial Wind Turbines: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wind turbines (IWTs) are being installed at a fast pace globally. Researchers, medical practitioners, and media have reported adverse health effects resulting from living in the environs of IWTs. While there have been some anecdotal reports from technicians and other workers who work in the environs of IWTs, little is known about the occupational health sector. The purpose of

Robert W. Rand; Stephen E. Ambrose; Carmen M. E. Krogh

2011-01-01

390

Health Literacy and Happiness: A Community-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…

Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.

2010-01-01

391

HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES COUNTRY CASE STUDY: NORTHERN UGANDA  

E-print Network

for Institutionalizing Child Survival (BASICS) for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). U: globalhealth@phnip.com www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health BASICS 4245 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 850 Arlington, VA for this publication was provided by USAID Bureau for Global Health BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child

Scharfstein, Daniel

392

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

2011-01-01

393

Association between parity and dentition status among Japanese women: Japan public health center-based oral health study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that parity is associated with oral health problems such as tooth loss and dental caries. In Japan, however, no studies have examined the association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parity is related to dentition status, including the number of teeth present, dental caries and filled teeth, and the posterior occlusion, in a Japanese population by comparing women with men. Methods A total of 1,211 subjects, who participated both in the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990 and the dental survey in 2005, were used for the study. Information on parity or number of children was collected from a self-completed questionnaire administered in 1990 for the JPHC Study Cohort I, and health behaviors and clinical dentition status were obtained from the dental survey in 2005. The association between parity or number of children and dentition status was analyzed, by both unadjusted-for and adjusted-for socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, using a generalized linear regression model. Results Parity is significantly related to the number of teeth present and n-FTUs (Functional Tooth Units of natural teeth), regardless of socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, in female subjects. The values of these variables had a significantly decreasing trend with the rise of parity: numbers of teeth present (p for trend = 0.046) and n-FTUs (p for trend = 0.026). No relationships between the number of children and dentition status were found in male subjects. Conclusion Higher-parity women are more likely to lose teeth, especially posterior occluding relations. These results suggest that measures to narrow the discrepancy by parity should be taken for promoting women’s oral health. Delivery of appropriate information and messages to pregnant women as well as enlightenment of oral health professionals about dental management of pregnant women may be an effective strategy. PMID:24144183

2013-01-01

394

A Viewpoint on Evidence-based Health Informatics, Based on a Pilot Survey on Evaluation Studies in Health Care Informatics  

PubMed Central

Concerned about evidence-based health informatics, the authors conducted a limited pilot survey attempting to determine how many IT evaluation studies in health care are never published, and why. A survey distributed to 722 academics had a low response rate, with 136 respondents giving instructive comments on 217 evaluation studies. Of those studies, half were published in international journals, and more than one-third were never published. Reasons for not publishing (with multiple reasons per study possible) included: “results not of interest for others” (1/3 of all studies), “publication in preparation” (1/3), “no time for publication” (1/5), “limited scientific quality of study” (1/6), “political or legal reasons” (1/7), and “study only conducted for internal use” (1/8). Those reasons for non-publication in health informatics resembled those reported in other fields. Publication bias (preference for positive studies) did not appear to be a major issue. The authors believe that widespread application of guidelines in conducting health informatics evaluation studies and utilization of a registry for evaluation study results could improve the evidence base of the field. PMID:17329724

Ammenwerth, Elske; de Keizer, Nicolette

2007-01-01

395

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed Central

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-01-01

396

Health sector reform in Brazil: a case study of inequity.  

PubMed

Health sector reform in Brazil built the Unified Health System according to a dense body of administrative instruments for organizing decentralized service networks and institutionalizing a complex decision-making arena. This article focuses on the equity in health care services. Equity is defined as a principle governing distributive functions designed to reduce or offset socially unjust inequalities, and it is applied to evaluate the distribution of financial resources and the use of health services. Even though in the Constitution the term "equity" refers to equal opportunity of access for equal needs, the implemented policies have not guaranteed these rights. Underfunding, fiscal stress, and lack of priorities for the sector have contributed to a progressive deterioration of health care services, with continuing regressive tax collection and unequal distribution of financial resources among regions. The data suggest that despite regulatory measures to increase efficiency and reduce inequalities, delivery of health care services remains extremely unequal across the country. People in lower income groups experience more difficulties in getting access to health services. Utilization rates vary greatly by type of service among income groups, positions in the labor market, and levels of education. PMID:10707303

Almeida, C; Travassos, C; Porto, S; Labra, M E

2000-01-01

397

Structuring mental health within senior services: a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latinos.  

PubMed

The article presents a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latino older adults. The study explored staff perceptions on the clinic development and the context within an immigrant multicultural community. The study used in-depth, semistructured interviews with support staff, clinical social workers, and administrators. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic content analysis. The mental health clinic formation was perceived by staff as an ecological process stemming from the needs of the Latino immigrant senior clients. A close knit and interdependent culture allowed the clinic to adjust to diversity and changing cultural contexts. PMID:22852993

Ortiz, Daniel Vélez

2012-01-01

398

Physical activity and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study from the Nurses' Health Study cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Participants 194?711 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II who provided data on physical activity and other risk factors every two to four years since 1984 in the Nurses’ Health Study and 1989 in the Nurses’ Health Study II and followed up through 2010. Main outcome measure Incident ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Results During 3?421?972 person years of follow-up, we documented 284 cases of Crohn’s disease and 363 cases of ulcerative colitis. The risk of Crohn’s disease was inversely associated with physical activity (P for trend 0.02). Compared with women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.94). Active women with at least 27 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week of physical activity had a 44% reduction (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.84) in risk of developing Crohn’s disease compared with sedentary women with <3 MET h/wk. Physical activity was not associated with risk of ulcerative colitis (P for trend 0.46). The absolute risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 8 and 6 events per 100?000 person years compared with 11 and 16 events per 100?000 person years among women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, respectively. Age, smoking, body mass index, and cohort did not significantly modify the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease (all P for interaction >0.35). Conclusion In two large prospective cohorts of US women, physical activity was inversely associated with risk of Crohn’s disease but not of ulcerative colitis. PMID:24231178

2013-01-01

399

An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume X: Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…

Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

400

Expansive or limitative strategy? A case study of organisational responses to new public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since the emergence of new public health in the 1970s, health has not merely been considered the absence of disease, but physical, mental and social wellbeing. This article seeks to analyzes the implications of this broad concept of health at an organizational level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a qualitative case study of boundary drawing in a Danish

Annegrete Juul Nielsen; Morten Knudsen; Katrine Finke

2008-01-01

401

Mobilizing a health professional's workstation—results of an evaluation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the idea of a multifunctional mobile pen computer to support information processing tasks of health care professionals we carried out a field study. On a tablet-sized mobile pen computer we set up a health professional workstation, MEDIAS\\/WIN, with most of the application systems that are presently used by health professionals at Heidelberg University Medical Center. Our experiences during

A. Buchauer; U. Pohl; N. Kurzel; R. Haux

1999-01-01

402

Reflections and Recommendations Based on a Migrant Health Center's Participation in a CDC Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hudson Valley Migrant Health (HVMH) (a Public Health Service program) collaborated with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) on a study of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis among migrant farmworkers in the mid-Hudson region of New York. CDC research personnel…

Nolon, Anne K.; O'Barr, James

403

A study on the health and stress management of the administrative staff at the university  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fact, administrative staff of universities did not plan to create the mental health care system. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish the mental care system for administrative staff at the university. Two health questionnaires, the THI (Todai Health Index) and the CFSI (Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index) were used for administrative staff of 406 people from 16

Yasushi Iwata; Koya Kishida; Shosuke Suzuki

2006-01-01

404

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (NP Psych/Mental Health)  

E-print Network

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (NP Psych/Mental Health) Year 1 Fall 613 Finance and Budget 2 8 credits Summer (Semester 6) 631 Advanced Clinical I (Psych/Mental Health) 6 Practice 3 632 Advanced Clinical II (Psych/Mental Health) 6 (3 lec; 3 clinical lab) 674 DNP Scholarly

Maxwell, Bruce D.

405

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (DNP Psych/Mental Health)  

E-print Network

1 Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (DNP Psych/Mental Health) Year 1 Fall Ethics, Law and Policy 3 9 credits Summer (Semester 6) 631 Advanced Clinical I (Psych/Mental Health) 6 (3 Practice 3 632 Advanced Clinical II (Psych/Mental Health) 6 (3 lec; 3 clinical lab) 674 DNP Scholarly

Dyer, Bill

406

PhD Scholarship in an EU Cost-effectiveness Study of Diabetes and Health Literacy  

E-print Network

PhD Scholarship in an EU Cost-effectiveness Study of Diabetes and Health Literacy UCD Michael for a 3 year fully funded PhD Scholarship in the research area of diabetes and health literacy, commencing implementation'. What is the value of the Health Literacy Scholarship? This funded research Scholarship will fund

407

Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The

Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn

2008-01-01

408

Study Guide for the Regents External Degree Examination in Health Support--Area II (4 Credits).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.

409

Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

2014-01-01

410

Homelessness and children's use of mental health services: A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether children who become homeless differ from other low-income children in their mental health service use before and after their first homeless episode, and to what extent homelessness is associated with an increased likelihood of mental health service use. Differences between children with and without new onset of sheltered homelessness in the use of mental health services

Jung Min Park; Stephen Metraux; Dennis P. Culhane; David S. Mandell

411

A study of patient satisfaction with primary health care services in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient satisfaction is of value to primary health care providers. The main objective of this study was to estimate patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Fourteen primary health care centers were chosen randomly to represent various geographic areas of Riyadh. Information was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire used by thirty well-trained final

M. El Shabrawy Ali; M. Eisa Ali Mahmoud

1993-01-01

412

Validation of the Spanish version of the physical activity questionnaire used in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this analysis was to test the validity of the estimates of energy expenditure and sedentary lifestyle obtained through a self-administered questionnaire of physical activity for Spanish-speaking people adapted from US questionnaires (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study) using a triaxial accelerometer (RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker) as the reference. Design and setting: Validation study, calculating

Miguel Angel Martínez-González; Constanza López-Fontana; José Javier Varo; Almudena Sánchez-Villegas; J Alfredo Martinez

2005-01-01

413

Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status. PMID:16109157

Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2005-01-01

414

Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

2011-01-01

415

Assessment of a pesticide exposure intensity algorithm in the agricultural health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators who provided detailed questionnaire information on their use of specific pesticides. A field study was

Kent W Thomas; Mustafa Dosemeci; Joseph B Coble; Jane A Hoppin; Linda S Sheldon; Guadalupe Chapa; Carry W Croghan; Paul A Jones; Charles E Knott; Charles F Lynch; Dale P Sandler; Aaron E Blair; Michael C Alavanja

2010-01-01

416

Why Do Students Withdraw from Online Graduate Nursing and Health Studies Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do nursing and health studies graduate students who are enrolled in online programs decide to withdraw? The qualitative study reported in this paper investigated students' self-identified reasons for withdrawing from an online graduate program in nursing and health studies. The focus of the study was Athabasca Universities' Centre for Nursing…

Perry, Beth; Boman, Jeanette; Care, W. Dean; Edwards, Margaret; Park, Caroline

2008-01-01

417

Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

2012-01-01

418

Another Study Links Mediterranean Diet to Better Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... may not always prevent metabolic syndrome, but may reverse it (*this news item will not be available ... HealthDay News) -- Following the Mediterranean diet may help reverse a condition known as metabolic syndrome, new research ...

419

Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127) were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38%) than the overall rate (26%) for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use. PMID:17059606

French, Linda M; Smith, Mindy A; Holtrop, Jodi S; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

2006-01-01

420

Catalyzing transdisciplinary studies in public health: a college health survey and data platform.  

PubMed

Researchers, educators, and service providers recognize that health behaviors and conditions are interdependent, yet they are too often addressed compartmentally. This "silo" approach is unfortunate because it leads to inefficiencies and less effective approaches to prevention. This article describes a process designed to promote better understanding of the interrelatedness of health behaviors and outcomes through a multidimensional Internet-based health survey aimed at undergraduate college students. In addition, we describe a data-sharing platform whereby faculty and students from across disciplines may access the raw data for a variety of uses. An analysis is performed illustrating a syndemic between binge drinking, sexually transmitted diseases, and using alcohol or drugs prior to sexual intercourse. Potential applications of the multidomain survey are discussed, as well as lessons learned and limitations of this approach. PMID:21071673

Gassman, Ruth A; Agley, Jon; Johnston, Jeanne D; Middlestadt, Susan E; van Puymbroeck, Marieke; YoussefAgha, Ahmed H

2012-01-01

421

An exploratory study of health practices of American Catholic nuns.  

PubMed

American Catholic nuns represent a distinct segment of American women, yet little is known about their health practices. Assessment of health-related activities of these women was conducted by means of a self-report survey which was completed by 345 nuns in the midwestern United States. Although 53% had a complete physical examination in the last year, 11% had not had one for more than seven years, and 44% had not had a recent breast or pelvic examination. Thirty-seven percent did monthly breast self-examination (BSE), 37% examined themselves rarely, and 26% never performed BSE. Nuns performing BSE were more likely to have been examined by a health care provider in the past year (p less than .05). Nuns reporting a more positive health status said they got an adequate amount of sleep and participated in regular exercise, yet reported themselves to be overweight (p less than .05). Stress was reported by 74%, and an inverse relationship between perceived relaxation time and perceived stress level was noted (p less than .05). Overall, data reflected certain health educational and behavioral deficits. Because nuns comprise a chronologically older cohort than their secular counterparts, efforts that enable adoption of wellness practices and facilitate improved health care among these women seem to be warranted. PMID:10104216

Meurer, J; McDermott, R J; Malloy, M J

1990-01-01

422

[Oral health satisfaction among Brazilian elderly: a gender study using a hierarchical model].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify gender differences in relation to factors associated with oral health satisfaction among the elderly and to estimate the prevalence of edentulism by gender and age. The study included 2,052 elderly (? 60 years) residing in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence of edentulism. The association between oral health satisfaction and independent variables was estimated using ordinal regression with a hierarchical multidimensional model. Prevalence rates for edentulism in males and females were 63% and 68.8%, respectively. Most elderly males (63%) and females (57%) were satisfied with their oral health. The final adjusted model for both genders consisted of variables related to environmental characteristics, health behaviors, and oral health conditions. The study concludes that oral satisfaction is heavily influenced by oral health status and health behaviors, while the associated factors differ by gender. PMID:24896051

Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

2014-04-01

423

Mental health diagnosis by nurses using the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool: a validity and feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool — Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist health professionals to make a quick and comprehensive standardised mental health assessment. It has proved to be a reliable and valid tool in a previous study involving GPs. Its use by other health professionals may help in detecting and managing mental disorders in primary care and general health settings. Aim To assess the feasibility of using a computer-assisted diagnostic interview by nurses and to examine the level of agreement between the GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists' clinical diagnosis. Design of study Cross-sectional validation study. Setting Primary care, general healthcare (cardiac rehabilitation clinic), and community mental healthcare settings. Method A total of 215 patients between the ages of 16 and 75 years were assessed by nurses and psychiatrists in various settings: primary care centre (n = 54), cardiac rehabilitation centre (n = 98), and community mental health clinic (n = 63). The time taken for the interview, and feedback from patients and interviewers were indicators of feasibility, and the kappa coefficient (?), sensitivity, and specificity of the GMHAT/PC diagnosis were measures of validity. Results Mean duration of interview was under 15 minutes. The agreement between nurses' GMHAT/PC interview-based diagnosis and psychiatrists' International Classification of Diseases (ICD)–10 criteria-based clinical diagnosis was 80% (? = 0.76, sensitivity = 0.84, specificity = 0.92). Conclusion The GMHAT/PC can assist nurses to make accurate mental health assessment and diagnosis in various healthcare settings and it is acceptable to patients. PMID:18505618

Sharma, Vimal K; Lepping, Peter; Krishna, Murali; Durrani, Shazia; Copeland, John RM; Mottram, Patricia; Parhee, Rashmi; Quinn, Bennett; Lane, Steven; Cummins, Anthony

2008-01-01

424

Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93?±?10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

2013-01-01

425

Towards National eHealth Implementation--a comparative study on WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit in Iran.  

PubMed

Experiences has shown that utilization of ICT in health sector requires national commitment and planned efforts to make the best use of existing capacity. Establishing the main directions as well as planning the detailed steps needed are key to achieving longer-term goals such as health sector efficiency, reform or more fundamental transformation. Collaboration between the health and ICT sectors, both public and private, is central to this effort. As the major United Nations agencies for health and telecommunications respectively, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have recognized the importance of collaboration for eHealth in their global resolutions, which encourage countries to develop national eHealth strategies; the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is the proof of these recommendations. In this study a mapping of eHealth components in WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit and our national eHealth vision is presented. PMID:25160183

Riazi, Hossein; Jafarpour, Maryam; Bitaraf, Ehsan

2014-01-01

426

Positive perspectives on adolescent sexuality: Contributions of the national longitudinal study of adolescent health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (the Add Health Study) and its contributions\\u000a to providing positive perspectives on adolescent sexuality. We focus on research that utilizes the Add Health Study data,\\u000a with particular attention paid to ways that it can be further utilized to increase our understanding of positive sexuality\\u000a development. We suggest avenues

Renée Peltz Dennison; Stephen T. Russell

2005-01-01

427

Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared

Simon Overland; Nicholas Glozier; John Gunnar Mæland; Leif Edvard Aarø; Arnstein Mykletun

2006-01-01

428

Studies in Adolescent Health: Research to Improve Health Services for Mothers and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one in a series summarizing final reports of research projects concerned with improving health services for mothers, children and physically handicapped youth. Topics of the 10 reports include: (1) ambulatory care patterns of urban adolescents in New York City, (2) selected parameters of school achievement among New York City…

California Univ., Los Angeles. School of Public Health.

429

The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

2014-01-01

430

Studying the effects of health plan competition: are available data resources up to the task?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review the availability of data sources to study health plan competition in the United States. DATA SOURCES: The literature on health plan competition was reviewed. Possible data sources to study health plan competition were evaluated. Experts in the field of health plan competition were contacted about their knowledge of existing data sources. Principal Findings. There is much more quantitative data available on HMO plans than on other types of health plans that are growing in popularity, such as PPOs. A key source for health plan data, state health insurance filings, lacks information on beneficiaries in non-HMO plans. Data on health plan quality is growing. In addition, case studies of particular markets is providing useful qualitative information on the dynamics of the health plan industry. CONCLUSIONS: The fragmentation of the health care market and the hesitancy of governments and private organizations to provide detailed information across markets and providers creates serious obstacles to the study of health plan competition. PMID:11327176

Mark, T L; Coffey, R M

2001-01-01

431

Measuring similarity between geospatial lifelines in studies of environmental health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many epidemiological studies involve analysis of clusters of diseases to infer locations of environmental hazards that could be responsible for the disease. This approach is however only suitable for sedentary populations or diseases with small latency periods. For migratory populations and diseases with long latency periods, people may change their residential location between time of exposure and onset of ill health. For such situations, clusters are diffused and diluted by in- and out-migration and may become very difficult to detect. One way to address the problem of diffused clusters is to include in analyses not only current residential locations, but all past locations at which cases might have been exposed to environmental hazardous. In this paper, we assume that a person's residential history provides such information and represent it through a discrete geospatial lifeline data model. Clusters of similar geospatial lifelines represent individuals who have similar residential histories—and therefore represent people who are more likely to have had similar environmental exposure histories. We therefore introduce a lifeline distance (dissimilarity) measure to detect clusters of cases, providing a basis for revealing possible regions in space-time where environmental hazards might have existed in the past. The ability of the measure to distinguish cases from controls is tested using two sets of synthetically generated cases and controls. Results indicate that the measure is able to consistently distinguish between populations of cases and controls with statistically significant results. The lifeline distance measure consistently outperforms another measure which uses only the distance between subjects' residences at time of diagnosis. However, the advantages of using the entire residential history are only partly realized, since the ability to distinguish between cases and controls is only moderately better for the lifeline distance function. Future work is needed to investigate modifications to the inter-lifeline distance measure in order to enhance the potential of this approach to detect locations of environmental hazards over the lifespan.

Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David M.

2005-05-01

432

Disability studies and health care curriculum: the great divide.  

PubMed

Models or paradigms of disability are used to guide health care professionals' perceptions so that they can serve people with disabilities, enhance their futures, and facilitate the resources they need. Health care curricula, which in essence train students to make such decisions, are influenced by these models. The medical model, which locates disability within the individual, assumes the individual with a disability is a victim who must be cured or made more normal. The functional-limitation paradigm expands on the medical model, focusing on the interaction of physical or mental limitations with social and environmental factors. The economic model, based on the concept of employability, emphasizes a health-related inability (or limited ability) to work rather than physical functioning of the individual. The sociopolitical model views disability as a policy and civil rights issue. Health care professionals face a dilemma as the disability rights movement demands a shift in social power from the paternalistic view of the medical model to the autonomist view of the sociopolitical model. The question is asked if curricula are preparing our future health care professionals to distinguish how to view each situation and each individual through the lens of the appropriate model. PMID:15503751

Hubbard, Sandra

2004-01-01

433

A correlational study of the relationship between a coordinated school health program and school achievement: a case for school health.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and the U.S. Census 2000 Profile were used to study the relationships among three parameters: (a) The intervention called a CSHP: (b) Student achievement; and (c) Rate of poverty in each state. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted, controlling for poverty using state-level data. Components of a CSHP had statistically significant relationships with academic achievement. Students in states with policies promoting students' health demonstrated higher academic scores and higher rates of high school completion. PMID:19934026

Vinciullo, Frances M; Bradley, Beverly J

2009-12-01

434

Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

435

Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Tr?ndelag health study  

PubMed Central

Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

2014-01-01

436

The Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health Partnership Study: Multisector Partnerships in US Counties with Improving Health Metrics  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multisector partnerships are promoted as a mechanism to improve population health. This study explored the types and salient features of multisector partnerships in US counties with improving population health metrics. Methods We used the “Framework for Understanding Cross-Sector Collaborations” proposed by Bryson, Crosby, and Stone to guide data collection and interpretation. Comparative case studies were conducted in 4 counties selected on the basis of population, geographic region, an age-adjusted mortality decline better than the US average, and stable per capita income. Data were collected through website and report reviews and through in-depth interviews with key informants (N = 59) representing multiple sectors. County reports were developed and cross-case themes related to partnership types and salient features were derived. Results Multisector collaboration was common in all 4 counties despite substantial variations in population, geographic size, demographic diversity, and other characteristics. Most partnerships were formed by professionals and organizations to improve delivery of health and social services to vulnerable populations or to generate policy, system, and environment changes. Multisector collaboration was valued in all cases. Outcomes attributed to partnerships included short- and long-term effects that contributed to improved population health. Conclusion The Bryson, Crosby, and Stone model is a useful framework for conducting case study research on multisector partnerships. Outcomes attributed to the multisector partnerships have the potential to contribute to improvement in population health. Further study is needed to confirm whether multisector partnerships are necessary for improving population health within counties and to understand which partnership characteristics are critical for success. PMID:24406092

Oliver, Thomas R.; Siemering, Kirstin Q.

2014-01-01

437

Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies regarding the effect of retirement on physical as well as mental health have been performed, but the results thereof remain inconclusive. The aim of this review is to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of retirement, describing differences in terms of voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement and between blue-collar and white-collar workers. Methods A search for longitudinal studies using keywords that referred to the exposure (retirement), outcome (health-related) and study design (longitudinal) was performed using several electronic databases. Articles were then selected for full text analysis and the reference lists of the selected studies were checked for relevant studies. The quality of the studies was rated based on predefined criteria. Data was analysed qualitatively by using a best evidence synthesis. When possible, pooled mean differences and effect sizes were calculated to estimate the effect of retirement on health. Results Twenty-two longitudinal studies were included, of which eleven were deemed to be of high quality. Strong evidence was found for retirement having a beneficial effect on mental health, and contradictory evidence was found for retirement having an effect on perceived general health and physical health. Few studies examined the differences between blue- and white-collar workers and between voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement with regards to the effect of retirement on health outcomes. Conclusions More longitudinal research on the health effects of retirement is needed, including research into potentially influencing factors such as work characteristics and the characteristics of retirement. PMID:24330730

2013-01-01

438

Health.  

PubMed Central

Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illness and with political and other deviancies which are not illnesses. PMID:3806628

Hare, R M

1986-01-01