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Sample records for adelaide health study

  1. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  2. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  3. Adelaide's blackbirding pathologist.

    PubMed

    Allen, P W

    1998-06-01

    Archibald Watson (1849-1940) was the inaugural Elder Professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide. He held the position from 1885 to 1919, having previously trained in Gottingen, Paris, and London under some of the most eminent physicians of those times. Before he started his medical studies, he, Dr James Patrick Murray, and several others were involved in the kidnapping ("blackbirding") of Pacific Islanders (Kanakas) to work on South Sea cotton plantations. A number of the victims were killed. Watson and two others were charged with murder and remanded in Levuka to appear in Sydney. Watson absconded, traveled to Europe, and never stood trial; the other two were convicted and sentenced to death. Watson's life as an anatomist, surgeon, pathologist, member of the Adelaide Club, world traveler, Australian Army doctor during the Boer War and World War I, fisherman, and motorcyclist was full of interest and incidents. The events surrounding the autopsy he performed on a case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and the subsequent preservation of the skeleton in the Anatomy Museum of the University of Adelaide are described. PMID:9845740

  4. Can the Excess Heat Factor Indicate Heatwave-Related Morbidity? A Case Study in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-03-01

    Although heatwave-related excess mortality and morbidity have been widely studied, results are not comparable spatially and often longitudinally because of different heatwave definitions applied. The excess heat factor (EHF) quantifies heatwave intensity relative to the local climate, enabling cross-regional comparisons. Previous studies have shown a strong relationship between EHFs and daily mortality during severe heatwaves. An extensive study about the relationship between EHFs and daily morbidity compared to the currently applied heatwave thresholds in Adelaide has not yet been undertaken. This paper analyzes the association of EHFs with daily morbidity between 2008 and 2014 in the Adelaide metropolitan region, South Australia, and probes three different approaches to calculate the EHF. The EHF is found to differentiate days with heatwave-related excess morbidity significantly better than other widely used weather parameters, resulting in fewer days per year with heatwave alerts than using previously proposed methods. The volume of excess morbidity can be predicted by the EHF more reliably with a model proposed for the SA Ambulance Service to support their heatwave preparation plan. PMID:26695616

  5. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-08-15

    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  6. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health. PMID:26520058

  7. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good

  8. Risk factors of direct heat-related hospital admissions during the 2009 heatwave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The extreme heatwave of 2009 in South Australia dramatically increased morbidity, with a 14-fold increase in direct heat-related hospitalisation in metropolitan Adelaide. Our study aimed to identify risk factors for the excess morbidity. Design A matched case–control study of risk factors was conducted. Setting Patients and matched community controls were interviewed to gather data on demographics, living environment, social support, health status and behaviour changes during the heatwave. Participants Cases were all hospital admissions with heat-related diagnoses during the 5-day heatwave in 2009. Controls were randomly selected from communities. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses, simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. Adjusted ORs (AORs) were estimated. Results In total, 143 hospital patients and 143 matched community controls were interviewed, with a mean age of 73 years (SD 21), 96% European ethnicity, 63% retired, 36% with high school or higher education, and 8% institutional living. The regression model indicated that compared with the controls, cases were more likely to have heart disease (AOR=13.56, 95% CI 1.27 to 144.86) and dementia (AOR=26.43, 95% CI 1.99 to 350.73). The protective factors included higher education level (AOR=0.48, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.99), having air-conditioner in the bedroom (AOR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.74), having an emergency button (AOR=0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.96), using refreshment (AOR=0.10, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.84), and having more social activities (AOR=0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.57). Conclusions Pre-existing heart disease and dementia significantly increase the risk of direct heat-related hospitalisations during heatwaves. The presence of an air-conditioner in the bedroom, more social activities, a higher education level, use of emergency buttons and refreshments reduce the risk during heatwaves. PMID:27256088

  9. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  10. Food-group consumption and colon cancer in the Adelaide Case-Control Study. I. Vegetables and fruit.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1993-03-12

    Previous epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of colon cancer. Vegetables and fruit contain a large number of potentially anti-carcinogenic substances, thus lending biological plausibility to this association. We conducted a case-control study in Australia, comparing 220 persons with histologically confirmed incident adenocarcinoma of the colon with 438 age- and gender-matched controls. Cases were identified via the South Australian Cancer Registry (1979-80); controls were randomly selected from the electoral roll. All participants completed a 141-item food-frequency questionnaire and were interviewed regarding demographic and other information. Consumption of 15 vegetable and fruit groups was investigated. Odds ratios (OR) for quartiles of consumption were derived using conditional logistic regression. All analyses were conducted separately for females and males. For females, greater intakes of onions and legumes were associated with decreased risk, with protein-adjusted OR of 0.48 and 0.53 respectively. Greater intakes of raw fruit and cabbage were associated with protein-adjusted OR of 0.76 and 0.71 respectively. For males, greater intakes of onions, green leafy vegetables, legumes, carrots and cabbage were associated with protein-adjusted OR in the range of 0.72 to 0.77. Consumption of potatoes was positively associated with risk in both genders. All 95% confidence intervals included 1.0. Analyses stratified by colon-cancer sub-site showed no strong and consistent differences between sub-sites for the vegetable and fruit associations. Results for meat, poultry, seafood, dairy foods and eggs are presented in a companion report. PMID:8449594

  11. The new Adelaide medium frequency Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.

    1993-08-01

    The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.

  12. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  13. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  14. Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Brophy, Brian P.; Taylor, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

  15. The effect of temperature on different Salmonella serotypes during warm seasons in a Mediterranean climate city, Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P

    2016-04-01

    Changing trends in foodborne disease are influenced by many factors, including temperature. Globally and in Australia, warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise if climate change continues. Salmonella spp. are a temperature-sensitive pathogen and rising temperature can have a substantial effect on disease burden affecting human health. We examined the relationship between temperature and Salmonella spp. and serotype notifications in Adelaide, Australia. Time-series Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the effect of temperature during warmer months on Salmonella spp. and serotype cases notified from 1990 to 2012. Long-term trends, seasonality, autocorrelation and lagged effects were included in the statistical models. Daily Salmonella spp. counts increased by 1·3% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1·013, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·008-1·019] per 1 °C rise in temperature in the warm season with greater increases observed in specific serotype and phage-type cases ranging from 3·4% (IRR 1·034, 95% CI 1·008-1·061) to 4·4% (IRR 1·044, 95% CI 1·024-1·064). We observed increased cases of S. Typhimurium PT9 and S. Typhimurium PT108 notifications above a threshold of 39 °C. This study has identified the impact of warm season temperature on different Salmonella spp. strains and confirms higher temperature has a greater effect on phage-type notifications. The findings will contribute targeted information for public health policy interventions, including food safety programmes during warmer weather. PMID:26522685

  16. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 gastroenteritis linked to catered luncheons in Adelaide, South Australia, June 2005.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Combs, Barry G; Mwanri, Lillian; Holland, Ros; Delroy, Brian; Cameron, Scott; Givney, Rod C

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella sp. are important causes of foodborne illness, with restaurants and catered functions being commonly reported settings for outbreaks. In June 2005 an investigation commenced following reports of gastrointestinal illness in attendees at luncheons catered by an Adelaide café, as well as persons eating at the café itself. The investigation sought to determine the existence of an outbreak, identify a source and method of transmission and implement public health measures to prevent further cases. Lists of luncheon attendees were obtained from function organisers. A retrospective cohort study was commenced using a structured questionnaire developed from the café's menu listings. A suspected case was defined as a person developing two or more gastrointestinal symptoms after attending a luncheon catered by the café. A case series investigation was used for café diners. Of the 102 respondents, 61 (60%) met the case definition with 32 subsequently confirmed as Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 (STM 64) infections. Of the 61 cases, 59 (96%) reported eating a bread roll. STM 64 was detected in raw defrosted chicken recovered from the café's kitchen. This suggested cross-contamination from the chicken to one or more ingredients common to the bread rolls was the route of infection. To prevent further cases, perishable goods were discarded, the café was closed, the premises cleaned, then restrictions were placed on the types of foods served. This investigation's findings highlight the importance of safe food handling and hand hygiene in commercial food preparation. PMID:17330386

  17. A comparison of Australian rural and metropolitan cardiovascular risk and mortality: the Greater Green Triangle and North West Adelaide population surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Design Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004–2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004–2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Setting Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). Participants 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25–74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/− anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Results Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 5% to 30% in the 35–39 and 70–74 age groups, respectively. Similar mean 2003–2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Conclusions Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural

  18. Presolar Grain Inventories of the Ungrouped C3 Adelaide and the CV3 RBT 04133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    Here we report the presolar grain inventories (silicates, oxides, SiC, and other C-anomalous phases) determined for Adelaide (an ungrouped C3 chondrite) and RBT 04133 (a mildly thermally altered CV3) by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging.

  19. DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...

  20. Study downplays health concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-13

    A government-funded study has concluded that reformulated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) does not increase short-term health risks when compared with gasoline that does not contain the additive. The study, performed by the Health Effects Institute (Cambridge, MA), compared data from dozens of animal, human, and epidemiological studies of health effects linked to oxygenates, including MTBE and ethanol, but did not find enough evidence to warrant an immediate reduction in oxygenate use. However, the study did recommend that additional research be conducted on possible health consequences associated with the gasoline additives, including neurotoxic effects, if oxygenates continue to be used long term. Oxygenates have been used in gasoline since 1992, when EPA mandated that several municipalities use MTBE or other oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and meet Clean Air Act requirements. Shortly after the program began, residents in areas where the oxygenates were used complained of nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The institute says the study--funded by EPA and the Centers for Disease Control--will be used for a broader review of gasoline oxygenates by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  1. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

  2. The Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McMaster, S B; Zahm, S H; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Rothman, N; Dosemeci, M; Bond, A E; Blair, A

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including neurotoxicity reproductive effects, immunologic effects, nonmalignant respiratory disease, kidney disease, and growth and development among children; 3) evaluate disease risks among spouses and children of farmers that may arise from direct contact with pesticides and agricultural chemicals used in the home lawns and gardens, and from indirect contact, such as spray drift, laundering work clothes, or contaminated food or water; 4) assess current and past occupational and nonoccupational agricultural exposures using periodic interviews and environmental and biologic monitoring; 5) study the relationship between agricultural exposures, biomarkers of exposure, biologic effect, and genetic susceptibility factors relevant to carcinogenesis; and 6) identify and quantify cancer and other disease risks associated with lifestyle factors such as diet, cooking practices, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and hair dye use. In the first year of a 3-year enrollment period, 26,235 people have been enrolled in the study, including 19,776 registered pesticide applicators and 6,459 spouses of registered farmer applicators. It is estimated that when the total cohort is assembled in 1997 it will include approximately 75,000 adult study subjects. Farmers, the largest group of registered pesticide applicators comprise 77% of the target population enrolled in the study. This experience compares favorably with enrollment rates of previous prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8732939

  3. Literacy--A Focus on the Future; Proceedings of the Australian Reading Conference (1st, Adelaide, August 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Claire, Ed.; Anderson, Jonathon, Ed.

    The papers published in this volume were delivered at the First Australian Reading Conference, which was held in Adelaide in August 1975. Topics of discussion included, among others, preservice and inservice teacher education, facilities in reading, the development and use of reading materials, student motivation, children's literature, reading…

  4. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  5. Basement-cover interaction in the Adelaide Foldbelt, South Australia: the development of an arcuate foldbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Geoffrey L.; Powell, Roger

    1989-02-01

    The upper Proterozoic- to Cambrian-aged sedimentary and volcanic rocks comprising the Adelaide Foldbelt were deformed and, in places, metamorphosed during the Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian Orogeny. Tectonic fabrics developed in the central portion of the foldbelt (Mt. Lofty Ranges) demonstrate westward transport during the orogeny. The sigmoidal shape outlined by the Kangaroo Is., Mt. Lofty Ranges, Olary portion of the foldbelt is interpreted to have been the result of dextral wrench faulting in the lower- to mid-Proterozoic basement. Thus, cover rocks overlying such basement wrench fault zones would have suffered a transpressional stress regime, giving rise to the observed fold axis oriented at an oblique angle to the thrust boundary. In the northern portion of the foldbelt (Northern Flinders Ranges), wrench faulting is interpreted to have accommodated considerable basement shortening which initiated a basement-cover décollement and resulted in thrust-bound pop-up structures in the cover.

  6. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  7. EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Childrens Health Study consisted of two waves of exposure monitoring, respiratory health questionnaires, and lung function examinations. The exposure assessment began with a pilot study using passive samplers for nitrogen dioxide in February, 1999 and was followed b...

  8. HEALTH AND RETIREMENT STUDY (HRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning.

  9. Agricultural Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration between the NIH and the U.S. Evironmental Protection Agency

  10. Analysis of breastfeeding policies and practices in childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219

  11. Adelaide River virus nucleoprotein gene: analysis of phylogenetic relationships of ephemeroviruses and other rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cowley, J A; Walker, P J

    1995-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Adelaide River virus (ARV) genome was determined from the 3' terminus to the end of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The 3' leader sequence comprises 50 nucleotides and shares a common terminal trinucleotide (3' UGC-), a conserved U-rich domain and a variable AU-rich domain with other animal rhabdoviruses. The N gene comprises 1355 nucleotides from the transcription start sequence (AACAGG) to the poly(A) sequence [CATG(A)7] and encodes a polypeptide of 429 amino acids. The N protein has a calculated molecular mass of 49429 Da and a pI of 5.4 and, like the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) N protein, features a highly acidic C-terminal domain. Analysis of amino acid sequence relationships between all available rhabdovirus N proteins indicated that ARV and BEFV are closely related viruses (48.3% similarity) which share higher sequence similarity to vesiculoviruses than to lyssaviruses. Phylogenetic trees based on a multiple sequence alignment of all available rhabdovirus N protein sequences demonstrated clustering of viruses according to genome organization, host range and established taxonomic relationships. PMID:9049348

  12. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

  13. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  14. Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual

  15. The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P < 0.001) and the oral assessment (1.36, 1.19 to 1.55; P < 0.001) stage of selection. The UMAT preparatory activities associated with the offer of an interview were attendance of a training course by a private organisation (1.75, 1.35 to 2.27: P < 0.001), use of online services of a private organisation (1.58, 1.23 to 2.04; P < 0.001), and familiarising oneself with the process (1.52, 1.15 to 2.00; p = 0.021). The oral assessment activities associated with an offer of a place included refining and learning a personal resume (9.73, 2.97 to 31.88; P < 0.001) and learning about the course structure (2.05, 1.29 to 3.26; P = 0.022). For the UMAT, applicants who found difficulties with learning for this type of test (0.47, 0.35 to 0.63: P < 0.001), with the timing of UMAT in terms of school exams (0.48, 0.5 to 0.66; P < 0.001) and with the inability to convey personal skills with the UMAT (0.67, 0.52 to 0.86; P = 0.026) were

  16. Occurrence characteristics of medium-scale gravity waves observed in OH and OI nightglow over Adelaide (34.5°S, 138.5°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Yuan, H.; Wan, W.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a 7 year climatology describing medium-scale gravity waves observed in the menopause region covering the years from 1995 to 2001. The data comes from the OI and OH airglow observations of the three-field photometer employed at the University of Adelaide's Buckland Park, Australia (34.5°S, 138.5°E). About 1300 gravity wave events (AGW) are identified during the years 1995-2001. These AGW events usually persist for between 40 min and 4 hours. The magnitudes range from 1% to 14% of the background intensities and peak at 2% for OI observations and at 3% for OH observations. The observed periods range from 10 to 30 min, and the horizontal phase speeds range from 20 to 250 m s-1, with dominant wave scales of 17 min, 70 m s-1 for OI observations and 20 min, 40 m s-1 for OH observations. The intrinsic parameters are obtained by using medium-frequency (MF) wind data observed at the same place. The occurrence frequency of AGW events peaks at 13 min, 40 m s-1 for both OI and OH observations. The occurrence rate of gravity waves has a major peak in summer and a minor peak in winter. There is an obvious dominating southeastward direction for gravity waves, with azimuths of 160° in summer and 130° in winter. Studies for gravity waves observed in various locations show a similar tendency of propagating meridionally toward the summer pole. This implies that the tendency of propagating toward the summer pole may be a global trend for medium-scale gravity waves observed in the mesopause region. During summer, gravity waves propagate against winds measured by MF radar in their dominating direction. Using the ray tracing method, we found that the seasonal variation of winds limits the access of gravity waves to the observation height through reflection and critical coupling, which is one of the causes leading to the seasonal behavior of gravity waves observed over Adelaide.

  17. [DHS: The Dortmund health study].

    PubMed

    Berger, K

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the population-based Dortmund health study (DHS) is the assessment of the prevalence and incidence of different headache types as well as other chronic conditions and to analyse their consequences on daily activities of those affected. From 2003 to 2004 overall 2,291 participants were recruited into the study, 1,312 attended the study centre and the others participated by answering a mailed questionnaire. In 2006 a follow-up by mailed questionnaire was performed for 77.8% of the survivors. The influence of social factors was specifically considered in the analysis and interpretation of disease consequences. The following manuscript describes the study design, method of participant recruitment, data assessment and examinations performed in the study and reports the results of the association between neighbourhood unemployment and the prevalence of cardiac risk factors as well as the prevalence of several chronic diseases. PMID:22736161

  18. Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health

  19. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  20. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  1. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  2. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

  3. Changes in use of time, activity patterns, and health and wellbeing across retirement: design and methods of the life after work study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retirement is a major life transition during which people restructure everyday activities; however little is known about this. The primary aim of the Life After Work study is to comprehensively measure changes in time use and patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and its associations with health and wellbeing, across the retirement transition. Methods/Design A target sample of 120 participants aged 50 years and over will be recruited in two Australian state capital cities, Adelaide and Brisbane. Participants will undertake a battery of assessments approximately 3 months prior to retirement, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-retirement. Measures will include self-reported use of time (using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults), objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour (using Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers), self-reported health and well-being (using a battery of questionnaires including the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Australian Unity Personal Well-being Index (AUPWI), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS21), Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), retirement circumstances and socio-demographic characteristics, objectively assessed anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), and resting blood pressure. Multivariate mixed models will be used to examine changes in use of time, health and well-being across retirement. Discussion The results will provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle and policy interventions to address and improve health and well-being in retirement. PMID:24112244

  4. Influenza B outbreak in a primary school in Adelaide, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Jane; D’Onise, Katina; Russo, Deidre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This report describes a 2011 seasonal influenza B outbreak in a metropolitan primary school in Australia with 179 students. Methods Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a questionnaire that included demographic data, details of illness, chronic health conditions and vaccination status. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as fever plus cough and/or sore throat. Analysis of ILI was undertaken with the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Seventy-two questionnaire respondents (75%) reported illness during the outbreak – 43 with ILI, giving an attack rate of 45%. There was no association between ILI and age or chronic lung disease. Six (6%) students were vaccinated against influenza before the outbreak; although four became ill, none satisfied the ILI case definition. Seven students were positive for influenza B including two confirmed as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like; one student was positive for rhinovirus and another for metapneumovirus. The recommended influenza vaccine matched the circulating influenza strains. Discussion This cohort study estimated a high ILI attack rate and demonstrated low influenza vaccine coverage within the setting of a primary school. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in addition to constitutional and respiratory symptoms, were common. PMID:23908928

  5. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  6. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  7. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  8. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  9. CHALLENGES OF HEALTH MEASUREMENT IN STUDIES OF HEALTH DISPARITIES

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Chen, Patricia V.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are increasingly studied in and across a growing array of societies. While novel contexts and comparisons are a promising development, this commentary highlights four challenges to finding appropriate and adequate health measures when making comparisons across groups within a society or across distinctive societies. These challenges affect the accuracy with which we characterize the degree of inequality, limiting possibilities for effectively targeting resources to improve health and reduce disparities. First, comparisons may be challenged by different distributions of disease and second, by variation in the availability and quality of vital events and census data often used to measure health. Third, the comparability of self-reported information about specific health conditions may vary across social groups or societies because of diagnosis bias or diagnosis avoidance. Fourth, self-reported overall health measures or measures of specific symptoms may not be comparable across groups if they use different reference groups or interpret questions or concepts differently. We explain specific issues that make up each type of challenge and show how they may lead to underestimates or inflation of estimated health disparities. We also discuss approaches that have been used to address them in prior research, note where further innovation is needed to solve lingering problems, and make recommendations for improving future research. Many of our examples are drawn from South Africa or the United States, societies characterized by substantial socioeconomic inequality across ethnic groups and wide disparities in many health outcomes, but the issues explored throughout apply to a wide variety of contexts and inquiries. PMID:24561776

  10. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  11. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...

  12. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  13. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  14. Studying health in Greenland: obligations and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-03-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions in Denmark and Greenland have conducted health research in Greenland for many years in cooperation with, among others, researchers in Canada and Alaska. National and international cooperation is supported by the Danish/Greenlandic Society for Circumpolar Health, the International Union for Circumpolar Health, and the Commission for Research in Greenland. Health news are regularly reported to international and local congresses and to the scientific journals. PMID:12725338

  15. Contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Reproductive Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Farland, Leslie V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Zhang, Cuilin; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the Nurses’ Health Study’s (NHS’s) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. Results. Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The NHS II found that infertility associated with ovulation problems and gestational diabetes are largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modification. It also identified developmental and nutritional risk factors for pregnancy loss, endometriosis, and uterine leiomyomata. As women in NHS II age, it has become possible to address questions regarding long-term health consequences of pregnancy complications and benign gynecologic conditions on chronic disease risk. Furthermore, the NHS3 and GUTS are allowing new lines of research into human fertility, PCOS, and transgenerational effects of environmental exposures. Conclusions. The multigenerational resources of the NHSs and GUTS, including linkages of related individuals across cohorts, can improve women’s health from preconception through late adulthood and onto the next generation. PMID:27459445

  16. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  17. Site contamination health risk assessment case study involving tenant relocation from a former gasworks site.

    PubMed

    Turczynowicz, Len; Fitzgerald, D James; Nitschke, Monika; Mangas, Sam; McLean, Angela

    2007-10-01

    An Adelaide suburban public-housing residential site with 16 apartments was investigated after complaints of odor in some yard areas. A distinct 0.5-m layer of dark, odorous (tarry), contaminant material, which in some areas had been covered with plastic sheeting, was subsequently found beneath the topsoil across most of the site. This material appeared to extend beneath the apartments. Analysis indicated high levels of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), consistent with gasworks waste. Historical investigation revealed that the site was originally owned by a gas company and that a large gasometer (gas-storage tank) existed in one corner of the site. This finding of significant soil contamination precipitated a decision by the health and housing authorities to notify tenants immediately and to plan for their relocation. In addition to tending to the consequent personal disruption and logistical difficulties this posed, a detailed risk assessment process was developed. Urine samples were collected before and after relocation and analyzed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. In addition, samples of tap water, indoor and outdoor air, indoor and ceiling dust, carpets, and soil from tillage areas were analyzed for PAHs. Data indicated a low health risk associated with tenancy on the site. This report presents details of the health risk assessment process undertaken and discusses vindicative reasons for tenant relocation. PMID:17763082

  18. Study monitors health effects of incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Waste-burning facilities could face tougher EPA regulations if a study of complying incinerators find stack emissions contribute to respiratory disease. A study is underway to determine what, if any, are the adverse health effects on humans resulting from waste burning. Volunteers living in a 2 mile radius of an incinerator were chosen for microscopic examination of cells flushed from their nasal passages.

  19. The design and construction of the University of Adelaide Bicentennial Gamma-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, R. W.; Giles, D. H.; Gregory, A. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Prescott, J. R.; Protheroe, R. J.; Smith, N. I.; Taaffe, L.; Wild, N.

    The design and construction of the 30 sq m Bicentennial Gamma Ray Telescope at Woomera South Australia is described. This novel instrument is now completed and commisioning is underway. It is designed to observe astronomical sources at energies greater than approximately 500 GeV by means of atmospheric Cerenkov light. It contains 55 spherical, glass mirrors of focal length 2.66 m arranged in three groups of 10 sq m, to focus the light onto three sets of detectors operated in fast coincidence. The recording electronics includes a rubidium clock to enable pulsars to be studied.

  20. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  1. William Henry Bragg in Adelaide: beginning research at a colonial locality.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, John

    2004-03-01

    This essay presents an account of W. H. Bragg's earliest research program in Australia during the years 1904-1907: a study of the behavior of alpha particles from radioactive decay. It is suggested that problems associated with distance and isolation played a pivotal role in Bragg's thinking and acting during this period and that his use of two "advocates," Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy, was essential to the success of the program. It is further argued that this account supports a substantial amendment of the center-periphery model of colonial science to embrace a much closer attention to place and locality; that is, it supports a polycentric model (in which the center might still be prominent). PMID:15301067

  2. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  3. Clinical Mental Health Counselor Handbook & Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Bonnie; Lawless, Linda; Williams, Midge; Bergstrom, Deborah

    This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…

  4. Relationships between Students' Mental Health and Their Perspectives of Life at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships between students' self-reported mental health and their perspectives about life at school in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Design/methodology/approach: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a purpose designed Living and Learning at School Questionnaire (LLSQ)…

  5. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  6. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is

  7. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  8. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  9. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.; Hayes, M.; Singer, J.; Highland, J.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess.

  10. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  11. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  12. "It depends on what you mean": a qualitative study of Swedish health professionals' views on health and health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Helene; Weinehall, Lars; Emmelin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    , the integrater and the promoter describing different strategies for handling a health promotion role in practice Conclusion The study suggests that different interpretations of what constitutes health promotion can lead to unnecessary misunderstandings and pose barriers to further development of a health promoting practice. PMID:19845948

  13. Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

  14. Gemcitabine and carboplatin in carcinoma of unknown primary site: a phase 2 Adelaide Cancer Trials and Education Collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, K B; Olver, I N; Koczwara, B; Kotasek, D; Patterson, W K; Keefe, D M; Karapetis, C S; Parnis, F X; Moldovan, S; Yeend, S J; Price, T J

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) represents up to 5% of all cancer diagnoses and is associated with poor survival. We have performed a prospective multicentre phase 2 trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the combination of gemcitabine (G) and carboplatin (C) for patients with CUP. Patients with histologically confirmed metastatic carcinoma in which the primary site of cancer was not evident after prospectively designated investigation and who had ECOG performance status 0–2 were treated with G 1000 mg m−2 intravenously (i.v.) days 1 and 8, and C AUC 5 i.v. on day 8 every 3 weeks to a maximum of nine cycles. The primary end points were response rate, and toxicity, with secondary end points of progression-free survival and overall survival. Fifty-one (23 male, 27 female) patients were enrolled (one patient ineligible), with a median age of 69 years (range 41–83 years). Fifty patients were evaluable for toxicity and 46 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The overall response rate to the GC regimen was 30.5%. With a median follow-up of 24 months, the median progression-free survival was 18 weeks (4.2 months) and the median overall survival was 34 weeks (7.8 months). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 toxicity was low. Nausea/vomiting was the most common side effect, but was usually only mild in severity. Uncomplicated neutropenia (14%), thrombocytopenia (10%) and anaemia (8%) were the most common causes of grade 3–4 toxicity. The regimen was very well tolerated, particularly in the elderly. The GC regimen is an active regimen in CUP with excellent tolerability and should be considered particularly for elderly patients with CUP. PMID:17088914

  15. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  16. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  17. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators. PMID:25480855

  18. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief contains information on asthma relative to health education, physical education and activity, and health services. Included is data on the…

  19. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  20. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  1. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  2. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. PMID:26538523

  3. Resveratrol Does Not Affect Health, Longevity in Population Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Resveratrol does not affect health, longevity in population study May 16, 2014 Resveratrol, ... disease. Researchers have found it to improve the health (and in some cases, longevity) of animals, including ...

  4. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  5. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  6. Many Unfamiliar with Health Insurance Lingo, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157734.html Many Unfamiliar With Health Insurance Lingo, Study Says Texas survey found words like ' ... of adults in Texas don't understand basic health insurance terms, a new report finds. Poor, uninsured and ...

  7. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  8. APPLYING EXPOSURE TOOLS TO SUPPORT HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution from ambient sources continues to adversely impact human health in the United States. A fundamental goal for EPA is to implement air quality standards and regulations that reduce health risks associated with exposures to criteria pollutants and air toxics. However...

  9. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  10. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  11. Study on Student Health Literacy Gained through Health Education in Elementary and Middle Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…

  12. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  13. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed. PMID:19213480

  14. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094

  15. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  16. The Georgia Health Education Study: A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Health and Safety.

    This summary review of the Georgia Health Education Study is a statistical presentation of scores achieved by over four thousand freshman college students in the university system of Georgia to questions on health knowledge. Data compiled from the administration of the Fast-Tyson Health Knowledge Test (1975 revision) indicates that subject…

  17. Extreme weather-related health needs of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; van Loon, Antonia; Kralik, Debbie; Arbon, Paul; Gilbert, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To identify the extreme weather-related health needs of homeless people and the response by homeless service providers in Adelaide, South Australia, a five-phased qualitative interpretive study was undertaken. (1) Literature review, followed by semi-structured interviews with 25 homeless people to ascertain health needs during extreme weather events. (2) Identification of homeless services. (3) Semi-structured interviews with 16 homeless service providers regarding their response to the health needs of homeless people at times of extreme weather. (4) Gap analysis. (5) Suggestions for policy and planning. People experiencing homelessness describe adverse health impacts more from extreme cold, than extreme hot weather. They considered their health suffered more, because of wet bedding, clothes and shoes. They felt more depressed and less able to keep themselves well during cold, wet winters. However, homeless service providers were more focussed on planning for extra service responses during times of extreme heat rather than extreme cold. Even though a city may be considered to have a temperate climate with a history of very hot summers, primary homeless populations have health needs during winter months. The experiences and needs of homeless people should be considered in extreme weather policy and when planning responses. PMID:22950903

  18. Health literacy practices and educational competencies for health professionals: a consensus study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Clifford A; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  19. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  20. Ombudsmen in health care: case study of a municipal health ombudsman

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rita de Cássia Costa; Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Zucchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the role of a Municipal Health Ombudsman and its contribution to the public health management from the perspective of the public health system users and the municipal health counselors. METHODS Qualitative research approach using the case study, descriptive and transversal methods. The unit of analysis was a Municipal Health Ombudsman, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, between May and August 2010. The study was observational in nature and data were collected through interviews with two groups of stakeholders: users and municipal health counselors. We interviewed 44 Brazilian Unified Health System users who had made direct use of the Municipal Health Ombudsman and all 20 municipal health counselors. The data obtained were analyzed based on three issues: (1) nature of the data obtained; (2) discussion of subsidies to qualify the ombudsman’s functioning as a management tool; (3) proposals for actions to improve democratic management in the area of public health. RESULTS The complaints to the ombudsman denoted difficulties in access to health care services running the risk of their being perceived as shortcuts to gaining accessibility, disregarding the principle of social justice. The role of the ombudsman has the citizens’ approval. Users reported the following main functions of the ombudsman: to support the resolution of health problems, to listen and to clarify issues regarding Brazilian Unified Health System operations and procedures. Information was emphasized by health counselors as an instrument of power and access to the rights of Brazilian Unified Health System users. They highlighted that the ombudsman has the role of ensuring justice to foster an effective health policy, besides playing an important mediating role between the board of the municipal health system, its managers and citizens. Furthermore, the ombudsman was shown to have an execution role that transcends its regular functions. CONCLUSIONS The study found

  1. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163

  2. Assessing the Need for a New Household Panel Study: Health Insurance and Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the availability of data for addressing questions related to health insurance and health care and the potential contribution of a new household panel study. The paper begins by outlining some of the major questions related to policy and concludes that survey data on health insurance, access to care, health spending, and overall economic well-being will likely be needed to answer them. The paper considers the strengths and weaknesses of existing sources of survey data for answering these questions. The paper concludes that either a new national panel study, an expansion in the age range of subjects in existing panel studies, or a set of smaller changes to existing panel and cross-sectional surveys, would significantly enhance our understanding of the dynamics of health insurance, access to health care, and economic well-being. PMID:27279677

  3. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  4. Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying these health effects of pesticides among farmworkers, including the difficulties in accessing the population and challenges associated with obtaining health end point data. The assessment of neurobehavioral health effects serves as one of the most common and best examples of an approach used to study health outcomes in farmworkers and other populations exposed to pesticides. We review the current limitations in neurobehavioral assessment and strategies to improve these analytical methods. Emerging techniques to improve our assessment of health effects associated with pesticide exposure are reviewed. These techniques, which in most cases have not been applied to farmworker populations, hold promise in our ability to study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects in this population. PMID:16760000

  5. A descriptive study on health workforce performance after decentralisation of health services in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uganda, like many developing countries, is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However, serious challenges prove to hamper the attainment of these goals, particularly the health related MDGs. A major challenge relates to the human resources for health. The health system in Uganda was decentralised in the 1990s. Despite the health sector reforms, the services have remained significantly deficient and performance of health workers is thought to be one of the contributing factors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the performance of health workers after decentralisation of the health services in Uganda in order to identify and suggest possible areas for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey, using quantitative research methods was utilised. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 276 health workers in the districts of Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo in Eastern Uganda. The health workers included doctors, clinical officers, professional nurses and midwives. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. The data was analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and included both univariate and bivariate analysis. The results were presented in tabular and text forms. Results The study revealed that even though the health workers are generally responsive to the needs of their clients, the services they provide are often not timely. The health workers take initiatives to ensure that they are available for work, although low staffing levels undermine these efforts. While the study shows that the health workers are productive, over half (50.4%) of them reported that their organisations do not have indicators to measure their individual performance. The findings indicate that the health workers are skilled and competent to perform their duties. In general, the results show that health workers are proficient, adaptive, proactive and client

  6. 'Health's a difficult beast': the interrelationships between domestic violence, women's health and the health sector. An Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen; Hunt, Lynne; Adamsam, Rhonda; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on the Australian component of a five nation study undertaken in Australia, Canada, Thailand, Bangladesh and Afghanistan examining policy networks that address women's health and domestic violence. It examines the relationship between health and domestic violence in Western Australia and analyses the secondary role assumed by health. The study adopted a qualitative research paradigm and semi-structured interviews. Snowball sampling was used to identify relevant and significant stakeholders and resulted in a final sample of 30 individuals representing three key areas: the 'health policy community', the 'domestic violence prevention community' and 'other interested stakeholders', that is, those who have an interest in, but who are not involved in, domestic violence prevention work. Results suggest that the secondary positioning of health is associated with the historical 'championing' of the issue in the women's movement; limited linkages between the health policy community and the domestic violence prevention community and within the health policy community itself; the 'fit' between domestic violence and the Western Australian Health Department mandate; and the mis-match between domestic violence and the medical model. The conclusion indicates a need for collaboration based on effective links across the domestic violence community and the health policy community. PMID:17614173

  7. Health Auctions: a Valuation Experiment (HAVE) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Petrie, Dennis; Scuffham, Paul A; Byrnes, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality-adjusted life years are derived using health state utility weights which adjust for the relative value of living in each health state compared with living in perfect health. Various techniques are used to estimate health state utility weights including time-trade-off and standard gamble. These methods have exhibited limitations in terms of complexity, validity and reliability. A new composite approach using experimental auctions to value health states is introduced in this protocol. Methods and analysis A pilot study will test the feasibility and validity of using experimental auctions to value health states in monetary terms. A convenient sample (n=150) from a population of university staff and students will be invited to participate in 30 auction sets with a group of 5 people in each set. The 9 health states auctioned in each auction set will come from the commonly used EQ-5D-3L instrument. At most participants purchase 2 health states, and the participant who acquires the 2 ‘best’ health states on average will keep the amount of money they do not spend in acquiring those health states. The value (highest bid and average bid) of each of the 24 health states will be compared across auctions to test for reliability across auction groups and across auctioneers. A test retest will be conducted for 10% of the sample to assess reliability of responses for health states auctions. Feasibility of conducting experimental auctions to value health states will also be examined. The validity of estimated health states values will be compared with published utility estimates from other methods. This pilot study will explore the feasibility, reliability and validity in using experimental auction for valuing health states. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance was obtained from Griffith University ethics committee. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and major international conferences. PMID:27056589

  8. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth

  9. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S.

    2016-01-01

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago’s are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others. PMID:27110801

  10. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S

    2016-04-01

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago's are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others. PMID:27110801

  11. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. Results: The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. Conclusions: It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran. PMID:27186383

  12. Telecourse Study Guide to "Here's to Your Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Donna

    This study guide was prepared to accompany "Here's to Your Health," a telecourse focusing on lifestyle factors influencing health, which was designed to provide the tools necessary for achieving and maintaining an optimal, healthy lifestyle. For each of 27 lessons, the study guide presents learning objectives, an overview of content, study…

  13. ASSESSING EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...

  14. Health Literacy Association With Health Behaviors and Health Care Utilization in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is generally associated with poor health outcomes; however, health literacy has received little attention in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the health literacy of persons with MS using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of health literacy among NARCOMS participants. Respondents completed the Medical Term Recognition Test (METER) which assesses the ability to distinguish medical and nonmedical words, and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instrument which evaluates reading, interpretation, and numeracy skills. Respondents reported their sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, comorbidities, visits to the emergency room (ER), and hospitalizations in the last 6 months. We used logistic regression to evaluate the characteristics associated with functional literacy, and the association between functional literacy and health care utilization. Results Of 13,020 eligible participants, 8934 (68.6%) completed the questionnaire and were US residents. Most of them performed well on the instruments with 81.04% (7066/8719) having functional literacy on the METER and 74.62% (6666/8933) having adequate literacy on the NVS. Low literacy on the METER or the NVS was associated with smoking, being overweight or obese (all P<.001). After adjustment, low literacy on the METER was associated with ER visits (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.48) and hospitalizations (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.98-1.44). Findings were similar for the NVS. Conclusions In the NARCOMS cohort, functional health literacy is high. However, lower levels of health literacy are associated with adverse health behaviors and greater health care utilization. PMID:24513479

  15. An Exploratory Study of Inactive Health Information Seekers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to identify people who do not actively seek out health information and the demographic characteristics of Inactive Seekers. The possible determinants of inactive seeking behaviors is also explored. Design and Measurements A total of 14,420 survey respondents were drawn from the 2009 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) data. K-means clustering was used to discriminate Inactive Seekers from Active Seekers. The inactive information seeker group was formed based on their experience with health information seeking. The potential determinants that were tested to predict inactive seeking included the following: health condition, health service use, health media exposure, and computer/Internet activities. Results Within this national survey data, the respondents were more likely to be included in the Inactive Seekers (N=8,312, 58.5%) compared to Active Seekers (N=5,908, 41.5%). The demographic characteristics indicated that the Inactive Seekers were identified as younger, male, highly educated, White, and high household income people. The binary logistic regression results from the study model indicated that healthier people were less likely to seek out health information than their counterparts. In addition, those who were exposed to various media were almost 1.6 times more likely to seek out health information than those who were not exposed to such media. Within this study data, the statistically significant determinants identified were health condition and health media exposure while computer/Internet activities did not show strong indications in predicting inactive seeking behavior. Conclusion The development of more generalizable measures for health literacy or behavioral patterns will bolster advanced study on inactive seeking relating to knowledge of technology and health context. Further study should be directed at estimating the negative aspects of information seeking such as information ignorance or information

  16. RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY
    Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant?
    *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

  17. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  18. The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with

  19. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Eva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors. PMID:24516625

  20. Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health

  1. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry

  2. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  3. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  4. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  5. Mental Health Services in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Primary Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenyu; Huang, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Faqin; Abdullah, Abu S.; Nie, Guanghui; Feng, Qiming; Wei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the challenges that primary health care providers faced in the process of delivering mental healthcare and assess their attitudes towards patients with mental health problems. In-depth interviews were conducted among 42 primary health care providers in two counties of Guangxi province, China. All interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically. Primary health care providers in both counties faced the same difficulties: lack of professional knowledge, fear of patients' attack, more extra work, and less subsidies. However, most of primary health care providers (30/42) were still willing to do mental healthcare management. All the interviewees considered that communication skills with patients and their family members, proper attitude (without discrimination), and the professional knowledge of mental health are required. There are still several participants (15/42) who showed negative attitude toward mental disorders. Nearly all the respondents (39/42) emphasized the importance of increasing their income or subsidies by the government. This qualitative study provides insights into mental health services in rural communities of Guangxi and identified issues that could be considered in engaging primary health care providers in the management of mental disorders. PMID:26819947

  6. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  7. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  8. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  9. Health assessment in the Framingham Offspring Study: a research proposal.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, J L; Israel, I; Stokes, J

    1987-01-01

    This paper proposes that a broader health assessment be made in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study than is undertaken in the Framingham Study. The Offspring Study is composed of the children (and their spouses) of the members of the original Framingham Study cohort. The Offspring population has a broader age range and an average age that is approximately 30 years younger than the original parent cohort. Therefore, mortality and morbidity measures, which were used as indices of health status for the parent cohort and which focus on the negative "sickness" component of health, are less appropriate for use in this relatively healthy population. Thus, we propose a broader conceptual framework of health that emphasizes the positive "wellness" side of the health continuum. The essential components of the comprehensive health index we describe include global health perceptions, measures of physical, mental, and social functioning across valued social roles, the ability to withstand stress as mediated by the coping process and social resources, and the assessment of genetic, behavioral, and physiological risk factors. One purpose of the proposal is to stimulate discussion in the hope of achieving general agreement regarding a shared conceptual frame of reference that would guide the development and testing of a reliable and valid health status instrument. PMID:3597695

  10. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  11. Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study: 1993 - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (

  12. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  13. Nursing III. A Course of Study. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen V.

    This curriculum guide for instructors provides a course of study (Nursing III) requisite for the third and concluding portion of a 1-year practical nursing curriculum designed to continue opportunities for career mobility in the health occupations. Content is in three sections: (1) Medical Surgical Nursing II, (2) Mental Health Nursing, and (3)…

  14. A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Avalosse, Hervé; Vancorenland, Sigrid; Verniest, Rebekka; Callens, Michael; van Broeck, Nady; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Mierop, Adrien

    2015-10-01

    Emotional competence (EC; also called "emotional intelligence"), which refers to individual differences in the identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use of one's emotions and those of others, has been found to be an important predictor of individuals' adaptation to their environment. Higher EC is associated with greater happiness, better mental health, more satisfying social and marital relationships, and greater occupational success. Whereas a considerable amount of research has documented the significance of EC, 1 domain has been crucially under investigated: the relationship between EC and physical health. We examined the relationship between EC and objective health indicators in 2 studies (N1 = 1,310; N2 = 9,616) conducted in collaboration with the largest Mutual Benefit Society in Belgium. These studies allowed us (a) to compare the predictive power of EC with other well-known predictors of health such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, education level, health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits), positive and negative affect, and social support; (b) to clarify the relative weight of the various EC dimensions in predicting health; and (c) to determine to what extent EC moderates the effect of already known predictors on health. Results show that EC is a significant predictor of health that has incremental predictive power over and above other predictors. Findings also show that high EC significantly attenuates (and sometimes compensates for) the impact of other risk factors. Therefore, we argue that EC deserves greater interest and attention from health professionals and governments. PMID:25893449

  15. Pinnacle Health / Zynx Health / Siemens Medical Solutions A Study of Integration of Evidence Based Nursing Content

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Sheri; Brown, Cindy; Button, Patricia S.; Kennedy, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Pinnacle Health System, Zynx Health, and Siemens Medical Solutions developed a partnership to conduct a study to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with the integration of evidence-based knowledge within the EHR with the goal of creating repeatable methodologies for integrating nursing knowledge within the EHR. The two-phase study involved access to referential evidence-based content, as well as integration of customized evidence-based plans of care within the documentation applications of the EHR.

  16. Prioritising public health: a qualitative study of decision making to reduce health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The public health system in England is currently facing dramatic change. Renewed attention has recently been paid to the best approaches for tackling the health inequalities which remain entrenched within British society and across the globe. In order to consider the opportunities and challenges facing the new public health system in England, we explored the current experiences of those involved in decision making to reduce health inequalities, taking cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a case study. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study employing 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were public health policy makers and planners in CVD in the UK, including: Primary Care Trust and Local Authority staff (in various roles); General Practice commissioners; public health academics; consultant cardiologists; national guideline managers; members of guideline development groups, civil servants; and CVD third sector staff. Results The short term target- and outcome-led culture of the NHS and the drive to achieve "more for less", combined with the need to address public demand for acute services often lead to investment in "downstream" public health intervention, rather than the "upstream" approaches that are most effective at reducing inequalities. Despite most public health decision makers wishing to redress this imbalance, they felt constrained due to difficulties in partnership working and the over-riding influence of other stakeholders in decision making processes. The proposed public health reforms in England present an opportunity for public health to move away from the medical paradigm of the NHS. However, they also reveal a reluctance of central government to contribute to shifting social norms. Conclusions It is vital that the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of all new and existing policies and services affecting public health are measured in terms of their impact on the social determinants of health

  17. The NHS health check programme in England: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Alford, Simon; Cushing, Jill; Panter, Lee

    2016-03-01

    Despite an extensive evidence-base linking patterns of health with social determinants, recent public health policy has emphasized 'lifestyle diseases' and risk factor modification through behavioural and pharmacological intervention. In England, one manifestation of this has been the launch of the National Health Service Health Check programme. This paper reports findings from a small-scale qualitative study exploring experiences of engaging with a community-based health check in Knowsley, England, among 17 males and 19 females, with varying levels of risk for cardiovascular disease, who agreed to be contacted for the purpose of research at the time they underwent their check. Analysis revealed that the community-based nature of the checks provided opportunities for people to find out more about their health who might not otherwise have done so. Participants expressed a range of responses to the communication of the risk score, often revealing their confusion about its meaning. Changes in behaviour were identified, which participants connected with having had a check. This study raises questions about where, how and by whom health checks are delivered. Emphasis on health checks reflects the dominant individualist ideology, but this study also suggests that the process provides opportunities to enable and empower individuals, albeit in small ways. However, they remain a 'downstream' approach to public health, emphasizing medical and behavioural options for risk factor reduction rather than focussing on primary prevention through changes to the wider environment. Furthermore, although developed as a central feature of the UK's strategy to reduce health inequalities, health checks may widen them. PMID:25073761

  18. Harmonizing human health studies in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hicks, H E; Spengler, R F

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of exposed human populations can provide valuable evidence of human health effects. Information has been sparse on human health effects associated with consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish. As part of its Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has funded ten projects. Of these studies, eight are epidemiologic investigations of human exposure and potential health effects from consumption of contaminated fish. To strengthen and to enhance the findings and comparability across the health studies, ATSDR has initiated several activities. These activities include harmonizing questionnaires, analytical protocols, human health end points, and contaminants tested. Also included is the establishment of a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program and tissue bank. These activities will allow ATSDR to enhance exposure assessment in the Great Lakes basin. In addition, these research activities allow ATSDR to evaluate and to interpret data across all the projects, including a basin-wide health risk analysis on exposure, levels of contaminants or body burden, and the potential for human health effects from exposure to Great Lakes contaminants. PMID:8843563

  19. Mental health support for youth offending teams: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Jane; Young, Bridget; Pace, Francis; Vostanis, Panos

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the views of professionals working in youth offending teams (YOTs) on a new model for providing mental health service support within the context of an interagency setting. Focus groups were used and data were analysed according to the constant comparative method. The setting consisted of two YOTs, one in an inner-city area and the other in a rural/semi-urban area, where primary mental health workers operate at the interface between YOTs and the specialist child and adolescent mental health services. Seventeen YOT professionals participated in four focus groups. Four themes were identified: previous experiences of specialist mental health services; issues of interagency working; the role of the primary mental health worker within the YOT; and recommendations for the future. Overall, the clinical component of the role (assessment and intervention), and the accessibility and responsiveness of the mental health staff were consistently valued, while there were mixed responses on role definitions within the team, consultation and training. It is concluded that mental health service provision through primary mental health workers is a useful model for interagency partnerships for high-risk client groups with multiple and complex mental health needs. PMID:14629233

  20. Patients, health information, and guidelines: A focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Saarelma, Osmo; Callaghan, Margaret; Harbour, Robin; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Loudon, Kirsty; Mcfarlane, Emma; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evidence-based clinical guidelines could support shared decision-making and help patients to participate actively in their care. However, it is not well known how patients view guidelines as a source of health information. This qualitative study aimed to assess what patients know about guidelines, and what they think of their presentation formats. Research question. What is the role of guidelines as health information for patients and how could the implementation of evidence-based information for patients be improved? Methods. A qualitative study with focus groups that were built around a semi-structured topic guide. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Results. Five focus groups were carried out in 2012 with a total of 23 participants. Patients searched for health information from the Internet or consulted health professionals or their personal networks. The concepts of guidelines included instructions or standards for health professionals, information given by a health professional to the patient, and material to protect and promote the interests of patients. Some patients did not have a concept for guidelines. Patients felt that health information was abundant and its quality sometimes difficult to assess. They respected conciseness, clarity, clear structure, and specialists or well-known organizations as authors of health information. Patients would like health professionals to deliver and clarify written materials to them or point out to them the relevant Internet sites. Conclusions. The concept of guidelines was not well known among our interviewees; however, they expressed an interest in having more communication on health information, both written information and clarifications with their health professionals. PMID:26205344

  1. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  2. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. PMID:26837084

  3. Enhancing the quality of case studies in health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, R K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on improving the quality of case studies in health services research. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data, drawing from previous case study research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Guidance is provided to two audiences: potential case study investigators (eight items) and reviewers of case study proposals (four additional items). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The guidance demonstrates that many operational steps can be undertaken to improve the quality of case studies. These steps have been a hallmark of high-quality case studies in related fields but have not necessarily been practiced in health services research. CONCLUSIONS: Given higher-quality case studies, the case study method can become a valuable tool for health services research. Images Figure 3 PMID:10591280

  4. Literacy on the Line. Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Proceedings (21st, Adelaide, Australia, September 24-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the Workplace" (Scheeres,…

  5. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  6. An Approach to Studying Social Disparities in Health and Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula A.; Egerter, Susan A.; Cubbin, Catherine; Marchi, Kristen S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. We explored methods and potential applications of a systematic approach to studying and monitoring social disparities in health and health care. Methods. Using delayed or no prenatal care as an example indicator, we (1) categorized women into groups with different levels of underlying social advantage; (2) described and graphically displayed rates of the indicator and relative group size for each social group; (3) identified and measured disparities, calculating relative risks and rate differences to compare each group with its a priori most-advantaged counterpart; (4) examined changes in rates and disparities over time; and (5) conducted multivariate analyses for the overall sample and “at-risk” groups to identify particular factors warranting attention. Results. We identified at-risk groups and relevant factors and suggest ways to direct efforts for reducing prenatal care disparities. Conclusions. This systematic approach should be useful for studying and monitoring disparities in other indicators of health and health care. PMID:15569966

  7. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  8. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  9. Individualization and inequalities in health: a qualitative study of class identity and health.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Bruce; Murphy, Simon; Gleeson, Kate

    2004-10-01

    It has been argued that social class, if not dead, is at least a 'zombie category' in contemporary Western society. However, epidemiological evidence shows that class-based inequalities have either persisted or widened, despite overall improvements in the health of Western populations. This article presents an exploratory qualitative study of the individualization of class identity and health conducted in a southern English city. Findings are presented in consideration of two competing argumentative positions around which participants worked to negotiate class identity and health. The first of these positions denied the significance of class for identity and health and was associated with the individualised heroic and stoic narratives of working class identity. The second position acknowledged the reality of class relations and their implications for health and identity, being associated with structurally and politically orientated narratives of middle class identity. In sum, resistance to class was associated with talk about individual, private experience whereas the acceptance of class was linked to discussion of health as a wider social or political phenomenon. This evidence lends qualified support to the individualization thesis: inequalities in health existing on structural or material levels are not simply reproduced, and indeed in some contexts may even juxtapose, accounts of social identity in interview and focus group contexts. Class identity and health are negotiated in lay talk as participants shift argumentatively back and forth between competing positions, and public and private realms, in the attempt to make sense of health and illness. The promotion of greater awareness and interest in health inequalities within wider public discourse may well help support attempts to tackle these injustices. PMID:15246166

  10. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  11. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  12. Social Studies. Health: Drugs, Society and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    The major intent of this interdisciplinary quinmester course for grades seven through twelve is to examine the need, problems, consequences, and social aspects of drug abuse. By studying the history and medicine of drug use, students learn background information that helps them define and categorize legitimate and illegitimate drug use, and…

  13. Hispanics' use of Internet health information: an exploratory study*

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Purcell, Ninfa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The research examined use of the Internet to seek health information among Hispanics in the United States. Methods: A secondary analysis used the Impact of the Internet and Advertising on Patients and Physicians, 2000–2001, survey data. Pearson's χ2 test, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent samples t tests were conducted to test for relationships and differences between facets of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white online health information seeking. Results: Findings indicated lower Internet health information seeking among Hispanics (28.9%, n=72) than non-Hispanic whites (35.6%, n=883). On a scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree), Hispanics were likely to agree that Internet health information improves understanding of medical conditions and treatments (M=1.65), gives patients confidence to talk to doctors about health concerns (M=1.67), and helps patients get treatment they would not otherwise receive (M=2.23). Hispanics viewed their skills in assessing Internet health information as good. Overall ratings were also positive for items related to sharing Internet health information with a doctor. Conflicting with these findings, Hispanics (M=3.33) and non-Hispanic whites (M=3.46) reported that physician-patient relationships worsened as a result of bringing online health information to a visit (scale 1=a lot better to 5=a lot worse). Conclusion: This study provides further evidence of differences in Internet health information seeking among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Cultural discordance may be a possible explanation for Hispanics' view that the Internet negatively impacts physician-patient relationships. Strategies to increase Hispanics' access to Internet health information will likely help them become empowered and educated consumers, potentially having a favorable impact on health outcomes. PMID:18379664

  14. Psychiatric, Psychological, and Social Determinants of Health in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Methods. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Results. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health. PMID:27459447

  15. Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals.

    PubMed

    Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M

    2016-08-01

    Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a

  16. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  17. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  18. Intergenerational learning about keeping health: a qualitative regional Australian study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Judy; Price, Kay; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Haren, Matthew T; McDermott, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the conditions under which families try to influence members' health-related practices can provide information to build concepts adding to models of health promotion. This paper reports on an exploratory qualitative study examining the influences of intergenerational relationships in shaping beliefs, knowledge and practices about health and illness in a regional Australian city. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 adults with family members of other generations living in the city, all of whom had experience of asthma. We found that overall people's experience of health and illness, particularly in childhood, was taken for granted and not reflected upon. It was in the face of serious illness or death of a family member that objective knowledge about health and illness was sought and integrated within the family leading, in most cases, to significant lifestyle changes or 'doing things differently'. We drew on Bourdieu's concept of the three forms of theoretical knowledge in analysing our findings. We found the concept of knowledge as 'primary taken-for-granted experience', and the concept of praxeological knowledge as the knowledge created by the dialectical relationships between an individual subject and objectives structures were helpful. To influence individual health practices, we need to acknowledge how the family context confirms the taken-for-granted health practices of an individual and the family circumstances that might lead families to seek objective knowledge and make lifestyle changes to promote health. PMID:23232088

  19. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

  20. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  1. Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

  2. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710

  3. Student nurses' perceptions of health promotion: a study.

    PubMed

    Ward, M

    1997-03-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative descriptive study of Project 2000 student nurses and student nurses following the apprenticeship model of training (conventional). The research compared their perception of health promotion with the perception of their roles as health promoters. The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methodology including a questionnaire, Likert Scale assessment of statements, and interviews. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups except in two areas. The conventional students agreed more strongly than the Project 2000 students that their roles as health promoters were very important. The Project 2000 students were able to name eight different health promotion models/approaches and applied some of them in practice, while the conventional students had no knowledge of health promotion models/approaches. The researcher recommends that a wider understanding of health promotion should be encouraged and that nurse lecturers and clinical staff should work more closely to develop a consistent approach to health promotion. PMID:9087059

  4. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  5. Using local authority data for action on health inequalities: the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study.

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David; Jones, Andrew; Watkins, John; Lester, Nathan; Cole, Jane; Thomas, Gary; Webber, Margaret; Coyle, Edward

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care organisations in the United Kingdom have been given new and challenging population health responsibilities to improve health and address health inequality in local communities through partnership working with local authorities. This requires robust health and social needs assessment data for effective local planning. AIM: To assess the use and value of local authority data shared through partnership working between Caerphilly Local Health Group and Caerphilly County Borough Council. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional analysis of aggregate electoral division data. SETTING: Caephilly County Borough, south-east Wales. METHOD: Local authority datasets identified were categorised into one of six domains: income, unemployment, housing, health, education, and social services. Data were presented at electoral division level as rates in thematic maps and correlations between the variables within and between each domain were explored using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, with particular focus on children in families. Local planning documents were scrutinised to ascertain the use and value of the data. RESULTS: A broad range of data described a comprehensive picture of health and social inequalities within the borough. Multiple deprivation tended to cluster in electoral divisions, particularly for data relating to children, painting an overwhelming picture of inequality in life chances. The data were used in a wide range of local partnership planning initiatives, including the Health Improvement Programme, Children's Services Plan, and a successful Healthy Living Centre bid. CONCLUSION: Local authority data can help primary care organisations in a population approach to needs assessment for use in local partnership planning targeted at reducing health inequalities. PMID:12392118

  6. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. PMID:26040444

  7. Pregnancy Intention and Health Behaviors: Results from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Camacho, Fabian T.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine whether intention for future pregnancy affects selected preconception health behaviors that may impact pregnancy outcomes. Methods Analyses are based on data from a population-based cohort study of women ages 18−45 residing in Central Pennsylvania. A subsample of 847 non-pregnant women with reproductive capacity comprise the analytic sample. We determined the associations between intention for future pregnancy and the pattern in the following health behaviors over a 2-year period: nutrition (fruit and vegetable consumption), folic acid supplementation, physical activity, binge drinking, smoking, and vaginal douching. Multivariable analyses controlled for pregnancy-related variables, health status, health care utilization, and sociodemographic variables. Results At baseline, 9% of women were considering pregnancy in the next year, 37% of women were considering pregnancy some other time in the future, and 53% of women were not considering future pregnancy. In multivariable analyses, there were no associations between intention for future pregnancy and maintaining healthy behavior or improving behavior for any of the seven longitudinal health behaviors studied. Conclusions The importance of nutrition, folic acid supplementation, physical activity, avoiding binge drinking, not smoking, and avoiding vaginal douching in the preconception period needs to be emphasized by health care providers and policy makers. PMID:19214724

  8. Cohort profile: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G; Twisk, Jos W R

    2013-04-01

    The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS) is a unique, multidisciplinary cohort study that was initially set up to examine growth and health among teenagers. Throughout the years, the AGHLS has aimed to answer research questions dealing with the relationships between the (natural) development of anthropometry, lifestyle and health from adolescence into adulthood. The AGHLS specifically focuses on anthropometrics, physical activity and fitness, cardiovascular disease risk, lifestyle, musculoskeletal health, psychological health and well-being. Besides this, many methodological issues related to the analysis of longitudinal data were also explored within the framework of the AGHLS. In 1976, students from two secondary schools from the greater Amsterdam area were included in the study. Between 1976 and 2006, 10 rounds of measurement were performed covering an age range between 13 and 43 years. The huge database collected so far has been primarily used to answer relevant research questions regarding the longitudinal relationship between lifestyle and health. Further information about the study can be obtained from the principal investigator Jos Twisk (jwr.twisk@vumc.nl), and up-to-date information on AGHLS can be found by visiting the website www.aggo.nl. PMID:22434862

  9. THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY: COLLABORATIVE HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract describes the collaborative effort between the NCI, the NIEHS, the U.S. EPA, and NIOSH to conduct the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). The AHS is a prospective epidemiological study to identify factors that may affect the rate of cancer and other diseases among farme...

  10. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  11. Research in college health. 2: Designing the study.

    PubMed

    Steenbarger, B N; Manchester, R A

    1993-07-01

    Building upon an initial article, which described the processes of literature review and hypothesis development, the authors summarize issues of research design. General issues encountered by researchers in college health settings include the establishment of a clear research focus, selection of a representative and adequate study sample, use of reliable and valid measures, and adherence to professional ethics. Specific means of addressing these design concerns are summarized, using examples from college health research. PMID:8376673

  12. Satellites as Shared Resources for Caribbean Climate and Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.

  13. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  14. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  15. Labour insecurity and health: an epidemiological study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Loewenson, R

    1988-01-01

    Existing data on health status and health care provision in agricultural labour communities in Zimbabwe indicate that both are poor. In addition, there is evidence that the concentration of capital through increased areas of landholdings, through mechanisation and use of agrochemicals produces a rise in under- and unemployment within the agricultural sector, which increases the risk of ill health. This paper addresses this question in Zimbabwe by examining the nature of developments within the large scale agricultural sector in the last decade, and the consequent effects on employment and income. Rising capital intensity in the private large scale sector is found to be associated with increases in unemployment and underemployment. The impact of this socioeconomic pattern on health is assessed in a longitudinal assessment of 78 permanent labour families and 76 non-permanent (underemployed) labour families in the large scale farming sector. The study shows that while poor social, economic and health conditions exist in all groups, non-permanent labour households suffer greater insecurity of employment and income, poorer health status and lesser participation in sociopolitical structures important for negotiating primary health care gains. PMID:3227374

  16. Impacts of extreme weather on the health and well-being of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Pendrey, Catherine G A; Carey, Marion; Stanley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This letter responds to the article by Cusack et al., 'Extreme weather-related health needs of people who are homeless' (Australian Journal of Primary Health, 2013, 19(3), 250-255), which addressed the impacts of extreme weather on the health of the homeless population in inner city Adelaide. We compare the findings of Cusack et al. to our own original research, based on interviews with service providers to the homeless in urban and rural Victoria. We further place this issue in the broader context of climate change, which is crucial given the expected increase in extreme weather events and associated health impacts. PMID:24290233

  17. Origin, Methods, and Evolution of the Three Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying; Bertoia, Monica L; Lenart, Elizabeth B; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Speizer, Frank E; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    We have summarized the evolution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of 121 700 married registered nurses launched in 1976; NHS II, which began in 1989 and enrolled 116 430 nurses; and NHS3, which began in 2010 and has ongoing enrollment. Over 40 years, these studies have generated long-term, multidimensional data, including lifestyle- and health-related information across the life course and an extensive repository of various biological specimens. We have described the questionnaire data collection, disease follow-up methods, biorepository resources, and data management and statistical procedures. Through integrative analyses, these studies have sustained a high level of scientific productivity and substantially influenced public health recommendations. We have highlighted recent interdisciplinary research projects and discussed future directions for collaboration and innovation. PMID:27459450

  18. Origin, Methods, and Evolution of the Three Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoia, Monica L.; Lenart, Elizabeth B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Speizer, Frank E.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    We have summarized the evolution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of 121 700 married registered nurses launched in 1976; NHS II, which began in 1989 and enrolled 116 430 nurses; and NHS3, which began in 2010 and has ongoing enrollment. Over 40 years, these studies have generated long-term, multidimensional data, including lifestyle- and health-related information across the life course and an extensive repository of various biological specimens. We have described the questionnaire data collection, disease follow-up methods, biorepository resources, and data management and statistical procedures. Through integrative analyses, these studies have sustained a high level of scientific productivity and substantially influenced public health recommendations. We have highlighted recent interdisciplinary research projects and discussed future directions for collaboration and innovation. PMID:27459450

  19. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Odom, Darcel; Fortenberry, Marty; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) Community Outreach Center (CORC) to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction. PMID:26703681

  20. Working conditions and mental health: Results from the CARESUN study.

    PubMed

    Feola, Daniela; Pedata, Paola; D'Ancicco, Francesco; Santalucia, Laura; Sannolo, Nicola; Ascione, Eduardo; Nienhaus, Albert; Magliano, Lorenza; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The authors conducted a work-related stress surveillance study in 2013 on 6,558 public-sector employees in Italy, examining how they perceived their jobs, via the Job Content Questionnaire, and their mental health status, via the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Of the 2,094 employees completing the questionnaires, 60% were male, 52% had a medium-level education, and 76% had a medium-level job. Three hundred and eighty-five employees (18%) had a GHQ-12 score >3 and were classified as GHQ-12 cases: these were more often female (54%), medium-to-highly educated (54%), and had more often reported health problems over the previous year (51%). Thus, GHQ-12 cases represented a significant percentage of the examined population, indicating that work-related stress surveillance programs are needed for the planning of psychosocial interventions aimed at the reintegration of individuals with mental health problems. PMID:26167870

  1. Variations in the Use of mHealth Tools: The VA Mobile Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) technologies exhibit promise for offering patients and their caregivers point-of-need tools for health self-management. This research study involved the dissemination of iPads containing a suite of mHealth apps to family caregivers of veterans who receive care from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Administration and have serious physical or mental injuries. Objective The goal of the study was to identify factors and characteristics of veterans and their family caregivers that predict the use of mHealth apps. Methods Veteran/family caregiver dyads (N=882) enrolled in VA’s Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers program were recruited to participate in an mHealth pilot program. Veterans and caregivers who participated and received an iPad agreed to have their use of the apps monitored and were asked to complete a survey assessing Caregiver Preparedness, Caregiver Traits, and Caregiver Zarit Burden Inventory baseline surveys. Results Of the 882 dyads, 94.9% (837/882) of caregivers were women and 95.7% (844/882) of veteran recipients were men. Mean caregiver age was 40 (SD 10.2) years and mean veteran age was 39 (SD 9.15) years, and 39.8% (351/882) lived in rural locations. Most (89%, 788/882) of the caregivers were spouses. Overall, the most frequently used app was Summary of Care, followed by RX Refill, then Journal, Care4Caregivers, VA Pain Coach, and last, VA PTSD Coach. App use was significantly predicted by the caregiver being a spouse, increased caregiver computer skills, a rural living location, lower levels of caregiver preparedness, veteran mental health diagnosis (other than posttraumatic stress disorder), and veteran age. Conclusions This mHealth Family Caregiver pilot project effectively establishes the VA’s first patient-facing mHealth apps that are integrated within the VA data system. Use varied considerably, and apps that were most used were those that assisted them in their caregiving responsibilities

  2. The Use of Hospital Health Science Libraries; A Methodological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleg, Marilyn C.; Pings, Vern M.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a method to provide facts about the clientele and use of one type of health science library, the hospital medical library. The method was tested in two hospital libraries, Harper Hospital, Detroit, and Hurley Hospital, Flint. The study was divided into four levels of data collecting and…

  3. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  4. Implementing the Health Promoting School in Denmark: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Lone Lindegaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into teachers' practice in implementing school-based health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative research was designed as a multiple case study. The study involved five schools, 233 pupils in the age 12-16 and 23 teachers. The primary data generation method were focus…

  5. Hanford-worker health study: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Tolley, H.D.; Gilbert, E.S.; Petersen, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing.

  6. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  7. Mental health service users' experiences of diabetes care by Mental Health Nurses: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Nash, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring mental health service users' (MHSUs') experiences of diabetes care. Diabetes is a growing clinical concern in mental health nursing practice. However, little is known about MHSUs' experience of diabetes care. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were held between June and October 2011, with seven MHSUs who had diabetes. Participants reported experiences of stigma and diagnostic overshadowing (DO) when reporting symptoms of diabetes or when feeling unwell. Participants also encountered a split between their mental health and diabetes care needs, which resulted in a lack of holistic or integrated care. All participants mentioned experiencing complications of diabetes even to the extent of diabetic ketoacidosis. Mental health nurses (MHNs) must critically reflect on their attitudes towards service users that report physical symptoms to ensure that stigma and DO do not constitute barriers to appropriate screening and treatment. The complex relationship that exists between mental illness and diabetes requires MHNs to ensure physical and mental health care are wholly integrated and not split. Education needs are apparent so that symptoms and complications can be recognized and treated accordingly. PMID:24548452

  8. Exogenous Hormone Use: Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and Health Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II from 1976 to 2016. Results. Oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone use were studied in relation to major health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current or recent oral contraceptive use is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (mainly among smokers), melanoma, and breast cancer, and a lower risk of colorectal and ovarian cancer. Although hormone therapy is not indicated primarily for chronic disease prevention, findings from the NHS and a recent analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative indicate that younger women who are closer to menopause onset have a more favorable risk–benefit profile than do older women from use of hormone therapy for relief of vasomotor symptoms. Conclusions. With updated information on hormone use, lifestyle factors, and other variables, the NHS and NHS II continue to contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. PMID:27459451

  9. The teeth and faces of twins: providing insights into dentofacial development and oral health for practising oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D

    2014-06-01

    The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome

  10. Studying Mind-Body Health at Community Colleges: Toward a Comprehensive Understanding of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Barry S., Ed.

    This publication addresses the field of mind-body health and examines ways in which the study of connections between our minds and bodies might be integrated into the community college curriculum. It includes suggestions for community college leaders; offers three background papers that introduce and elaborate on the meaning of mind-body health…

  11. One Health and EcoHealth in Ontario: a qualitative study exploring how holistic and integrative approaches are shaping public health practice in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health

  12. Nutritionists’ Health Study cohort: a web-based approach of life events, habits and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Isis Tande; de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) represent a burden for public health. Alongside the established cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism, living habits and nutritional status at different stages of life are seen as contributors to this scenario. Gut microbiota composition and subclinical inflammation have been pointed out as underlying mechanisms of NCCDs. Studies involving health professionals have brought relevant contributions to the knowledge about risk factors. Technological advances facilitate data collection and analysis for big samples. A web-based survey addressed to collect data from a cohort study, which is able to identify NCCDs risk factors, is highly desirable. The objective of the Brazilian Nutritionists’ Health Study (NutriHS) is to gather online information on early life events, daily habits, emergent cardiometabolic risk factors and health outcomes of a specific subset of the Brazilian population. Methods and analysis NutriHS, developed at the School of Public Health—University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is a research initiative that enrols undergraduates of nutrition courses from Brazilian universities and graduated volunteers. A web-based self-administered system was designed to collect health-related data. After fulfilling online questionnaires (socioeconomic, early life events and lifestyle data), participants are invited to a clinical visit for physical examination and laboratory procedures (blood sampling, faeces collection and body composition). At a 3-year interval, they will be invited to repeat similar procedures. Ethics and dissemination The NutriHS research protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and is providing promising data which contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological links between early life events, body composition, gut microbiota, and inflammatory and metabolic risk profile. The combination of a friendly tool

  13. Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

  14. Older Inmates’ Pursuit of Good Health: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order. PMID:20795581

  15. Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-02-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  16. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  17. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  18. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  19. The Saskatchewan rural health study: an application of a population health framework to understand respiratory health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory disease can impose a significant burden on the health of rural populations. The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) is a new large prospective cohort study of ages 6 and over currently being conducted in farming and non-farming communities to evaluate potential health determinants associated with respiratory outcomes in rural populations. In this article, we describe the rationale and methodology for the adult component. The study is being conducted over 5 years (2009–15) in two phases, baseline and longitudinal. The baseline survey consists of two components, adults and children. The adult component consists of a questionnaire-based evaluation of individual and contextual factors of importance to respiratory health in two sub populations (a Farm Cohort and a Small Town Cohort) of rural families in Saskatchewan Rural Municipalities (RMs). Clinical studies of lung function and allergy tests are being conducted on selected sub-samples of the two cohorts based on the positive response to the last question on the baseline questionnaire: “Would you be willing to be contacted about having breathing and/or allergy tests at a nearby location?”. We adopted existing population health theory to evaluate individual factors, contextual factors, and principal covariates on the outcomes of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Findings Of the RMs selected to participate, 32 (89%) out of 36 RMs and 15 (94%) out of 16 small towns within the RMs agreed to participate. Using the mail out survey method developed by Dillman, we obtained completed questionnaires from 4264 households (8261 individuals). We obtained lung function measurements on 1609 adults, allergy skin test information on 1615 adults; both measurements were available on 1549 adults. We observed differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual, contextual factors and covariates. Discussion There are

  20. Feasibility and marketing studies of health sciences librarianship education programs.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, C E; Moran, B B; Jenkins, C G; Cogdill, K W; Friedman, C P; Gollop, C J; Moore, M E; Morrison, M L; Tibbo, H R; Wildemuth, B M

    1999-01-01

    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill evaluated five curricular models designed to improve education for health sciences librarianship. Three of the models enhanced existing degree and certificate programs, and two were new programs for working information professionals. Models were developed with input from experts and a Delphi study; the marketability of the models was tested through surveys of potential students and employers; and recommendations were made as a guide to implementation. The results demonstrated a demand for more specialized curricula and for retraining opportunities. Marketing data showed a strong interest from potential students in a specialized master's degree, and mid-career professionals indicated an interest in postmaster's programs that provided the ability to maintain employment. The study pointed to the opportunity for a center of excellence in health sciences information education to enable health sciences librarians to respond to their evolving roles. PMID:9934529

  1. A study of Minnesota's high-risk health insurance pool.

    PubMed

    Zellner, B B; Haugen, D K; Dowd, B

    1993-01-01

    This is a report of a study of Minnesota's high-risk health insurance pool for "medically uninsurable" persons. The study consisted of a survey of current and past enrollees carried out in the Spring of 1990 and an analysis of the claims and membership files for 1988 and 1989. The main policy conclusion we reached is that Minnesota's high-risk pool is an adequate approach to the problem raised by risk segmentation on the basis of health status, providing that enrollment remains a small fraction of the population. The recent high, enrollment growth rates the Minnesota risk pool has experienced raise the possibility that basic structural reforms of the nongroup and small-group health insurance markets are needed. PMID:8314605

  2. Introduction: Case Studies in the Ethics of Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This collection presents six case studies on the ethics of mental health research, written by scientific researchers and ethicists from around the world. We publish them here as a resource for teachers of research ethics and as a contribution to several ongoing ethical debates. Each consists of a description of a research study that was proposed or carried out and an in-depth analysis of the ethics of the study. PMID:22373760

  3. Factors associated with self-reported health: implications for screening level community-based health and environmental studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mort...

  4. Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

  5. Divorce and Death: A Case Study for Health Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita

    2012-01-01

    Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588

  6. COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENDPOINTS IN SWIMMERS' HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...

  7. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  8. Health Behaviors of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)

  9. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  10. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  11. An English Study of Teacher Satisfaction, Motivation, and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Cox, Sue; Dinham, Steve

    This study of 543 English teachers and school executives examined teachers' occupational motivation, satisfaction, and health and tested a model of teacher satisfaction developed in Australia in a previous research phase. Teachers came from schools representative of all types of schools and all levels of socioeconomic status. Teachers completed a…

  12. National Study on Community College Health. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    This is a report on a national survey of community colleges conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in 2000. The survey was designed to identify various community health programs, centers, classes, and services related to HIV/AIDS that community colleges administered, partnered, or sponsored. The study surveyed 1,100…

  13. COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENPOINTS IN SWIMMER'S HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...

  14. MORTALITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses.

    Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...

  15. Integrated Care in College Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.

  16. Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausson, Eva K.; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting…

  17. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  18. Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

  19. Assessing Consumer Health Vocabulary Familiarity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Tse, Tony; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen; Ngo, Long

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting “average familiarity” with consumer health vocabulary (CHV) terms. Objective The primary goal was to evaluate the ability of the CHV term familiarity model to predict (1) surface-level familiarity of health-related terms and (2) understanding of the underlying meaning (concept familiarity) among actual consumers. Secondary goals involved exploring the effect of demographic factors (eg, health literacy) on surface-level and concept-level familiarity and describing the relationship between the two levels of familiarity. Methods Survey instruments for assessing surface-level familiarity (45 items) and concept-level familiarity (15 items) were developed. All participants also completed a demographic survey and a standardized health literacy assessment, S-TOFHLA. Results Based on surveys completed by 52 consumers, linear regression suggests that predicted CHV term familiarity is a statistically significantly predictor (P < .001) of participants’ surface-level and concept-level familiarity performance. Health literacy was a statistically significant predictor of surface-level familiarity scores (P < .001); its effect on concept-level familiarity scores warrants further investigation (P = 0.06). Educational level was not a significant predictor of either type of familiarity. Participant scores indicated that conceptualization lagged behind recognition, especially for terms predicted as “likely to be familiar” (P = .006). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the CHV term familiarity model is predictive of consumer recognition and understanding of terms in the health domain. Potential uses

  20. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of

  1. [The individual health of male teenagers studying at secondary school].

    PubMed

    Zarytovskaia, N V; Kalmykova, A S

    2012-01-01

    Mental health, physical development, physiological constants, somatic health and chronic case rates were studied in graduating-class schoolboys aged 16 (n = 63) and 17 (n = 82) years. The prevailing temperament in 17-year-old teenagers was hyperthymic and that in 16-year-olds was labile and introverted. The majority of the surveyed young men were extroverts, emotionally stable with a moderate useful level of situational and personal anxiety. More than 70.0% of the young men showed high social adaptation and low autonomic lability. 17-year-old young men had retarded processes as shown by moderate-low and moderate rates ofphysical development and disharmony. The most of teenagers had moderate and above-moderate levels of somatic health and a vital index that characterizes good functional, adaptive capacities of the cardiorespiratory system. PMID:22834276

  2. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

  3. Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Clausson, Eva K; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting psychosocial health problem issues. Qualitative content analysis was used for interpreting the data. The analysis resulted in one overarching theme: having to do one's duty and being afraid of doing wrong; and three subthemes: uncertainty related to one's own ability, concerns related to future consequences, and strategies to handle the documentation. School nurses relying on their intuition and using a structured documentation model may increase the opportunities for a reliable documentation. To further develop their professional skills with regular, clinical supervision can be of great importance. This in turn may increase contributions to research and development for the benefit of schoolchildren's psychosocial health. PMID:25061093

  4. Preparing tomorrow's health sciences librarians: feasibility and marketing studies.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, B B; Jenkins, C G; Friedman, C P; Lipscomb, C E; Gollop, C J; Moore, M E; Morrison, M L; Tibbo, H R; Wildemuth, B M

    1996-01-01

    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is devising and evaluating five curricular models designed to improve education for health sciences librarianship. These models fit into a continual learning process from the initial professional preparation to lifelong learning opportunities. Three of them enhance existing degree and certificate programs in the School of Information and Library Science (SILS) with a health sciences specialization, and two are new programs for working information professionals. The approaches involve partnerships among SILS, the Health Sciences Library, and the program in Medical Informatics. The planning process will study the feasibility of the proposed programs, test the marketability of the models to potential students and employers, and make recommendations about implementation. PMID:8913557

  5. Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

  6. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  7. Embodying health identities: A study of young people with asthma.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Lee F; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The embodiment of health identities is a growing area of interest. Questions posed in this literature include: how important is the body in our understandings/experiences of health, how are everyday definitions of health and self embodied despite chronic illness, and how do social relations influence these interpretations? Mindful of such questions, this paper draws on a qualitative study of mild to moderate asthma among young people in Ireland. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 31 respondents aged between 5 and 17, including boys (n = 15) and girls (n = 16) from different class and ethnic backgrounds. Core themes included: the importance of play, physical activity and sport; diet/nutrition; and physical appearance. Asthma sometimes presented challenges in relation to specific domains, notably strenuous physical activity, though in many other respects its potential impact was discursively minimised. Attentive to various modalities of the lived body, we illustrate how health identities are negotiated among young people diagnosed with a chronic illness. Connections are also made with the sociology of childhood and (ill) health, which views young people as active agents. PMID:27192143

  8. The Impact of the Nurses’ Health Study on Population Health: Prevention, Translation, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Sydney E.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To summarize the overall impact of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) over the past 40 years on the health of populations through its contributions on prevention, translation, and control. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the findings of the NHS, NHS II, and NHS3 between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has generated significant findings about the associations between (1) smoking and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and eye diseases; (2) physical activity and cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, psoriasis, and neurodegeneration; (3) obesity and cardiovascular diseases, numerous cancer sites, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; (4) oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease, melanoma, and breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; (5) hormone therapy and cardiovascular diseases, breast and endometrial cancer, and neurodegeneration; (6) endogenous hormones and breast cancer; (7) dietary factors and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, breast and pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, neurodegeneration, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; and (8) sleep and shift work and chronic diseases. Conclusions. The NHS findings have influenced public health policy and practice both locally and globally to improve women’s health. PMID:27459441

  9. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use. PMID:27015396

  10. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    PubMed

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  11. Associations of physical and mental health problems with chronic cough in a representative population cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although chronic cough is a common problem in clinical practice, data on the prevalence and characteristics of cough in the general population are scarce. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic cough that is not associated with diagnosed respiratory conditions and examine the impact on health status and psychological health, in a representative adult population cohort Methods North West Adelaide Health Study (n stage 1 = 4060, stage 2 = 3160) is a representative population adult cohort. Clinical assessment included spirometry, anthropometry and skin tests. Questionnaires assessed demographics, lifestyle risk factors, quality of life, mental health and respiratory symptoms, doctor diagnosed conditions and medication use. Results Of the 3355 people without identified lung disease at baseline, 18.2% reported chronic cough. In multiple logistic regression models, at follow-up, dry chronic cough without sputum production was significantly more common in males (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), current smokers (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.4, 7.2), obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.9), use of ACE inhibitors (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 2.9), severe mental health disturbance (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4, 3.1) and older age (40-59 years OR 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.4; ≥ 60 years OR 2.1 95% CI 1.3, 3.5). Among non-smokers only, all cough was significantly more common in men, those with severe mental health disturbance and obesity. Conclusions Chronic cough is a major cause of morbidity. Attention to cough is indicated in patients with obesity, psychological symptoms or smokers. Inquiring about cough in those with mental health problems may identify reversible morbidity. PMID:20003540

  12. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio. PMID:27044240

  13. Health Problems Among the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, RP; Banerjee, A; Nikumb, VB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Estimates of health problems of the elderly in developing countries are required from time to time to predict trends in disease burden and plan health care for the elderly. Developing countries have a poor track record of equitable distribution of health care. Marginalized groups living in urban slums and rural villages have poor penetration of health services. Aims: To identify the geriatric health problems in samples drawn from a slum and a village, and also to explore any gender and urban–rural difference morbidity. Subject and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out by house to house survey of all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a village in the field practice area of a teaching hospital. The total elderly population in these two areas was 407, with an almost equal representation from urban slum and rural area. Information (most of them self-reported) was collected in a pre-tested instrument, which has been used earlier in a World Health Organization multicentric study in India. Categorical variables were summarized by percentages. Associations were explored with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Female elders outnumbered the male elders; widows outnumbered widowers. Tobacco use was very high at 58.97% (240/407). Visual impairment (including uncorrected presbyopia) was the most common handicap with prevalence of 83.29% (339/407), with males more affected than females (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.32-4.87). Uncorrected hearing impairment was also common. Urinary complaints were also more common in males (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.93-3.04). More rural elders were living alone than their urban counterpart (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.23-6.86). History of weight loss was higher in the rural areas, while tendency to obesity was higher in the urban areas. An appreciable number 29.2% (119/407) had unoperated cataract. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (125/407); 12% (49/407) had diabetes; 7.6% (31

  14. A study of alternative health care use for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Giese, L A

    2000-01-01

    The discomfort and frustration often experienced by patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders may lead many to seek alternative health care (AHC). This study was conducted to describe AHC use by patients with GI disorders in a convenience sample (N = 73) from a tertiary hospital in Florida. AHC was explored within social exchange theory. Measurement instruments included the Alternative Health Care Gastrointestinal Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Alternative Health Care Use Questionnaire, and Alternative Health Care Advantages/Disadvantages Questionnaire. The study indicated that 32 subjects (43%) had used AHC for their GI disorders during the past 2 years. Most frequently used AHC included relaxation therapy, herbs, lifestyle diets, megavitamins, massage, and home remedies. There was a greater use of AHC by young persons (t = 2.39, p = .02) and by those not retired (chi 2 = 4.58, p = .03). AHC was associated with perceived rewards (r = .38, p = .03) and perceived profits (r = .38, p = .03). AHC was not associated with type or duration of GI disorder or other demographic variables. Subjects specifically cited benefits with relaxation therapy, vegetarian diets, spiritual healing, fish oil for inflammatory bowel disease, and use of milk thistle for hepatitis. PMID:11096804

  15. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John WR; Weir, David R

    2014-01-01

    The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data—public, sensitive and restricted—can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021

  16. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in…

  17. Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns. Objective The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies. Methods Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites. Results Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive

  18. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance. Conclusion Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools. PMID:26630180

  19. Linking Health Screening to Health Education Learning Modules for Elementary School Students: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerstein, Paula; Galli, Nicholas

    1983-01-01

    Sixty fourth-grade students were pretested and posttested as to their health knowledge. An experimental group was taught about health through an "Instructional Module in Health Screening Procedures and Personal Health Care," while the control group received traditional health screening and instruction. Students learning from the module scored…

  20. Study on situational influences perceived in nursing discipline on health promotion: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  1. Th-U-total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Adelaide rift complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemo-stratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but reliable depositional age constraints have been extremely limited. We report results of in situ Th-U-total Pb (electron microprobe) dating of detrital and authigenic monazite in two samples from the Umberatana Group (Sturtian Holowilena Ironstone and pre-Marinoan Enorama Shale) in the Central Flinders Ranges. Several texturally and chemically distinct detrital and authigenic populations are recognized. Detrital dates range from 1600 Ma to 760 Ma and most relate to well-known orogenic or igneous events in surrounding cratonic regions. Authigenic monazite grew in three or more pulses ranging from 680 Ma to 500 Ma. The date of 680 ± 23 Ma (2 σ) for the earliest generation of authigenic monazite in sandstone from the Enorama Shale (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) supports proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China, which bracket the presumed Marinoan equivalents between 655 and 635 Ma. This age is inconsistent with a Re-Os isochron age of 643 ± 2.4 Ma (2 σ) on shales near the bottom of the Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial succession, stratigraphically > 3000 m below the Enorama Shale sample, and militate against the hypothesis that the type Marinoan is correlative with the 580 Ma Gaskiers glaciation. Monazite growth near 600 Ma and again at about 500 Ma probably represent hydrothermal fluid-flow events, the latter of which also corresponds to the well-known Delamerian Orogeny during which the Adelaide sediments were

  2. US Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Dalager, N A; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Matanoski, G M; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lees, P S

    2001-01-01

    The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in Vietnam as members of the Army Chemical Corps and a comparison cohort of Army Chemical Corps personnel who served elsewhere. A total of 2872 Vietnam veterans and 2737 non-Vietnam veterans who served in the Army Chemical Corps were identified for inclusion in a telephone health interview survey with a random 20% sample of veterans receiving serum dioxin and other congeners assessments. In a feasibility study which included 284 Vietnam veterans and 281 non-Vietnam veterans, 100 serum assessments were conducted of which 95 were included in the analysis. Vietnam veterans with a history of spraying herbicides were found to have a statistically significant elevation in their current serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations compared to non-Vietnam veterans without a spray history (P = 0.05). Other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins levels were comparable to the levels found in the non-Vietnam veterans. This feasibility study demonstrated that serum dioxin concentrations from a sample of the study participants can be used to identify exposure variables in the health survey that can serve as a surrogate measure of phenoxyherbicide exposure. PMID:11372888

  3. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of

  4. Maternal health in Gujarat, India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep V; Vora, Kranti S; Ramani, K V; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-04-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

  5. Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415

  6. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  7. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van der Gugten, Anne C.; de Leeuw, Rob J. R. J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Kars, Marijke C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. Design A qualitative design was chosen. Setting and subjects Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Main outcome measures Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parentsʼ ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Results Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Conclusions Parents need information about their childrenʼs symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key pointsInternet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation.Our study suggests that:Parents need information about their children’s symptoms and the internet is a

  8. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid

  9. Alabama Course of Study: Health Education. Bulletin 1988, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This comprehensive school health education program offers a planned sequential curriculum for grades K-12 based on student needs, current and emerging health concepts, and social issues. It integrates the physical, mental, emotional, and social dimensions of health. The 10 areas covered are: (1) consumer health; (2) dental health; (3) disease…

  10. Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  11. Key Findings on Alcohol Consumption and a Variety of Health Outcomes From the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Giovannucci, Ed L.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review critical contributions from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) on alcohol consumption and health outcomes. Methods. We performed a narrative review of NHS (1980–2012) and NHS II (1989–2011) publications. Results. Using detailed information on self-reported alcohol drinking patterns obtained approximately every 4 years combined with extensive information on diet, lifestyle habits, and physician-diagnosed health conditions, NHS investigators have prospectively examined the risks and benefits associated with alcohol consumption. Moderate intake, defined as up to 1 drink a day, is associated with a lower risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, gallstones, cognitive decline, and all-cause mortality. However, even moderate intake places women at higher risk for breast cancer and bone fractures, and higher intake increases risk for colon polyps and colon cancer. Conclusions. Regular alcohol intake has both risks and benefits. In analyses using repeated assessments of alcohol over time and deaths from all causes, women with low to moderate intake and regular frequency (> 3 days/week) had the lowest risk of mortality compared with abstainers and women who consumed substantially more than 1 drink per day. PMID:27459455

  12. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  13. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  14. No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study Meds like Chantix and Wellbutrin may ... Disorders Quitting Smoking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Medicines Mental Disorders Quitting Smoking About MedlinePlus ...

  15. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or Institute) Cancellation:...

  16. Readability Study of Client Health Education Materials: A Resource for Assuring the Effectiveness of Written Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans H.; And Others

    A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…

  17. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  18. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Isasi, Carmen; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Design and Setting The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation. Participants Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Intervention Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam. Outcome Measures The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors. Results The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent. Conclusions By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. PMID:24620452

  19. Health Manpower Resources: Patterns and Trends. A Study of Health Manpower in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognanno, Mario F.; And Others

    A comprehensive statement and presentation of data pertaining to fifteen Iowa health manpower occupations are made for units of State and Federal Government, health and professional organizations, health planners, and lay groups involved in health and other socioeconomic planning activities. The industrialization of Iowa with attendant decline in…

  20. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  1. Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

    The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

  2. Personnel for Health Care: Case Studies of Educational Programmes. Public Health Papers No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, F. M., Ed.; Fulop, T., Ed.

    Innovations in the training of community health personnel that emphasize the importance of the development of health personnel able and willing to serve the community by providing health care, promoting health, preventing disease, and caring for those in need are examined. The need for effective and efficient training programs relevant to present…

  3. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and

  4. PTSD and Obesity in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Aiello, Allison E.; Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with adverse health consequences, including overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. African Americans, particularly women, have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity in the U.S. compared to other racial groups. High rates of violence exposure in urban African Americans may lead to the development of PTSD and increase risk for overweight and obesity. The current study investigated the comorbidity of lifetime PTSD and overweight/obesity in a population-based African American, urban sample. Method Data were from 463 African American male and female participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the impact of lifetime PTSD on risk for overweight and obesity. Results The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among women (60.9%) than men (33.1%; p<0.001). In sex-stratified models, after controlling for demographic variables, PTSD was associated obesity (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 14.3) only among women. Conclusions PTSD was associated with obesity, after controlling for confounding variables, among African American women. Results underscore the contribution of PTSD to obesity among African American women and the importance of addressing the physical health correlates of women with PTSD. PMID:24035634

  5. Promoting Health and Wellness in Congregations Through Lay Health Educators: A Case Study of Two Churches.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Hale, W Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Religious institutions are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. Creating lay health educators to serve in these communities can promote health initiatives centered on education and accessing resources. This paper is a prospective observational report of the impact of trained lay health community congregation members in two faith communities based on an urban setting. We describe health efforts made in an African-American Methodist church and in a Latino Spanish-speaking Catholic church. We review the intricacies in establishing trust with the community, the training of lay health educators, and the implementation strategies and outcomes of health initiatives for these communities. PMID:26014461

  6. Chattanooga Creek: case study of the public health nursing role in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    1995-10-01

    Public health nurses have two primary roles in protecting their communities from hazardous substances: community assessment and health education. Developing assessment skills in environmental health enables public health nurses to collaborate with other federal, state, and county agencies in identifying public health hazards and making health-based recommendations at hazardous waste sites needing remedial or removal interventions. Community health education empowers communities to minimize their exposure to hazardous wastes in their environment. Methods for community environmental health assessment and interventions are demonstrated in this article by activities conducted at the Chattanooga Creek site in Chattanooga, Tennessee. A thorough assessment and collaborative approach between government agencies, local health professionals, and community members resulted in a successful community health education program and this site's placement on the National Priorities List. PMID:7479542

  7. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking. PMID:7498108

  8. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  9. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  10. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies

    PubMed Central

    Duramad, Paurene; Tager, Ira B.; Holland, Nina T.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental exposures (e.g. pesticides, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke) during prenatal and early postnatal development have been linked to a growing number of childhood diseases including allergic disorders and leukemia. Because the immune response plays a critical role in each of these diseases, it is important to study the effects of toxicants on the developing immune system. Children's unique susceptibility to environmental toxicants has become an important focus of the field of immunotoxicology and the use of immune biomarkers in molecular epidemiology of children's environmental health is a rapidly expanding field of research. In this review, we discuss how markers of immune status and immunotoxicity are being applied to pediatric studies, with a specific focus on the various methods used to analyze T-helper-1/2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles. Furthermore, we review recent data on the effects of children's environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds, metals, and pesticides on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and the associations of Th1/Th2 profiles with adverse health outcomes such as pediatric respiratory diseases, allergies, cancer and diabetes. Although cytokine profiles are increasingly used in children's studies, there is still a need to acquire distribution data for different ages and ethnic groups of healthy children. These data will contribute to the validation and standardization of cytokine biomarkers for future studies. Application of immunological markers in epidemiological studies will improve the understanding of mechanisms that underlie associations between environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:17624696

  11. Radically changing the research framework during a health geography study.

    PubMed

    Baer, Leonard D

    2002-11-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of how a research project can shift from a positivist to a nonpositivist framework. Specific attention is given to changes in research methods and philosophical paradigm that emerged while conducting a study on the replacement of immigrant physicians in rural America. In its original conceptualization, the study was expected to yield a simple, right answer. Specifically, one or more types of health professionals (e.g., nurse practitioners, National Health Service Corps physicians) would be identified as expected replacements in the event of a cutback on immigrant physicians. However, as the research progressed, the quest for a simple, right answer became less realistic. The theoretical framework, methods, and research question changed, thereby allowing for greater complexity and ambiguity than anticipated at the outset of the study. What had been a positivist, statistical study was now a nonpositivist, qualitative study, and the research question shifted to include individual perspectives. An overview of such transitions leads to a discussion of the importance of context and ambiguity in research. PMID:12383467

  12. Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function. PMID:23735309

  13. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-05-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Methods Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. Results In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Conclusions Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions. PMID:26599291

  14. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  15. It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Kalpana M; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Raina, Parminder

    2008-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1) Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2) Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3) Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4) The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions towards their involvement in

  16. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  17. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  18. Sources of Health Information Related to Preventive Health Behaviors in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Clark, Cheryl R.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. PMID:20494238

  19. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shafaeei, Yousef; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in 2014 who were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. Health literacy was measured by the test of functional health literacy in adults and general health status was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and self-reported self-medication (overall, sedative, antibiotic and herbal) in last 3 months was assessed. All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and weight of respondents were 37 years and 74.7 kg, respectively. The prevalence of self-medication was 61.6%, and the percentage of self-administering antibiotics, sedative, and herbal medicines were 40%, 54.4%, and 59.1% in the last 3 months, respectively. Significant relationship was found between of total health literacy and general health status with self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication among participants with poor and very poor self-rated physical and mental health was significantly higher than other participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication. PMID:26288710

  20. Sustainable Rural Telehealth Innovation: A Public Health Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Mathiassen, Lars; Stachura, Max E; Astapova, Elena V

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine adoption of telehealth in a rural public health district and to explain how the innovation became sustainable. Study Setting Longitudinal, qualitative study (1988–2008) of the largest public health district in Georgia. Study Design Case study design provided deep insights into the innovation's social dynamics. Punctuated equilibrium theory helped present and make sense of the process. We identified antecedent conditions and outcomes, and we distinguished between episodes and encounters based on the disruptive effects of events. Data Collection Twenty-five semistructured interviews with 19 decision makers and professionals, direct observations, published papers, grant proposals, technical specifications, and other written materials. Principal Findings Strong collaboration within the district, with local community, and with external partners energized the process. Well-functioning outreach clinics made telehealth desirable. Local champions cultivated participation and generative capability, and overcame barriers through opportunistic exploitation of technological and financial options. Telehealth usage fluctuated between medical and administrative operations in response to internal needs and contextual dynamics. External agencies provided initial funding and supported later expansion. Conclusions Extensive internal and external collaboration, and a combination of technology push and opportunistic exploitation, can enable sustainable rural telehealth innovation. PMID:20459449

  1. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their

  2. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  3. Study of the Subarea Approach to Health Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comprehensive Health Planning, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Recognizing the need for a health manpower planning system that would insure the recruitment, training, utilization, and retention of area residents as skilled providers of health care, Comprehensive Health Planning, Inc., Metropolitan Chicago (CHP), and the West Side Health Planning Organization (WSHPO) embarked on a 1-year project to demonstrate…

  4. Public health protection through bank filtration - Kearney Nebraska case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esseks, E.; Bellamy, W.; Heinemann, T.; Stocker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of Kearney's bank filtration system provides further evidence of this technology's capability to assist in providing public health protection, as it relates to drinking water. The results of hydrogeologic and treatment studies demonstrate the capabilities of the Platte River aquifer materials, in this locale, to remove pathogens and their surrogates. Continual monitoring and evaluations will establish the system’s longevity and continued treatment efficacy. The City of Kearney is located in south central Nebraska. The City owns and operates a public water system that serves approximately 24,889 people. The water system includes 12 wells located on Killgore Island in the Platte River. In 1994, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services System (Department) determined that 3 wells in the wellfield serving the City of Kearney were ground water under the direct influence of surface water. This determination was based on results of microscopic particulate analysis (MPA). The City of Kearney undertook the natural bank filtration study to determine whether natural bank filtration was occurring at the site and if the filtration was sufficient to meet pathogen treatment requirements designed to protect public health. A preliminary study was undertaken from June through October 1995. This coincided with the City’s peak pumping time, which may be the time when the influence of the River is greatest on the wellfield wells. Hydrogeologic studies assisted in selecting wells that were at highest risk based on shortest travel times and greatest differential head. Data collected included particle counts, MPAs, turbidity, coliform, centrifugate pellet evaluation (CPE) volumes, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Following analysis of data collected during the preliminary 18-week study the Department granted conditional approval of 2-log credit for removal of Giardia lamblia and 1-log credit for removal of viruses through bank filtration, pending the

  5. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of food safety, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services; and (3)…

  6. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School health policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of suicide prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental…

  7. Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Yong Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

  8. Catastrophic Health Expenditure After the Implementation of Health Sector Evolution Plan: A Case Study in the West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Moradi, Ghobad; Nouri, Bijan; Mohamadi Bolbanabad, Amjad; Safari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main objectives of health systems is the financial protection against out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures. OOP health expenditures can lead to catastrophic payments, impoverishment or poverty among households. In Iran, health sector evolution plan (HSEP) has been implemented since 2014 in order to achieve universal health coverage and reduce the OOP health expenditures as a percentage of total health expenditures. This study aimed to explore the percentage of households facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) after the implementation of HSEP and the factors that determine CHE. Methods: A total of 663 households were selected through a cluster sampling based on the census framework of Sanandaj Health Center in July 2015. Data were gathered using face-to-face interviews based on the household section of the World Health Survey questionnaire. In this study, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, if household health expenditures were equal to or more than 40% of the household capacity to pay, household was considered to be facing CHE. The determinants of CHE were analyzed using logistic regression model. Results: The rates of households facing CHE were 4.8%. The key determinants of CHE were household economic status, presence of elderly or disabled members in the household and utilization of inpatient or rehabilitation services. Conclusion: The comparison of our findings and those of other studies carried out using a methodology comparable with ours in different parts of Iran before the implementation of HSEP suggests that the implementation of recent reforms has reduced CHE at the household level. Utilization of inpatient and rehabilitation services, the presence of elderly or disabled members in the household and the low economic status of the household would increase the likelihood of facing CHE. These variables should be considered by health policy-makers in order to review and revise content of recent reform

  9. The Impact of an eHealth Portal on Health Care Professionals’ Interaction with Patients: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faxvaag, Arild; Svanæs, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Background People who undergo weight loss surgery require a comprehensive treatment program to achieve successful outcomes. eHealth solutions, such as secure online portals, create new opportunities for improved health care delivery and care, but depend on the organizational delivery systems and on the health care professionals providing it. So far, these have received limited attention and the overall adoption of eHealth solutions remains low. In this study, a secure eHealth portal was implemented in a bariatric surgery clinic and offered to their patients. During the study period of 6 months, 60 patients and 5 health care professionals had access. The portal included patient information, self-management tools, and communication features for online dialog with peers and health care providers at the bariatric surgery clinic. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and assess the impact of an eHealth portal on health care professionals’ interaction with patients in bariatric surgery. Methods This qualitative case study involved a field study consisting of contextual interviews at the clinic involving observing and speaking with personnel in their actual work environment. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with health care professionals who interacted with patients through the portal. Analysis of the collected material was done inductively using thematic analysis. Results The analysis revealed two main dimensions of using an eHealth portal in bariatric surgery: the transparency it represents and the responsibility that follows by providing it. The professionals reported the eHealth portal as (1) a source of information, (2) a gateway to approach and facilitate the patients, (3) a medium for irrevocable postings, (4) a channel that exposes responsibility and competence, and (5) a tool in the clinic. Conclusions By providing an eHealth portal to patients in a bariatric surgery program, health care professionals can observe patients

  10. Places and health: a qualitative study to explore how older women living alone perceive the social and physical dimensions of their neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth B; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-09-01

    There is growing interest in the impact that neighbourhood environment might have on the health of older people. Although the number of older Australian women, particularly those living alone, is projected to increase in coming decades, their experiences of neighbourhood have not been exclusively examined. The aims of this paper are: (1) to explore, from the perspective of these women, the social and physical dimensions of neighbourhoods and (2) to investigate variation in these accounts according to whether women lived in areas of higher or lower socioeconomic status. Twenty women aged between 75 and 93 years, residing in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia (SA), participated in a series of two in-depth interviews. Women's perceptions of their neighbourhood, and accounts of every-day activities in the community were analysed to determine how both social and physical aspects of neighbourhood might relate to health and wellbeing. Findings suggest that a reciprocal and trusting relationship with neighbours underpinned older women's sense of satisfaction with, and feeling of security within, the neighbourhood. Other factors such as living in close proximity to services and existing social networks were also seen as important. Women's stories demonstrated that they were able to draw on both existing social networks and neighbours to sustain their independence and social connection within the community. Women living in more disadvantaged areas were more conscious of social disconnection in their neighbourhoods, and to the way that traffic noise and pollution detracted from their neighbourhood environment. These findings indicate that, for older women living alone, trusting and reciprocal relationships with neighbours are likely to form an important part of their broader social support network and should be recognised in relation to the process of maintaining the health of older women living in the community. PMID:17553603

  11. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn. PMID:17193808

  12. The Impact of Online Social Networks on Health and Health Systems: A Scoping Review and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Frances; Dobermann, Tim; Cave, Jonathan A. K.; Thorogood, Margaret; Johnson, Samantha; Salamatian, Kavé; Gomez Olive, Francis X.; Goudge, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Interaction through online social networks potentially results in the contestation of prevailing ideas about health and health care, and to mass protest where health is put at risk or health care provision is wanting. Through a review of the academic literature and case studies of four social networking health sites (PatientsLikeMe, Mumsnet, Treatment Action Campaign, and My Pro Ana), we establish the extent to which this phenomenon is documented, seek evidence of the prevalence and character of health‐related networks, and explore their structure, function, participants, and impact, seeking to understand how they came into being and how they sustain themselves. Results indicate mass protest is not arising from these established health‐related networking platforms. There is evidence of changes in policy following campaigning activity prompted by experiences shared through social networking such as improved National Health Service care for miscarriage (a Mumsnet campaign). Platform owners and managers have considerable power to shape these campaigns. Social networking is also influencing health policy indirectly through increasing awareness and so demand for health care. Transient social networking about health on platforms such as Twitter were not included as case studies but may be where the most radical or destabilizing influence on health care policy might arise. PMID:27134699

  13. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1984-04-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  14. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  15. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  16. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, S M

    1984-01-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  17. Provider payment methods and health worker motivation in community-based health insurance: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Souares, Aurélia; Traoré, Adama; Bicaba, Brice; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    In a community-based health insurance (CBHI) introduced in 2004 in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso, poor perceived quality of care by CBHI enrollees has been a key factor in observed high drop-out rates. The poor quality perceptions have been previously attributed to health worker dissatisfaction with the provider payment method used by the scheme and the resulting financial risk of health centers. This study applied a mixed-methods approach to investigate how health workers working in facilities contracted by the CBHI view the methods of provider payment used by the CBHI. In order to analyze these relationships, we conducted 23 in-depth interviews and a quantitative survey with 98 health workers working in the CBHI intervention zone. The qualitative in-depth interviews identified that insufficient levels of capitation payments, the infrequent schedule of capitation payment, and lack of a payment mechanism for reimbursing service fees were perceived as significant sources of health worker dissatisfaction and loss of work-related motivation. Combining qualitative interview and quantitative survey data in a mixed-methods analysis, this study identified that the declining quality of care due to the CBHI provider payment method was a source of significant professional stress and role strain for health workers. Health workers felt that the following five changes due to the provider payment methods introduced by the CBHI impeded their ability to fulfill professional roles and responsibilities: (i) increased financial volatility of health facilities, (ii) dissatisfaction with eligible costs to be covered by capitation; (iii) increased pharmacy stock-outs; (iv) limited financial and material support from the CBHI; and (v) the lack of mechanisms to increase provider motivation to support the CBHI. To address these challenges and improve CBHI uptake and health outcomes in the targeted populations, the health care financing and delivery model in the study zone should be

  18. The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and

  19. Surveillance and ascertainment of cardiovascular events. The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ives, D G; Fitzpatrick, A L; Bild, D E; Psaty, B M; Kuller, L H; Crowley, P M; Cruise, R G; Theroux, S

    1995-07-01

    While previous prospective multicenter studies have conducted cardiovascular disease surveillance, few have detailed the techniques relating to the ascertainment of and data collection for events. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a population-based study of coronary heart disease and stroke in older adults. This article summarizes the CHS events protocol and describes the methods of surveillance and ascertainment of hospitalized and nonhospitalized events, the use of medical records and other support documents, organizational issues at the field center level, and the classification of events through an adjudication process. We present data on incidence and mortality, the classification of adjudicated events, and the agreement between classification by the Events Subcommittee and the medical records diagnostic codes. The CHS techniques are a successful model for complete ascertainment, investigation, and documentation of events in an older cohort. PMID:8520709

  20. A Study of the Indian Health Service and Indian Tribal Involvement in Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Daniel S.; And Others

    Addressing American Indians and the Indian Health Service (IHS), this report focuses on the process of Indian involvement and self-determination in health, emphasizing improvement of the effectiveness and responsiveness of Indian health services. Data derived from written documents, statistical figures, and personal interviews with over 200 people…

  1. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  2. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  3. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is

  4. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  5. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  6. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  7. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  8. Perceptions of the neighbourhood environment and self rated health: a multilevel analysis of the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Fone, David L

    2007-01-01

    Background In this study we examined whether (1) the neighbourhood aspects of access to amenities, neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood disorder, and neighbourhood social cohesion are associated with people's self rated health, (2) these health effects reflect differences in socio-demographic composition and/or neighbourhood deprivation, and (3) the associations with the different aspects of the neighbourhood environment vary between men and women. Methods Data from the cross-sectional Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Survey were analysed using multilevel modelling, with individuals nested within enumeration districts. In this study we used the responses of people under 75 years of age (n = 10,892). The response rate of this subgroup was 62.3%. All individual responses were geo-referenced to the 325 census enumeration districts of Caerphilly county borough. Results The neighbourhood attributes of poor access to amenities, poor neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood disorder, lack of social cohesion, and neighbourhood deprivation were associated with the reporting of poor health. These effects were attenuated when controlling for individual and collective socio-economic status. Lack of social cohesion significantly increased the odds of women reporting poor health, but did not increase the odds of men reporting poor health. In contrast, unemployment significantly affected men's health, but not women's health. Conclusion This study shows that different aspects of the neighbourhood environment are associated with people's self rated health, which may partly reflect the health impacts of neighbourhood socio-economic status. The findings further suggest that the social environment is more important for women's health, but that individual socio-economic status is more important for men's health. PMID:17925028

  9. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The apparent contradiction that women live longer but have worse health than men, the so called male-female health-survival paradox, is very pronounced in Russia. The present study investigates whether men in Moscow are healthier than women at the level of biomarkers, and whether the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. Materials Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health. Results The present study found mixed directions and magnitudes for sex differences in biomarkers. Women were significantly disadvantaged with regard to obesity and waist circumference, whereas men had a tendency toward higher prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities. No sex differences were indicated in the prevalence of immunological biomarkers, and mixed patterns were found for lipid profiles. Many biomarkers were associated with physical functioning and general health. Obesity and waist circumference were related to lower physical functioning among females only, while major Q-wave abnormalities with high probabilities of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were associated with physical functioning and self-rated health among males only. Conclusion No clear patterns of sex differences in prevalence of high-risk levels of biomarkers suggest that the male-female health-survival paradox is weaker at the level of health biomarkers. We found some evidence that certain biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes in the organism that do not possess acute health risks, but over many years may lead to physical disability, are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health in women, whereas others reflecting more serious life-threatening pathophysiological changes are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health

  10. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that “spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah).” Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675

  11. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675

  12. Public health campaigns to change industry practices that damage health: an analysis of 12 case studies.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Bradley, Sarah Picard; Serrano, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in the alcohol, automobile, food and beverage, firearms, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries. The objectives are to examine the interactions between advocacy campaigns and industry opponents; explore the roles of government, researchers, and media; and identify characteristics of campaigns that are effective in changing health-damaging practices. The authors compared campaigns that operate at different levels of organization and use different strategies. Findings suggest that many campaigns achieve policy or mobilization outcomes that may contribute to improved health; local campaigns may be more effective than national ones; and advocates frequently frame their campaigns on the themes of children's health and social justice. PMID:18077655

  13. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  15. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production.

    PubMed

    Friis, H; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exposure and lung function. Many cryolite workers described a group of symptoms appearing after 15 to 30 min of heavy dust exposure: nausea, followed by epigastric pain with relief after spontaneous or provoked vomiting. Thirty-four (33.6 per cent) workers complained of nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea in relation to work, compared to 3.8 per cent of 1752 men participating in the Copenhagen Male Study. PMID:2622142

  16. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context. PMID:26299185

  17. Factors associated with participation in a community senior health promotion program: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M; Pearson, D C

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with participation in a community senior health promotion program were studied in 103 participants and a population-based control group of 531 non-participants. Compared to controls, participants had similar physical health status, but lower mental and social health status. Both men and women participants reported more depressive symptoms, lower positive affect, and lower social participation. Mental and social health may be important yet under-studied factors influencing participation in community health promotion programs. PMID:2729475

  18. Assessing availability of scientific journals, databases, and health library services in Canadian health ministries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries. Objectives To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. Methods From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors. Results We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries’ average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries

  19. Reorienting health services with capacity building: a case study of the Core Skills in Health Promotion Project.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, H R; Nove, T

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the application of a framework for capacity building [Hawe, P., King, L., Noort, M., Jordens, C. and Lloyd, B. (2000) Indicators to Help with Capacity Building in Health Promotion. NSW Health, Sydney] to describe actions aimed at building organizational support for health promotion within an area health service in New South Wales, Australia. The Core Skills in Health Promotion Project (CSHPP) arose from an investigation which reported that participants of a health promotion training course had increased health promotion skills but that they lacked the support to apply their skills in the workplace. The project was action-research based. It investigated and facilitated the implementation of a range of initiatives to support community health staff to apply a more preventive approach in their practice and it contributed to the establishment of new organizational structures for health promotion. An evaluation was undertaken 4 years after the CSHPP was established, and 2 years after it had submitted its final report. Interviews with senior managers, document analysis of written reports, and focus groups with middle managers and service delivery staff were undertaken. Change was achieved in the three dimensions of health infrastructure, program maintenance and problem solving capacity of the organization. It was identified that the critically important elements in achieving the aims of the project-partnership, leadership and commitment-were also key elements of the capacity building framework. This case study provides a practical example of the usefulness of the capacity building framework in orienting health services to be supportive of health promotion. PMID:12406922

  20. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  1. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  2. Why Employed Latinos Lack Health Insurance: A Study in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Howard P.; O'Keefe, Suzanne; DiCamillo, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the relative importance of several factors believed to reduce the likelihood of health insurance coverage among working Latinos in California, including cost, immigration history, availability of insurance, beliefs about insurance, and beliefs about health and health care. According to a survey of 1,000 randomly selected…

  3. Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Parra Casado, Daniel; Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyses press releases, news reports and health plans to show how health communication functions in perpetuating dominant racist structures. The paper is mainly concerned with how normal science and health practices can become an instrument for justifying racism and reproducing it in our societies. The examples demonstrate that…

  4. Comparison of Breast Health Teaching Methods for Adolescent Females: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Ahmad, Wajih A.; Davies, Susan L.; Snyder, Scott W.; Macrina, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A breast health educational program was administered in two public high school settings in north Alabama to subjects enrolled in health related courses. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if teaching breast health with or without interactive learning would affect the breast health knowledge and beliefs of…

  5. SHPPS 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study--Crisis Preparedness, Response, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents data on crisis preparedness, response, and recovery as it pertains to health services, mental health and social services, nutrition…

  6. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hosptal

    PubMed Central

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management .The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014 .The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused

  7. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital.

    PubMed

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M

    2015-11-01

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused

  8. Nutrition and Health – The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Burkert, Nathalie T.; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet – vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors. PMID:24516625

  9. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  10. Workplace health promotion and stakeholder positions: a Finnish case study.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Ari-Matti; Kohtamäki, Kari; Ilvesmäki Msc, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Modern workplace health promotion (WHP) requires collaboration, partnerships, and alliances with both internal and external stakeholders. However, the identification of the key stakeholders as well as the systematic mapping of their views has barely been covered in the existing research literature. This article describes the stakeholders and stakeholder positions in WHP in Finland. In this study, the stakeholders were classified as internal, interface, and external stakeholders. Furthermore, based on the authors' research, stakeholders and their positions were represented on a stakeholder map as well as by the power-interest matrix of the stakeholders. The governmental authorities play a key role in driving the strategic change toward WHP by preparing the required legislation and regulatory measures. However, both active employers and active employees can through their own work accelerate the development of new WHP services. Close collaboration between employers and employees is required at the individual workplaces. Some stakeholders, such as pension funds and occupational health services (OHS) providers, can act as important driving forces and support the strategic implementation of WHP in the workplaces. However, alone they have only limited opportunities to organize the WHP activities. Understanding the various stakeholders and the systematic mapping of their positions is essential for the successful planning and implementation of WHP activities. PMID:22845731

  11. Study of digoxin use in a public health unit.

    PubMed

    Souza, Felipe C; Marques, Emiliana B; Scaramello, Rogério B M; Christianne, B V

    2015-01-01

    Digoxin is used for heart failure associated to systolic dysfunction and high ventricular rate. It has a narrow therapeutic range and intoxication may occur due to drug interactions or comorbidities. The aim of this work was to study digoxin use in a public health unit delineating the profile of patients susceptible to digitalis intoxication. Medical records belonging to patients admitted to the cardiomyopathy ward of the health unit (2009-2010) and in use of digoxin were analyzed. Among 647 patients admitted, 185 individuals using digoxin and possessed records available. The registration of plasma digoxin concentration was found in 80 records and it was out of the therapeutic range in 42 patients (52.5%). This group of individuals was constituted mainly by males patients (79%), functional class III of heart failure (65%), exhibiting renal failure (33%). The evaluated sample reflects the epidemiology of heart failure in Brazil and, although pharmacotherapy had been according to Brazilian Guidelines, apparently the monitoring was not performed as recommended. This work highlighs the necessity of plasma digoxin constant monitoring during pharmacotherapy and the development of protocols that enable a safer use, especially in male patients, functional class III and with renal dysfunction. PMID:25993358

  12. The Journey Project: a case study in providing health information to mitigate health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Leisey, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The Journey Project, part of the Virginia Commonwealth University Libraries' Social Work Information Specialist in Context Fellowship, was designed to merge social work and consumer health librarianship skills in order to improve the provision of health information to patients. A resource notebook was created encompassing the many dimensions of cancer health information. A social work informationist distributed the notebooks and provided individualized consultations with respect to patients' health information needs. Areas of congruence as well as key differences between social work and consumer health librarianship emerged during the course of the project. Merging the two professions into the role of a social work informationist increased the ability to attend holistically to clients' health information needs. PMID:19159008

  13. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  14. Exploring Ways to Implement the Health Services Mobility Study: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Eileen M.; Moore, Audrey

    A feasibility study was aimed at developing a strategy for implementing and utilizing the job analysis methodology which resulted from the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS), particularly as it can be applied to the field of diagnostic radiology. (The HSMS method of job analysis starts with task descriptions analyzing the tasks that make up a…

  15. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  16. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection Request... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  17. Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881

  18. Overview of epidemiological studies on wine, health and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J C

    2003-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have observed that moderate intake of alcohol including wine is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, according to several authors, moderate consumption of wine is more beneficial than that of beer or spirits. Some studies have shown that moderate consumption of wine can lower mortality from CVD and other causes. The link between drinking wine and total mortality risk (all causes combined) has been studied. The results of various prospective population studies show that intake of beer and spirits from abstention to light to moderate daily intake did not influence mortality, while wine seems to have a beneficial effect on all causes of mortality. Other studies have reached the same conclusion. In general, several authors have reported that in subjects consuming wine in moderation the risk of mortality from all causes is 20-30% lower than in abstainers. Grape wine appears to be the main alcoholic beverage that contains antioxidant phenolic substances known to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and affect hemostasis and carcinogenesis. In conclusion, there are differences in the effects of wine, beer and spirits on health. These differences may not be significant in coronary heart disease. Only moderate wine consumption appears to have a beneficial effect on several types of cancer and on total mortality. PMID:15134372

  19. Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

  20. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N = 351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in

  1. Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study

    PubMed Central

    Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children. PMID:18522740

  2. Noise nuisance and health inequalities in Belgium: a population study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Context Lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to live in contaminated environments. This may partly explain socioeconomic health inequalities. Aims Does noise nuisance contribute to socio-economic inequalities in subjective health? Method This research is based on the last Belgian census data carried out in 2001. We work on a 10% sample of the Belgian population. The data are processed through bivariate and multivariate analyses. We model poor subjective health in relation to exposure to noise nuisance and several socio-economic variables. Results The risk of poor subjective health increases with noise nuisance and is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Noise nuisance does contribute to health inequalities, particularly regarding type of housing and activity. These relations are stronger in urban areas. Conclusions Noise nuisance affects the subjective health status and contributes to health inequalities, particularly in urban areas. This suggests that public policies, particularly those related to environmental planning, should be driven also by environmental equity considerations.

  3. A Study of Health Education and Its Needs for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad; Alamgir, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Health Education, particularly in elementary schools, appears to be a neglected area in Pakistan. This study investigated the health education needs of elementary school students. The purpose of the present study is to assess health education needs of elementary school students. The study adopted mix approach of (qualitative and quantitative)…

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities, health damaging behavior, and self-perceived health in Serbia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Janko; Janević, Teresa; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of socioeconomic factors with self-perceived health in Serbia and examine whether this association can be partly explained by health behavior variables. Methods We used data from the 2007 Living Standards Measurement Study for Serbia. A representative sample of 13 831 persons aged ≥20 years was interviewed. The associations between demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, and type of settlement), socioeconomic factors (education, employment status, and household consumption tertiles), and health behavior variables (smoking, alcohol consumption) and self-perceived health were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results A stepwise gradient was found between education and self-perceived health for the total sample, men, and women. Compared to people with high education, people with low education had a 4.5 times higher chance of assessing their health as poor. Unemployed (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.10), inactive (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.49-3.19), and the most deprived respondents (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health than employed persons and the most affluent group. After adjustment for demographic and health behavior variables, the magnitudes of all associations decreased but remained clearly and significantly graded. Conclusions This study revealed inequalities in self-perceived health by socioeconomic position, in particular educational and employment status. The reduction of such inequalities through wisely tailored interventions that benefit people’s health should be a target of a national health policy in Serbia. PMID:22661139

  5. Enhancing health programme efficiency: a Cambodian case study.

    PubMed

    Stuer, F

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, the Cambodian Urban Health Care Association (CUHCA) was set up as facilitator between private health care providers and patients, guaranteeing good quality health care and fair pricing to patients and providing training and logistic support to providers. Providers were engaged on a fee-for-service basis and competition encouraged. CUHCA's objectives followed the same line of thought as the 1993 World Development Report, aiming at influencing the unregulated private health care market through competition mechanisms. But soon after the start of the project the basic problem was recognized to be not the absence of effective government regulation but rather that consumers lack the requisite knowledge to make good choices in the market for health services. CUHCA had not adequately addressed the demand for health services. The original supply-side strategy of improving health services by increasing competition was a failure. In order to improve CUHCA's health programme efficiency the association's objectives were subsequently redefined and its functioning reorganized. CUHCA now tries to educate consumers and provides good quality services so that consumers will be able to act on the basis of their newly acquired knowledge. CUHCA's health centres serve as model clinics for first-line health care. Community educators organize information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Staff help school teachers to improve formal health education in schools and CUHCA assists local leaders in sanitation development. Only full-time personnel are employed, encouraging team spirit and communication with the target population. Salaries are based on team performance. The CUHCA programme demonstrates that, depending on the market situation, health programme models need to address both the supply and the demand for services in order to be efficient. Where consumers lack essential knowledge to make appropriate choices in the health service market, interventions should focus

  6. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457

  7. Harvest for Health Gardening Intervention Feasibility Study in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Cindy K.; Madan-Swain, Avi; Locher, Julie L.; Desmond, Renee A.; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Affuso, Olivia; Glover, Tony; Smith, Kerry; Carley, Joseph; Lipsitz, Mindy; Sharma, Ayushe; Krontiras, Helen; Cantor, Alan; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and functional decline. Evidence suggests that a healthful diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve health in this population. Methods We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate a vegetable gardening intervention that paired 12 adult and child cancer survivors with Master Gardeners to explore effects on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, quality-of-life, and physical function. Throughout the year-long study period, the survivor-Master Gardener dyads worked together to plan/plant 3 gardens, harvest/rotate plantings, and troubleshoot/correct problems. Data on diet, physical activity, and quality-of-life were collected via surveys; anthropometrics and physical function were objectively measured. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed with a structured debriefing survey. Results The gardening intervention was feasible (robust enrollment; minimal attrition) and well-received by cancer survivors and Master Gardeners. Improvement in 3 of 4 objective measures of strength, agility, and endurance was observed in 90% of survivors, with the following change scores (median [interquartile range]) noted between baseline and 1-year follow-up: hand grip test (+4.8 [3.0, 6.7] kg), 8 foot Get-Up-and-Go (−1.0 [−1.8, −0.2] seconds), 30-second chair stand (+3.0 [−1.0, 5.0] stands), and 6-minute walk (+38 [20, 160] feet). Increases of ≥1 fruit and vegetable serving/ day and ≥30 minutes/week of physical activity were observed in 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusion These preliminary results support the feasibility and acceptability of a mentored gardening intervention and suggest that it may offer a novel and promising strategy to improve fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and physical function in cancer survivors. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our results. PMID

  8. Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Lani; Wolfe, Linda C.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary; Caldart-Olson, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: The specific health services provided to students at school and the model for delivering these services vary across districts and schools. This article describes the characteristics of school health services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control…

  9. Mental Health and Social Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy D.; Weist, Mark; Adelman, Howard; Taylor, Linda; Vernon-Smiley, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position not only to identify mental health problems among children and adolescents but also to provide links to appropriate services. This article describes the characteristics of school mental health and social services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices.…

  10. Comparative Study of Children's Current Health Conditions and Health Education in New Zealand and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Kanae; Dickinson, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand (NZ) and Japan, despite comprehensive national health and physical education (HPE) curriculums in schools, there continues to be significant health issues for children. A qualitative interpretative descriptive research method was used to compare how primary school teachers taught HPE in both countries. In NZ, there is some freedom…

  11. E-Health Literacy Competencies among Undergraduate Health Education Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanik, Bruce; Stellefson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because of the widespread access to health information on the Internet, researchers have begun to investigate e-health literacy skills among college students. Preliminary findings indicate that the general population of college students may not have adequate skills to sufficiently search for, locate, and/or evaluate electronic sources…

  12. Characteristics of Health Educators Desired by Inner-City Health Clinic Patients: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Sidani, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…

  13. Study on a model for future occupational health: proposal for an occupational health service model in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Toshiaki

    2006-10-01

    The Study Model for Future Occupational Health (funded by a research grant from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor) is a joint research project involving various organizations and agencies undertaken from 2002 to 2004. Society has undergone a dramatic transformation due to technological developments and internationalization. At the same time a low birth rate and an aging population have resulted in an increase in both the percentage of workers experiencing strong anxiety and stress in relation to their jobs and the working environment and the number of suicides. As a natural consequence, occupational health services are now expected to provide EAP, consulting and other functions that were formerly considered outside the realm of occupational health. In consideration of this background, the present study propose the following issues to provide a model for future occupational health services that meet the conditions presently confronted by each worker. 1. How to provide occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: 1) a basic time of 20 minutes of occupational health services per year should be allotted to each worker and to all workers; 2) the obligatory regulations should be revised to expand the obligation from businesses each with 50 or more employees under the present laws to businesses each with 30 or more employees. 2. Providers of occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: (1) reinforcement of outside occupational health agencies; (2) fostering occupational health consultant firms; (3) development of an institute of occupational safety and health; (4) support of activities by authorized occupational physicians in the field; (5) expanding of joint selection of occupational physicians including subsidy increase and the extension of a period of subsidy to five hears; (6) licensing of new entry into occupational health undertaking. 3. Introduction of new report system: (1) establishment of the obligation to

  14. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632

  15. Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Rabia; Toru, Shehryar Khan; Ahmed, Vaqar

    2016-06-01

    Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. PMID:27339577

  16. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  17. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  18. Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

    2014-12-01

    There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to

  19. Can the right to health inform public health planning in developing countries? A case study for maternal healthcare from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Nurul Qomariyah, Siti

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in developing countries despite international advocacy, development targets, and simple, affordable and effective interventions. In recent years, regard for maternal mortality as a human rights issue as well as one that pertains to health, has emerged. Objective We study a case of maternal death using a theoretical framework derived from the right to health to examine access to and quality of maternal healthcare. Our objective was to explore the potential of rights-based frameworks to inform public health planning from a human rights perspective. Design Information was elicited as part of a verbal autopsy survey investigating maternal deaths in rural settings in Indonesia. The deceased's relatives were interviewed to collect information on medical signs, symptoms and the social, cultural and health systems circumstances surrounding the death. Results In this case, a prolonged, severe fever and a complicated series of referrals culminated in the death of a 19-year-old primagravida at 7 months gestation. The cause of death was acute infection. The woman encountered a range of barriers to access; behavioural, socio-cultural, geographic and economic. Several serious health system failures were also apparent. The theoretical framework derived from the right to health identified that none of the essential elements of the right were upheld. Conclusion The rights-based approach could identify how and where to improve services. However, there are fundamental and inherent conflicts between the public health tradition (collective and preventative) and the right to health (individualistic and curative). As a result, and in practice, the right to health is likely to be ineffective for public health planning from a human rights perspective. Collective rights such as the right to development may provide a more suitable means to achieve equity and social justice in health planning. PMID:20027244

  20. Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion

  1. Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR). Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.89) and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52). Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population. PMID:19505322

  2. Characteristics associated with self-rated health in the CARDIA study: Contextualising health determinants by income group.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shilpa; Hubbard, Alan; Sidney, Stephen; Syme, S Leonard

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of factors influencing health in socioeconomic groups is required to reduce health inequalities. This study investigated combinations of health determinants associated with self-rated health (SRH), and their relative importance, in income-based groups. Cross-sectional data from year 15 (2000 - 2001) of the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, USA) - 3648 men and women (mean 40 years) - were split into 5 income-based groups. SRH responses were categorized as 'higher'/'lower'. Health determinants (medical, lifestyle, and social factors, living conditions) associated with SRH in each group were analyzed using classification tree analysis (CTA). Income and SRH were positively associated (p < 0.05). Data suggested an income-based gradient for lifestyle/medical/social factors/living conditions. Profiles, and relative importance ranking, of multi-domain health determinants, in relation to SRH, differed by income group. The highest ranking variable for each income group was chronic burden-personal health problem (<$25,000); physical activity ($25-50,000; $50-75,000; $100,000 +); and cigarettes/day ($75-100,000). In lower income groups, more risk factors and chronic burden indicators were associated with SRH. Social support, control over life, optimism, and resources for paying for basics/medical care/health insurance were greater (%) with higher income. SRH is a multidimensional measure; CTA is useful for contextualizing risk factors in relation to health status. Findings suggest that for lower income groups, addressing contributors to chronic burden is important alongside lifestyle/medical factors. In a proportionate universalism context, in addition to differences in intensity of public health action across the socioeconomic gradient, differences in the type of interventions to improve SRH may also be important. PMID:27413683

  3. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P < 0.001). There was evidence of a correlation between the overall public health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). Conclusions The study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091

  4. [Health care for undocumented migrants--a quantitative study on the role of local health authorities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Mylius, M; Frewer, A

    2014-07-01

    Public welfare on a municipal level for groups with special health risks has been an important topic of public health service for more than a century. This notion has been taken up by the German "Protection against Infection Act" (IfSG) in § 19 IfSG. Local health service authorities may provide out-patient treatment in addition to counselling and diagnosis for patients with sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, which is covered by public resources in cases of apparent need. Due to altered legislation and increased global mobility, this may become important for migrants without access to regular health care.Aims of this study were recording, counselling, diagnosis and out-patient treatment of migrants without legal residence status under the German Protection against Infection Act in the public health care system.An electronic mail survey of all local health authorities (n=384) by means of a standardised questionnaire was undertaken. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. In the annex of the questionnaire the participants were asked to describe a case study.139 of 384 local health authorities completed the questionnaire (36.2%) of whom approximately a quarter (24.6%) described contacts to "illegal" migrants. Contacts to migrants without legal residence status are more frequent in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants than in ismaller cities (p<0.05). 22.6% of all local health authorities make an effort to reach undocumented migrants for counseling and diagnosis. 25 of the local health authorities (18.4%) indicated the capability to provide treatment in accordance with § 19 IfSG. A majority of these local health authorities also have contacts to undocumented migrants (75%). 16 local health authorities (13.3%) provide out-patient treatment for diseases not listed in Protection against Infection Act. 56 authorities (46.7%) refer patients to aid organisations or to resident doctors.Only a small number of local health authorities have contacts

  5. 77 FR 27776 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2..., pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will...

  6. 76 FR 3908 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); Meeting Notice In accordance with...-1403. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and...

  7. 75 FR 5333 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2... Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss,...

  8. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2... Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study...

  9. 77 FR 43090 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Centers for Disease Control...

  10. 77 FR 4048 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a... Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study...

  11. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2.... Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and evaluate...

  12. 75 FR 42455 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Centers for Disease Control...

  13. 76 FR 18220 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2..., pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will...

  14. Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

  15. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  16. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  17. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  18. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  19. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  20. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  1. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  2. Integrating health education and physical activity programming for cardiovascular health promotion among female inmates: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N

    2016-05-01

    Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. PMID:27020419

  3. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  4. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  5. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  6. Insights Into Nephrolithiasis From the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Megan L.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and NHS II to understanding the role of dietary factors, beverages, body size, and urinary factors in the development of kidney stones. Methods. We conducted a review of kidney stone–related publications of NHS I and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Studies using NHS I and NHS II data have demonstrated the importance of many factors in kidney stone formation and were the first to report that higher dietary calcium was associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones in women. Data from these cohorts were instrumental in emphasizing that nephrolithiasis is a systemic disease and suggesting that a kidney stone or shared risk factors may lead to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. Findings from the NHSs have changed the scientific understanding and the clinical practice of stone prevention and have been incorporated into widely consulted textbooks and the American Urological Association Medical Management of Kidney Stones guidelines. PMID:27459448

  7. Marijuana and Health. Report of a Study by a Committee of the Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Sciences Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This report, written for the general public, presents the results of a 15-month study of the health-related effects of marijuana. The introduction describes the goals and procedure for the study, including the composition of the 22-member steering committee and its functions, and the sources of information used for the study, i.e., published…

  8. No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158456.html No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study Meds like Chantix ... FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The anti-smoking drugs Chantix (varenicline) and Wellbutrin (bupropion) don't ...

  9. Introducing Health Education to Educare Projects: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric, Ed.

    Grassroots Educare Trust is a training and service organization for community-controlled educare centers. Sharon Hostetler, a volunteer community health worker/trainer, helped launch a 6-day health program for educare workers in South Africa. In post-aparthied South Africa, the preschool field has been identified as an important target group for…

  10. Health Literacy and Happiness: A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…

  11. Comprehensive Health Assessments During De-Institutionalization: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, N.; Rey-Conde, T.; Cooling, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) leaving institutions pass through a transition stage that makes them vulnerable to inadequate health care. They enter into community care under general practitioners (GPs) who are often untrained and inexperienced in their needs. Specifically designed health reviews may be of assistance to both…

  12. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741

  13. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 4. The Nurses' Health Study and Methods for Eliminating Bias Attributable to Measurement Error and Misclassification.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Nurses' Health Study and many other large longitudinal cohorts around the world use the food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake over time, and to relate diet to health. Controversies concerning this questionnaire's ability to adequately measure diet have led to a flurry of methods for evaluating the magnitude of measurement error and misclassification in exposure assessment, and for correcting the point and interval estimates of effect on the basis of these assessment methods for this error. Nurses' Health Study investigators have been in the forefront of these developments and their applications, although hundreds of other investigators have also used them. This commentary provides an overview of the methods and their uses, and concludes with remarks on their potential applications in the evaluation of public health interventions. PMID:27509282

  14. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 4. The Nurses’ Health Study and Methods for Eliminating Bias Attributable to Measurement Error and Misclassification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nurses’ Health Study and many other large longitudinal cohorts around the world use the food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake over time, and to relate diet to health. Controversies concerning this questionnaire’s ability to adequately measure diet have led to a flurry of methods for evaluating the magnitude of measurement error and misclassification in exposure assessment, and for correcting the point and interval estimates of effect on the basis of these assessment methods for this error. Nurses’ Health Study investigators have been in the forefront of these developments and their applications, although hundreds of other investigators have also used them. This commentary provides an overview of the methods and their uses, and concludes with remarks on their potential applications in the evaluation of public health interventions. PMID:27509282

  15. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  16. Adoption, non-adoption, and abandonment of a personal electronic health record: case study of HealthSpace

    PubMed Central

    Hinder, Susan; Stramer, Katja; Bratan, Tanja; Russell, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the policy making process, implementation by NHS organisations, and patients’ and carers’ experiences of efforts to introduce an internet accessible personal electronic health record (HealthSpace) in a public sector healthcare system. Design Mixed method, multilevel case study. Setting English National Health Service; the basic HealthSpace technology (available throughout England) and the advanced version (available in a few localities where this option had been introduced) were considered. Main outcome measures National statistics on invitations sent, HealthSpace accounts created, and interviews and ethnographic observation of patients and carers. Data analysis was informed by a socio-technical approach which considered macro and micro influences on both adoption and non-adoption of innovations, and by the principles of critical discourse analysis. Participants 56 patients and carers (of whom 21 opened a basic HealthSpace account, 20 had diabetes but were not initially using HealthSpace, and 15 used advanced HealthSpace accounts to exchange messages with their general practitioner), 3000 pages of documents (policies, strategies, business plans, minutes of meetings, correspondence), observational field notes, and 160 interviews with policy makers, project managers, and clinical staff. Results Between 2007 and October 2010, 172 950 people opened a basic HealthSpace account. 2913 (0.13% of those invited) opened an advanced account, compared with 5-10% of the population anticipated in the original business case. Overall, patients perceived HealthSpace as neither useful nor easy to use and its functionality aligned poorly with their expectations and self management practices. Those who used email-style messaging were positive about its benefits, but enthusiasm beyond three early adopter clinicians was low, and fewer than 100 of 30 000 patients expressed interest. Policy makers’ hopes that “deploying” HealthSpace would lead to

  17. Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more

  18. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

  19. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  20. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  1. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  2. The 45 and Up Study: a tool for local population health and health service planning to improve integration of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Comino, Elizabeth J; Harris, Elizabeth; Page, Jude; McDonald, Julie; Harris, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    Data on patient access to, and use of, primary and secondary care services are a potential tool for population health and health service planning, and for researchers. The Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study was established to support research about healthy ageing. This paper considers how data from the 45 and Up Study could be useful to Local Health Districts and the Primary Health Networks in New South Wales to support their work, particularly in evaluating integration of primary and secondary health services. Preliminary exploration of these data identified more than 31 000 participants in the 45 and Up Study living in central and eastern Sydney who were included in some demonstration projects. The value of these data to the region included access to a population-based sample of residents, and capacity to link to health data held within different jurisdictions and local data sources. The resultant data collection can address questions of interest to planners working in primary and secondary care, such as integration and coordination of services, including transition of care. These are key performance goals for both sectors. PMID:27421341

  3. Local politicization of Primary Health Care as an instrument for development: a case study of community health workers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, P A; Freund, P J

    1985-01-01

    The integrated approach of the Primary Health Care Concept has obvious implications for development. In view of Zambia's commitment to Primary Health Care it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of present institutional frameworks and the problems that may arise in shifting towards community responsibility for the provision of health. It is often assumed that the Primary Health Care approach of working through the community should be free of serious implementation problems. However, experience from community participation projects in a wide variety fields carried out in many countries, including Zambia has shown that failure to account for local institutional arrangements and political interests has hindered success. This article presents the theoretical issues involved in community participation research, reviews relevant literature and presents a case study of a community health worker in Western Province, Zambia. The case study derives from an on-going UNICEF/Government of Zambia sponsored project which is monitoring and evaluating the impact of child health and nutrition services in rural areas. The study illustrates some of the problems encountered by a CHW because of clashes with local political interests. An alternative model is proposed which if implemented can help alleviate and/or avoid these types of conflicts. PMID:4012349

  4. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  5. Public Access and Use of Health Research: An Exploratory Study of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy Using Interviews and Surveys of Health Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions

  6. Health sector reform in Brazil: a case study of inequity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Travassos, C; Porto, S; Labra, M E

    2000-01-01

    Health sector reform in Brazil built the Unified Health System according to a dense body of administrative instruments for organizing decentralized service networks and institutionalizing a complex decision-making arena. This article focuses on the equity in health care services. Equity is defined as a principle governing distributive functions designed to reduce or offset socially unjust inequalities, and it is applied to evaluate the distribution of financial resources and the use of health services. Even though in the Constitution the term "equity" refers to equal opportunity of access for equal needs, the implemented policies have not guaranteed these rights. Underfunding, fiscal stress, and lack of priorities for the sector have contributed to a progressive deterioration of health care services, with continuing regressive tax collection and unequal distribution of financial resources among regions. The data suggest that despite regulatory measures to increase efficiency and reduce inequalities, delivery of health care services remains extremely unequal across the country. People in lower income groups experience more difficulties in getting access to health services. Utilization rates vary greatly by type of service among income groups, positions in the labor market, and levels of education. PMID:10707303

  7. Employment conditions and health inequities: a case study of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Oliveira, Roberval Passos de; Machado, Jorge H; Minayo-Gomez, Carlos; Perez, Marco Antonio Gomes; Hoefel, Maria da Graça L; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-12-01

    This paper was prepared for the Employment Conditions and Health Inequalities Knowledge Network (EMCONET), part of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We describe the Brazilian context of employment conditions, labor conditions and health, their characteristics and causal relationships. The social, political and economic factors that influence these relationships are also presented with an emphasis on social inequalities, and how they are reproduced within the labor market and thereby affect the health and wellbeing of workers. A literature review was conducted in SciELO, LILACS, Google and Google Scholar, MEDLINE and the CAPES Brazilian thesis database. We observed that there are more workers operating in the informal sector than in the formal sector and these former have no social insurance or any other social benefits. Work conditions and health are poor in both informal and formal enterprises since health and safety labor norms are not effective. The involvement of social movements and labor unions in the elaboration and management of workers' health polices and programs with universal coverage, is a promising initiative that is underway nationwide. PMID:22218587

  8. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience. PMID:25533732

  9. Applications of PIXE to studies in dental and mental healths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Ainsworth, T.

    1981-03-01

    The elemental composition of healthy and diseased teeth from 25 South Australian children have been determined using thick-target PIXE analysis. Different dental hard tissues, namely enamel, dentine, cementum and the amelodentinal junction, were analysed independently. A number of elements, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb have been detected, and their concentrations measured. The concentrations of some of the elements were found to vary considerably between: (a) healthy and diseased teeth, (b) teeth of the same type, and (c) different parts of the same tooth. Attempts have been made to correlate the concentrations of the various elements with the health of the teeth. In a pilot study, PIXE has also been applied for Pb analysis in the teeth of a few mentally retarded children. The teeth of all the children, with the exception of one who was suffering from Downe's syndrome, were found to contain appreciable amounts of lead. It is suggested that PIXE would provide a more convenient and accurate form of analysis than destructive chemical methods, for correlating Pb in children's teeth with their mental abilities.

  10. Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Wong, P H; Kwok, S F

    1989-12-01

    Scrap metal cutters seemed to be left out in most preventive programmes as the workers were mainly contract workers. The health hazards of scrap metal cutting in 54 workers from a foundry and a ship breaking plant were evaluated. Environmental sampling showed lead levels ranging from 0.02 to 0.57 mg/m3 (threshold limit values is 0.15 mg/m3). Exposure to lead came mainly from the paint coat of the metals cut. Metal fume fever was not reported although their main complaints were cough and rhinitis. Skin burns at all stages of healing and residual scars were seen over hands, forearms and thighs. 96% of the cutters had blood lead levels exceeding 40 micrograms/100 ml with 10 workers exceeding 70 micrograms/100 ml. None had clinical evidence of lead poisoning. The study showed that scrap metal cutting is a hazardous industry associated with significant lead exposure. With proper medical supervision, the blood lead levels of this group of workers decreased illustrating the importance of identifying the hazard and implementing appropriate medical surveillance programmes. PMID:2635395

  11. On behavioral decision making and mobile health: a case study.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Divya; Padman, Rema

    2013-01-01

    Principles and theories of behavioral decision-making (BDM) are applicable to any field, but they have special import for health care, where low-impact but repeated decisions can significantly affect quality of life. Unfortunately, limited research has focused on effective behavioral design for personal health management mobile apps. This paper addresses patient engagement approaches using the National e-Health Collaborative's "Patient Engagement Framework" and outlines specific implementations of behavioral decision theory to create an effective system for self-care. PMID:23920675

  12. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons aged 65 years and older (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Furberg, C D; Manolio, T A; Psaty, B M; Bild, D E; Borhani, N O; Newman, A; Tabatznik, B; Rautaharju, P M

    1992-05-15

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities are often found in older patients, but their prevalence in free-living elderly populations is not well-defined. In addition, the clinical significance of many of these abnormalities is uncertain. The prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was determined in 5,150 adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study--a study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ventricular conduction defects, major Q/QS waves, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T-wave abnormalities, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular block were collectively categorized as major electrocardiographic abnormalities. Prevalence of any major electrocardiographic abnormality was 29% in the entire cohort, 19% among 2,413 participants who reported no history of coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension, and 37% among 2,737 participants with a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension. Prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher in men than in women regardless of history, and tended to increase with age. Major Q/QS waves were found in 5.2%, and more than half were in those who did not report a previous myocardial infarction. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in elderly men and women irrespective of the history of heart disease. PMID:1585868

  13. Initial effects of the grounding of the tanker Braer on health in Shetland. The Shetland Health Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D; Cox, D; Crum, J; Foster, K; Christie, P; Brewster, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if the oil spillage from the tanker Braer had any immediate health effects on the exposed resident population. DESIGN--Cohort study with a comparison against controls, exposure status being assigned on the basis of geographical location. SETTING--Rural Shetland. SUBJECTS--All those resident on or after 5 January 1993 (day 0) within 4.5 km of the site of tanker's grounding. Controls matched for sex and age were drawn from a general practice list 95 km distant. OUTCOME MEASURES--Demographic details; smoking and alcohol consumption; perception of health and reported presence or absence of specific symptoms; peak expiratory flow; results of haematology, liver and renal function tests, and blood and urine toxicology. RESULTS--Of subjects contacted, 420 (66%) exposed people and 92 (68%) controls were studied; 56 non-attenders were surveyed. Principal health effects arose on days 1 and 2 and were headache, throat irritation, and itchy eyes. No significant differences between those exposed and controls were found for any of the biological markers. Toxicological studies did not show any exposures that are known to affect human health. CONCLUSIONS--The study confirmed the anecdotal reports of certain acute symptoms. No evidence of pulmonary, haematological, renal, or hepatic damage was detected at the population level. Toxicological samples from exposed people did not find levels known to affect human health. Further studies are required to ascertain whether there have been any long term effects on the population. PMID:8281057

  14. Multimorbidity - not just an older person's issue. Results from an Australian biomedical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, the simultaneous occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, is usually associated with older persons. This research assessed multimorbidity across a range of ages so that planners are informed and appropriate prevention programs, management strategies and health service/health care planning can be implemented. Methods Multimorbidity was assessed across three age groups from data collected in a major biomedical cohort study (North West Adelaide Health Study). Using randomly selected adults, diabetes, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were determined clinically and cardio-vascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis and mental health by self-report (ever been told by a doctor). A range of demographic, social, risk and protective factors including high blood pressure and high cholesterol (assessed bio-medically), health service use, quality of life and medication use (linked to government records) were included in the multivariate modelling. Results Overall 4.4% of the 20-39 year age group, 15.0% of the 40-59 age group and 39.2% of those aged 60 years of age or older had multimorbidity (17.1% of the total). Of those with multimorbidity, 42.1% were aged less than 60 years of age. A variety of variables were included in the final logistic regression models for the three age groups including family structure, marital status, education attainment, country of birth, smoking status, obesity measurements, medication use, health service utilisation and overall health status. Conclusions Multimorbidity is not just associated with older persons and flexible care management support systems, appropriate guidelines and care-coordination programs are required across a broader age range. Issues such as health literacy and polypharamacy are also important considerations. Future research is required into assessing multimorbidity across the life course, prevention of complications and assessment of appropriate self-care strategies. PMID

  15. Increased Health Service Utilization Costs in the Year Prior to Institutionalization: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Sauter, Agnes H.; Gutman, Gloria; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of formal health service utilization costs during older adults’ transition from community to institutional care. Methods Participants were 127 adults (age ≥ 65) from the British Columbia sample (N = 2,057) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who transitioned from community to institutional care between 1991 and 2001. Health service utilization costs were measured using Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk at five time points: > 12 months, 6–12 months, and ≤ 6 months preinstitutionalization, and ≤ 6 months and 6–12 months postinstitutionalization. Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk was measured for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs by calculating total health service use over time, divided by the number of days the participant was alive. Results Significant differences in Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk were observed for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs over time. All health service utilization costs increased significantly during the 6–12 months and ≤ 6 months prior to institutionalization. Postinstitutionalization Continuing Care costs continued to increase at ≤ 6 months before decreasing at 6–12 months, while decreases occurred for Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare costs relative to preinstitutionalization costs. Conclusions The increases in costs observed during the year prior to institutionalization, characterized by a flurry of health service utilization, provide evidence of distinct cost patterns over the transition period. PMID:24883162

  16. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  17. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  18. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume X: Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…

  19. Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

  20. 77 FR 75633 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  1. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  2. 78 FR 56235 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or Institute) In accordance with... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses,...

  3. 78 FR 24751 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or Institute) In accordance with... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health...

  4. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  5. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in...

  6. Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

  7. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and…

  8. Study Guide for the Regents External Degree Examination in Health Support--Area II (4 Credits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.

    A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…

  9. Reflections and Recommendations Based on a Migrant Health Center's Participation in a CDC Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolon, Anne K.; O'Barr, James

    Hudson Valley Migrant Health (HVMH) (a Public Health Service program) collaborated with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) on a study of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis among migrant farmworkers in the mid-Hudson region of New York. CDC research personnel…

  10. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  11. The provision of mental health services on Long Island college campuses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lorraine B

    2007-01-01

    College students, often away from home for the first time, are at risk for mental health disorders that can affect academic performance and quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the provision of mental health services to students attending colleges on Long Island, NY and to explore information about the policies developed in regards to disclosing mental health information to a student's family in the event of crisis. A descriptive questionnaire was developed for the purpose of this study. Qualified professionals are providing mental health services to students on Long Island college campuses but few policies exist to enhance communication in the event of crisis. Nurses employed in college health centers can work with students and families towards health-promoting behaviors and to proactively plan for the management of health information in the event of a mental health crisis. PMID:17941613

  12. Information, market government, and health policy: a study of health data organizations in the states.

    PubMed

    Overman, E S; Cahill, A G

    1994-01-01

    Information is essential to the success of market-oriented policies. Information on health care costs and quality is collected and distributed by state governments through health data organizations (HDOs) to enhance competition and lower costs in the medical industry and to improve consumer choice among medical alternatives. This article examines the information collected, produced, and distributed by state health data organizations in Colorado and Pennsylvania. Findings reveal that information was not the objective determinant of choice and competition as market-oriented policy designers had hoped. Nor did market-oriented bureaucracies produce and distribute data readily accessible for public choice. Instead, information produced and distributed by these HDOs was the result of political and bureaucratic exercises that conform much more to classic interest group policymaking and captured bureaucracies than to contemporary market-oriented government ideals. The findings underscore the extraordinary difficulties facing federal-level policy designers as they contemplate introducing market-oriented health care policies on the national level. PMID:10135356

  13. A Study of the Scholarly Activities of Allied Health Faculty in Southern Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, J. David; Roush, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 742 (of 942) allied health faculty members indicate that (1) refereed journal articles are primary publications, (2) less than half had recent professional presentations, and (3) only 29 percent had directed sponsored projects. Most indicated that their academic preparation encouraged scholarly pursuits and that scholarship is…

  14. Studies in Adolescent Health: Research to Improve Health Services for Mothers and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. School of Public Health.

    This publication is one in a series summarizing final reports of research projects concerned with improving health services for mothers, children and physically handicapped youth. Topics of the 10 reports include: (1) ambulatory care patterns of urban adolescents in New York City, (2) selected parameters of school achievement among New York City…

  15. Design and Implementation of the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kaplan, Robert C.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Giachello, Aida L.; Schneiderman, Neil; Raij, Leopoldo; Talavera, Gregory; Allison, Matthew; LaVange, Lisa; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a comprehensive multi-center community based cohort study of Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Its rationale, objectives, design and implementation are described in this paper. METHODS The HCHS/SOL will recruit 16,000 men and women who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, age 18-74 years, from a random sample of households in defined communities in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami and San Diego. The sites were selected so that the overall sample would consist of at least 2000 persons in each of the following origin designations: Mexican, Puerto Rican and Dominican, Cuban, and Central and South American. The study includes research in the prevalence of and risk factors for heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, kidney and liver function, diabetes, cognitive function, dental conditions, and hearing disorders. CONCLUSIONS The HCHS/SOL will 1) characterize the health status and disease burden in the largest minority population in the U.S; 2) describe the positive and negative consequences of immigration and acculturation of Hispanics/Latinos to the mainstream U.S. life-styles, environment and health care opportunities; and 3) identify likely causal factors of many diseases in a population with diverse environmental exposures, genetic backgrounds and early life experiences. PMID:20609343

  16. Why Do Students Withdraw from Online Graduate Nursing and Health Studies Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Beth; Boman, Jeanette; Care, W. Dean; Edwards, Margaret; Park, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Why do nursing and health studies graduate students who are enrolled in online programs decide to withdraw? The qualitative study reported in this paper investigated students' self-identified reasons for withdrawing from an online graduate program in nursing and health studies. The focus of the study was Athabasca Universities' Centre for Nursing…

  17. Hypertension Health Promotion via Text Messaging at a Community Health Center in South Africa: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Haricharan, Hanne J; Brittain, Kirsty; Lau, Yan Kwan; Cassidy, Tali; Heap, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phones to deliver health care (mHealth) is increasing in popularity due to the high prevalence of mobile phone penetration. This is seen in developing countries, where mHealth may be particularly useful in overcoming traditional access barriers. Non-communicable diseases may be particularly amenable to mHealth interventions, and hypertension is one with an escalating burden in the developing world. Objective The objective of this study was to test whether the dissemination of health information via a short message service (SMS) led to improvements in health knowledge and self-reported health-related behaviors. Methods A mixed methods study was carried out among a cohort of 223 hypertension clinic patients, in a resource-poor setting in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2012. Hypertensive outpatients were recruited at the clinic and administered a baseline questionnaire to establish existing knowledge of hypertension. Participants were then randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received 90 SMSes over a period of 17 weeks. Thereafter, the baseline questionnaire was readministered to both groups to gauge if any improvements in health knowledge had occurred. Those who received SMSes were asked additional questions about health-related behavior changes. A focus group was then conducted to obtain in-depth feedback about participants’ experience with, and response to, the SMS campaign. Results No statistically significant changes in overall health knowledge were observed between the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had positive increases in self-reported behavior changes. These were reaffirmed by the focus groups, which also revealed a strong preference for the SMS campaign and the belief that the SMSes acted as a reminder to change, as opposed to providing new information. Conclusions Although the content of the SMSes was not new, and did not improve health knowledge, SMSes were

  18. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2005-01-01

    Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status. PMID:16109157

  19. Case Studies: An Exercise for Teaching Microbiology to Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of case studies in allied health microbiology classes and presents four case studies. Discusses advantages of the case study approach and sources for case studies. Contains 71 references. (JRH)

  20. Adolescents' perceptions of oral health and influencing factors: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Jarkman, Kristina; Lindblad, Ulf; Halling, Arne

    2002-06-01

    Accounts of self-perceptions of oral health have hitherto been rare, although they are of great interest for strategies in health promotion. The objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of adolescents' perceptions of oral health and influencing factors. Semi-structured interviews of 17 Swedish adolescents were performed. Criteria for strategic sampling were age (15, 18 years), gender (male, female), and dental health (healthy, unhealthy). Data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Areas of focus were general oral health, personal oral health, dental care, and life-style issues. Oral health awareness was generally low among the informants. Two categories of oral health were identified: action (the physical things we do to effect the condition of our mouths) and condition (the physical status of the mouth). Conditional aspects were most frequent in evaluations of personal oral health. The informants considered their possibilities to influence oral health limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support and impact, and external factors. 'Concern for oral health' was derived as the core category in perceived influence on oral health. The study indicates that it is important to find factors that enhance adolescents' awareness of their own resources and to seek mechanisms that govern internalization. There is a need to find strategies to convey such knowledge to the intermediaries: dental personnel and parents. PMID:12166911

  1. Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): a health survey in an East German region. Objectives and design of the oral health section.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Elke; Gesch, Dietmar; Biffar, Reiner; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; Splieth, Christian; Born, Gabriele; John, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    The goal of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) was to estimate the prevalence of diseases, identify potential risk factors in a defined region in northeast Germany, and examine the particular living situation of this population after the reunification of East and West Germany. One of the main concerns of the SHIP design is the analysis of the relationships between dental, medical, social, and environmentally and behaviorally determined health factors. SHIP is a cross-sectional study (clinical findings and sociologic interviews). The sample was drawn in two steps: Thirty-two communities in the region were selected, and within these communities, a simple random sample was drawn from residence registries, stratified by gender and age. The final sample included 4,310 males and females, aged 20 to 79 years. This is equivalent to a participation rate of 68.8%. Data collection was completed in May 2001. The data collection and items comprised four parts: oral health examination, medical examination, health-related interview, and a health- and risk-factor-related questionnaire. The oral health examination included the teeth, periodontium, oral mucosa, morphology and function of the craniomandibular system, and prosthodontics. The medical examination included blood pressure measurements; electrocardiography; echocardiography; carotid, thyroid, and liver ultrasound examinations; neurologic screening; and blood and urine sampling. The computer-assisted interview consisted of questions on symptoms of disease, utilization of medical and dental services, self-assessment of general and oral health, health behavior and knowledge, and socioeconomic variables. The self-administered questionnaire comprised housing conditions, social network, work conditions, subjective well-being, and individual consequences of the German reunification. PMID:12795357

  2. International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n = 158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

  3. Increasing Knowledge and Health Literacy about Preterm Births in Underserved Communities: An Approach to Decrease Health Disparities, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Wright, Marcie S.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Murithi, Lydia K.; Coney, PonJola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health disparities can negatively impact subsets of the population who have systematically experienced greater socioeconomic obstacles to health. For example, health disparities between ethnic and racial groups continue to grow due to the widening gap in large declines in infant and fetal mortality among Caucasians compared to Black non-Hispanic or African Americans. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to determine if the computer-based educational modules related to preterm birth health literacy and health disparity with a pre-test and post-test can effectively increase health knowledge of our participants in targeted underserved communities within the Richmond-metro area. Methods: This was a pilot study in the Richmond-Metro area. Participants were required to be over the age of 18, and had to electronically give consent. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations, and Paired t-tests were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results: There were 140 participants in the pilot study. P <.05 was set as significant and all four modules had a P <.000. The males were not significant with modules: Let’s Talk Patient & Provider Communication P <.132 and It Takes a Village P <.066. Preterm birth status yes all of the findings were statistically significant P<.000. Preterm birth status no Let’s Talk Patients & Provider Communication was not significant P <.106. Conclusion: Overall, researchers found that with a strong research methodology and strong content relevant to the community, the participants demonstrated an increase in their knowledge in health literacy and preterm birth. PMID:26234992

  4. Study protocol—an exploratory trial on health promoting schools at Dutch secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Petrus Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts. Study design and data collection methods The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n≈1500). The intervention’s effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour) monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders. Data analysis A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data. Conclusions This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health. PMID:22977424

  5. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls) in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002). Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health. PMID:22420743

  6. Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p < .001) and their siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p < .005). ID had more decayed (3.52; p < .005), and missing teeth (1.17; p = .001), fewer dental restorations (1.67; p = .012) and had a greater need for tooth extraction (21.4%; p = .002) than their siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. PMID:24164223

  7. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  8. Health protection: communicable disease, public health and infection control educational programmes--a case study from the UK.

    PubMed

    El-Ansari, W; Privett, S

    2005-04-01

    The health protection (HP) landscape is changing. Issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are receiving the attention of world leaders and policy makers. In the UK, the national health policies resonate with such transformations, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include the formation of a new national organisation dedicated to protecting the people's health and reducing the impact of infectious disease, the Health Protection Agency. The opportunities also include the opening of non-medical specialists's pathways in public health. The challenges represent the limited number of centres offering infection control education; the hospital focus and bias of the courses; new, resurgent and emerging infections; globalisation and travel; bacterial resistance; vaccine safety and coverage; bioterrorism; global response capacity; and visa restrictions. Within this context, this paper presents a case study of a HP educational programme at a British university in the south of England. It outlines the course design and philosophy, participants, recruitment, aims, descriptions and learning outcomes. A range of teething problems associated with the initiation and running of such programmes is considered. These include aspects related to the university, features associated with the modules, characteristics of the students, and other interconnected larger scale international issues. Some suggestions for the way forward are presented. Collectively, attention to the suggested measures can ensure that the processes that teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with the requisite HP knowledge and skills. PMID:15733695

  9. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

  10. Early Palaeozoic foreland thrusting and basin reactivation at the Palaeo-Pacific margin of the southeastern Australian Precambrian Craton: a reappraisal of the structural evolution of the Southern Adelaide Fold-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöttmann, Thomas; James, Pat; Rogers, Jamie; Johnson, Tim

    1994-06-01

    Regional and detailed structural mapping, kinematic analysis and balancing and restoration of cross sections has lead to a re-interpretation of the Adelaide Fold Belt in South Australia. In this belt sedimentary rocks of the Late Proterozoic Adelaidean and Early Cambrian Normanville and Kanmantoo sequences were deposited during at least two episodes of subsidence related to major crustal attenuation. Contraction and crustal thickening accompanied by granitoid intrusions are related to the Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian orogeny. During this event both basins were reactivated ("inverted") and the sedimentary rocks are now incorporated in a WNW-verging foreland fold and thrust belt at the margin of the Proterozoic southeast Australian craton. Maximal shortening of the orogen was around 55%. Within the Adelaidean basin, shortening is dominantly accommodated by major mylonitic shear zones and reverse faults. In the Cambrian Kanmantoo basin, several thrusts are demonstrably reactivated growth faults, across which thickness changes of Cambrian sedimentary rocks are revealed by balancing and restoration of cross sections. Owing to the steep easterly dips of these faults, in the western part of the Kanmantoo basin lateral shortening of up to 58% is largely accommodated by intense folding and fold axial-planar flattening strain. Further east, strain magnitudes wane and the overall shortening of around 30% is accommodated by both, discrete thrust zones and regional folds. The basin reactivation along the Australian part of Gondwana's palaeo-Pacific craton margin reflects the rapid transition from passive to active tectonism, which possibly is a consequence of the disintegration of the formerly conjugate margins of Gondwana and Laurentia.

  11. Health supplement consumption behavior in the older adult population: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397

  12. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

  13. Using the Internet to Teach Health Informatics: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Alec; Gillies, John

    2001-01-01

    Background It is becoming increasingly important for health professionals to have an understanding of health informatics. Education in this area must support not only undergraduate students but also the many workers who graduated before informatics education was available in the undergraduate program. To be successful, such a program must allow currently-employed students with significant work and family commitments to enroll. Objectives The aim was to successfully create and teach a distance program in health informatics for the New Zealand environment. Methods Our students are primarily health professionals in full time employment. About 50% are doctors, about 25% nurses, and the rest include dentists, physiotherapists, and medical managers. Course material was delivered via the World Wide Web and CD-ROM. Communication between students and faculty, both synchronous and asynchronous, was carried out via the Internet. Results We have designed and taught a postgraduate Diploma of Health Informatics program using the Internet as a major communication medium. The course has been running since July 1998 and the first 10 students graduated in July 2000. About 45 students are currently enrolled in the course; we have had a dropout rate of 15% and a failure rate of 5%. Comparable dropout figures are hard to obtain, but a recent review has suggested that failure-to-complete rates of 30% to 33% may be expected. Conclusions Internet technology has provided an exciting educational challenge and opportunity. Providing a web-based health informatics course has not been without its frustrations and problems, including software compatibility issues, bandwidth limitations, and the rapid change in software and hardware. Despite these challenges, the use of Internet technology has been interesting for both staff and students, and a worthwhile alternative for delivering educational material and advice to students working from their own homes. PMID:11720968

  14. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

  15. [Wellbeing, health and autonomy in old age: the Basal IDA Study (Interdisciplinary Aging Study)].

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Perrig, W J; Stähelin, H B; Krebs-Roubicek, E; Ehrsam, R

    1996-01-01

    Current research on successful aging reflects a multicriteria approach, although a consensus on the interrelationship between different factors has not yet been achieved. The longitudinal-sequential study presented here aims at identifying psychological, biological and sociobiographical predictors of well-being, health and autonomy in old age and their interdependency. The concern of this study is thus a multidisciplinary approach including psychology, psychiatry, geriatrics and sports sciences. The ongoing study is described and first findings are reported. Four hundred and forty-two people, aged 65 to 94, were tested twice (1993 and 1995). Since this project is a pursuit of a medical longitudinal study (Basler-Studie), bio-medical parameters from former status measurements (1960, 1965, 1971, 1985, 1990) are available and taken into account for comparison with the newly collected data from 1993 and 1995. The tests included both a medical examination and cognitive and personality measurements. The medical test battery included: clinical and anthropometrical data, bio-chemical data as well as the medical history, health behaviour, complaints and subjective health. The psychological assessment included psychological well-being, health-related control beliefs, causal attribution, religiosity, etc. For memory assessment a computerized test was used which allows to test 1) perceptual error-scanning, 2) naming speed, and memory resources in terms of 3) capacity, 4) explicit and 5) implicit components. It therefore integrates direct (free recall, recognition) and indirect memory tests (perceptual identification: clarification), that were used previously in different experimental and quasi-experimental studies to investigate memory performance over the life-span. Furthermore, the following three experimental interventions are performed: memory and reattribution training, physical training and psychoanalytical group therapy. First descriptive results are presented

  16. A correlational study of the relationship between a coordinated school health program and school achievement: a case for school health.

    PubMed

    Vinciullo, Frances M; Bradley, Beverly J

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and the U.S. Census 2000 Profile were used to study the relationships among three parameters: (a) The intervention called a CSHP: (b) Student achievement; and (c) Rate of poverty in each state. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted, controlling for poverty using state-level data. Components of a CSHP had statistically significant relationships with academic achievement. Students in states with policies promoting students' health demonstrated higher academic scores and higher rates of high school completion. PMID:19934026

  17. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends

    PubMed Central

    HATANAKA, Takashi; EGUCHI, Narumi; DEGUCHI, Mayumi; YAZAWA, Manami; ISHII, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan’s healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan’s universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  18. Chiba study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH): cohort study with omics analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Eguchi, Akifumi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Midori; Todaka, Emiko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Hata, Akira; Mori, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent epidemiological studies have shown that environmental factors during the fetal period to early childhood might affect the risk of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. This is referred to as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) concept. The Chiba study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) is a birth cohort study based on the DOHaD hypothesis and involves multiomics analysis. This study aims to explore the effects of genetic and environmental factors—particularly the fetal environment and postbirth living environment—on children's health, and to identify potential biomarkers for these effects. Participants The C-MACH consists of three hospital-based cohorts. The study participants are pregnant women at <13 weeks gestation. Women who underwent an examination in one of the three hospitals received an explanation of the study. The participants consented to completing questionnaire surveys and the collection and storage of biological and house/environmental samples. Participants were provided unique study numbers. All of the data and biological specimens will be stored in the Chiba University Center for Preventive Medical Sciences and Chiba University Center for Preventive Medical Sciences BioBank, respectively. Findings to date Consent to participate was obtained from 433 women. Of these women, 376 women completed questionnaires in the early gestational period. The mean age was 32.5 (4.4) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.1 (3.0) kg/m2. Before pregnancy, 72.3% of the women had a BMI of 18.5–24.9 kg/m2. During early pregnancy, 5.0% of the participants smoked. Future plans Primary outcomes are allergy, obesity, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and developmental disorders. Genome-level, metabolome-level, umbilical cord DNA methylation (epigenome), gut microbiota and environmental chemical exposure variables will be evaluated. We will analyse the relationships between the outcomes and analytical variables. PMID

  19. Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Milton, Beth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local levels), academia and voluntary organizations. Analysis was based on the framework method using N-VIVO software. Interviews were transcribed, coded and emergent themes identified. Results Many participants suggested that the timescales for public health decision-making are too short. Commissioners and some practitioners working at the national level particularly felt constrained in terms of planning for the long-term. Furthermore respondents felt that longer term planning was needed to address the wider determinants of health and to achieve societal level changes. Three prominent 'systems' issues were identified as important drivers of short term thinking: the need to demonstrate impact within the 4 year political cycle; the requirement to 'balance the books' within the annual commissioning cycle and the disruption caused by frequent re-organisations within the health service. In addition respondents suggested that the tools and evidence base for longer term planning were not well established. Conclusion Many public health decision and policy makers feel that the timescales for decision-making are too short. Substantial systemic barriers to longer-term planning exist. Policy makers need to look beyond short-term targets and budget cycles to secure investment for long-term improvement in public health. PMID:19094194

  20. The Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health Partnership Study: Multisector Partnerships in US Counties with Improving Health Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R.; Siemering, Kirstin Q.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multisector partnerships are promoted as a mechanism to improve population health. This study explored the types and salient features of multisector partnerships in US counties with improving population health metrics. Methods We used the “Framework for Understanding Cross-Sector Collaborations” proposed by Bryson, Crosby, and Stone to guide data collection and interpretation. Comparative case studies were conducted in 4 counties selected on the basis of population, geographic region, an age-adjusted mortality decline better than the US average, and stable per capita income. Data were collected through website and report reviews and through in-depth interviews with key informants (N = 59) representing multiple sectors. County reports were developed and cross-case themes related to partnership types and salient features were derived. Results Multisector collaboration was common in all 4 counties despite substantial variations in population, geographic size, demographic diversity, and other characteristics. Most partnerships were formed by professionals and organizations to improve delivery of health and social services to vulnerable populations or to generate policy, system, and environment changes. Multisector collaboration was valued in all cases. Outcomes attributed to partnerships included short- and long-term effects that contributed to improved population health. Conclusion The Bryson, Crosby, and Stone model is a useful framework for conducting case study research on multisector partnerships. Outcomes attributed to the multisector partnerships have the potential to contribute to improvement in population health. Further study is needed to confirm whether multisector partnerships are necessary for improving population health within counties and to understand which partnership characteristics are critical for success. PMID:24406092

  1. Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Cao, Jia; Lin, Hui; Li, Daikun; Wang, Yang; He, Jia

    2009-01-01

    Background Community health services in China have developed over the last few decades. In order to use limited health resources more effectively, we conducted a community health needs assessment. This aimed to provide an understanding of the community's health problems and the range of potential factors affecting risk behaviours for the priority health problems. Methods We used the precede-proceed model for the needs assessment. Triangulation of data, methods and researchers were employed in data collection. Results Main findings include: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were identified as the priority health problems in the study communities; risk factors associated with CVDs included smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly amongst male residents with low education level; factors negatively affecting behaviours were classified into predisposing factors (limited knowledge, beliefs and lack of perceived needs), enabling factors (limited access to health promotion activities, unawareness of health promotion, lack of work-site and school health promotion, absence of health promotion related policy) and reinforcing factors (culture). Policies and organization were not perfect; there were limited staff skilled in providing health promotion in the community. Conclusion CVDs were identified by the communities as priority health problems. Future health programs should focus on smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours. Behaviour change strategies should take predisposing factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors into consideration. Policies, organization and human resource need strengthening. PMID:19814832

  2. Engaging primary healthcare nurses in men's health education: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rizio, Taletha A; Thomas, Wendy J; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Many countries have identified a need for targeted men's health promotion within primary health care as part of broader men's health policy. Primary health care nurses are well placed to deliver such services but may lack the requisite skills. The aim of this study was to pilot the delivery phase of an education program and evaluate a train-the-trainer approach for delivering men's health education to primary health care nurses. The 8-h train-the-trainer workshop was designed to equip nurses to deliver men's health education workshops to peers. Surveys of facilitators (n = 18) and peer workshop participants (n = 98) evaluated their level of confidence in men's health and knowledge and skills in men's health promotion. After completing the train-the-trainer workshop, most facilitators expressed confidence (92%), and all indicated sufficient knowledge and access to resources to deliver a peer workshop. All agreed that the module was sufficiently flexible to suit their local setting. Following the peer education workshop, facilitators and workshop participants reported high levels of confidence and knowledge in men's health promotion. This pilot evaluation suggests train-the-trainer is an effective model to deliver men's health education across a range of settings, with a flexible approach to raising awareness and improving the skills of primary health care nurses in men's health promotion. PMID:26803801

  3. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  4. Children's Health and Achievement in School. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper No. 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Jere R.; Lavy, Victor

    This paper explores the relationship child health and educational achievement using data from the Ghanaian Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS), as well as the reliability of such health-education studies in general. An analysis of the data indicated that: (1) the failure to control for estimation problems in the LSMS and other studies has led…

  5. A Preliminary Study of Student Learning in Interdisciplinary Health Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinberg, Mark A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Self-reported learning in a 12-week interdisciplinary health team training experience at the University of Nevada, Reno, was measured. Analysis of 14 students from seven disciplines in three settings shows there was significant learning in the areas of team skills and processes and in knowledge of and abilities in client communication but not in…

  6. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  7. Doctors accessing mental-health services: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Randal, Patte

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a more in-depth understanding of how doctors do and do not access mental healthcare from the perspectives of doctors themselves and people they have contact with through the process. Design Qualitative methodology was used with semistructured interviews transcribed and analysed using Grounded Theory. Participants were 11 doctors with experience as patients of psychiatrists, four doctor and four non-doctor personal contacts (friends, family and colleagues) and eight treating psychiatrists. Results Participants described experiencing unrealistic expectations and a harsh work environment with poor self care and denial and minimisation of signs of mental health difficulties. Doctor contacts described particular difficulty in responding effectively to doctor friends, family and colleagues in need of mental healthcare. In contrast, non-doctor personal contacts were more able to identify and speak about concerns but not necessarily to enable accessing adequate mental-health services. Conclusions Three areas with potential to address in supporting doctors' accessing of appropriate healthcare have been identified: (1) processes to enable doctors to maintain high standards of functioning with less use of minimisation and denial; (2) improving the quality and effectiveness of informal doctor-to-doctor conversations about mental-health issues among themselves; (3) role of non-doctor support people in identifying doctors' mental-health needs and enabling their access to mental healthcare. Further research in all these areas has the potential to contribute to improving doctors' access to appropriate mental healthcare and may be of value for the general population. PMID:22021726

  8. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  9. A STUDY OF HEALTH AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS IN WISCONSIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    THE SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE REQUEST OF REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS TO DETERMINE THE PRESENT AND FUTURE EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN 10 OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH THERE MIGHT BE A SHORTAGE OF MANPOWER AND IN WHICH PERSONS COULD BE TRAINED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF THE AREA REDEVELOPMENT AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING ACTS. A…

  10. FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PLOT DESIGN AND LOGISTICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the condition of forests in relation to natural and manmade stresses has led to an interagency Forest Health Monitoring program. o improve the efficiency of forest monitoring, the forest group of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a field...

  11. Occupational Health and Industrial Wind Turbines: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Robert W.; Ambrose, Stephen E.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines (IWTs) are being installed at a fast pace globally. Researchers, medical practitioners, and media have reported adverse health effects resulting from living in the environs of IWTs. While there have been some anecdotal reports from technicians and other workers who work in the environs of IWTs, little is known about the…

  12. The influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin population--a survey study.

    PubMed

    Morad, Mohammed; Shvarts, Shifra; Merrick, Joav; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL) has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999), a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997), and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age) and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met fully, the

  13. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  14. Simulation studies of a wide area health care network.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7949966

  15. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  16. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study

    PubMed Central

    Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research. This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented. This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being. The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria. This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context. The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in

  17. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research.This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented.This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being.The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria.This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context.The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in organization

  18. Economic Valuation of Health Care Services in Public Health Systems: A Study about Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Nursing Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; del Cura-González, Mª Isabel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Gemma; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Zamora, Javier; Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Pérez-Rivas, Francisco Javier; Domínguez-Bidagor, Julia; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Tello-Bernabé, Mª Eugenia; Conde-López, Juan Francisco; Aguado-Arroyo, Óscar; Bayona, Mª Teresa Sanz-; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying the economic value assigned by users to a particular health service is of principal interest in planning the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of economic value of nursing consultation in primary care (PC) by its users. Methods and Results Economic study using contingent valuation methodology. A total of 662 users of nursing consultation from 23 health centers were included. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health needs, pattern of usage, and satisfaction with provided service were compiled. The validity of the response was evaluated by an explanatory mixed-effects multilevel model in order to assess the factors associated with the response according to the welfare theory. Response reliability was also evaluated. Subjects included in the study indicated an average Willingness to Pay (WTP) of €14.4 (CI 95%: €13.2–15.5; median €10) and an average Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA) of €20.9 (CI 95%: €19.6–22.2; median €20). Average area income, personal income, consultation duration, home visit, and education level correlated with greater WTP. Women and older subjects showed lower WTP. Fixed parameters explained 8.41% of the residual variability, and response clustering in different health centers explained 4–6% of the total variability. The influence of income on WTP was different in each center. The responses for WTP and WTA in a subgroup of subjects were consistent when reassessed after 2 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.952 and 0.893, respectively). Conclusions The economic value of nursing services provided within PC in a public health system is clearly perceived by its user. The perception of this value is influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the subjects and their environment, and by the unique characteristics of the evaluated service. The method of contingent valuation is useful for making explicit this perception of value of

  19. Iranian Women’s Experiences of Health Information Seeking Barriers: A Qualitative Study in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women as active health information seekers play a key role in determining lifestyle and possible implementation of preventive measures, thereby improving the health of individuals, families and society. Although studies indicate that equipping people with adequate health information leads to optimal health outcomes, sometimes the complexity of human behavior and presence of barriers and limitations expose them to challenges. Objectives: This study was designed to explore women's experiences of health information seeking barriers. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was conducted regarding inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was performed constantly and simultaneously with data collection. Results: Five central themes were emerged to explain women's experiences of barriers to health information seeking as inadequate support from health care system, shame and embarrassment, costs, wrong ideas and beliefs and inadequate health literacy. Conclusions: It seems the accurate and evidence-based review of the current health system is crucial to support the health informative requirements in a community-based approach, respecting the community cultural-religious beliefs and client participation in health care and according to local resources. PMID:25834743

  20. A Study of Persistence in the Northeast State Community College Health-Related Programs of Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Allana R.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors that were positively associated with persistence to graduation by students who were admitted to Health-Related Programs leading to the degree associate of applied science at Northeast State Community College. The criterion variable in this study was persistence, which was categorized into two groups the persister group (program completers) and the nonpersister (program noncompleters) group. The predictor variables included gender, ethnic origin, first- (or nonfirst-) generation-student status, age, specific major program of study, number of remedial and/or developmental courses taken, grades in selected courses (human anatomy and physiology I and II, microbiology, probability and statistics, composition I, clinical I, clinical II), and number of mathematics and science credit hours earned prior to program admission. The data for this ex post facto nonexperimental design were located in Northeast State's student records database, Banner Information System. The subjects of the study were students who had been admitted into Health-Related Programs of study at a 2-year public community college between the years of 1999 and 2008. The population size was 761. Health-Related Programs of study included Dental Assisting, Cardiovascular Technology, Emergency Medical Technology -- Paramedic, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, and Surgical Technology. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was used in the analysis of the data. Descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, standard deviations, and percentages, as appropriate. Independent samples t-tests were used to determine if the mean of a variable on one group of subjects was different from the mean of the same variable with a different group of subjects. It was found that gender, ethnic origin, first-generation status, and age were not significantly associated with persistence to graduation. However, findings did reveal a statistically

  1. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578 607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change −72 DALYs (95% credible interval −110 to −43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; −15 (−42 to −6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change −49 DALYs (−88 to −17) among men; −1 DALY (−27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled

  2. Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan – a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite attempts from the government to improve ante- and perinatal care, Afghanistan has once again been labeled “the worst country in which to be a mom” in Save the Children’s World’s Mothers’ Report. This study investigated how pregnant women and health care providers experience the existing antenatal and obstetric health care situation in Afghanistan. Methods Data were obtained through one-to-one semi-structured interviews of 27 individuals, including 12 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, seven doctors, five midwives, and three traditional birth attendants. The interviews were carried out in Kabul and the village of Ramak in Ghazni Province. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis. Results Antenatal care was reported to be underused, even when available. Several obstacles were identified, including a lack of knowledge regarding the importance of antenatal care among the women and their families, financial difficulties, and transportation problems. The women also reported significant dissatisfaction with the attitudes and behavior of health personnel, which included instances of verbal and physical abuse. According to the health professionals, poor working conditions, low salaries, and high stress levels contributed to this matter. Personal contacts inside the hospital were considered necessary for receiving high quality care, and bribery was customary. Despite these serious concerns, the women expressed gratitude for having even limited access to health care, especially treatment provided by a female doctor. Health professionals were proud of their work and enjoyed the opportunity to help their community. Conclusion This study identified several obstacles which must be addressed to improve reproductive health in Afghanistan. There was limited understanding of the importance of antenatal care and a lack of family support. Financial and

  3. Case studies in public-private-partnership in health with the focus of enhancing the accessibility of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Njau, R J A; Mosha, F W; De Savigny, D

    2009-10-01

    Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized membership or governing body to high level institutionalization. The latter includes concrete objectives, the presence of a legal status and permanent multi-sectoral membership. The study used qualitative research methods including case studies, literature review and interview with key informants. The research undertakes an extensive literature review of various PPP models in health in scale and in scope which are aimed at advancing public health goals in developing countries. The major emphasis is on a qualitative description of some of the PPPs in the planning and implementation phases, including the challenges encountered. This background is used to analyse in-depth two case studies which are both health oriented; the first one is a national level NGO consortium with a focus on malaria and the second one is an international advocacy group with an overarching goal of protecting children against malaria through an innovative mechanism. The case study approach is used to analyze why the PPP approach was used to address malaria control and how it was implemented. Both PPPs demonstrated that relationships between the public and private sector may begin from very humble and loose beginnings. However, with perseverance from committed individuals, a vision and trustworthiness may become powerful advocates for meeting prescribed health agendas. In conclusion, three key themes (trust, sacrifice and championship) run vividly through the case studies and are significant for developing countries to emulate. PMID:20734704

  4. Physical Health Effects of the Housing Boom: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamoudi, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of the dramatic increases in housing prices in the United States in the 1990s and early 2000s on physical health outcomes among a representative sample of middle-aged and older Americans. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, we exploited geographic and time variation in housing prices using third-party valuation estimates of median single-family detached houses from 1988 to 2007 in each of 2400 zip codes combined with Health and Retirement Study data from 1992 to 2006 to test the impact of housing appreciation on physical health outcomes. Results. Respondents living in communities in which home values appreciated more rapidly had fewer functional limitations, performed better on interviewer-administered physical tasks, and had smaller waist circumference. Conclusions. Our results indicate that increases in housing wealth were associated with better health outcomes for homeowners in late middle age and older. The recent sharp decline in housing values for this group may likewise be expected to have important implications for health and should be examined as data become available. PMID:23597343

  5. Health policy and exercise: a brief BRFSS study and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Larson, James S; Winn, Mylon

    2010-03-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey is used to compare three predictors of self-rated health, specifically exercise, tobacco smoking, and a diagnosis of diabetes (a proxy for obesity). Exercise is found to be the best predictor, and the remainder of the article discusses the role of exercise in disease prevention and the all-important concept of exercise adherence. Government policy in the future needs to promote exercise adherence in a more rigorous way, because it is a key to both individual and societal health. Exercise habits need to be instilled from youth, and physical education requirements in school need to be re-established at all levels through high school. Adults also need encouragement with better neighborhood planning of exercise trails for walking and biking, as well as planned community activities to encourage fitness through one's lifetime. The article concludes with six recommendations for formal government action to encourage exercise adherence. PMID:18490485

  6. Quality of psoriasis care in Germany: results of the national health care study "PsoHealth3".

    PubMed

    Langenbruch, Anna; Radtke, Marc Alexander; Jacobi, Arnd; Purwins, Sandra; Haack, Kristina; Reich, Kristian; Stroemer, Klaus; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Two national surveys conducted in 2005 and 2007 indicated deficits in psoriasis care and induced the composition of the ''National Goals for Health Care in Psoriasis 2010-2015''. The aim of this work was to (1) evaluate the quality of care for patients with psoriasis in Germany, (2) compare this with prior psoriasis studies PsoHealth1 (2005) and PsoHealth2 (2007), and (3) review the implementation of national treatment goals. By means of a cross sectional study the following indicators of health care quality were collected: psoriasis severity (Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and proportion of PASI >20), quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were corporated: proportion of DLQI >10), previous systemic treatment, inpatient treatment, and days absent from work due to psoriasis. Between January 2013 and March 2014, 1265 patients from 82 dermatological centres were included (mean age of 52 years). 9.2 % had a PASI >20 (2007: 11.6 %; 2005: 17.8 %). 21.3 % reported strong quality of life restrictions (DLQI >10) (2007: 28.2 %; 2005: 34.0 %). 59.5 % had received a systemic treatment at least once within the last 5 years (2007: 47.3 %; 2005: 32.9 %). 20.1 % were treated inpatient within the last 5 years (2007: 20.1 %; 2005: 26.9 %). The current data indicate a better health care situation for psoriasis in Germany. The implementation of the S3-Guideline and the ''National Goals for Health Care in Psoriasis 2010-2015'' could have been contributing factors. PMID:27206971

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: V. BIOMARKER STUDIES - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: V. Biomarker Studies - a Pilot Study

    Michael T. Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Judy S. Mumford, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

  8. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; van Raaij, Joop M. A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries. PMID:25826317

  9. Medical provider attitudes about behavioral health consultants in integrated primary care: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Torrence, Nicole D; Mueller, Anne E; Ilem, Allison A; Renn, Brenna N; DeSantis, Brian; Segal, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    Integrated behavioral health increases service utilization and treatment success, particularly with high-risk populations. This study assessed medical personnel's attitudes and perceptions of behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) in primary care using a brief self-report measure. A 6-item survey was given to medical providers (n = 45) from a health care system that includes integrated behavioral health services. Survey items assessed providers' attitudes and perceptions about BHCs. Attitudes about behavioral health were largely favorable. For all items, 73.3% to 100% of participants endorsed strongly agree or agree. Chi-square analyses revealed that those who interacted more frequently with BHCs were more comfortable discussing behavioral health issues with their patients, χ²(6, n = 45) = 13.43, p < .05, and that physicians believe that BHCs help patients effectively address their behavioral health problems, χ²(2, n = 45) = 6.36, p < .05. Age, gender, and health center in which the providers worked were not significantly related to any survey items. Medical providers surveyed believe that BHCs are valuable members of integrated health care, improving their abilities to provide care and to address their patients' physical and behavioral health problems. Although these preliminary results are promising, the setting surveyed has well-integrated behavioral health care services and thus might not be representative of other settings without such integration. Future studies should address medical providers' opinions of BHCs in a variety of settings with larger samples. PMID:25329753

  10. Context matters: A community-based study of urban minority parents’ views on child health

    PubMed Central

    Bolar, Cassandra L.; Hernandez, Natalie; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin; Ferguson, Aneeqah S.; Rollins, Latrice; Wrenn, Glenda; Okafor, Martha; Collins, David; Clem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Among children, there are substantial ethno-racial minority disparities across a broad range of health-related behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Addressing these disparities is important, as childhood and adolescence establish health trajectories that extend throughout life. Methods The current study employed a community-based participatory research approach to gain community insight on child health priorities and to frame an intervention aimed at improving the health of minority children. Eight focus groups were conducted among seventy-five African American parents in a Southeastern city. The current study was guided by an ecological theoretical framework. Results Although the focus of this investigation was on community identification of child health priorities, participants cited, as root determinants, contextual factors, which included lack of healthy food options, lack of spaces for physical activity, and community violence. These co-occurring factors were related to limited engagement in outdoor activities and physical activity, increased obesity, and poor mental health and coping. Poor parenting was cited as the most substantial barrier to improving child health outcomes, and quality parenting was identified as the most important issue to address for community programs focused on promoting the health and success of children. For improving health outcomes for children in their neighborhoods, establishment of positive social capital and constructive activities were also cited. Conclusions These results reinforce social determinants of health as influences on child health outcomes and describe how community engagement can address potential solutions through interventions that resonate with program participants. PMID:27275021

  11. Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors in Menopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrami, Fereshte Shabani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining health promoting lifestyle behaviors of age-specific groups of women provides valuable information for designing health promotion intervention programs. Hence the present study was conducted to assess health promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study examined health promoting lifestyle behaviors in 400 menopausal women admitted to health care centers in Neka city-north of Iran-from March 2015 to July 2015. Health promoting lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a demographic characteristics form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) through simple convenience sampling. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistics at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: The mean score of participants’ health promoting lifestyle behaviors was 136.43±19.61, ranging from 88 to 194. The logistic regression test revealed women’s health promoting lifestyle behaviors to be significantly related to their place of residence (P=0.009, odds ratio=1.73) and their spouse’s level of education (P=0.027, odds ratio=0.58). The Pearson correlation test showed significant relationships between mean score of the six sub-scale of health promoting lifestyle behaviors with each other (P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings have implications for addressing the role of men to promote health promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural menopausal women.

  12. An empirical study on outpatients' health education needs and the effectiveness of e-learning.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Kai; Lin, I-Chun; Woung, Lin-Chung; Tsai, Ming-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Health education is an important component in disease management. This study sought to understand outpatients' health education needs and explored the effectiveness of e-learning applications. A cross-section of 281 outpatients was surveyed over 2 months. First, the concept of health education and the application of e-learning technology were introduced. Second, outpatients were interviewed to learn about their perceptions, experiences, and health education needs (such as the perceptions of the importance of health education, the experience of received health education and, in their opinion, the best approach to health education). Finally, their willingness to use an e-learning technology and their satisfaction with it were investigated. It was found that gender, age, and level of education have a significant influence on patients' health education needs. Only 29.5% of outpatients felt satisfied with the traditional learning modalities. Most outpatients (72.2%) gave positive feedback about e-learning for health education. It can be concluded that there are different needs among a diverse patient population. Although some still favor health education sessions, TV programs, or posters as their source of learning, e-learning, as this study suggested, is an excellent approach to the promotion of outpatients' health. PMID:21191081

  13. Strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa: A Delphi consensus study

    PubMed Central

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on oral health contributes to improved health outcomes; it is an indispensable tool in health policy. But how to fill the gaps in research oral health and to strengthen its capacity is the question. The main objective of the present study is to identify the current status of oral health research and potential strategies, thereby strengthening the research infrastructure and capacity. Delphi consultation, in the perspective of assisting decision-makers to identify strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa, was initiated. Design and Methods: The panels of 30 experts were asked to complete the questionnaire with 42 items into four groups by web survey. Each indicator statement was considered to be in consensus if the expert's opinion rating was of “A or B” for more than 75% in a scale of seven categories. Quantitative analysis was made from the answers of Delphi round. Results: There was a strong consensus about three items concerning the role of oral health research, the development of research policy for oral health going through an effective governance of research institutes, migration of researchers and fund raising. Conclusion: This study shows strong many dispersal opinions by experts, but highlights the need for to improve the effectiveness of oral health research capacity strengthening activities. Africa's researchers, policy makers and partners will have to give special attention to ensuring that knowledge generated from oral health research is acted on to improve health for all. PMID:24808689

  14. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995–2008)

    PubMed Central

    TEIMOURIZAD, Abedin; HADIAN, Mohamad; REZAEI, Satar; HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. Methods We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. Results The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. Conclusion When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation. PMID:26060721

  15. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  16. The development of compulsive internet use and mental health: A four-year study of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T; Heaven, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1030 males, 1038 females, Mage = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly associated with CIU within males and females. Structural equation modeling revealed that CIU predicted the development of poor mental health, whereas poor mental health did not predict CIU development. Latent growth analyses showed that both females and males increased in CIU and mental health problems across the high school years. Females had higher CIU and worse mental health than males, and tended to engage in more social forms of Internet use. We discuss future directions for CIU intervention research. PMID:26595355

  17. Teaching corner: the prospective case study : a pedagogical innovation for teaching global health ethics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kearsley A

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, global health has emerged as one of the fastest growing academic programs in the United States. Ethics training is cited widely as an essential feature of U.S. global health programs, but generally it is not deeply integrated into the global health teaching and training curricula. A discussion about the pedagogy of teaching global health ethics is long overdue; to date, only a few papers specifically engage with pedagogy rather than competencies or content. This paper explores the value of case study pedagogy for a full-semester graduate course in global health ethics at an American university. I address some of the pedagogical challenges of teaching global health ethics through my innovative use of case study methodology-the "prospective case study" (PSC). PMID:25630595

  18. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  19. Health Literacy Study Circles[superscript +]. Introduction: Overview, Planning, and Facilitation Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Rima; Soricone, Lisa; Santos, Maricel; Zobel, Emily; Smith, Janet

    2005-01-01

    A Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is a multi-session professional development activity for adult education practitioners, conducted by a facilitator. All the information and materials required to conduct each Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is presented in two parts: this Introduction and the "Facilitator's Guide" for each…

  20. The Health Role of Local Area Coordinators in Scotland: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael; Karatzias, Thanos; O'Leary, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The study set out to explore whether local area coordinators (LACs) and their managers view the health role of LACs as an essential component of their work and identify the health-related activities undertaken by LACs in Scotland. A mixed methods cross-sectional phenomenological study involving local authority service managers (n = 25) and LACs (n…