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1

A comparative study of mesospheric solar tides observed at Adelaide and Kyoto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (~80-110 km) measured at the geographically conjugate locations of Adelaide (35°S, 138°E) and Kyoto (35°N, 136°E) in the years 1983-1985 are used to study the hemispheric differences in the behavior of the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Comparisons of the tidal amplitude and phase parameters show that there are distinct

R. A. Vincent; T. Tsuda; S. Kato

1988-01-01

2

Predicting high achievers in the University of Adelaide, Australia, Bachelor of Oral Health program, 2002-09.  

PubMed

The Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) commenced at the University of Adelaide in 2002. The degree was formed by combining the Diploma in Dental Therapy and the Diploma and Advanced Diploma in Dental Hygiene. This preliminary study measured the predictive value of the selection criteria against students' academic performance at the end of each enrollment year of the B.O.H. program. Predictive indicators were prior academic achievement (i.e., tertiary entrance ranking [TER], university grade point average, or Special Tertiary Admissions Test scores) and the admission cognitive test score (i.e., Undergraduate Medical Admissions Test [UMAT] and Oral Assessment [OA] ranking). Predictive indicators were compared with the students' level of academic achievement across the three-year program. The aim of this study was to determine if prior academic achievement, cognitive test scores, and oral assessment predicted high level of academic achievement for B.O.H. students. The TER was found to be a strong predictor for academic performance after controlling for age, gender, type of applicant, and student preference in the first year along with older students (>25 years) and a higher UMAT score. Raising the TER cut-off for entry to the program should be considered, along with less emphasis on the OA and UMAT, because such a change would have little impact on achievement and would increase the pool of applicants. PMID:23225684

Gardner, Suzanne P; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

2012-12-01

3

The Stability of Child Behavior Disorders: A One Year Test-Retest Study of Adelaide Versions of the Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stability of children's behavior disorders was studied, using Adelaide versions of the Conners teacher and parent rating scales, with 256 five to twelve year olds. Of the 20 scales, 14 had high or moderate test-retest stability over the one-year interval. Most scales also showed discrimination validity over this time. (Author/CL)

Glow, R. A.; And Others

1982-01-01

4

An audit of pharyngeal gonorrhoea treatment in a public sexual health clinic in Adelaide, South Australia.  

PubMed

In recent times there have been changes to guidelines regarding the management of gonorrhoea, from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 and the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. Coinciding with their release we conducted a clinical audit of our treatment protocol for gonorrhoea. In 2010, local data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae indicated an increase in local isolates that were less sensitive to ceftriaxone (11.6% c.f. 5.3% in 2009). We have a long history of using 250 mg of ceftriaxone to treat all standard sites of gonorrhoea infection followed with tests of cure in all cases. In a retrospective clinical audit of an 11-year period from 2000 up to and including 2010 we identified six test-of-cure failures over 11 years after treating a total of 215 patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea. PMID:23970709

Hustig, A; Bell, C; Waddell, R

2013-05-01

5

Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia  

PubMed Central

Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves. PMID:23759952

Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

2013-01-01

6

Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in adelaide, australia.  

PubMed

Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves. PMID:23759952

Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

2013-06-01

7

1University of Adelaide Network Tomography  

E-print Network

with ­ data sources SNMP traffic data Netflow, packet traces Topology, routing and configuration Part II Huge amount of data (500GB/day) #12;12University of Adelaide Data Availability ­ SNMP SNMP traffic data of Adelaide SNMP Pro Comparatively simple Relatively low volume It is used already (lots of historical

Roughan, Matthew

8

JAVA PROGRAMMING University of Adelaide, Australia  

E-print Network

JAVA PROGRAMMING Ken Hawick University of Adelaide, Australia Present Address: Massey University, New Zealand Email k.a.hawick@massey.ac.nz Revised: September 2003 #12;COURSE OVERVIEW #12;Java in the Java programming language and environment, focusing on the core language features. A number of worked

Hawick, Ken

9

VISUALISING THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT IN ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Motor Vehicle Theft (MVT) in Australia is as a serious problem with high social and economic costs. MVT is neither unique nor random, but rather tends to be unevenly distributed and has a spatial-temporalpattern. This study assesses and explains the spatio-temporal distribution of MVT within metropolitan Adelaide based on MVT incidences that occurred in 1999. In this exploratory spatial

Leakha M. Henry; Brett A. Bryan

2000-01-01

10

Radar and airglow observations at Adelaide, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-field photometer has been operated at the University of Adelaide s Buckland Park 35oS 138oE field site to collect observations of the intensity of 558 nm OI and 730 nm OH airglow emissions since April 1995 Night-time intensity data have been collected on an almost continuous basis with observations made when the effect of the moon is not evident in the instrumental field of view Interpretation of the 730 nm data is limited by the presence of the Milky Way and here we will focus on the variability of the intensity of the OI 558 nm airglow which exhibits solar cycle quasi-biennial annual semi-annual and ter-annual periodicities These observations are compared with MF and meteor observations made at the same site

Reid, I. M.

11

Engaging consumers in safety and quality at Royal Adelaide hospital.  

PubMed

Objective? The objective of this study was to elicit barriers and enablers of safe, high-quality care as identified by consumers, and to position consumers as 'possessors' of valuable knowledge related to systems and practices (as they had experienced these directly) rather than the receivers of knowledge and information. The central aim was to develop recommendations for consumer input into quality improvement, generated from the analysis of narrative accounts of their experiences. Methods? The four-phase methodology adopted for this project involved the development of quality improvement strategies as identified (phase one) and validated (phase two) by consumers through the conduct of discovery interviews with 30 consumers over the age of 18?years who had experienced an adverse event. Clinicians and quality managers were then provided with an opportunity to validate the strategies identified through participation in a focus group (phase three). All data collected through discovery interviews and focus groups were transcribed and entered into the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Manager for analysis. The final phase of the study involved integrating this process of consumer involvement and of identified improvement strategies into the quality improvement program of Royal Adelaide Hospital. Results? A total of 28 findings were entered into the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Manager for analysis. The process of meta-synthesis embodied in these programs involves the aggregation or synthesis of findings or conclusions. Six categories and four syntheses were derived through this process with key themes relating to assessment and prevention strategies, a necessity for improved education and communication, the hospital environment and the potential life impact that the experience of an adverse event may have. Conclusion? Consumers identified a number of strategies that could contribute to improved safety and clinical outcomes in hospital and a reduction in adverse events. This current study provides a solid foundation upon which future research may be conducted. PMID:21631817

Long, Leslye; Pearson, Alan; Page, Tamara; Jordan, Zoe

2008-03-01

12

University of South Australia Adelaide, Australia  

E-print Network

Estimating Engineering Development Economics Civil and Commercial Construction Analysis Construction and Social Sciences Health Sciences Business Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment Sustainable Built Environments Structures Contract Administration Building Surveying Science Building

Duchowski, Andrew T.

13

Nurses' Health Study (1976-)  

Cancer.gov

Additional Information The Nurses' Health Study was launched in 1976, when 121,700 registered nurses, aged 30-55 years, responded to a mailed questionnaire regarding their health and lifestyle. Women continue to be followed via questionnaires every 2 years. Incident cases of cancer and selected other diagnoses are documented by reviewing medical records.

14

NYU Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s Health Study has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.

15

Women's Health Study (WHS)  

Cancer.gov

The Women's Health Study (WHS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a 2x2 factorial design, and conducted among 39,876 female health professionals in the United States. The WHS is sponsored by both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Participants were randomly assigned to either Vitamin E (600 IU every other day) or placebo; and to aspirin (100 mg every other day) or placebo.

16

Ontario Health Study (OHS)  

Cancer.gov

Launched in September 2010, the Ontario Health Study (OHS) is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The OHS is an integrated platform for investigating the complex interplay of environmental, lifestyle and genetic components that increase individual and community risk of common adult diseases.

17

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

18

FACULTY of HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF HEALTH STUDIES  

E-print Network

FACULTY of HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF HEALTH STUDIES The Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Health Studies at Western University invites applications for: 1-YEAR FULL-TIME LIMITED TERM FACULTY health sciences centre. The School of Health Studies (www.uwo.ca/fhs/health_studies/index.html) is one

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

19

Sport Studies (Exercise and Health)  

E-print Network

BSc (Hons) Sport Studies (Exercise and Health) DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Sports Studies (Exercise and Health) Introduction Degree Aims and Outcomes General Enquiries General, sport and exercise acquire increasing importance as foundations for health. The consequence of prolonged

Levi, Ran

20

Udaipur Health Study  

E-print Network

This data set contains data on the health histories of, and access to healthcare facilities for, individuals located in the Udaipur districts of Rajasthan, India. Data was collected at the household level, as well as at ...

Abhijit Banerjee

2007-10-05

21

Adventist Health Study-2  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

22

Iowa Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

23

HEALTH STUDIES www. pdx.edu/sch  

E-print Network

HEALTH STUDIES www. pdx.edu/sch Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Science in Health Studies Bachelor of Arts in Health Studies Minor in Community Health Areas of Concentration: Community Health Education Health Sciences Physical Activity/Exercise School Health " e programs in the School

24

Graduate Studies Health Sciences Center  

E-print Network

Floor · Seminar rooms 1-18 · Cafeteria · Community and Minority Health Education Office · AtriumSchool of Graduate Studies STUDENT HANDBOOK LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans The School of Graduate Studies website is located at http://graduatestudies.lsuhsc.edu/ Last update: 8/14 #12;Page 1

25

THE LUNG HEALTH STUDY (LHS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Lung Health Study I, to determine the effects of Special Care, compared to Usual Care, on rate of decline in pulmonary function in a group of cigarette smokers identified as having mild abnormalities in pulmonary function. Lung Health Study III is to determine the long-term effec...

26

EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The El Paso Childrens Health Study consisted of two waves of exposure monitoring, respiratory health questionnaires, and lung function examinations. The exposure assessment began with a pilot study using passive samplers for nitrogen dioxide in February, 1999 and was followed b...

27

HEALTH AND RETIREMENT STUDY (HRS)  

EPA Science Inventory

HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning....

28

XXII ICTAM, 2529 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia DRAG ON A SHIP AND MICHELL'S INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

XXII ICTAM, 25­29 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia DRAG ON A SHIP AND MICHELL'S INTEGRAL Ernie Tuck resistance of thin ships. We show that when combined with the standard ITTC technique for estimation by first-order thin-ship [i.e. Michell] theory are rather consistent in comparison with experimental data

Stokes, Yvonne

29

Student Experiences of Assessment in Two Problem-Based Dental Curricula: Adelaide and Dublin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental students in third (n=35) and fifth years (n=50) at Adelaide and Trinity College Dental Schools were surveyed about their experiences of assessment and their perceptions of the importance of particular aspects of assessment. Students reported on their assessment experience within their programmes by describing a critical assessment incident…

Winning, Tracey; Lim, Elaine; Townsend, Grant

2005-01-01

30

3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. Efficient 3-D Electromagnetic Modeling in the Presence of  

E-print Network

3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. Efficient 3-D Electromagnetic Modeling in the Presence@uts.cc.utexas.edu INTRODUCTION The advent of a commercial electromagnetic (EM) multi- component borehole logging tool petrophysical interpretation of induction logging tool responses and to date remains an open challenge (Moran

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

31

IN : MAM4, 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MATRIX ANALYTIC METHODS. THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. ADELAIDE,  

E-print Network

of the total reward accrued during [0, t) in a finite continuous-parameter Markov chain. During so- journs, and the total contin- uous reward R(t) over an interval [0, t) is given by R(t) = t 0 aJ(u)du. In the context. ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA, JULY 2002. DISTRIBUTIONS OF REWARD FUNCTIONS ON CONTINUOUS-TIME MARKOV CHAINS MOGENS

Sericola, Bruno

32

The Stabilizer of the Adelaide Oval Stanley E. Payne and Joseph A. Thas  

E-print Network

The Stabilizer of the Adelaide Oval Stanley E. Payne and Joseph A. Thas Department of Mathematics E. Payne and Joseph A. Thas). URL: http://www-math.cudenver.edu/#24;spayne & http://www.cage.rug.ac.be/#24;jat (Stanley E. Payne and Joseph A. Thas). Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science 27 March 2003

Payne, Stanley E.

33

Exploration of the perceptions, barriers and drivers of pharmacogenomics practice among hospital pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia.  

PubMed

There is little literature regarding the barriers to the uptake of pharmacogenomics (PG) in pharmacy practice, especially with respect to Australia. To date, pharmacists have seldom been engaged in discussions of these issues. This study aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding of these barriers by interviewing pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia. Ethics approved semistructured interviews were carried out with 21 public hospital pharmacists. Analysis of the data identified themes including: confidence to engage in PG, clinician acceptance of a pharmacist PG role, and the importance of timely and relevant PG education. Interviewees thought that pharmacists could have a greater participation in PG in the future, but they questioned whether this would be possible at the moment given, among other factors, existing time and work constraints. PMID:24018620

Dias, M M; Ward, H M; Sorich, M J; McKinnon, R A

2014-06-01

34

Singapore Chinese Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.

35

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

36

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

37

school of nursing and health studies  

E-print Network

school of nursing and health studies lead gloBallY first Year entry rn-to-Bsn (Bachelor of science studies #12;school of nursing and health studies The University of Washington Bothell opens the door their studies. WhY Pursue Your health career at uW Bothell? aBout the school of nursing and health studies #12

Manchak, John

38

The mental health treatment study.  

PubMed

Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with primary psychiatric impairments comprise the largest, fastest growing, and most costly population in the SSDI program. The Mental Health Treatment Study provides a comprehensive test of the hypothesis that access to evidence-based employment services and behavioral health treatments, along with insurance coverage, can enable SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments to return to competitive employment. It will also examine which beneficiaries choose to enter an employment study under such conditions. Currently in the field in 22 cities across the U.S., the MHTS aims to recruit 3,000 SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments into a randomized controlled trial. This paper describes the MHTS, its background, and its process and outcome assessments. PMID:18407880

Frey, William D; Azrin, Susan T; Goldman, Howard H; Kalasunas, Susan; Salkever, David S; Miller, Alexander L; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E

2008-01-01

39

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2014-10-01

40

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2013-10-01

41

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2010-10-01

42

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2011-10-01

43

42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

44

A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

2003-01-01

45

ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

46

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2012-10-01

47

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

48

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

49

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2011-10-01

50

42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2014-10-01

51

Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

Morris, Libby V.

52

Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY  

E-print Network

162 #12;Form A Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY CENTERS FOR DISEASE Service is conducting a nationwide health study of Vietnam-era Army veterans that was mandated by Congress health prob.=ms evident at birth in my child. The promise of complete confidentiality is contained

53

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Food Studies, B.S.; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B.S.; Addiction Studies

Raina, Ramesh

54

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Studies and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Raina, Ramesh

55

Establishing a new university department of rural health: the first 2 years of the South Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Health.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the establishment of a new University Department of Rural Health (UDRH) in South Australia and to report early achievements. In May 1997, the UDRH was established, key staff were recruited, infrastructure was developed and in April 1998 a Joint University Committee on Rural and Remote Health was formed. By mid-1999, 14 full-time equivalent staff were employed in Whyalla and Adelaide. Early achievements include: review of undergraduate rural placements; increased rural clinical placements by 1000 student-weeks; partnership with the Dental School resulting in training opportunities and falling public waiting lists; multidisciplinary teaching practices in four rural sites; priority public health projects established; competitive research grants won; and a capital grant to strengthen Aboriginal health services infrastructure secured. These early achievements demonstrate UDRH potential to have a real impact on health worker education, service delivery, and public health status in rural and remote areas. This strong foundation must now be built on. PMID:10732512

Wilkinson, D; Blue, I; Symon, B; Fuller, J; Smith, M

1999-11-01

56

Mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in Adelaide, South Australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in Adelaide, South Australia. Mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. A total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. Aedes notoscriptus, Ae. vigilax, and Culex molestus were all more abundant in lower traps while Cx. quinquefasciatus (an ornithophilic species) was found to be more abundant in high traps. Distance to city center correlated strongly with the abundance of Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Cx. globocoxitus, and Cx. molestus, all of which were most common at the sites farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. Overall, the important disease vectors in South Australia (Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Ae. notoscriptus, and Cx. annulirostris) were more abundant in low traps farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. The current mosquito surveillance practice of setting traps within two meters of the ground is effective for sampling populations of the important disease vector species in South Australia. PMID:24820555

Johnston, Emily; Weinstein, Phillip; Slaney, David; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen; Williams, Craig

2014-06-01

57

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Mather, Patrick T.

58

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B.S., and; Addiction

Raina, Ramesh

59

Land subsidence and sea level rise in the Port Adelaide estuary: Implications for monitoring the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic tide gauge records from Port Adelaide and Outer Harbour are one of the more important datasets from the Australian region purporting to show a significant rate of local sea level rise. However, geological evidence including radiocarbon dated palaeosea level indicators, indicates that most of this rise is due to subsidence of the land. The subsidence is significant but

A. P. Belperio

1993-01-01

60

Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on dentofacial structures and oral health: ongoing studies of Australian twins and their families.  

PubMed

The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health. PMID:23394189

Hughes, Toby; Bockmann, Michelle; Mihailidis, Suzanna; Bennett, Corinna; Harris, Abbe; Seow, W Kim; Lekkas, Dimitra; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Rupinskas, Loreta; Pinkerton, Sandra; Brook, Alan; Smith, Richard; Townsend, Grant C

2013-02-01

61

Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

Eldredge, Jonathan

2002-01-01

62

Case Studies in Primary Health Care  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one learn about primary health care? Some might attend public health schools while others will find different ways to explore this fascinating field on their own. One particularly nice resource on the subject is this course from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Offered as part of the Open Course Ware initiative, the course was first developed in the fall of 2011 and was co-taught by Henry Taylor and Henry Perry. It was designed to introduce students to "the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries." The materials here include the syllabus, lecture materials, readings, and assignments. Within the Lecture Materials section visitors can watch or listen to conversions on the roots of community-based primary health care and women's empowerment via public health. Additionally, visitors can look over the course assignments or check out some of the discussion questions.

Perry, Henry

2011-01-01

63

HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

64

Soft-sediment deformation structures from the Marinoan glacial succession, Adelaide foldbelt: implications for the palaeoaltitude of late Neoproterozoic glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of soft-sediment deformation structures occurs in tidal rhythmites of fine sand to silt grade in the late Neoproterozoic (˜600 Ma) Elatina Formation, which is part of the Marinoan glaciogenic succession in the Adelaide foldbelt, South Australia. The structures include: (1) sets of asymmetrical cuspate ridges (? = 13-50 cm, h = 3-5 cm) formed on bed surfaces and underlain by folds affecting as much as 60 cm thickness of strata; (2) symmetrical and interference ripple forms (? = 3-15 cm, h = ?1.5 cm) mostly confined to the troughs between the cuspate ridges and which are underlain by folds, involving up to 20 cm thickness of strata, that commonly parallel the undulations of the bed surface but in places have steepened limbs; (3) rill marks on the flanks of cuspate ridges and some ripple forms. The crests of the cuspate ridges and ripple forms commonly were draped and locally eroded and truncated during overall vertical accretion. The cuspate structures are interpreted as gravity slide deposits that formed after transformation of surficial sediment to a hydroplastic state, possibly by the cyclic stresses generated by storm waves, and its sliding on tidal-delta slopes. The ripple forms resulted from continuing wave activity and were maintained by draping and vertical accretion from unidirectional currents and locally by deposition of supercritical cross-lamination. The further deformation of the cuspate folds, as revealed by palaeomagnetic analyses of the structures, implies additional sliding and/or the differential loading of hydroplastic sediment in the troughs between the cuspate ridges. This study confirms that positive palaeomagnetic fold-tests on several cuspate folds indicate a primary origin for the shallow palaeomagnetic inclination (-5.3°) of the Elatina Formation and hence the equatorial palaeolatitude of late Neoproterozoic glaciation in South Australia.

Williams, George E.

1996-11-01

65

Changes in use of time, activity patterns, and health and wellbeing across retirement: design and methods of the life after work study  

PubMed Central

Background Retirement is a major life transition during which people restructure everyday activities; however little is known about this. The primary aim of the Life After Work study is to comprehensively measure changes in time use and patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and its associations with health and wellbeing, across the retirement transition. Methods/Design A target sample of 120 participants aged 50 years and over will be recruited in two Australian state capital cities, Adelaide and Brisbane. Participants will undertake a battery of assessments approximately 3 months prior to retirement, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-retirement. Measures will include self-reported use of time (using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults), objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour (using Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers), self-reported health and well-being (using a battery of questionnaires including the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Australian Unity Personal Well-being Index (AUPWI), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS21), Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), retirement circumstances and socio-demographic characteristics, objectively assessed anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), and resting blood pressure. Multivariate mixed models will be used to examine changes in use of time, health and well-being across retirement. Discussion The results will provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle and policy interventions to address and improve health and well-being in retirement. PMID:24112244

2013-01-01

66

Posttraumatic stress disorder and health: a preliminary study of group differences in health and health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful health behaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthful behaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and health behaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross-sectional, case–control study of health indicators and self-reported health behaviors in a community and military veteran sample was used. Results Based on a structured psychiatric interview, 25 participants had PTSD, and the remaining 55 without PTSD served as the comparison group. Participants were 40 years old on average and 45% were female. Multivariate analysis of variance analyses revealed that participants with PTSD had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.004), had more alcohol use (p = 0.007), and reported fewer minutes of vigorous exercise (p = 0.020) than those without PTSD. Chi-square analysis of diet content and eating behavior constructs found that individuals with PTSD ate fewer fruits (p = 0.035) and had more guilt after overeating (p = 0.006). Conclusions These findings replicate prior research on the link between PTSD and negative health outcomes and engagement in harmful health behaviors and highlight the need for further examination of the association between PTSD and other health behaviors like diet content, eating behaviors, and exercise. PMID:24070007

2013-01-01

67

Mental Health Woes Common Among Homeless Kids, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Mental Health Woes Common Among Homeless Kids, Study Finds Exposure to poverty, violence and ... 19, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Mental Health Homeless Health Concerns THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

68

Screening of ornamental plants from the Botanic Gardens of Melbourne and Adelaide for the occurrence of Erwinia amylovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host plants of Erwinia amylovora in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Melbourne (RBGM) and the Adelaide Botanic Gardens (ABG) were inspected for symptoms of fire\\u000a blight including dieback, and shoot and stem cankers. Forty five symptomatic plants were sampled and concurrently tested for\\u000a the presence of E. amylovora at the Institute for Horticultural Development, Victoria; Macquarie University, New South Wales;

S. JockA; B. RodoniB; M. Gillingsc; W.-S. Kim; C. Copes; P. Merriman; K. Geider

2000-01-01

69

Biomass and biodiversity of nocturnal aerial insects in an Adelaide City park and implications for bats (Microchiroptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal variation of insect communities in urban environments is poorly known and mechanisms driving these changes are unclear,\\u000a as are the implications for insectivorous predators. We examined the relationships between season and nocturnal aerial insect\\u000a biomass and biodiversity, and between temperature and insect biomass in the Adelaide zoological gardens from December 2005\\u000a to September 2006. We also compared the effectiveness

Annette T. Scanlon; Sophie Petit

2008-01-01

70

Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study  

PubMed Central

Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

2013-01-01

71

Experiences of developed management in the Cardiovascular Service at Royal Adelaide Hospital.  

PubMed

Devolved management structures are on trial at Royal Adelaide Hospital with assistance from the Clinical Devolution Project. The trial is to assess the suitability of devolved management structures to support clinical decision making, and to evaluate financial management reporting systems and information support systems. A nurse at Assistant Director of Nursing level and a doctor head each of the three trial Clinical services. Both have equal responsibilities and delegations of authority for day to day operations utilising an allocated budget. The impact of devolution of responsibility to clinical units is considerable. Such reorganisation presents opportunities and difficulties. Nurse/doctor collaboration is essential to manage high patient throughout effectively and efficiently as well as to prepare for the impact of casemix and output based funding. Clinical department size, budget allocation, roles and organisational infrastructure affect the success or failure of devolved management structures, even if a service works within an allocated budget and achieves high patent throughput and decreasing length of patient stay. PMID:1478756

Terrier, E

1992-01-01

72

Analysis of breastfeeding policies and practices in childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219

Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen

2012-08-01

73

Mechanisms of sandstone deposition in a late Proterozoic submarine canyon, Adelaide geosyncline, South Australia  

SciTech Connect

Late Proterozoic submarine canyon fills the Adelaide Supergroup (Flinders Range, South Australia) are asymmetrical in terms of their facies. Coarse breccia units, commonly associated with coarse-grained channelized turbidite sandstone units, generally occur adjacent to north walls of all the east-west-trending canyon incisions. In contrast, fine-grained sandstones and mudstones within the canyon fill are generally associated with south walls. In one canyon (Patsy-Springs canyon), an additional element of asymmetry is associated with the prevalence of northward-climbing sets of climbing ripples (southward-dipping stoss sides) within channelized turbidites, in what are interpreted to be major thalweg channels and their associated levees. Flute casts at the bases of individual turbidite sandstones invariably indicate initial turbidity current flow to the west throughout the vertical sequences of the channel fills. Parallel laminations above the flute casts in each flow pass upward into climbing ripples with south-dipping stoss sides, implying southward lateral accretion across the channel of a levee or bar as each turbidity current decelerated. The asymmetries outlined could be explained by: Coriolis force acting on the turbidity currents, or the existence on a steep slope of a meandering canyon gorge, confining a thalweg channel developed within subsequent canyon fill. In such a situation, roller-coastering turbidity currents would seek outer bends of the meandering primary gorge.

von der Borch, C.C.; Grady, A.E.

1984-06-01

74

The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P?

2013-01-01

75

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

or BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ENVHLTH/HLTHST 102 Global Environmental Health HLTHST 304 Public HealthBachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

76

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

or BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ENVHLTH/HLTHST 102 Global Environmental Health HLTHST 304 Public HealthBachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

77

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Business Communication ENVHLTH/HLTHST 102 Global Environmental Health HLTHST 304 Public Health HLTHST 360Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Policy and Leadership Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 4 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology 3 HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems 3 HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

78

Comparative studies of health care systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the dynamics of hierarchical medical pluralism through a comparative analysis of the health care systems in three Chinese societies (the China mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong). It is argued that the hierarchical relationships among medical traditions within a national society should be studied in terms of structural superiority (power, prestige and wealth) and functional strength (distribution and

Rance P. L. Lee

1982-01-01

79

A Study of Occupational Stress and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of claims by telegraphists' unions in a large Australian communications organization that their members suffered various forms of ill-health as a result of stresses imposed by their work, sickness absence, medical and environmental studies of the occupation were undertaken. Records of absence over a period of 2.5 years in all telegraphists in the organization, and in random samples of

D. FERGUSON

1973-01-01

80

Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health is to investigate the relationship between diet, lifestyle factors, molecular markers, and cancer incidence in Canada. The cohort was established predominantly by recruiting alumni from the Universities of Alberta, Toronto, and Western Ontario between 1995 and 1998, but also includes a small contingent recruited mostly in 1992 through the Canadian Cancer Society.

81

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

82

Case Studies in Primary Health Care  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johns Hopkins University's Bloomberg School of Public Health has participated in the OpenCourseWare program for a number of years, and this course is one of their most recent offerings. Created by Henry Taylor and Henry Perry, these course materials introduce "students to the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries." On this course site, visitors can read through the syllabus, examine the course schedule, and look over the lecture materials. In the lecture materials area, visitors will find lecture slides and their corresponding audio files. Some of the topics covered here include the roots of community-based primary health care and women's empowerment in Afghanistan. Finally, visitors can check out some of the course readings, which are offered in the pdf format.

Perry, Henry

2011-01-01

83

Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual temperature is - 3 °C. Permafrost thickness was calculated to range between 112 and 157 m, depending on the heat flow values adopted. The presence of sub-sea permafrost cannot be excluded considering the depth of the shelf around Rothera Point and its glacial history.

Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

2014-11-01

84

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

85

NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The NIH-AARP (formally known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study was initiated to investigate relations among diet, lifestyle, and cancer. In 1995 and 1996, the study recruited more than 560,000 AARP members, aged 50 to 71 years, who resided in one of six states (California, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Louisiana) or in two metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia, and Detroit, Michigan). The baseline questionnaire collected information on diet and some lifestyle factors.

86

The oral health of older adults with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dementia has become a key issue in aged care. It is estimated that 167,000 Australians had dementia in 2002, leading to dementia being a major cause of disease burden. This publication reports on an investigation of the oral health status of community-dwelling older dentate adults in Adelaide, South Australia with and without dementia. Older adults with dementia had higher levels

JM Chalmers; KD Carter; AJ Spencer

87

The Health, Eating, Activity, & Lifestyle (HEAL) Study  

Cancer.gov

The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study began in 1996. It enrolled approximately 1,200 women with early stage breast cancer and has completed 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up. Follow-up has been both active (at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years for recurrences and updates of exposure variables) and passive (yearly through the respective SEER registries for vital status and second primaries).

88

Trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water: a human exposure trial in Adelaide, Australia.  

PubMed Central

We addressed the need for a biomarker of ingestion exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products by performing a human exposure trial. We evaluated urinary excretion of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) as an exposure biomarker using 10 volunteers who normally consume their domestic tap water. We recruited the volunteers at a water quality research laboratory in Adelaide, Australia. Participants maintained a detailed consumption and exposure diary over the 5-week study. We also analyzed tap water and first morning urine (FMU) samples for TCAA, and tap water for chloral hydrate (CH). We documented both interindividual and intraindividual variability in TCAA ingestion and urinary excretion, and both were substantial. With a TCAA-free bottled water intervention, we used creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA levels to estimate urinary TCAA excretion half-lives for three of the participants. We observed correspondence over time between estimated TCAA excretion, calculated from TCAA + CH ingestion levels, and measured TCAA urinary excretion. This study demonstrates the merits and feasibility of using TCAA in FMU as an exposure biomarker, and reveals remaining concerns about possible alternate sources of TCAA exposure for individuals with low drinking water ingestion exposure. PMID:12117645

Froese, Kenneth L; Sinclair, Martha I; Hrudey, Steve E

2002-01-01

89

Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness

Katarina Hjelm; Esther Mufunda

2010-01-01

90

Comparative case studies of health reform in England  

E-print Network

Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health.......................................................................................................25 2.2.1 A profile of the six case study sites........................................................28 2.2.2 Case study characteristics

Birmingham, University of

91

Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);

Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young

2005-01-01

92

“Defense Health Information System as a case study for national health IT”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Forum on the Future of Defense Health Information Systems (National Forum) held in Washington, DC in March 2008 provided a unique opportunity to conduct a case study of developing a large complex health information system. The concept of the health information system has evolved from the days to electronic hospital information system (HIS) to longitudinal health record (LHR)

Seong Ki Mun

2009-01-01

93

Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level school health services policies and practices regarding: organization, staffing, and facilities; required services; school based health clinics and other sites; immunizations; screening; medication administration; HIV; student health records; special…

Brener, Nancy D.; Burstein, Gale R.; DuShaw, Martha L.; Vernon, Mary E.; Wheeler, Lani; Robinson, Judy

2001-01-01

94

Official Master's of Public Health Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health ­ Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form Student enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES ­ 18 credits Dept Course # Course Title Cr Hrs Sem/Yr Taken Grade PUBH 5520G INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH 2

Hutcheon, James M.

95

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

3 Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of MacroeconomicsBachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

96

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

3 Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of MacroeconomicsBachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2014-2015 Name ID# Date BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

97

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

Public Health Emphasis BUSCOM 201 Business Communication ECON 201 Principles of Macroeconomics ECON 202Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Public Health Emphasis, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date BIOL 192 or BIOL 228 4 HLTHST 101 Medical Terminology 3 HLTHST 202 Health Delivery Systems 3 HLTHST 215

Barrash, Warren

98

Official Master's of Public Health Environmental Health Science Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

ENVH 7235 FIELD METHODS IN EVNIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 ENVH 7237 RISK ASSESSMENT AND COMMUNICATION 3Official Master's of Public Health ­ Environmental Health Science Program of Study Form enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES ­ 18 credits Dept

Hutcheon, James M.

99

Adolescents' health identities: A qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.  

PubMed

In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents - using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents - not just for those who are already healthy. PMID:25226448

Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

2014-11-01

100

Women's Political Participation and Health: A Health Capability Study in Rural India.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency?-?participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems?-?relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators. PMID:25480855

Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2014-12-01

101

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Asthma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief contains information on asthma relative to health education, physical education and activity, and health services. Included is data on the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

102

A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1) facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2) the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1) factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2) the need for social support; (3) pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4) access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population. PMID:24895667

Graham, Candida; de Leeuw, Sarah; Griffiths, Brenda

2014-01-01

103

Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

2014-10-15

104

Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion.  

E-print Network

??Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling… (more)

Mahmud, Amina; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara

2013-01-01

105

Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

Smith, David J.

2005-01-01

106

Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (USA))

1989-01-01

107

Department of Health and Behavior Studies Teachers College  

E-print Network

HBS Department of Health and Behavior Studies Teachers College Columbia University Annual End of Health and Behavior Studies (HBS) was established as a result of a college- wide reorganization unit whose collective philosophical position has been that health and learning are inextricably linked

Qian, Ning

108

Poor Sperm Quality May Signal Health Issues, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poor Sperm Quality May Signal Health Issues, Study Finds Medical conditions ... cause these problems. It's more likely that semen quality reflects overall health, the researchers said. "It may ...

109

Another Study Links Mediterranean Diet to Better Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Another Study Links Mediterranean Diet to Better Heart Health Healthy eating may ... TUESDAY, Oct. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Following the Mediterranean diet may help reverse a condition known as ...

110

Official Master's of Public Health Biostatistics Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health Biostatistics Program of Study Form Student Name PUBH 6541 BIOSTATISTICS 4 PUBH 6532 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 PUBH 6533 EPIDEMIOLOGY 3 REQUIRED PROGRAM CONCENTRATION COURSES ­ 18 credits BIOS 6135 TOPICS OF INFERENCE IN BIOSTATISTICS 3

Hutcheon, James M.

111

HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

112

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial

Barrash, Warren

113

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial

Barrash, Warren

114

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis and Humanities 3-4 DLS Social Sciences course in a first field 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT

Barrash, Warren

115

Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

2014-01-01

116

Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The specific health services provided to students at school and the model for delivering these services vary across districts and schools. This article describes the characteristics of school health services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS)

Nancy D. Brener; Gale R. Burstein; Martha L. DuShaw; Mary Vernon-Smiley; Linda Caldart-Olson; Judy Robinson

2001-01-01

117

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2014-10-01

118

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2012-10-01

119

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2010-10-01

120

42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

2011-10-01

121

Lightcurves and Derived Rotation Periods for 18 Melpomene, 234 Barbara 236 Honoria, 520 Franziska, and 525 Adelaide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From new lightcurves obtained near their 2014 oppositions rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 18 Melpomene 11.571 ± 0.002 hours, 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 234 Barbara 26.473 ± 0.002 hours, amplitude 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 236 Honoria 12.336 ± 0.001 hours, 0.23 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 520 Franziska 16.507 ± 0.001 hours, 0.35 ± 0.02 magnitudes; and 525 Adelaide 19.967 ± 0.001 hours, amplitude 0.35 ± 0.03 magnitudes near celestial longitude 180 degrees and 0.02 ± 0.01 magnitudes at celestial longitude 57 degrees, latitude -4 degrees. The amplitude - aspect method strongly suggests the latter position lies within a few degrees of one of the two rotational poles.

Pilcher, Frederick

2014-07-01

122

Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. PMID:24962364

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

2014-01-01

123

Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food  

PubMed Central

Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

2013-01-01

124

Young farmers' photographic mental health promotion programme: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary objective: This project sought to document and describe a public health programme targeting young farmers from hill farming communities in England. Farmers are known to experience physical and mental health inequalities and have a higher mortality rate from suicide than the general population.Research design: Using a case study methodology and guided by Friere's empowerment model of health promotion, the

Linda Syson-Nibbs; Andrew Robinson; Julia Cook; Ingrid King

2009-01-01

125

HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES COUNTRY CASE STUDY: NORTHERN UGANDA  

E-print Network

HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES COUNTRY CASE STUDY: NORTHERN UGANDA JUNE 2006 This publication of the BASICS project by Elizabeth Rowley, Robin Altaras, and Kirk Huff. #12;#12;HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES Government. #12;Recommended Citation Rowley, Elizabeth, Robin Altaras and Kirk Huff. 2006. Health in Fragile

Scharfstein, Daniel

126

Official Master's of Public Health Epidemiology Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health ­ Epidemiology Program of Study Form Student Name enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES ­ 18 credits Dept Course # Course Title Cr Hrs Sem/Yr Taken Grade PUBH 5520G INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH 2

Hutcheon, James M.

127

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health  

E-print Network

www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health & Management Master of Science/Postgraduate Diploma MSc/PgDip #12;The programme begins with cross-disciplinary Public Health Research training (Applied Statistics, Epidemiology, Qualitative Methods, Health Services Research and Systematic Reviewing) followed by courses

Levi, Ran

128

A Follow-Up Study of Former Student Health Advocates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student health advocates (SHAs) are high school students who, under the supervision of the school nurse, provide health education and health promotion activities to other students via a peer education model. This 3-year follow-up study explored how the SHA experience influences career choice and attitudes of the participants. It also examined what…

Streng, Nancy J.

2007-01-01

129

Roadmap: Communication Studies Health Communication Bachelor of Arts  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Communication Studies ­ Health Communication ­ Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College if COMM 26000 was chosen in semester 3 Semester Five: [15 Credit Hours] COMM 36501 Communication in Health Care or COMM 36505 Communication, Aging and Culture or COMM 46503 Health Communication and Media

Sheridan, Scott

130

Roadmap: Communication Studies Health Communication Bachelor of Arts  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Communication Studies ­ Health Communication ­ Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College Requirement 3 Semester Three: [15 Credit Hours] COMM 26501 Introduction to Health Communication 3 COMM 26000 in semester 3 Semester Five: [15 Credit Hours] COMM 36501 Communication in Health Care or COMM 36505

Sheridan, Scott

131

Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study  

PubMed Central

Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in terms of relative importance. PMID:24093348

Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

2013-01-01

132

Ombudsmen in health care: case study of a municipal health ombudsman  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the role of a Municipal Health Ombudsman and its contribution to the public health management from the perspective of the public health system users and the municipal health counselors. METHODS Qualitative research approach using the case study, descriptive and transversal methods. The unit of analysis was a Municipal Health Ombudsman, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, between May and August 2010. The study was observational in nature and data were collected through interviews with two groups of stakeholders: users and municipal health counselors. We interviewed 44 Brazilian Unified Health System users who had made direct use of the Municipal Health Ombudsman and all 20 municipal health counselors. The data obtained were analyzed based on three issues: (1) nature of the data obtained; (2) discussion of subsidies to qualify the ombudsman’s functioning as a management tool; (3) proposals for actions to improve democratic management in the area of public health. RESULTS The complaints to the ombudsman denoted difficulties in access to health care services running the risk of their being perceived as shortcuts to gaining accessibility, disregarding the principle of social justice. The role of the ombudsman has the citizens’ approval. Users reported the following main functions of the ombudsman: to support the resolution of health problems, to listen and to clarify issues regarding Brazilian Unified Health System operations and procedures. Information was emphasized by health counselors as an instrument of power and access to the rights of Brazilian Unified Health System users. They highlighted that the ombudsman has the role of ensuring justice to foster an effective health policy, besides playing an important mediating role between the board of the municipal health system, its managers and citizens. Furthermore, the ombudsman was shown to have an execution role that transcends its regular functions. CONCLUSIONS The study found that the ombudsman is a key management tool in monitoring the health care system. Therefore, the establishment of the ombudsman is an advance in the field of democratic management. Nevertheless, there are challenges to be overcome in order to improve ombudsman contribution to the execution of health policies and representing citizens in ensuring their rights to health care. PMID:24789646

da Silva, Rita de Cássia Costa; Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Zucchi, Paola

2014-01-01

133

Telecourse Study Guide to "Here's to Your Health."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was prepared to accompany "Here's to Your Health," a telecourse focusing on lifestyle factors influencing health, which was designed to provide the tools necessary for achieving and maintaining an optimal, healthy lifestyle. For each of 27 lessons, the study guide presents learning objectives, an overview of content, study

Richards, Donna

134

A descriptive study on health workforce performance after decentralisation of health services in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Uganda, like many developing countries, is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However, serious challenges prove to hamper the attainment of these goals, particularly the health related MDGs. A major challenge relates to the human resources for health. The health system in Uganda was decentralised in the 1990s. Despite the health sector reforms, the services have remained significantly deficient and performance of health workers is thought to be one of the contributing factors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the performance of health workers after decentralisation of the health services in Uganda in order to identify and suggest possible areas for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey, using quantitative research methods was utilised. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 276 health workers in the districts of Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo in Eastern Uganda. The health workers included doctors, clinical officers, professional nurses and midwives. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. The data was analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and included both univariate and bivariate analysis. The results were presented in tabular and text forms. Results The study revealed that even though the health workers are generally responsive to the needs of their clients, the services they provide are often not timely. The health workers take initiatives to ensure that they are available for work, although low staffing levels undermine these efforts. While the study shows that the health workers are productive, over half (50.4%) of them reported that their organisations do not have indicators to measure their individual performance. The findings indicate that the health workers are skilled and competent to perform their duties. In general, the results show that health workers are proficient, adaptive, proactive and client-oriented. Conclusion Although Uganda is faced with a number of challenges as regards human resources for health, the findings show that the health workers that are currently working in the health facilities are enthusiastic to perform. This may serve as a motivator for the health workers to improve their performance and that of the health sector. PMID:23134673

2012-01-01

135

eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study  

PubMed Central

Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully. Additional formative and operational research is essential to explore the true potential of the technology. Frameworks for regulation in regards to eHealth governance should be the aim of future research on the integration of eHealth and mHealth into the Bangladesh health system. PMID:24934164

2014-01-01

136

Social support, social selection and self-assessed health status: results from the veterans health study in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided a comprehensive assessment of the association between social support and health using longitudinal data from the Veterans Health Study. Unlike previous studies which examined the relationship between one single domain of social support with either mental or physical health, the present study assessed the effects of three different domains of social support on multiple measures of health.

Xinhua S. Ren; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; Lewis Kazis

1999-01-01

137

NCSALL Health Literacy Study Circle+ Facilitators Training. Training Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training guide was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) to help connect research and practice in the field of adult education and family literacy. A Health and Adult Literacy and Learning (HALL)/NCSALL Health Literacy Study Circle+ is a professional development activity for adult basic education…

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2007

2007-01-01

138

ASSESSING EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...

139

Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environ- ment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Our understanding of the health effects associated with pesticide exposures is formed by contributions from toxicology, physiology, pharmacology, epidemiology, soci- ological studies, and the emerging area of \\

Linda A. McCauley; W. Kent Anger; Matthew Keifer; Rick Langley; Mark G. Robson; Diane Rohlman

2006-01-01

140

Health Status in VA Patients: Results from the Veterans Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Veterans Administration (VA) Under Secretary for Health has designated functional status as one of the domains of value for the system, given its increasing importance for clinical care. The Veterans Health Study (VHS) was designed to assist the VA in monitoring outcomes and measuring the case mix of patients who use the VA. The Veterans SF-36 (short form

Lewis E. Kazis; Xinhua S. Ren; Austin Lee; Katherine Skinner; William Rogers; Jack Clark; Donald R. Miller

1999-01-01

141

RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant? *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

142

Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

2014-01-01

143

PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

144

The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children. PMID:22029735

2011-01-01

145

The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. METHODS: Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area,

Katherine L Tucker; Josiemer Mattei; Sabrina E Noel; Bridgette M Collado; Jackie Mendez; Jason Nelson; John Griffith; Jose M Ordovas; Luis M Falcon

2010-01-01

146

Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study  

Cancer.gov

The VIP is a long-term project intended for health promotion of the population of the county of Västerbotten (approximately 254,000 inhabitants). All individuals 40, 50, and 60 years of age in the county are invited for screening. They are asked to complete a questionnaire concerning various lifestyle factors, including diet, and to donate a blood sample to be frozen for later research purposes.

147

Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health worker, training and time in post. Further research is needed to establish why these health worker attributes were associated with motivation and whether health system interventions targeting health workers, such as the current intervention, could influence health worker motivation. PMID:23433226

2013-01-01

148

Exploring nurses' confirmed expectations regarding health IT: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

Health information technology (IT) benefits both patients and providers with respect to health care quality and perceived usefulness. Although existing research provides a preliminary understanding of nurses' perception of health IT, perceptions do not guide actions. This phenomenological study explored nurses' perceptions regarding electronic health records and bar code medication administration four months post implementation on a medical-surgical unit in an academic medical center. Ten staff nurses (8 females and 2 males) participated. We categorized the results into five themes from personal-level to organizational-level confirmed expectations: (1) nurses' interaction with computer, (2) nursing performance regarding task accomplishment, (3) unit-specific teamwork, (4) interdisciplinary teamwork, and (5) quality of care. We discovered that effective health IT must be congruent with nursing expectations. IT professionals, nursing and organizational leaders may use findings to structure an environment supportive of effective health IT in nursing practice. PMID:24321515

Zadvinskis, Inga M; Chipps, Esther; Yen, Po-Yin

2014-02-01

149

Study of Engineering in Medicine and Health Care. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this summary volume reporting on several parallel studies is an application of technology to the problems of health care and the role of the university in responding to health care needs through biomedical engineering. A brief description of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is presented. A list of reports, issued by the…

National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on the Interplay of Engineering with Biology and Medicine.

150

Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

Mullan, Marie R.

151

Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

2013-01-01

152

Roadmap: Insurance Studies Life and Health Insurance Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Insurance Studies ­ Life and Health Insurance ­ Bachelor of Science [RE of Macroeconomics 3 Fulfills Kent Core Additional INS 29000 Introduction to Insurance and Risk 3 Semester Five: [15 Credit Hours] BMRT 21052 Professional Selling Techniques 3 INS 49010 Life and Health Insurance Law

Sheridan, Scott

153

Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

2011-01-01

154

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and

Tracey J. Woodruff; Jennifer D. Parker; Lyndsey A. Darrow; Rémy Slama; Michelle L. Bell; Hyunok Choi; Svetlana Glinianaia; Katherine J. Hoggatt; Catherine J. Karr; Danelle T. Lobdell; Michelle Wilhelm

2009-01-01

155

Pinnacle Health / Zynx Health / Siemens Medical Solutions A Study of Integration of Evidence Based Nursing Content  

PubMed Central

In 2005, Pinnacle Health System, Zynx Health, and Siemens Medical Solutions developed a partnership to conduct a study to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with the integration of evidence-based knowledge within the EHR with the goal of creating repeatable methodologies for integrating nursing knowledge within the EHR. The two-phase study involved access to referential evidence-based content, as well as integration of customized evidence-based plans of care within the documentation applications of the EHR.

Matter, Sheri; Brown, Cindy; Button, Patricia S.; Kennedy, Rosemary

2006-01-01

156

Health literacy, health empowerment and health information search in the field of MMR vaccination: a cross-sectional study protocol  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although public health offices have a detailed record of the vaccination coverage among adolescents in Switzerland, little is known about the factors that determine the decisions of parents to get their children vaccinated. Based on Schulz & Nakamoto's Extended Health Empowerment Model, the present study aims at surveying parents of adolescents in Ticino (Switzerland) to get insights into the role of health literacy, health empowerment, information search behaviour and potential confounding variables that influence whether adolescents are not at all vaccinated, undervaccinated or fully covered against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). Methods and analysis A survey including concepts of the Extended Health Empowerment Model will be administered to all families with adolescents attending the third year of middle school in Ticino. Subsequently, survey responses will be matched with actual data on MMR vaccination coverage of adolescents collected from the Cantonal Office of Public Health in Ticino. Discussion The results of this study will allow one to draw more comprehensive conclusions about the factors that play a role in parents’ decisions regarding the vaccination of their children. At the same time, the study will provide useful insights on which are the main issues to be considered when addressing parents (on an interpersonal as well as a mass communication level) regarding the vaccination of their children. PMID:23166139

Diviani, Nicola; Camerini, Anne-Linda; Reinholz, Danuta; Galfetti, Alessandra; Schulz, Peter J

2012-01-01

157

Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

2010-01-01

158

Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

Ochieng, Bertha

2012-01-01

159

A follow-up study of former student health advocates.  

PubMed

Student health advocates (SHAs) are high school students who, under the supervision of the school nurse, provide health education and health promotion activities to other students via a peer education model. This 3-year follow-up study explored how the SHA experience influences career choice and attitudes of the participants. It also examined what motivates students to become SHAs, the benefits and drawbacks of SHA participation, how SHA involvement influenced career plans, and how SHAs perceive the role of the school nurse. Study results indicate that this innovative health education/promotion experience offered an opportunity for SHAs to express their interest in health and enhanced their sense of belonging, meaningful involvement, connection to learning, and caring relationships in the school setting. PMID:18052522

Streng, Nancy J

2007-12-01

160

Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

2015-01-01

161

Mobile health evaluation methods: the Text4baby case study.  

PubMed

Mobile phones have been shown effective in several public health domains. However, there are few evaluations of the effectiveness of mobile health in health promotion. Also, although many studies have referenced behavioral theory, none appears to have explicitly tested theoretical assumptions or demonstrated mechanisms of change. More robust evaluation models that incorporate theory and measurement of behavioral mediators are needed. As in all public health programs, mobile health operates within a social ecological context. For example, organizational- and individual-level programs seek to influence health and health care practices and individual health behaviors. New programs such as Text4baby demonstrate how theory and explicit testing of mediators can be incorporated in evaluations. There are challenges and opportunities facing mHealth evaluations given the nature of the mobile channel. Mobile communication is ubiquitous, available at all times and places, and thus experimental control is often difficult. Natural experiments using variation in dosage of mHealth and place- or location-based designs may increase experimental control. Text4baby is a text messaging program that provides prenatal care messages to pregnant women and new mothers. It uses a partnership model with health care facilities often serving as local implementation partners. The authors review a case example of the evaluation of Text4baby at Madigan Army Medical Center. Participants were randomized to usual prenatal care plus text messaging or usual care alone. The evaluation has a theoretical model of behavior change and measures mediators as well as behavioral outcomes. Results will inform how behavioral theory works within mobile health programs. PMID:22548595

Evans, W Douglas; Abroms, Lorien C; Poropatich, Ronald; Nielsen, Peter E; Wallace, Jasmine L

2012-01-01

162

"Health, Aging and Environments" aims to bring together the resonant fields of health studies, gerontology, aging studies and other disciplines that focus on social studies of health, aging, and  

E-print Network

"Health, Aging and Environments" aims to bring together the resonant fields of health studies, gerontology, aging studies and other disciplines that focus on social studies of health, aging, and environments, in the broadest sense. Such disciplines include, but are not limited to, health and social

Haykin, Simon

163

Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Objectives: Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father’s educational level (P < 0.045), mother’s educational level (P < 0.021), and mother’s occupation (P < 0.008). Conclusions: Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial. PMID:25414892

Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

2014-01-01

164

Health-related quality of life and income-related social mobility in young adults  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the association of income-related social mobility between the age of 13 and 30 years on health-related quality of life among young adults. Methods In 1988-89 n?=?7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n?=?4,604 children (60.0%) and n?=?4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06 n?=?632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% of those traced and living in Adelaide). Results Multivariate regressions adjusting for sex, tooth brushing and smoking status at age 30 showed that compared to upwardly mobile persons social disadvantage was associated (p?health impact (Coeff?=?5.5), lower EQ-VAS health state (Coeff?=?-5.8), and worse satisfaction with life scores (Coeff?=?-3.5) at age 30 years, while downward mobility was also associated with lower satisfaction with life scores (Coeff?=?-1.3). Conclusions Stable income-related socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more oral health impact, and lower health state and life satisfaction, while being downwardly mobile was associated with lower life satisfaction at age 30 years. Persons who were upwardly mobile were similar in health outcomes to stable advantaged persons. PMID:24735954

2014-01-01

165

Pizza Takes a Slice Out of Kids' Health, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy pizza the norm," said study author Lisa Powell, a professor of health policy and administration at ... broad reach in terms of improving children's diets," Powell said. Pizza's popularity comes largely from being tasty ...

166

Mental health consumers and caregivers as instructors for health professional students: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported effect of consumer and caregiver-led education for pharmacy students\\u000a and to explore the goals, challenges and benefits of mental health consumer educators providing education to health professional\\u000a students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Five focus groups (mean duration 46 min, SD 22 min) were held with 23 participants (11 undergraduate pharmacy students, 12\\u000a mental health consumer educators)

Claire L. O’Reilly; J. Simon Bell; Timothy F. Chen

167

Hmong Adults Self-Rated Oral Health: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975, the Hmong refugee population in the U.S. has increased over 200%. However, little is known about their dental\\u000a needs or self-rated oral health (SROH). The study aims were to: (1) describe the SROH, self-rated general health (SRGH), and\\u000a use of dental\\/physician services; and (2) identify the factors associated with SROH among Hmong adults. A cross-sectional\\u000a study design with

Christopher Okunseri; Marcie Yang; Cesar Gonzalez; Warren LeMay; Anthony M. Iacopino

2008-01-01

168

Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

169

Individualization and inequalities in health: a qualitative study of class identity and health.  

PubMed

It has been argued that social class, if not dead, is at least a 'zombie category' in contemporary Western society. However, epidemiological evidence shows that class-based inequalities have either persisted or widened, despite overall improvements in the health of Western populations. This article presents an exploratory qualitative study of the individualization of class identity and health conducted in a southern English city. Findings are presented in consideration of two competing argumentative positions around which participants worked to negotiate class identity and health. The first of these positions denied the significance of class for identity and health and was associated with the individualised heroic and stoic narratives of working class identity. The second position acknowledged the reality of class relations and their implications for health and identity, being associated with structurally and politically orientated narratives of middle class identity. In sum, resistance to class was associated with talk about individual, private experience whereas the acceptance of class was linked to discussion of health as a wider social or political phenomenon. This evidence lends qualified support to the individualization thesis: inequalities in health existing on structural or material levels are not simply reproduced, and indeed in some contexts may even juxtapose, accounts of social identity in interview and focus group contexts. Class identity and health are negotiated in lay talk as participants shift argumentatively back and forth between competing positions, and public and private realms, in the attempt to make sense of health and illness. The promotion of greater awareness and interest in health inequalities within wider public discourse may well help support attempts to tackle these injustices. PMID:15246166

Bolam, Bruce; Murphy, Simon; Gleeson, Kate

2004-10-01

170

How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations. PMID:14713660

Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

2003-01-01

171

Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

2009-01-01

172

Community-based health insurance in developing countries: a study of its contribution to the performance of health financing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied the potential of community-based health insurance (CHI) to contribute to the performance of health financing systems. The international empirical evidence is analysed on the basis of the three health financing subfunctions as outlined in the World Health Report 2000: revenue collection, pooling of resources and purchasing of services. The evidence indicates that achievements of CHI in each

Guy Carrin; Maria-Pia Waelkens; Bart Criel

2005-01-01

173

Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

2009-01-01

174

Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in

Petra Verdonk; Hannes Seesing; Angelique de Rijk

2010-01-01

175

Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

2013-01-01

176

Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks  

PubMed Central

Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

2013-01-01

177

Seasonal variations of the nighttime O(1S) and OH (8-3) airglow intensity at Adelaide, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

analyze 15 years of atomic oxygen (OI) 558 nm and hydroxyl (OH) (8-3) 730 nm nightglow emission intensities from heights near 96 and 87 km, respectively, measured using filter photometers at the Buckland Park Field Station (34.6°S, 138.6°E) near Adelaide, Australia. The intensity of both emissions exhibits clear seasonal and interannual periodicities, with annual, semiannual, and quasi-biennial oscillations, as well as a solar cycle influence. In addition, there is a terannual and 4.1 year component in the OI airglow intensity and both a quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillation in the OH intensity. The results are in very good agreement with simultaneous collocated measurements made with an imager, and with global satellite climatologies of OI and OH intensities reported for the Wind Imaging Interferometer instrument. The mean value of the OI annual oscillation intensity is the same as that of the semiannual oscillation at this location to within the experimental uncertainty. The OI annual oscillation maximizes in summer, and the semiannual oscillation maximizes in autumn and spring, with the largest maximum in autumn. The terannual component in the OI nightglow maximizes in early summer, autumn, and spring. The quasi-biennial oscillation in the OI nightglow takes its first maximum value in autumn 1996, and the 4.1 year period in this emission first maximizes in summer 1998. The OH annual and semiannual oscillation intensities also agree to within the experimental uncertainties and are observed to peak in early winter. The quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillations in this emission take their first maximum value in summer 1996.

Reid, Iain M.; Spargo, Andrew J.; Woithe, Jonathan M.

2014-06-01

178

Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study.  

PubMed

One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale per l'Italia contemporanea, Il Mulino, Bologna, 1985). Movement out of the labour market was described by a discrete variable with four conditions: employed, unemployed, early retired and women returning from work to the housewife status. The relationship between health status and occupational mobility was analysed via analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression. Health inequalities were measured by the ratio of standardised mortality rates in the unskilled working class and the upper middle class. The study found a weak relationship between health status and occupational mobility chances. Decidedly stronger was the impact on occupational mobility of gender, education and "ethnicity" (being born in the South of Italy). The relationship between occupational mobility and health takes two different forms. Occupational mobility in the labour market decreases health inequalities; occupational mobility out of the labour market (early retirement, unemployment, housewife return) widens them. The maximum contribution health-related intra-generational social mobility can make towards health inequalities was estimated at about 13% for men. PMID:14759699

Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno

2004-04-01

179

A Study of Health Maintenance Protocols in Family Practice  

PubMed Central

A series of color-coded health maintenance protocols for four age groupings were introduced into a community health centre. In a pilot study of the 16-49 year age range, levels of recording before introduction of the protocols were below 50% in all categories, except “blood pressure” “coping skills” and “sexuality/contraception”. After one year, it was not possible to assess changes in recording of screening maneuvers reliably due to the short study period and major changes in staffing that coincidentally occurred during the study period. Further studies should use stable solo practices and a much longer follow up period. PMID:21279143

Herbert, Carol P.; Moore, Daniel

1985-01-01

180

CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

181

Studies on the health impact of.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe weaning period is critical for stress-related diseases and infections. Currently, large amounts of therapeutic antimicrobials are used to treat infections in the livestock production, especially in piglets. Phytogenic feed additives could provide a useful alternative. We hypothesize, that components in agrimonia species which have been used successfully in humans to treat gastrointestinal infections could also improve the health of piglets. We investigated the effects of Agrimonia procera (AP) on the growth performance of piglets and cytokine expression in isolated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).ResultsHere we show that piglets that received a diet with 0.56 g/kg AP for 6 weeks tended to ingest more food (+5.1%; P¿<¿0.10), and were characterized by a higher nitrogen retention (+9.6%, P¿<¿0.05) than the control group without AP treatment. Data from a second experiment reveal that piglets fed a diet with 0.87 g/kg AP for 6 weeks had an improved food conversion ratio (1.46¿±¿0.04) compared to those that received none (1.54¿±¿0.08) or 8.7 g/kg AP (1.60¿±¿0.08) with their diets (P¿<¿0.001). However, the food intake, daily weight gain and dry matter of feces were not affected by the AP treatment.Treatment of PBMC for 1 and 6 h with AP extract (APE) reduced the mRNA abundance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)¿ in cells challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) but not in cells without LPS stimulation (P¿<¿0.05). The lower mRNA expression of TNF¿ was accompanied by a trend towards a lower release of TNF¿ from these cells (P¿=¿0.067). After the treatment of PBMC with APE for 6 h, the relative mRNA concentration of interleukin (IL)-1ß declined (P¿<¿0.05), whereas that of IL-10 remained unchanged. Treatment of LPS-challenged PBMC for 20 h with varying concentrations of APE did not reveal any effect on cytokine expression and TNF¿ release.ConclusionsThe results indicate that low dosages of AP may improve the growth performance of piglets and seem to exert antiinflammatory effects in porcine immune cells challenged with LPS. PMID:25199877

Gräber, Tobias; Kluge, Holger; Granica, Sebastian; Horn, Gert; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I

2014-09-01

182

Case Study of an Integrated Framework for Quantifying Agroecosystem Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroecosystem health derives from a combination of biophysical and socioeconomic conditions that jointly influence such properties\\u000a as productivity, sustainability, stability, and equitability. In this case study, we describe and analyze a method to quantify\\u000a agroecosystem health through a combination of geographically referenced data at various spatial scales. Six key variables\\u000a were hypothesized to provide a minimum set of conditions required

Krishna Prasad Vadrevu; John Cardina; Fred Hitzhusen; Isaac Bayoh; Richard Moore; Jason Parker; Ben Stinner; Deb Stinner; Casey Hoy

2008-01-01

183

Satellites as Shared Resources for Caribbean Climate and Health Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2002-01-01

184

10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602...REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance...

2010-01-01

185

10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602...REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance...

2011-01-01

186

Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of participants. Methods We applied a pretest–posttest study design. The WHS consisted of online screening on impaired work functioning and mental health followed by online automatically generated personalized feedback, online tailored advice, and access to self-help EMH interventions. The effects on work functioning, stress, and work-related fatigue after 3 months were analyzed using paired t tests and effect sizes. Results One hundred and twenty-eight nurses and allied health professionals participated at pretest as well as posttest. Significant improvements were found on work functioning (p = 0.01) and work-related fatigue (p < 0.01). Work functioning had relevantly improved in 30% of participants. A small meaningful effect on stress was found (Cohen d = .23) in the participants who had logged onto an EMH intervention (20%, n = 26). Conclusion The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement. PMID:25516815

Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

2014-01-01

187

Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag health study  

PubMed Central

Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

2014-01-01

188

Virtual Health Care Team: Near Drowning Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Virtual Health Care Team at the University of Missouri â?? Columbia School of Health Professions and created by Lorilie A. Weber-Hardy, the purpose of this case is to "test the knowledge and to build confidence in the advanced respiratory care practitioner's ability to critically think and perform in the care of a pediatric near-drown patient." In this case, a six-year-old boy has fallen into a freshwater lake and users are guided through the case in order to identify what equipment and procedures are needed for intubation and to raise the child's body temperature. The "Bibliography" section leads users to further online resources for more information. This case study along with all the cases available from the Virtual Health Care Team, are excellent additions to a classroom activity or assessment in order to help students prepare for health care careers.

Weber-Hardy, Lorilie A.

189

Case–control study of the health of those looked after by local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.METHODSA total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.RESULTSCompared

J Williams; S Jackson; A Maddocks; W-Y Cheung; A Love; H Hutchings

2001-01-01

190

PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

191

Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

2012-01-01

192

The Role of Health Literacy and Social Networks in Arthritis Patients' Health Information-Seeking Behavior: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy. PMID:22997575

Ellis, Janette; Mullan, Judy; Worsley, Anthony; Pai, Nagesh

2012-01-01

193

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01

194

Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study  

PubMed Central

Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

195

The Saskatchewan rural health study: an application of a population health framework to understand respiratory health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory disease can impose a significant burden on the health of rural populations. The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) is a new large prospective cohort study of ages 6 and over currently being conducted in farming and non-farming communities to evaluate potential health determinants associated with respiratory outcomes in rural populations. In this article, we describe the rationale and methodology for the adult component. The study is being conducted over 5 years (2009–15) in two phases, baseline and longitudinal. The baseline survey consists of two components, adults and children. The adult component consists of a questionnaire-based evaluation of individual and contextual factors of importance to respiratory health in two sub populations (a Farm Cohort and a Small Town Cohort) of rural families in Saskatchewan Rural Municipalities (RMs). Clinical studies of lung function and allergy tests are being conducted on selected sub-samples of the two cohorts based on the positive response to the last question on the baseline questionnaire: “Would you be willing to be contacted about having breathing and/or allergy tests at a nearby location?”. We adopted existing population health theory to evaluate individual factors, contextual factors, and principal covariates on the outcomes of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Findings Of the RMs selected to participate, 32 (89%) out of 36 RMs and 15 (94%) out of 16 small towns within the RMs agreed to participate. Using the mail out survey method developed by Dillman, we obtained completed questionnaires from 4264 households (8261 individuals). We obtained lung function measurements on 1609 adults, allergy skin test information on 1615 adults; both measurements were available on 1549 adults. We observed differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual, contextual factors and covariates. Discussion There are differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual and contextual factors and other variables of importance. The findings of the SRHS will improve knowledge of respiratory disease etiology, assist in the development and targeting of prevention programs, and in planning health services with farm and small town populations. PMID:22852584

2012-01-01

196

Review of health information technology usability study methodologies  

PubMed Central

Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user–task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system–task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user–task–system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user–task–system–environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user–task–system–environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation. PMID:21828224

Bakken, Suzanne

2011-01-01

197

Review of health information technology usability study methodologies.  

PubMed

Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user-task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system-task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user-task-system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user-task-system-environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user-task-system-environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation. PMID:21828224

Yen, Po-Yin; Bakken, Suzanne

2012-01-01

198

A study of health beliefs and practices of the Yoruba.  

PubMed

The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs. PMID:22924201

Adepoju, Joseph A

2012-01-01

199

Dollars and sense: The economics and outcomes of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at Royal Adelaide Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the costs and outcomes of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy who returned directly to the vascular unit after surgery rather than to the intensive care unit (ICU)\\/high dependency unit (HDU). The ICU\\/HDU is for critically ill patients. HDU is the step-down area from the ICU. The nurse-to-patient ratio for these patients is 1:2 and senior medical staff are

Donna Hodby

2002-01-01

200

[Health in old age: a study with institutionalized elderly].  

PubMed

In the face of demographic aging, shelter institutions have an outstanding role as an alternative of social support in the attention for the health of the elderly. This study was aimed at describing the health condition of the elderly within the wide picture of old folks homes and identifying how the elderly perceive their own health. It is a qualitative study for which data was collected through participative observation and half-structured interviews with 17 elderly living in an old folks home in Rio de Janeiro. The results showed that the elderly see their health as satisfactory because there is no pain, no physical discomfort and they have a feeling of security provided by the fact that they live in the institution. On the other hand, concerns related to aches and suffering deriving from natural losses, distance from the family and feelings of solitude and abandonment were conditions associated to the occurrence of diseases. It was concluded that the social fact of living in an old folks home is characterized mainly as an abandonment, which has a direct impact on the health conditions of this population. PMID:18642738

Pestana, Luana Cardoso; do Espírito Santo, Fátima Helena

2008-06-01

201

Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates.

Ellen Kjelsberg; Paal Hartvig; Harald Bowitz; Irene Kuisma; Peder Norbech; Aase-Bente Rustad; Marthe Seem; Tom-Gunnar Vik

2006-01-01

202

US army chemical corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in

Han K. Kang; Nancy A. Dalager; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson; Genevieve M. Matanoski; Sukon Kanchanaraksa; Peter S. J. Lees

2001-01-01

203

Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

204

COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENPOINTS IN SWIMMER'S HEALTH STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...

205

COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENDPOINTS IN SWIMMERS' HEALTH STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...

206

Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

2008-01-01

207

Care Coordination: A Case Study Linking Primary Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate, through a case study, how York Community Services (YCS) is a leader in the delivery ofprimary health care through its integration ofhealth, legal and social services. YCS is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. YCS's mandate is to serve populations that have traditionally been on the margins ofsociety and therefore have had difficulty

Monica M. Lancaster; David P. Thow

2001-01-01

208

MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

209

Leadership for Primary Health Care. Levels, Functions, and Requirements Based on Twelve Case Studies. Public Health Papers No. 82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book considers the role of and the need for primary health care leadership, drawing upon case studies and research from the World Health Organization (WHO) communities. The differing levels and functions of leadership in primary health care are delineated, with particular emphasis given to regarding the leadership concept as "effective…

Flahault, Daniel; Roemer, Milton I.

210

Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns. Objective The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies. Methods Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites. Results Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive outcomes for a variety of health conditions. PatientsLikeMe and 23andMe are the leading operators of researcher-organized, crowdsourced health research studies. These operators have published findings in the areas of disease research, drug response, user experience in crowdsourced studies, and genetic association. Quantified Self, Genomera, and DIYgenomics are communities of participant-organized health research studies where individuals conduct self-experimentation and group studies. Crowdsourced health research studies have a diversity of intended outcomes and levels of scientific rigor. Conclusions Participatory health initiatives are becoming part of the public health ecosystem and their rapid growth is facilitated by Internet and social networking influences. Large-scale parameter-stratified cohorts have potential to facilitate a next-generation understanding of disease and drug response. Not only is the large size of crowdsourced cohorts an asset to medical discovery, too is the near-immediate speed at which medical findings might be tested and applied. Participatory health initiatives are expanding the scope of medicine from a traditional focus on disease cure to a personalized preventive approach. Crowdsourced health research studies are a promising complement and extension to traditional clinical trials as a model for the conduct of health research. PMID:22397809

2012-01-01

211

A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.  

PubMed

In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences. PMID:20811952

Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

2011-12-01

212

Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting psychosocial health problem issues. Qualitative content analysis was used for interpreting the data. The analysis resulted in one overarching theme: having to do one's duty and being afraid of doing wrong; and three subthemes: uncertainty related to one's own ability, concerns related to future consequences, and strategies to handle the documentation. School nurses relying on their intuition and using a structured documentation model may increase the opportunities for a reliable documentation. To further develop their professional skills with regular, clinical supervision can be of great importance. This in turn may increase contributions to research and development for the benefit of schoolchildren's psychosocial health. PMID:25061093

Clausson, Eva K; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

2014-07-24

213

The impact of a worker health study on working conditions.  

PubMed

A research partnership of representatives from labor, academia, and public health enabled unionized San Francisco hotel workers to achieve important policy changes in workplace health and safety. Known as the "Housekeeping Study," the project took sixteen months to complete. A unique aspect of the project was that it utilized participatory action research methods, involving workers themselves as full participants in the study. A core group of 25 hotel room cleaners was involved in each phase of the project. The study developed health data which enabled room cleaners and their union to formulate and justify a contract proposal calling for a significant reduction in housekeeping workloads. The employer association agreed to a contract which reduced the maximum required room assignment from 15 rooms to 14 rooms per day in 14 San Francisco hotels. By lowering the maximum work assignment, these workers set a new standard which can potentially protect the health of room cleaners across the country. The project can serve as a model for worker and union participation in academic research, as well as for the application of research to improving working conditions, particularly for low-wage immigrant workers. PMID:12325285

Lee, Pam Tau; Krause, Niklas

2002-01-01

214

Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Served by the Department of Veterans Affairs: Results From the Veterans Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Participants in the Veterans Health Study, a 2-year longitudinal study, were recruited from a repre- sentative sample of patients receiving ambulatory care at 4 VA facilities in the New England region. The Veter- ans Health Study patients received questionnaires of health status, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey; and a health examination, clini- cal assessments,

Lewis E. Kazis; Donald R. Miller; Jack Clark; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Avron Spiro III; Susan Payne; Graeme Fincke; Alfredo Selim; Mark Linzer

1998-01-01

215

A longitudinal study of adolescent mental health service use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines longitudinal mental health service use patterns of a school-based sample of adolescents. Based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores, a stratified sample of middle-school students was interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children: cycle one (n = 579; mean age 12.83) and cycle two (n = 490; mean age

Steven P. Cuffe; Jennifer L. Waller; Cheryl L. Addy; Robert E. McKeown; Kirby L. Jackson; Jamaluddin Moloo; Carol Z. Garrison

2001-01-01

216

Social capital, trust in the health-care system and self-rated health: The role of access to health care in a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between institutional trust in the health-care system, i.e. an institutional aspect of social capital, and self-rated health, and whether the strength of this association is affected by access to health-care services. The 2004 public health survey in the Scania region of Sweden is a cross-sectional study; a total of 27,963 respondents aged 18–80 years answered

Mohabbat Mohseni; Martin Lindstrom

2007-01-01

217

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

218

Readability Study of Client Health Education Materials: A Resource for Assuring the Effectiveness of Written Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…

Johnson, Hans H.; And Others

219

Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-01-01

220

[Postgraduate studies in public health: the problem of efficiency evaluation].  

PubMed

The satisfaction of customer is the main measure and the most important, generally recognized criterion for evaluating the quality of products and services. In the case of education and training, the quality is frequently understood as effectiveness, i.e., the degree to what educational objectives of a training institution are met; the objectives previously formulated on the basis of analyzed and defined demands and expectations of customers (clients). In the first part of the paper: (1) the problems related to the question who in fact is the customer in the context of an institution providing education in public health are discussed; (2) a proposal for resolving these problems is presented; and (3) the main directions of evaluation activities, which should be undertaken under monitoring and effectiveness assessment of postgraduate training in public health are pointed out. In the years 1998-2002, the students' assessment data on educational programs, curriculum contents and subject teachers in the field of postgraduate studies in the School of Public Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód?, were collected with the help of specially-designed evaluation questionnaires. The data on the students' self-assessment of gained professional competencies were also collected. All students who completed the School of Public Health in these years were subjected to the evaluation inquiries. The data collected were analyzed. Due to the analysis it was possible to define: the quality of the curriculum contents, as well as the professional and didactic skills of the teaching staff as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular curriculum in public health contributed to the increase in professional competence as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular teaching subjects influenced the students' knowledge of and skills in Public Health. The results obtained provided information very useful in the teaching process, designing of educational programs and their modification. PMID:14669578

Boczkowski, Andrzej

2003-01-01

221

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

222

A review on systematic reviews of health information system studies  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994–2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy. PMID:20962125

Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse

2010-01-01

223

Improving Access to Public Health Information: A Study of Information Needs in a State Health Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Public health challenges can be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective public health practices is readily available. The need for improved access to evidence-based public health information has been recognized by public health practitioners, researchers, policy makers, and librarians.\\u000aObjective: To understand the information needs of the public health workforce and to improve access to

E. Hatheway Simpson; Nancy R. LaPelle; Elaine Russo Martin

2006-01-01

224

A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of quantitative information on the relations between elements in the soil and human health;

Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

2013-04-01

225

Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have significant meaning for future public health programs, which should be more tailored with use of such knowledge on behavioral clustering via e.g. Transfer Learning. PMID:24305509

2013-01-01

226

Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services  

PubMed Central

Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid interpretation, we will undertake qualitative work with 15 young people, including interviews, non-participant observation and diary collection. Discussion This study will evaluate the effect of service components of transitional care, rather than evaluation of specific models that may be unsustainable or not generalisable. It has been developed in response to numerous national and international calls for such evaluation. PMID:23875722

2013-01-01

227

Methods for quantitative health impact assessment of an airport and waste incinerator: two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from epidemiological studies can be used to make quantitative predictions of health impacts of new developments in a land-use planning context. In UK practice, exposures that may impact on health are described in environmental statements, but the health outcomes are rarely assessed explicitly. Methods for quantitative health impact assessments (HIA) are demonstrated in two case studies: proposals to extend

Caroline Phillips; Mark McCarthy; Roger Barrowcliffe

2010-01-01

228

Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

Yi, Yong Jeong

2012-01-01

229

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--HIV Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of HIV prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; and (2) Health Services and Mental…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

230

Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of US adults: the role of health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education

Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

231

Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. METHODS: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local

David C Taylor-Robinson; Beth Milton; Ffion Lloyd-Williams; Martin O'Flaherty; Simon Capewell

2008-01-01

232

Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

2009-01-01

233

Occupational Mental Health: A Study of Work-Related Mental Health among Clinical Nurses  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper reports a study performed to investigate and assess the mental health as well as the demographic characteristics of nurses to examine their mental health status based on four physical, anxiety, social-function and depression items. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was accomplished on 86 nurses working at three hospitals, affiliated to Iranian health ministry, in Ilam city(western Iran) all the cases were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data was collected by a two-part questionnaire containing individual data and GHQ -28 Standardized Questionnaire. The GHO-28 was developed by Goldberg, in 1978, as a screening tool to detect those likely to have or be at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The GHQ-28 is a 28-item measure of emotional distress in medical settings. Analysis was done by SPSS 18 software. Results: The majority of participants were females(50.6 vs.49.4) of 35-40 years old(27.2% ), 84 percent were married(vs.16%), 35.8 percent with 10-15 years of record(vs.33.3% less than 5), 22.2% with 5-10, and 8.6% with more than 15-years of work record. The majority of participants have worked in surgical wards of hospitals. The analysis of GHQ results showed that 43.2%(n=35) of participants were suspected to suffer from mental disorders(vs.56.8% n=46 healthy participants); of all the suspected cases, 12.3% were supposed to have physical symptoms, 16% anxiety symptoms, 42% social dysfunction, and 6.2% symptoms of depression. In general, the participants demonstrated a Mean±SD of mental health score equal to 23.65±9.43. Conclusion: Research results showed that the high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among nurses is alarming. It was concluded that providing efficient adequate and appropriate support services for this group can result in more healthy nurses as well as promotion of public health. PMID:25386506

Taghinejad, Hamid; Kikhavani, Sattar; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Azadi, Arman

2014-01-01

234

Maintaining evaluation designs in long term community based health promotion programmes: Heartbeat Wales case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the difficulties of developing and maintaining outcome evaluation designs in long term, community based health promotion programmes. DESIGN--Semistructured interviews of health promotion managers. SETTING--Wales and two reference health regions in England. PARTICIPANTS--Nine health promotion managers in Wales and 18 in England. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information on selected heart health promotion activity undertaken or coordinated by health authorities

D Nutbeam; C Smith; S Murphy; J Catford

1993-01-01

235

Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a major contribution to the field of knowledge transfer and implementation science. PMID:20416054

2010-01-01

236

Page 1 | B.S. in Public Health | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.S. in Public Health  

E-print Network

Page 1 | B.S. in Public Health | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.S. in Public Health Academic Plan of Study College of Health & Human Services Department of Public Health Sciences publichealth required prior to declaration. Focus on completing Public Health prerequisite curriculum prior to applying

Raja, Anita

237

Diagnosis of sustainable collaboration in health promotion – a case study  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborations are important to health promotion in addressing multi-party problems. Interest in collaborative processes in health promotion is rising, but still lacks monitoring instruments. The authors developed the DIagnosis of Sustainable Collaboration (DISC) model to enable comprehensive monitoring of public health collaboratives. The model focuses on opportunities and impediments for collaborative change, based on evidence from interorganizational collaboration, organizational behavior and planned organizational change. To illustrate and assess the DISC-model, the 2003/2004 application of the model to the Dutch whole-school health promotion collaboration is described. Methods The study combined quantitative research, using a cross-sectional survey, with qualitative research using the personal interview methodology and document analysis. A DISC-based survey was sent to 55 stakeholders in whole-school health promotion in one Dutch region. The survey consisted of 22 scales with 3 to 8 items. Only scales with a reliability score of 0.60 were accepted. The analysis provided for comparisons between stakeholders from education, public service and public health. The survey was followed by approaching 14 stakeholders for a semi-structured DISC-based interview. As the interviews were timed after the survey, the interviews were used to clarify unexpected and unclear outcomes of the survey as well. Additionally, a DISC-based document analysis was conducted including minutes of meetings, project descriptions and correspondence with schools and municipalities. Results Response of the survey was 77% and of the interviews 86%. Significant differences between respondents of different domains were found for the following scales: organizational characteristics scale, the change strategies, network development, project management, willingness to commit and innovative actions and adaptations. The interviews provided a more specific picture of the state of the art of the studied collaboration regarding the DISC-constructs. Conclusion The DISC-model is more than just the sum of the different parameters provided in the literature on interorganizational collaboration, organization change, networking and setting-approaches. Monitoring a collaboration based on the DISC-model yields insight into windows of opportunity and current impediments for collaborative change. DISC-based monitoring is a promising strategy enabling project managers and social entrepreneurs to plan change management strategies systematically. PMID:18992132

Leurs, Mariken TW; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid M; van der Sar, Rosalie; Schaalma, Herman P; de Vries, Nanne K

2008-01-01

238

The teeth and faces of twins: providing insights into dentofacial development and oral health for practising oral health professionals.  

PubMed

The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses, exciting opportunities are opening up to unravel the causes of problems in craniofacial growth and common oral diseases in human populations. PMID:24117977

Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D

2014-06-01

239

As I see it: a study of African American pastors' views on health and health education in the black church.  

PubMed

The Black Church is the only institution that has consistently served the interest of African Americans, and there is no other institution in the African American community that rivals its influence (Camara, 2004). The spiritual well-fare, social support, health, and well-being of its people have been one of its main goals. With health disparities of African Americans still at an alarming rate, the Black Church has used informal education as a means to impart knowledge on health, as well as other non-religious and religious topics. One of the avenues least researched within the Black Church is the pastor's perception of its educational role in health and wellness and its efforts to reduce health discrimination and health disparities between African American and European Americans in the U.S. Since social justice appears as a theme and concern in the traditions of many churches, it is only appropriate that, among other things, the Black Church should address the issue of health education and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore African American pastors' perceptions of the role of the Black Church in providing health care, health education, and wellness opportunities to African Americans. Many pastors reported their church provided some form of health education and/or health screenings. Their perceptions about the important issues facing their congregants versus African Americans in general were quite similar. PMID:23563927

Rowland, Michael L; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

2014-08-01

240

APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

241

The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study  

PubMed Central

Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

2011-01-01

242

The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711

van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

2015-01-01

243

Health resources and health strategies among older Swedish-speaking Finns--a hermeneutic study.  

PubMed

Research has shown that the Swedish-speaking Finns have better health than the Finnish-speaking majority. The aim of this paper was to explore the health resources and health strategies among home-dwelling Swedish-speaking Finns aged 75 or older. The objective was to develop health-promotive nursing care for this group. Data was collected through recorded semistructured conversations with 22 older persons. The conversations were transcribed and interpreted through a hermeneutic approach. The material was read through several times and compiled into 22 narratives with relevant quotations. The narratives were subsequently summarised into one core narrative under each major category, to present the health resources and health strategies. Six categories were found: the Positive, the Social, the Active, the Adaptable, the Stubborn and the Passive. Within the Positive category, morale played an important role as a health resource and health strategy. Within the Social category, social activities were regarded as both health resources and health strategies, whereas their absence was a health obstacle. Within the Active category, a wide range of physical activities played an important role. Within the Adaptable category, contentment was a health resource. Within the Stubborn category, stubbornness itself was a health resource, whereas strong belief was a health strategy. Within the Passive category, although health obstacles permeated the life context, contentment and caution were seen as health resources. The vision of the future varied from the confidence found in the Positive category to the uncertainty prevalent in the Passive category. The main health resources and strategies used by the elderly Swedish-speaking Finns were related to social and other activities as well as to personality. Transforming health obstacles into resources could be an important health-promotive nursing strategy. PMID:16489960

Kulla, Gunilla; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Fagerström, Lisbeth

2006-03-01

244

Clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in Tehran: A cross-sectional study on Iranian Health Centers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Primary health care system is the basic core of public service provision in Iran. This study aimed to assess clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in Tehran, the capital of Iran, as a metropolitan. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study in 2009-10, four urban primary health care clinics were selected through stratified random sampling. Four hundred participants were interviewed in the selected clinics about their satisfaction with the primary health care services and setting. Six domains of satisfaction including accessibility to services, continuity of care, humaneness of staff, comprehensiveness of care, provision of health education and effectiveness of services were calculated from selected variables. The descriptive statistics, chi-square and t-tests were used when appropriate. RESULTS: The mean age of users of health services was 31.3 years (SD=9.6). Thirteen percent of participants were male. The most common reasons for asking health services reported as vaccination, family planning and children care. Overall, primary health care services were suitable for eighty percent of the participants. The mean and standard deviation for Access to services was 2.11 (SD=3.44), continuity of care was -0.35 (SD=3.49), humanness of staff was 3.93 (SD=5.70), comprehensiveness of care was -0.53 (SD=3.66), provision of health educational materials was -1.45 (SD=3.64) and effectiveness of services was 4.30 (SD=7.47). CONCLUSIONS: Primary health care is a comprehensive and suitable strategy to provide health services in public health. Package of services in primary health care may affect clients’ satisfaction. Using family doctors may improve the indices. PMID:22091304

Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Albalushi, Rima Mohammad

2011-01-01

245

Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.  

PubMed Central

As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

1993-01-01

246

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) aiming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Social engagement and physical and cognitive health among American Indian participants in the Health and Retirement Study  

PubMed Central

Background Social engagement has many demonstrated benefits for aging non-Hispanic Whites in the U.S. This study examined data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study to determine whether these benefits were similar among American Indians and Alaska Natives older than 50 years. Methods Linear regression techniques were used to examine the associations between level of social engagement, scores for memory and mental status, and self-reported health among 203 American Indian and Alaska Native elders who participated in the Health and Retirement Study and had data available between 1998 and 2010. Results Level of social engagement was significantly associated with memory, mental status, and self-reported health. However, only the association of social engagement with mental status and self-reported health remained significant (p=0.04 and p=0.05, respectively) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, number of known health conditions, and scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Level of social engagement was not associated with patterns of decline across time in cognitive or physical health. Conclusion Higher levels of social engagement are associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in American Indian and Alaska Native elders. Future studies should examine whether this association acts through cognitive stimulation, increase in physical activity resulting from social engagement, or access to resources that support physical and cognitive health. PMID:24122523

Nelson, Lonnie A.; Noonan, Carolyn J.; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra S.

2013-01-01

248

The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints  

PubMed Central

Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and social movements. Further research on the value of community control of PHC services and the types of policy, resource and managerial environments that support action on social determinants is warranted by this study’s findings. PMID:23663304

2013-01-01

249

Health technology assessment in its local contexts: studies of telehealthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health technology assessment (HTA) is one of the major research enterprises of late modernity, reaching into fields of previously autonomous professional practice, and critically interrogating the organisation and delivery of health care. The ‘evaluation’ of new health technologies within the field of HTA is increasingly a normative political expectation, as discourses of ‘evidence-based’ practice run through health policy in the

Carl May; Maggie Mort; Tracy Williams; Frances Mair; Linda Gask

2003-01-01

250

Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

251

Quality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health  

E-print Network

Quality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health Thanh Tin Tang.craswell@csiro.au, david.hawking@csiro.au Kathy Griffiths and Helen Christensen Centre for Mental Health Research, ANU crawl- ing, mental health, depression 1 Introduction Searching for health information is a common activ

Hawking, David

252

INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

253

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

254

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2013 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

255

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2012 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

256

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2014 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community

Barrash, Warren

257

A Correlational Study of the Relationship between a Coordinated School Health Program and School Achievement: A Case for School Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National…

Vinciullo, Frances M.; Bradley, Beverly J.

2009-01-01

258

Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

259

Health Systems Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826

Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

260

Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population.\\u000a Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence,\\u000a they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes\\u000a in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal

Rachel Tham; John S Humphreys; Leigh Kinsman; Penny Buykx; Adel Asaid; Kathy Tuohey

2011-01-01

261

Health Status and Satisfaction With Health Care: A Longitudinal Study Among Patients Served by the Veterans Health Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with

Xinhua S. Ren; Lewis Kazis; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Susan Pendergrass

2001-01-01

262

Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

Shank, Nancy

2011-01-01

263

Researching Aboriginal health: experience from a study of urban young people's health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

European colonisation had a devastating effect on the health and well-being of indigenous people in Australia. The history of Aboriginal health research has reflected the history of colonisation; research has understandably been viewed with distrust. The need for accurate statistics and improved understanding of health problems is clear, but obtaining them is not easy. In this paper we describe the

Wendy Holmes; Paul Stewart; Anne Garrow; Ian Anderson; Lisa Thorpe

2002-01-01

264

California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

2012-01-01

265

Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959

2012-01-01

266

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects...

2010-07-01

267

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation...Evaluation § 1.17 Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation...publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects...

2011-07-01

268

Health inequalities as a foundation for embodying knowledge within public health teaching: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy required to contribute effectively to it. Their knowledge of this subject, their understanding and interpretation of how it could be taught, was not fully understood. Methodology This research aimed to understand how public health nurse educators’ professional knowledge could be conceptualised and to develop a substantive theory of their knowledge of teaching public health, using a qualitative data analysis approach. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews (n=26) were conducted with eleven university-based PHNEs. Results Integrating public health into all aspects of life was seen as central to the knowing and teaching of public health; this was conceptualised as ‘embodying knowledge’. Participants identified the meaning of embodying knowledge for teaching public health as: (a) possessing a wider vision of health; (b) reflecting and learning from experience; and (c) engaging in appropriate pedagogical practices. Conclusion The concept of public health can mean different things to different people. The variations of meaning ascribed to public health reflect the various backgrounds from which the public health workforce is drawn. The analysis indicates that PHNEs are embodying knowledge for teaching through critical pedagogy, which involves them engaging in transformative, interpretive and integrative processes to refashion public health concepts; this requires PHNEs who possess a vision of what to teach, know how to teach, and are able to learn from experience. Their vision of public health is influenced by social justice principles in that health inequalities, socioeconomic determinants of health, epidemiology, and policy and politics are seen as essential areas of the public health curriculum. They believe in forms of teaching that achieve social transformation at individual, behavioural and societal levels, while also enabling learners to recognise their capacity to effect change. PMID:23809694

2013-01-01

269

Chinese Hemophilia Joint Health Score 2.1 reliability study.  

PubMed

To meet the rapidly expanding need for musculoskeletal (MSK) specialists [physiotherapists (PTs), physiatrists] in haemophilia care in China, a 4-day Train the Trainer workshop was conducted in July/August 2009 in Beijing. A key focus was to train the participants to administer the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) version 2.1 for effectively evaluating the MSK health of boys <18 years of age with haemophilia. The aim of this study was to test the HJHS version 2.1 inter- and intra-rater reliability in a group of Chinese PTs and physiatrists with limited experience in haemophilia care. Each of the trained Chinese physiatrists and PTs examined eight boys 4-17 years old with moderate and severe haemophilia on day 1 and repeated the examination on the same patients the next day using the HJHS version 2.1. The boys had a wide range of target joint involvement and arthropathy. The HJHS score sheet, work sheets and manual had been translated into simple Chinese prior to the study. The interrater (ICC 0.90) and intra-rater (ICC 0.91) reliability was excellent. The internal consistency of the HJHS items was also excellent with Cronbach's alpha of 0.86. With basic training in the administration of the HJHS version 2.1, the tool was reliably administered by Chinese PTs and physiatrists with limited haemophilic experience. PMID:24330460

Sun, J; Hilliard, P E; Feldman, B M; Zourikian, N; Chen, L; Blanchette, V S; Luke, K H; Poon, M C

2014-05-01

270

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

2011-01-01

271

Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632

Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

2014-09-01

272

Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

Background The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia. Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum. Methods A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation. Results Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery. Conclusion Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation. PMID:23761998

Alanazi, Abdullah Foraih

2012-01-01

273

Study on a model for future occupational health: proposal for an occupational health service model in Japan.  

PubMed

The Study Model for Future Occupational Health (funded by a research grant from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor) is a joint research project involving various organizations and agencies undertaken from 2002 to 2004. Society has undergone a dramatic transformation due to technological developments and internationalization. At the same time a low birth rate and an aging population have resulted in an increase in both the percentage of workers experiencing strong anxiety and stress in relation to their jobs and the working environment and the number of suicides. As a natural consequence, occupational health services are now expected to provide EAP, consulting and other functions that were formerly considered outside the realm of occupational health. In consideration of this background, the present study propose the following issues to provide a model for future occupational health services that meet the conditions presently confronted by each worker. 1. How to provide occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: 1) a basic time of 20 minutes of occupational health services per year should be allotted to each worker and to all workers; 2) the obligatory regulations should be revised to expand the obligation from businesses each with 50 or more employees under the present laws to businesses each with 30 or more employees. 2. Providers of occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: (1) reinforcement of outside occupational health agencies; (2) fostering occupational health consultant firms; (3) development of an institute of occupational safety and health; (4) support of activities by authorized occupational physicians in the field; (5) expanding of joint selection of occupational physicians including subsidy increase and the extension of a period of subsidy to five hears; (6) licensing of new entry into occupational health undertaking. 3. Introduction of new report system: (1) establishment of the obligation to submit reports on risk evaluation and improvement measures; (2) establishment of the obligation to prepare a report on results of medical examinations in all sizes of businesses. 4. Introduction of a merit system into businesses in establishment of a new system: the application of the special merit system of the workers' compensation insurance shall be revised to add occupational health activities, cover business with 20 or more to 100 or less employees and expand the period of application for three years under the present laws to five years. 5. Ensuring of international coordination: harmonization of standards of individual countries for occupational health and safety; thorough (1) ensuring of international agreement on high-level specialist qualifications; (2) mutual recognition of qualifications of occupational physician, nurse, occupational hygienist, ergonomist, and counselor; (3) preparation of guidelines for occupations relating to occupational health businesses. PMID:17085915

Higashi, Toshiaki

2006-10-01

274

Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.  

PubMed

All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work. "Organizations that understand their business processes are having no trouble whatsoever justifying the cost of optical storage-based information management systems," said Thornton May, director of imaging research at Nolan Norton Institute. "It is only confusing to organizations that do not have a feel for what is happening in the flow of work in the company. If an organization has on-line performance measurements with regard to time, cost, quality, error rates, and customer service, the move to optical image and data management technology is a no-brainer."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10119028

Kohn, D

1992-05-01

275

Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study  

PubMed Central

Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children. PMID:18522740

Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

2008-01-01

276

Health impacts of garage workers: A preliminary study  

SciTech Connect

This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.

Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.

1994-05-01

277

The relationship between self-rated health and objective health status: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the public health field. However, whether SRH can reflect the objective health status is still debatable. We aim to reveal the relationship between SRH and objective health status in the general population. Methods We assessed the relationship between SRH and objective health status by examining the prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and some health-related factors in different SRH groups. Data were collected from 18,000 residents randomly sampled from the general population in five cities of China (3,600 in each city). SRH was assessed by a single-item health measure with five options: “very good,” “good,” “fair,” “bad,” and “very bad.” The differences in prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and health-related factors between the “healthy” (very good plus good), “relatively healthy” (fair), and “unhealthy” (bad plus very bad) groups were examined. The odds ratios (ORs) referenced by the healthy group were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of all diseases was associated with poorer SRH. The tendency was more prominent in cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, visual impairment, and mental illnesses with larger ORs. Residents with abnormalities in laboratory parameters tended to have poorer SRH, with ORs ranging from 1.62 (for triglyceride) to 3.48 (for hemoglobin among men) in a comparison of the unhealthy and healthy groups. Most of the health-related factors regarded as risks were associated with poorer SRH. Among them, life and work pressure, poor spiritual status, and poor quality of interpersonal relationships were the most significant factors. Conclusions SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. PMID:23570559

2013-01-01

278

Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to health equity. PMID:25103343

Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

2014-12-01

279

Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical activity may benefit from greater insight in the tensions between health behaviours and masculinity. PMID:21092090

2010-01-01

280

Stress, Coping and Burnout in Mental Health Nurses: Findings From Three Research Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present data from three research studies on stress, coping and burnout in mental health nurses. All three studies used a range of self report questionnaires. Measures included a demographic checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the DCL Stress Scale and the Cooper Coping Skills Scale. In all, 648 ward based mental health

Leonard Fagin; Jerome Carson; John Leary; Nicolette De Villiers; Heather Bartlett; Patty OMalley; Maria West; Stephen Mcelfatrick; Daniel Brown

1996-01-01

281

SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents the results of the study in the area of physical activity, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Physical…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

282

Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

2010-01-01

283

PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies  

E-print Network

1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences

Sheridan, Jennifer

284

Challenges of exposure assessment for health studies in the aftermath of chemical incidents and disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure assessment during and after acute chemical incidents and disasters is essential for health studies that may follow. During chemical incidents, the focus usually lies on risk assessment and afterward attention shifts toward possible (long-term) health effects. This may lead to insufficient available data on exposure to study the association between exposure and health outcome, and collection of additional exposure

Sim Bongers; Nicole A H Janssen; B Reiss; L Grievink; E Lebret; H Kromhout

2008-01-01

285

Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description  

PubMed Central

Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors. PMID:22712826

2012-01-01

286

Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N?=?51 were contacted and N?=?33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P?=?0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P?health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r?=?0.61, P?study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091

2014-01-01

287

Long Term Health Study for Oil Spill Clean-up Workers and Volunteers  

MedlinePLUS

... health study for individuals who helped with the oil spill cleanup, took training, signed up to work, or were sent to the Gulf to help in some way after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is ...

288

The Law and Health Personnel; A Study of Minnesota Law Related to Selected Health Manpower Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report surveys Minnesota laws relating to the use of health manpower. It presents a summary of Minnesota licensure laws as they apply to categories of health personnel and paramedical personnel currently unrecognized by the law. An analysis is also made of malpractice decisional law to examine whether such laws prohibit or inhibit optimal…

American Rehabilitation Foundation, Minneapolis, Minn. Inst. for Interdisciplinary Studies.

289

Mental Health and Social Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are in a unique position not only to identify mental health problems among children and adolescents but also to provide links to appropriate services. This article describes the characteristics of school mental health and social services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices.…

Brener, Nancy D.; Weist, Mark; Adelman, Howard; Taylor, Linda; Vernon-Smiley, Mary

2007-01-01

290

Supplier Relationship Management in Health Care: A Case Study in the Context of Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) plays an important role in the reduction of costs and the optimization of performance in industrial enterprises. Despite enormous investments in innovation, the health care sector has not experienced fundamental change yet. However, increased market dynamics and the implementation of economic principles will force health service providers to optimize cost structures as well as effectiveness and

T. Mettler; P. Rohner

2009-01-01

291

Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS): Cancer Risk Reduction and Diet - A Cohort Study of Women  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) is a population-based cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women who were recruited between 1997 and 2000 and have been followed through multiple in-person follow-up surveys and record linkages. Over the years, data and biological samples collected in the SWHS have been used to evaluate many important etiologic hypotheses and support multiple studies, including several NCI-sponsored cohort consortium projects.

292

Telecommunications as a Means to Access Health Information: An Exploratory Study of Migrants in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers’ access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers’ preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. Design and Methods A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Results Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community. PMID:25170467

Greenstock, Louise; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Bingham, Amie; Naccarella, Lucio; Elliott, Kristine; Morris, Michal

2012-01-01

293

The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

2012-01-01

294

Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households  

PubMed Central

Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more effective policies and plans to decrease it. In addition, they should improve the macro-economic factors to improve the rural households' health status. PMID:24829771

Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

2014-01-01

295

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

2011-01-01

296

Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study, 1993–2007  

PubMed Central

Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (N = 89, 656) in North Carolina and Iowa, the authors computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing deaths from time of the enrollment (1993–1997) through 2007 to state-specific rates. To compensate for the cohort's overall healthiness, relative SMRs were estimated by calculating the SMR for each cause relative to the SMR for all other causes. In 1,198,129 person-years of follow-up, 6,419 deaths were observed. The all-cause mortality rate was less than expected (SMRapplicators = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.55; SMRspouses = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.55). SMRs for all cancers, heart disease, and diabetes were significantly below 1.0. In contrast, applicators experienced elevated numbers of machine-related deaths (SMR = 4.15, 95% CI: 3.18, 5.31), motor vehicle nontraffic accidents (SMR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.81, 4.14), and collisions with objects (SMR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.34). In the relative SMR analysis for applicators, the relative mortality ratio was elevated for lymphohematopoietic cancers, melanoma, and digestive system, prostate, kidney, and brain cancers. Among spouses, relative SMRs exceeded 1.0 for lymphohematopoietic cancers and malignancies of the digestive system, brain, breast, and ovary. Unintentional fatal injuries remain an important risk for farmers; mortality ratios from several cancers were elevated relative to other causes. PMID:21084556

Waggoner, Jenna K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Umbach, David M.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Knott, Charles; London, Stephanie J.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent W.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lubin, Jay H.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2011-01-01

297

Lesbian women's experiences with health care: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite. PMID:19958064

Bjorkman, Mari; Malterud, Kirsti

2009-01-01

298

Connecting Public Health IT Systems with Enacted Work: Report of an Ethnographic Study  

PubMed Central

As part of a larger project to improve information transfer within public health settings, we studied the information workflow associated with communicable disease (CD) activities in a local health department. As part of that study we examined a newly adopted online system used for reporting CD data to the state department of public health. An information workflow analysis was performed using the ethnographic methods of interviews and observations. In addition to providing a detailed description of the context of CD reporting activities in a local health department, our study uncovered a mismatch between the newly piloted electronic reporting system and the CD work as enacted by health department personnel. PMID:18999077

Turner, Anne M.; Ramey, Judy; Lee, E. Sally

2008-01-01

299

The Rights and Freedoms Gradient of Health: Evidence from a Cross-National Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American, and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of SES and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of SES on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the “rights and freedoms gradient of health” in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health. PMID:23162498

Bezo, Brent; Maggi, Stefania; Roberts, William L.

2012-01-01

300

Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS): Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer in Men and Women  

Cancer.gov

The grant provides for continued follow-up for and research on the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) of 51,529 men who completed an extensive dietary questionnaire first in 1986 and again in 1990, 1994,1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. The program project grant also supports the food composition database and nutrient analysis system used by the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and many other studies.

301

Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment

R M Hare

1986-01-01

302

The mental health module (BELLA study) within the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): study design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive\\u000a data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0–17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical\\u000a examinations and tests, questionnaires filled

Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer; Bärbel-Maria Kurth

2008-01-01

303

A Summary of Expenditures and Sources of Payment for Personal Health Services from the National Medical Care Expenditure Survey: Data Preview 24. National Health Care Expenditure Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment conducted a study to examine how Americans use health care services and to determine national patterns of health expenditures and insurance coverage. Data were obtained from the National Medical Care Expenditure Survey interviews conducted with 14,000 randomly…

Kasper, Judith A.; And Others

304

GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

2014-06-01

305

Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

1996-02-01

306

Initial effects of the grounding of the tanker Braer on health in Shetland. The Shetland Health Study Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine if the oil spillage from the tanker Braer had any immediate health effects on the exposed resident population. DESIGN--Cohort study with a comparison against controls, exposure status being assigned on the basis of geographical location. SETTING--Rural Shetland. SUBJECTS--All those resident on or after 5 January 1993 (day 0) within 4.5 km of the site of tanker's grounding. Controls matched for sex and age were drawn from a general practice list 95 km distant. OUTCOME MEASURES--Demographic details; smoking and alcohol consumption; perception of health and reported presence or absence of specific symptoms; peak expiratory flow; results of haematology, liver and renal function tests, and blood and urine toxicology. RESULTS--Of subjects contacted, 420 (66%) exposed people and 92 (68%) controls were studied; 56 non-attenders were surveyed. Principal health effects arose on days 1 and 2 and were headache, throat irritation, and itchy eyes. No significant differences between those exposed and controls were found for any of the biological markers. Toxicological studies did not show any exposures that are known to affect human health. CONCLUSIONS--The study confirmed the anecdotal reports of certain acute symptoms. No evidence of pulmonary, haematological, renal, or hepatic damage was detected at the population level. Toxicological samples from exposed people did not find levels known to affect human health. Further studies are required to ascertain whether there have been any long term effects on the population. PMID:8281057

Campbell, D; Cox, D; Crum, J; Foster, K; Christie, P; Brewster, D

1993-01-01

307

Building consensus about eHealth in Slovene primary health care: Delphi study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Slovenia's national eHealth strategy aims to develop an efficient, flexible and modern health care informatics framework that\\u000a would be comparable to the most successful EU countries. To achieve this goal, the gap between availability and usage of information\\u000a and communication technology by primary care physicians needs to be reduced.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a As recent efforts show, consensus on information and communication technology purpose

Rade J Iljaž; Matic Megli?; Igor Švab

2011-01-01

308

A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

2012-01-01

309

An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume X: Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…

Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

310

Health effects and social costs of particulate pollution – a case study for Oslo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses health damages from particulate pollution and the corresponding social costs. The analyses, which are based on transferring dose–response functions to Norway, is made within an integrated approach, where the economic impacts of the health damages are handled separately from the non-economic welfare effects. We find that the social costs of health damages in Oslo are significant, and

Knut Einar Rosendahl

1998-01-01

311

Informal payments in government health facilities in Albania: Results of a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As governments seek to expand access to quality health care services, policy makers in many countries are confronting the problem of informal payments to medical personnel. The aim of this study was to help health planners in Albania understand informal payments occurring in government health facilities. Researchers used in-depth interviews and focus groups with 131 general public and provider informants

Taryn Vian; Kristina Grybosk; Zamira Sinoimeri; Rachel Hall

2006-01-01

312

Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The

Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn

2008-01-01

313

Reflections and Recommendations Based on a Migrant Health Center's Participation in a CDC Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hudson Valley Migrant Health (HVMH) (a Public Health Service program) collaborated with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) on a study of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis among migrant farmworkers in the mid-Hudson region of New York. CDC research personnel…

Nolon, Anne K.; O'Barr, James

314

Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

2014-01-01

315

Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

2014-01-01

316

Structuring mental health within senior services: a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latinos.  

PubMed

The article presents a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latino older adults. The study explored staff perceptions on the clinic development and the context within an immigrant multicultural community. The study used in-depth, semistructured interviews with support staff, clinical social workers, and administrators. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic content analysis. The mental health clinic formation was perceived by staff as an ecological process stemming from the needs of the Latino immigrant senior clients. A close knit and interdependent culture allowed the clinic to adjust to diversity and changing cultural contexts. PMID:22852993

Ortiz, Daniel Vélez

2012-01-01

317

Noise nuisance and health inequalities in Belgium: a population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to live in contaminated environments. This may partly explain socioeconomic health inequalities. Aims Does noise nuisance contribute to socio-economic inequalities in subjective health? Method This research is based on the last Belgian census data carried out in 2001. We work on a 10% sample of the Belgian population. The data are processed through

Schmit C; Lorant V

318

Supplier Relationship Management in Health Care Practice - A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes and increasing market dynamics in the health care sector intensify the hospitals' need for cost-savings and process optimization. One source to generate not only short-term savings but also sustainable benefits is the active and sophisticated management of the relationship with different suppliers, also known as supplier relationship management (SRM). As in the health care sector material cost continuously

Tobias Mettler; Peter Rohner

2008-01-01

319

UCSD researchers study of E-cigarettes and mental health  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that people living with depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions are twice as likely to have tried e-cigarettes and three times as likely to be current users of the controversial battery-powered nicotine-delivery devices, as people without mental health disorders.

320

Health and gender comparisons in the long-haul trucking industry: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This descriptive pilot study was conducted to determine whether health conditions and health care access differ between male and female long-haul truck drivers. Data indicated that 54% of men and 66% of women had a health care provider, but 21% of men and 35% of women had no health insurance. Male and female drivers both reported common health problems (e.g., back pain, sinus problems, hypertension, headaches, and arthritis). While working, drivers of each gender often waited until returning home to seek treatment for health problems. Approximately half of the drivers expressed dissatisfaction with health care while "on the road." Occupational and environmental health nurses could address the health needs of drivers by conducting examinations and distributing wellness information at truck stop clinics and from mobile health vans, posting health information within truck stop driver lounges, creating interactive websites with real-time health care information, attending trucker trade shows to conduct health screening, or providing health information through occupational or trade magazines and newsletters. PMID:19780514

Layne, Diane M; Rogers, Bonnie; Randolph, Susan A

2009-10-01

321

Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions  

SciTech Connect

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

1999-07-01

322

Mediterranean diet and telomere length in Nurses’ Health Study: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121?700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32?825 women provided blood samples. Participants 4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data. Results Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were ?0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend=0.004). Conclusion In this large study, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. These results further support the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for promoting health and longevity. PMID:25467028

Crous-Bou, Marta; Fung, Teresa T; Prescott, Jennifer; Julin, Bettina; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank B

2014-01-01

323

Education, sense of mastery and mental health: results from a nation wide health monitoring study in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that people with low level of education have increased rates of mental health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between level of education and psychological distress, and to explore to which extent the association is mediated by sense of mastery, and social variables like social support, negative life events,

Odd Steffen Dalgard; Arnstein Mykletun; Marit Rognerud; Rune Johansen; Per Henrik Zahl

2007-01-01

324

Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

2011-01-01

325

Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

2012-01-01

326

Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life. PMID:23800179

2013-01-01

327

Towards National eHealth Implementation--a comparative study on WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit in Iran.  

PubMed

Experiences has shown that utilization of ICT in health sector requires national commitment and planned efforts to make the best use of existing capacity. Establishing the main directions as well as planning the detailed steps needed are key to achieving longer-term goals such as health sector efficiency, reform or more fundamental transformation. Collaboration between the health and ICT sectors, both public and private, is central to this effort. As the major United Nations agencies for health and telecommunications respectively, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have recognized the importance of collaboration for eHealth in their global resolutions, which encourage countries to develop national eHealth strategies; the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is the proof of these recommendations. In this study a mapping of eHealth components in WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit and our national eHealth vision is presented. PMID:25160183

Riazi, Hossein; Jafarpour, Maryam; Bitaraf, Ehsan

2014-01-01

328

Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between the Use of Health Care Services and Functional Disability: The Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in the relationship between functional disability and the use of health care services in a nationally representative sample of older adults by using the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization. Design and Methods: The study used 12 years of longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004),

Mary Elizabeth Bowen; Hector M. Gonzalez

329

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed Central

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-01-01

330

Self-Rated Health Status and Subjective Health Complaints Associated with Health-Promoting Lifestyles among Urban Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Results Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Conclusions Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives. PMID:25671578

Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

2015-01-01

331

The Health Impacts of Housing Improvement: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies From 1887 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We conducted a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement. Methods. Forty-two bibliographic databases were searched for housing intervention studies from 1887 to 2007. Studies were appraised independently by H. T. and S. T. or E. S. for sources of bias. The data were tabulated and synthesized narratively, taking into account study quality. Results. Forty-five relevant studies were identified. Improvements in general, respiratory, and mental health were reported following warmth improvement measures, but these health improvements varied across studies. Varied health impacts were reported following housing-led neighborhood renewal. Studies from the developing world suggest that provision of basic housing amenities may lead to reduced illness. There were few reports of adverse health impacts following housing improvement. Some studies reported that the housing improvement was associated with positive impacts on socioeconomic determinants of health. Conclusions. Housing improvements, especially warmth improvements, can generate health improvements; there is little evidence of detrimental health impacts. The potential for health benefits may depend on baseline housing conditions and careful targeting of the intervention. Investigation of socioeconomic impacts associated with housing improvement is needed to investigate the potential for longer-term health impacts. PMID:19890174

Thomas, Sian; Sellstrom, Eva; Petticrew, Mark

2009-01-01

332

Applications of PIXE to studies in dental and mental healths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental composition of healthy and diseased teeth from 25 South Australian children have been determined using thick-target PIXE analysis. Different dental hard tissues, namely enamel, dentine, cementum and the amelodentinal junction, were analysed independently. A number of elements, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb have been detected, and their concentrations measured. The concentrations of some of the elements were found to vary considerably between: (a) healthy and diseased teeth, (b) teeth of the same type, and (c) different parts of the same tooth. Attempts have been made to correlate the concentrations of the various elements with the health of the teeth. In a pilot study, PIXE has also been applied for Pb analysis in the teeth of a few mentally retarded children. The teeth of all the children, with the exception of one who was suffering from Downe's syndrome, were found to contain appreciable amounts of lead. It is suggested that PIXE would provide a more convenient and accurate form of analysis than destructive chemical methods, for correlating Pb in children's teeth with their mental abilities.

Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Ainsworth, T.

1981-03-01

333

Studying the effects of health plan competition: are available data resources up to the task?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review the availability of data sources to study health plan competition in the United States. DATA SOURCES: The literature on health plan competition was reviewed. Possible data sources to study health plan competition were evaluated. Experts in the field of health plan competition were contacted about their knowledge of existing data sources. Principal Findings. There is much more quantitative data available on HMO plans than on other types of health plans that are growing in popularity, such as PPOs. A key source for health plan data, state health insurance filings, lacks information on beneficiaries in non-HMO plans. Data on health plan quality is growing. In addition, case studies of particular markets is providing useful qualitative information on the dynamics of the health plan industry. CONCLUSIONS: The fragmentation of the health care market and the hesitancy of governments and private organizations to provide detailed information across markets and providers creates serious obstacles to the study of health plan competition. PMID:11327176

Mark, T L; Coffey, R M

2001-01-01

334

The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

2014-01-01

335

Medication Adherence and Health Care Utilization among Schizophrenia Inpatients after Discharged: A Cohort Study in Taiwan.  

E-print Network

??Purpose: This study investigate the relationship and factors between medication adherence and health care utilization among Schizophrenia inpatients after discharged, for reducing relapse rate, helping… (more)

Lin, Pei-Yu

2015-01-01

336

Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

337

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in a health and safety study, unless the information...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the portion...sufficient to interpret the studies. (c) Denial of confidentiality...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the information...interpret a health and safety study. (d) Use of...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in a health and safety study, unless the information...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the portion...sufficient to interpret the studies. (c) Denial of confidentiality...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the information...interpret a health and safety study. (d) Use of...

2011-07-01

339

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in a health and safety study, unless the information...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the portion...sufficient to interpret the studies. (c) Denial of confidentiality...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the information...interpret a health and safety study. (d) Use of...

2014-07-01

340

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in a health and safety study, unless the information...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the portion...sufficient to interpret the studies. (c) Denial of confidentiality...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the information...interpret a health and safety study. (d) Use of...

2012-07-01

341

40 CFR 720.90 - Data from health and safety studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in a health and safety study, unless the information...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the portion...sufficient to interpret the studies. (c) Denial of confidentiality...mixture. (2) In the case of a mixture, the information...interpret a health and safety study. (d) Use of...

2013-07-01

342

Health Services and Disease Profile of Hyderabad City. A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to primarily get an overview of the availability health services and disease patterns in Hyderabad. Some broad picture has emerged as an outcome of this study but it needs to be again mentioned that this is only an incomplete picture as a lot of health data is not represented in this study due to

Sheela Prasad; C. Ramachandraiah

2007-01-01

343

Enabling pathways to health equity: developing a framework for implementing social capital in practice  

PubMed Central

Background Mounting evidence linking aspects of social capital to health and wellbeing outcomes, in particular to reducing health inequities, has led to intense interest in social capital theory within public health in recent decades. As a result, governments internationally are designing interventions to improve health and wellbeing by addressing levels of social capital in communities. The application of theory to practice is uneven, however, reflecting differing views on the pathways between social capital and health, and divergent theories about social capital itself. Unreliable implementation may restrict the potential to contribute to health equity by this means, yet to date there has been limited investigation of how the theory is interpreted at the level of policy and then translated into practice. Methods The paper outlines a collaborative research project designed to address this knowledge deficit in order to inform more effective implementation. Undertaken in partnership with government departments, the study explored the application of social capital theory in programs designed to promote health and wellbeing in Adelaide, South Australia. It comprised three case studies of community-based practice, employing qualitative interviews and focus groups with community participants, practitioners, program managers and policy makers, to examine the ways in which the concept was interpreted and operationalized and identify the factors influencing success. These key lessons informed the development of practical resources comprising a guide for practitioners and briefing for policy makers. Results Overall the study showed that effective community projects can contribute to population health and wellbeing and reducing health inequities. Of specific relevance to this paper, however, is the finding that community projects rely for their effectiveness on a broader commitment expressed through policies and frameworks at the highest level of government decision making. In particular this relationship requires long term vision, endorsement for cross-sectoral work, well-developed relationships and theoretical and practical knowledge. Conclusions Attention to the practical application of social capital theory shows that community projects require structural support in their efforts to improve health and wellbeing and reduce health inequities. Sound community development techniques are essential but do not operate independently from frameworks and policies at the highest levels of government. Recognition of the interdependence of policy and practice will enable government to achieve these goals more effectively. PMID:23714388

2013-01-01

344

Health.  

PubMed Central

Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illness and with political and other deviancies which are not illnesses. PMID:3806628

Hare, R M

1986-01-01

345

Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

346

The Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health Partnership Study: Multisector Partnerships in US Counties with Improving Health Metrics  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multisector partnerships are promoted as a mechanism to improve population health. This study explored the types and salient features of multisector partnerships in US counties with improving population health metrics. Methods We used the “Framework for Understanding Cross-Sector Collaborations” proposed by Bryson, Crosby, and Stone to guide data collection and interpretation. Comparative case studies were conducted in 4 counties selected on the basis of population, geographic region, an age-adjusted mortality decline better than the US average, and stable per capita income. Data were collected through website and report reviews and through in-depth interviews with key informants (N = 59) representing multiple sectors. County reports were developed and cross-case themes related to partnership types and salient features were derived. Results Multisector collaboration was common in all 4 counties despite substantial variations in population, geographic size, demographic diversity, and other characteristics. Most partnerships were formed by professionals and organizations to improve delivery of health and social services to vulnerable populations or to generate policy, system, and environment changes. Multisector collaboration was valued in all cases. Outcomes attributed to partnerships included short- and long-term effects that contributed to improved population health. Conclusion The Bryson, Crosby, and Stone model is a useful framework for conducting case study research on multisector partnerships. Outcomes attributed to the multisector partnerships have the potential to contribute to improvement in population health. Further study is needed to confirm whether multisector partnerships are necessary for improving population health within counties and to understand which partnership characteristics are critical for success. PMID:24406092

Oliver, Thomas R.; Siemering, Kirstin Q.

2014-01-01

347

Agricultural exposures and stroke mortality in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Exposures associated with common agricultural activities may increase risk of stroke. The authors evaluated associations between self-reported agricultural activities including pesticide use and handling of crops and stroke mortality among 51,603 male pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Vital status was obtained through 2008. Stroke mortality was defined by underlying or contributing cause of death (ICD-9 430–438, ICD-10 I60-I69). Information regarding lifetime pesticide use, working with crops or animals, engagement in other agricultural activities, and potential confounders was self-reported at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for state of residence, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Median follow-up time was 13 years, during which 308 stroke deaths occurred. No measure of overall or specific pesticide use was positively associated with mortality due to stroke. Stroke mortality was inversely associated with handling hay, grain, or silage at least once each year as reported at enrollment (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98). There was no evidence of an association between pesticide use and stroke mortality. The inverse association between handling of hays and grains and stroke mortality may be due to (1) those engaging in such activities being healthier than those who did not or (2) exposure to some biological agent present in hays and grains. Further investigation of incident stroke, rather than stroke mortality, as well as stroke subtypes are needed to determine the full role of agricultural exposures and stroke. PMID:24028665

Rinsky, Jessica L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Blair, Aaron; He, Ka; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Chen, Honglei

2013-01-01

348

International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study  

PubMed Central

Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n?=?158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

2014-01-01

349

Managers’ understanding of workplace health promotion within small and medium-sized enterprises: A phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers’ understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises.Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted.Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise managers from a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland.Method: In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with a

Ann Moore; Kader Parahoo; Paul Fleming

2011-01-01

350

Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

351

Sugar, Metabolism and Human Health Studies emerging from the school's Department of Molecular Biosciences are helping the health profession  

E-print Network

Sugar, Metabolism and Human Health Studies emerging from the school's Department of Molecular of the RBP-4 protein--all of which are associated with insulin resistance. Too much sugar ­The molecular biosciences team discovered that adults who consume lots of sugar face significantly higher risks of heart

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

352

Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

353

Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p < .001) and their siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p < .005). ID had more decayed (3.52; p < .005), and missing teeth (1.17; p = .001), fewer dental restorations (1.67; p = .012) and had a greater need for tooth extraction (21.4%; p = .002) than their siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. PMID:24164223

Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

2013-01-01

354

Strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa: A Delphi consensus study  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on oral health contributes to improved health outcomes; it is an indispensable tool in health policy. But how to fill the gaps in research oral health and to strengthen its capacity is the question. The main objective of the present study is to identify the current status of oral health research and potential strategies, thereby strengthening the research infrastructure and capacity. Delphi consultation, in the perspective of assisting decision-makers to identify strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa, was initiated. Design and Methods: The panels of 30 experts were asked to complete the questionnaire with 42 items into four groups by web survey. Each indicator statement was considered to be in consensus if the expert's opinion rating was of “A or B” for more than 75% in a scale of seven categories. Quantitative analysis was made from the answers of Delphi round. Results: There was a strong consensus about three items concerning the role of oral health research, the development of research policy for oral health going through an effective governance of research institutes, migration of researchers and fund raising. Conclusion: This study shows strong many dispersal opinions by experts, but highlights the need for to improve the effectiveness of oral health research capacity strengthening activities. Africa's researchers, policy makers and partners will have to give special attention to ensuring that knowledge generated from oral health research is acted on to improve health for all. PMID:24808689

Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

2014-01-01

355

Health behaviors and quality of life in Chinese survivors of cervical cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate health behaviors and quality of life (QoL) in cervical cancer survivors, and to identify factors that may compromise or enhance their health-related QoL. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from the records of 102 consecutive patients with cervical cancer treated from May 2007 to January 2009 at the People’s Hospital of Xintai City in Shandong Province. The study methodology was guided by the contextual model of health-related QoL. Results The results showed the significant mediating effects of general health status and psychological well-being between life burden and health-related QoL, between sexual impact of the disease and health-related QoL, and between the patient–doctor relationship and health-related QoL. In addition, there were a significant association between health-related QoL, education level, tumor stage, marital status, and age. Life burden and the patient-doctor relationship was also related to the sexual impact of the disease. However, no significant difference in health-related QoL and sexual impact was observed according to type of treatment received. Conclusion These results advance our understanding of the predictors of health-related QoL and the relationship between them. Health-related QoL in cervical cancer survivors may be improved by mediating life burden, sexual functioning, and the patient–doctor relationship. PMID:24790461

Nie, Shu-xia; Gao, Chuan-qiang

2014-01-01

356

African-American men's perceptions of health: a focus group study.  

PubMed Central

African-American men are disproportionately affected by preventable medical conditions, yet they underutilize primary care health services. Because healthcare utilization is strongly dependent on health beliefs, the purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore African-American men's perceptions of health and health influences. We conducted eight focus group interviews with select subgroups of African-American men, including adolescents, trauma survivors, HIV-positive men, homeless men, men who have sex with men, substance abusers, church-affiliated men and a mixed sample (N=71). Definitions of health, beliefs about health maintenance and influences on health were elicited. Participants' definitions of health went beyond the traditional "absence of disease" definition and included physical, mental, emotional, economic and spiritual well-being. Being healthy also included fulfilling social roles, such as having a job and providing for one's family. Health maintenance strategies included spirituality and self-empowerment. Stress was cited as a dominant negative influence on health, attributed to lack of income, racism, "unhealthy" neighborhoods and conflict in relationships. Positive influences included a supportive social network and feeling valued by loved ones. This study provides insight into African-American men's general health perceptions and may have implications for future efforts to improve healthcare utilization in this population. PMID:16623067

Ravenell, Joseph E.; Johnson, Waldo E.; Whitaker, Eric E.

2006-01-01

357

Post-Disaster Mental Health Problems and the Utilization of Mental Health Services: A Four-year Longitudinal Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined mental health problems and mental health services (MHS) utilization after a fireworks disaster among adult\\u000a survivors and a comparison group. The disaster took place on May 13, 2000, in the city of Enschede, The Netherlands. Victims\\u000a (N=662) participated in a survey 2–3 weeks (T1), 18 months (T2) and 4 years (T3) post-disaster. The comparison group consisted\\u000a of non-affected people from

Peter G. Van der Velden; Linda Grievink; Rolf J. Kleber; Annelieke N. Drogendijk; Albert-Jan R. Roskam; Frans G. H. Marcelissen; Miranda Olff; Mariel L. Meewisse; Berthold P. R. Gersons

2006-01-01

358

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2  

PubMed Central

Importance Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Setting Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. Participants A total of 96 469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73 308 participants remained after exclusions. Exposures Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo–vegetarian, and vegan. Main Outcome and Measure The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. Results There were 2570 deaths among 73 308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82–6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs non-vegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73–1.01); in lacto-ovo–vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82–1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75–1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Conclusions and Relevance Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered carefully by those offering dietary guidance. PMID:23836264

Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E.

2014-01-01

359

Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

2013-01-01

360

Diffusion of e-health innovations in ‘post-conflict’ settings: a qualitative study on the personal experiences of health workers  

PubMed Central

Background Technological innovations have the potential to strengthen human resources for health and improve access and quality of care in challenging ‘post-conflict’ contexts. However, analyses on the adoption of technology for health (that is, ‘e-health’) and whether and how e-health can strengthen a health workforce in these settings have been limited so far. This study explores the personal experiences of health workers using e-health innovations in selected post-conflict situations. Methods This study had a cross-sectional qualitative design. Telephone interviews were conducted with 12 health workers, from a variety of cadres and stages in their careers, from four post-conflict settings (Liberia, West Bank and Gaza, Sierra Leone and Somaliland) in 2012. Everett Roger’s diffusion of innovation-decision model (that is, knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, contemplation) guided the thematic analysis. Results All health workers interviewed held positive perceptions of e-health, related to their beliefs that e-health can help them to access information and communicate with other health workers. However, understanding of the scope of e-health was generally limited, and often based on innovations that health workers have been introduced through by their international partners. Health workers reported a range of engagement with e-health innovations, mostly for communication (for example, email) and educational purposes (for example, online learning platforms). Poor, unreliable and unaffordable Internet was a commonly mentioned barrier to e-health use. Scaling-up existing e-health partnerships and innovations were suggested starting points to increase e-health innovation dissemination. Conclusions Results from this study showed ICT based e-health innovations can relieve information and communication needs of health workers in post-conflict settings. However, more efforts and investments, preferably driven by healthcare workers within the post-conflict context, are needed to make e-health more widespread and sustainable. Increased awareness is necessary among health professionals, even among current e-health users, and physical and financial access barriers need to be addressed. Future e-health initiatives are likely to increase their impact if based on perceived health information needs of intended users. PMID:24754997

2014-01-01

361

Health region development from the perspective of system theory - An empirical cross-regional case study.  

PubMed

Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. PMID:24923839

Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

2015-01-01

362

Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

2014-01-01

363

Case Study: The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting in

Brahmadeo Dewprashad

2010-01-01

364

Socioeconomic inequity in health care: A study of services utilization in Curaçao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine whether there is socioeconomic equity in health care utilization in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. We explore how educational level is related to utilization of GPs, specialists, hospitals, dentists and physiotherapists, taking into account the effects of sex, age and inequalities in health. The study also examines whether these relationships vary according to the

Jantina F. Alberts; Robbert Sanderman; J. Marietta Eimers

1997-01-01

365

Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health  

E-print Network

Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health Duncan Lee, Gavin://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health. Duncan Lee (1), Gavin to air pollution on respiratory mortality in the elderly (aged 65 and above) in London, England, between

Burton, Geoffrey R.

366

Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health

Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

2005-01-01

367

PhD Scholarship in an EU Cost-effectiveness Study of Diabetes and Health Literacy  

E-print Network

PhD Scholarship in an EU Cost-effectiveness Study of Diabetes and Health Literacy UCD Michael for a 3 year fully funded PhD Scholarship in the research area of diabetes and health literacy, commencing commencing in January 2013. The title of the study is `Enhancing (cost-) effectiveness of diabetes self

368

Participatory Design for Social Development: A South African Case Study on Community-Based Health  

E-print Network

and communication technologies (ICTs) to support both the routine and nonroutine data reporting systemsParticipatory Design for Social Development: A South African Case Study on Community-Based Health these understandings and bases its analysis on a case study of a community-based health IS in South Africa. The case

Sahay, Sundeep

369

Air pollutant monitoring for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the methodology and presents the summary results of the air pollutant monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in support of the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study. The full study is examining the effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related pollutants on respiratory health among 3rd and 4th grade children attending ten neighborhood elementary schools in

Brett C. Singer; Toshifumi Hotchi; Alfred T. Hodgson

2002-01-01

370

Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

2011-01-01

371

Community Health: Course Administrator Manual [And] Supplemental Readings [And] Unit Study Guides [And] Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in community health services designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Community Health" (Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1970), the package contains a course administrator manual, a student unit study guide, and…

Reed, Charles E.

372

Determinants of innovation within health care organizations: Literature review and Delphi study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. When introducing innovations to health care, it is important to gain insight into determinants that may facilitate or impede the introduction, in order to design an appropriate strategy for introducing the innovation. To obtain an overview of determinants of innovations in health care organizations, we carried out a literature review and a Delphi study. The Delphi study was intended

MARGOT FLEUREN; KARIN WIEFFERINK; THEO PAULUSSEN

2004-01-01

373

Case Study of a Participatory Health-Promotion Intervention in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health-promotion changes. The study is related to an EU intervention project aiming to promote health and well-being among children (4-16 years). Qualitative research was carried out in a school in the Netherlands. Data sources include…

Simovska, Venka

2012-01-01

374

Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

2008-01-01

375

A National Study of Fluoride Mouthrinse Adoption: Implications for School Health Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ongoing adoption of school-based fluoride mouthrinse programs has provided the opportunity to study issues surrounding the adoption and implementation of health technology by public schools. This article reports data on and implications of the National Study on the Diffusion of Preventive Health Measures to Schools. (Authors/CJ)

Coombs, Jeanne A.; And Others

1983-01-01

376

Health Literacy Study Circles[superscript +]. Introduction: Overview, Planning, and Facilitation Tips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is a multi-session professional development activity for adult education practitioners, conducted by a facilitator. All the information and materials required to conduct each Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is presented in two parts: this Introduction and the "Facilitator's Guide" for each…

Rudd, Rima; Soricone, Lisa; Santos, Maricel; Zobel, Emily; Smith, Janet

2005-01-01

377

A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United States, there is a need to develop rigorous acculturation measures that include health indicators. Findings suggest that multidimensional acculturation scales are robust measurement tools when assessing nationality, cultural awareness, media and language preferences, and health status. Furthermore, aspects of Hispanic cultural lifestyle, such as beliefs about nutrition and physical activity, affect health care utilization, treatment, and prevention. Health communication researchers should consider aspects of cultural values and beliefs, and their impact on health status, for future research and health promotion interventions. PMID:20582238

Wallace, Phyllis M; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Latimer, Amy E; Martinez, Josefa L; Salovey, Peter

2010-02-01

378

Protecting Health Using an Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of San Francisco Land Use Decisionmaking  

PubMed Central

Laws and regulations for an environmental impact assessment enable a health impact assessment whenever physical changes in the environment may significantly affect health. In this case study, I describe 2 instances in which a local public health agency used the procedural requirements for an environmental impact assessment to account for societal-level health determinants that are not traditionally evaluated in land-use decisions. These examples show that a public health critique can contribute both to the scope of analysis in an environmental impact assessment and to substantive changes in land-use decisions. I have evaluated this health appraisal approach as a form of a health impact assessment and will make recommendations for law, research, and practice that support its technical, cultural, and political feasibility. PMID:17267726

Bhatia, Rajiv

2007-01-01

379

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals and health centres in Ghana: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination) in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i) to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii) to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47%) hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD) of 12%. Ten (59%) hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%). Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18%) were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%). Eight health centres (47%) were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres) in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms. PMID:16188021

Osei, Daniel; d'Almeida, Selassi; George, Melvill O; Kirigia, Joses M; Mensah, Ayayi Omar; Kainyu, Lenity H

2005-01-01

380

Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

2014-01-01

381

A Study of Persistence in the Northeast State Community College Health-Related Programs of Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to identify factors that were positively associated with persistence to graduation by students who were admitted to Health-Related Programs leading to the degree associate of applied science at Northeast State Community College. The criterion variable in this study was persistence, which was categorized into two groups the persister group (program completers) and the nonpersister (program noncompleters) group. The predictor variables included gender, ethnic origin, first- (or nonfirst-) generation-student status, age, specific major program of study, number of remedial and/or developmental courses taken, grades in selected courses (human anatomy and physiology I and II, microbiology, probability and statistics, composition I, clinical I, clinical II), and number of mathematics and science credit hours earned prior to program admission. The data for this ex post facto nonexperimental design were located in Northeast State's student records database, Banner Information System. The subjects of the study were students who had been admitted into Health-Related Programs of study at a 2-year public community college between the years of 1999 and 2008. The population size was 761. Health-Related Programs of study included Dental Assisting, Cardiovascular Technology, Emergency Medical Technology -- Paramedic, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, and Surgical Technology. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was used in the analysis of the data. Descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, standard deviations, and percentages, as appropriate. Independent samples t-tests were used to determine if the mean of a variable on one group of subjects was different from the mean of the same variable with a different group of subjects. It was found that gender, ethnic origin, first-generation status, and age were not significantly associated with persistence to graduation. However, findings did reveal a statistically significant difference in persistence rates among the specific Health-Related Programs of study. Academic data including grades in human anatomy and physiology I, probability and statistics, and composition I, suggested a relationship between the course grade and persistence to graduation. Findings also revealed a relationship between the number of math and science courses completed and students' persistence to graduation.

Hamilton, Allana R.

2011-12-01

382

Occupational Health and Industrial Wind Turbines: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial wind turbines (IWTs) are being installed at a fast pace globally. Researchers, medical practitioners, and media have reported adverse health effects resulting from living in the environs of IWTs. While there have been some anecdotal reports from technicians and other workers who work in the environs of IWTs, little is known about the…

Rand, Robert W.; Ambrose, Stephen E.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

2011-01-01

383

Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

Vaughan, Kate

2009-01-01

384

Precautionary Health Risk Assessment: Case Study of Biological Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional risk assessment approaches, experts define the scientific questions that can legitimately be asked and the burden of proof is on the potentially exposed community to show that a proposal is unsafe. Here I propose an alternative approach, precautionary health risk assessment, in which the scientific questions to be addressed are defined by community consultation. I illustrate the approach

Simon Hales

2004-01-01

385

Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

2003-01-01

386

A qualitative study of citizens' experience of participating in health counseling.  

PubMed

Individual health counseling is a form of intervention designed to minimize the effects of chronic health disease and to offer a path towards good health practices. The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences of those persons who participated in health counseling in order to assess the psychosocial significance of the counseling upon their health behavior. In addition the study was concerned with the factors which underlay peoples' decision to sign up for health counseling. The research involved 11 semi-structured interviews with individuals who had participated in a municipality based health counseling program. Data was analyzed using Malterud's systemic text condensation and a theoretical framework around Bandura's social cognitive theory. Analysis revealed that an approach tailored to each individual with minor short-term goals accompanied by feeling supported by the counselor produced the greatest impact on behavior. Receiving feedback from the counselor and feeling positive about the relationship were seen as essential. These aspects were also crucial in the decision to undertake health counseling. The study indicates that whether individual's sign up on their own initiative or conversely are invited to join the program has no influence upon their motivation to change their behavior. Overall the respondents demonstrated improvement in their behavior and attitudes towards their health. However, the study also indicates that this form of intervention is less or even ineffective without the support of the individual's immediate family. PMID:25251392

Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Andersen, Stinne Sonne; Muurholm, Britt; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

2014-12-01

387

Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.  

PubMed

Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health. PMID:22437630

Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

2013-09-01

388

An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

2011-01-01

389

Qualitative study of health information needs, flow, and use in Senegal.  

PubMed

Many health professionals and policymakers in Africa lack access to the information needed to make evidence-based decisions for effective health care. This study collected qualitative data from 75 key informants and members of two focus groups in Senegal on various aspects of health information needs, particularly in family planning and reproductive health, including information sources, strategies, and systems to transfer and share information; and barriers to accessing, sharing, and using health information. Respondents reported needing information on ways to motivate men's involvement in reproductive health and to address rumors and religious barriers to family planning. Results identified mobile phones as one scalable platform to improve health knowledge. Nevertheless, a nearly universal and persistent need for paper-based information exists, and many health personnel prefer interpersonal communication as a method for information sharing, knowledge synthesis, and learning. Hierarchy and social organization play a crucial role in the flow of communication and in knowledge exchange. The study also identified the importance of political support for a comprehensive knowledge management strategy for the health sector, including the need for strategies to empower and better support the knowledge role of health coordinators and supervisors. PMID:22724671

Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Robinson, Elizabeth T; Raney, Laura; Seck, Karim

2012-01-01

390

Cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose), were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral PWV and pulse pressure measured at 4- to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by PWV and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m s(-1)) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m s(-1)) (P < 0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P = 0.004). PMID:24384629

Crichton, G E; Elias, M F; Robbins, M A

2014-07-01

391

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Genome-Wide Data.  

PubMed

Here we provide a detailed description of the genome-wide information available on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pair subsample (Harris et al. in Twin Res Hum Genet 16:391-398, 2013). A total of 2,020 samples were genotyped (including duplicates) arising from 1946 Add Health individuals from the sibling pairs subsample. After various steps for quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), we have high quality genome-wide data available on 1,888 individuals. In this report, we first highlight the QC and QA steps that were taken to prune the data of poorly performing samples and genetic markers. We further estimate the pairwise biological relationships using genome-wide data and compare those estimates to the assumed relationships in Add Health. Additionally, using genome-wide data from known regional reference populations from Europe, West Africa, North and South America, Japan and China, we estimate the relative genetic ancestry of the respondents. Finally, rather than conducting a traditional cross-sectional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI), we opted to utilize the extensive publicly available genome-wide information to conduct a weighted GWAS of longitudinal BMI while accounting for both family and ethnic variation. PMID:25378290

McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W; Smolen, Andrew; Tabor, Joyce; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Halpern, Carolyn T; Whitsel, Eric A; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

2014-11-01

392

Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578?607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change ?72 DALYs (95% credible interval ?110 to ?43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; ?15 (?42 to ?6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change ?49 DALYs (?88 to ?17) among men; ?1 DALY (?27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age group (15 to 29 years), the medium term benefits and harms were both comparatively small and potentially negative. Conclusion London’s bicycle sharing system has positive health impacts overall, but these benefits are clearer for men than for women and for older users than for younger users. The potential benefits of cycling may not currently apply to all groups in all settings. PMID:24524928

2014-01-01

393

Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

394

An exploratory analysis of large health cohort study using Bayesian networks  

E-print Network

Large health cohort studies are among the most effective ways in studying the causes, treatments and outcomes of diseases by systematically collecting a wide range of data over long periods. The wealth of data in such ...

Shen, Delin

2006-01-01

395

Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. METHODS: A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women)

Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm

2002-01-01

396

Refugee Resettlement Programmes as Potential Mental Health Promoting Settings? A Qualitative Study of Resettlement Staff's Constructions of Refugees' Mental Health in Everyday Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the potential of refugee resettlement programmes as mental healthpromoting settings, this study examines resettlement staff's constructions of refugees' health in everyday episodes within the resettlement programme. Everyday episodes relating to refugees' health were collected through individual and group interviews with 28 members of staff, and analysed using grounded theory methodology. The constructions of health in these

Fredrik Lindencrona; Solvig Ekblad

2006-01-01

397

Social networks, social capital, and mental health While traditionally most studies of the effects of interpersonal relationships on health have focused primarily on social  

E-print Network

Social networks, social capital, and mental health While traditionally most studies of the effects networks are relevant to the epidemiology of mental health, and found that depressive symptoms can spread individuals. In this project we adopt and further extend this network- based perspective on mental health

Banaji,. Murad

398

BAOBAB HEALTH SURVEY IN BOTSWANA AND NAMIBIA Prepared by: Elsie de Meyer (Ph.D. candidate studying the health of Baobabs)  

E-print Network

BAOBAB HEALTH SURVEY IN BOTSWANA AND NAMIBIA Prepared by: Elsie de Meyer (Ph.D. candidate studying the health of Baobabs) Baobabs are amongst the most recognisable and well loved of all trees. They play diseases that affect the health of baobabs. In recent years, there have been a number of reports of baobab

399

[Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].  

PubMed

The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country. PMID:12061096

Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

2002-05-01

400

A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action  

PubMed Central

Background Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. Objective To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. Design We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms ‘global health’ or ‘international health’ to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. Results More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. Conclusions The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both internal and external collaboration. A number of solutions to address these challenges are proposed. PMID:25172428

Pinto, Andrew D.; Cole, Donald C.; ter Kuile, Aleida; Forman, Lisa; Rouleau, Katherine; Philpott, Jane; Pakes, Barry; Jackson, Suzanne; Muntaner, Carles

2014-01-01

401

Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1) sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2) Impacts of RA, and 3) Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA. PMID:20950461

2010-01-01

402

Health Care Utilization and Symptom Severity in Ghanaian Children – a Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment. PMID:24244698

Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

2013-01-01

403

Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment. PMID:24244698

Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

2013-01-01

404

Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to consider climate change and its impact on human health. Approaches to include health aspects of climate change within sectoral and climate change specific policies should be encouraged, via a number of mechanisms, such as the Health in All Policies approach. Future research could support the Fiji health sector in developing climate change and health programmes. PMID:24836442

Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

2014-01-01

405

What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. Methods The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining either (a) the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b) the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. Results Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. Conclusions Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such interventions should include an assessment of their impacts on obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:23967064

Saunders, Lucinda E.; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen

2013-01-01

406

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators. PMID:19622172

Haq, Zaeem; Hafeez, Assad

2009-01-01

407

The administrative costs of community-based health insurance: a case study of the community health fund in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Community-based health insurance expansion has been proposed as a financing solution for the sizable informal sector in low-income settings. However, there is limited evidence of the administrative costs of such schemes. We assessed annual facility and district-level costs of running the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary health insurance scheme for the informal sector in a rural and an urban district from the same region in Tanzania. Information on resource use, CHF membership and revenue was obtained from district managers and health workers from two facilities in each district. The administrative cost per CHF member household and the cost to revenue ratio were estimated. Revenue collection was the most costly activity at facility level (78% of total costs), followed by stewardship and management (13%) and pooling of funds (10%). Stewardship and management was the main activity at district level. The administration cost per CHF member household ranged from USD 3.33 to USD 12.12 per year. The cost to revenue ratio ranged from 50% to 364%. The cost of administering the CHF was high relative to revenue generated. Similar studies from other settings should be encouraged. PMID:24334331

Borghi, Josephine; Makawia, Suzan; Kuwawenaruwa, August

2015-02-01

408

The silence of mental health issues within university environments: a quantitative study.  

PubMed

A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems. PMID:25439976

Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise

2014-10-01

409

Behavioral health staff's perceptions of pet-assisted therapy: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The purpose and objectives of this exploratory descriptive study were threefold: to assess the impact of pet-assisted therapy on the overall well-being of behavioral health staff, to document whether pet-assisted therapy affected the retention of behavioral health staff, and to explore and describe therapeutic measures behavioral health staff implemented in using pet-assisted therapy in the delivery of mental health patient care. The participants in this study were 10 behavioral health staff members who were involved with the pet-assisted therapy program at a private psychiatric hospital in a Chicago suburb. Themes that emerged from the study included Self-Awareness, Morale, Innovative Therapeutic Strategies, Challenges, and Future Directions. This article describes these themes in detail, provides quotations from participants to further highlight meaning, and discusses the powerful effect of pet-assisted therapy on both patients and staff in the therapeutic milieu. PMID:18822998

Rossetti, Jeanette; DeFabiis, Susanne; Belpedio, Camille

2008-09-01

410

Reconstruction of health-seeking behaviors: a comparative study of three Asian Pacific immigrant groups.  

PubMed

In this article, I explore how health-seeking behaviors of immigrants are reconstructed and shaped during the adaptation process by comparing the experiences of three Asian Pacific immigrant groups in Hawaii: Filipinos, Koreans, and Marshallese. A total of 91 participants (52 new immigrants, 22 ethnic community key informants, and 17 service providers) completed in-depth interviews. All three groups of immigrants experienced significant changes in their health-seeking behaviors, but in different ways. Koreans experienced a dramatic decrease in seeking both primary and preventive health care after immigration, whereas Filipinos and Marshallese increased their health-seeking behaviors. Coupled with the previous health care experiences in their home country and individual characteristics, the social context of the host country, to a great degree, influenced the formation of health-seeking behaviors after immigration. The study findings suggest that tailored interventions should take into account the source of behavioral change and difficulties that each immigrant group experiences. PMID:23427079

Choi, Jin Young

2013-04-01

411

The Benefits of Dispositional Mindfulness in Physical Health: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (e.g., sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants: Participants included 441 college women. Methods: Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5…

Murphy, Megan J.; Mermelstein, Liza C.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

2012-01-01

412

Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Indian public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. METHODS: The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of Indian mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in

Erminia Colucci; Claire M Kelly; Harry Minas; Anthony F Jorm; Sudipto Chatterjee

2010-01-01

413

Health-Risk Behaviors and Suicidal Ideation: A Preliminary Study of Cognitive and Developmental Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theorists have suggested that unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and problem drinking may be subtle forms of suicidality. Consistent with this view, prior research has shown an association between health risk behaviors and suicidal ideation. In the present study we examined relationships among suicidal ideation, health-related…

Ellis, Thomas E.; Trumpower, David

2008-01-01

414

Self-Study and Evaluation Guide/1979 Edition. Section D-27: Health Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health service standards are presented for agencies serving blind and visually handicapped students. Standards are presented in self study format for 12 aspects of health service programs: planning and organization; personnel; medical evaluation services; emergency care; routine medical services; vision services; hearing services; dental services;…

National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

415

Physical education and health promotion: a qualitative study of teachers’ perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the findings from semi-structured interviews with 35 physical education (PE) teachers in secondary schools in the Northwest of England. A principal aim of the study was to examine the extent to which health promotion had become a central feature of PE teachers’ ‘’philosophies” and practices. The findings indicated that the views of many teachers were heavily tinted with health-related

Ken Green; Miranda Thurston

2002-01-01

416

Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

2012-01-01

417

Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

2011-01-01

418

Assessing Trauma-Informed Care Readiness in Behavioral Health: An Organizational Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this organizational case study the authors pilot a new protocol for evaluating and developing trauma-informed care in behavioral health settings. Methods: A mixed methods design was used to collect data with three instruments: the Adverse Childhood Experiences, the Consumer Perceptions of Care, and the Community Readiness Model key informant interview. Adults (N = 138) in a behavioral health

Samantha Anne Farro; Colleen Clark; Cary Hopkins Eyles

2011-01-01

419

An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as medical/professional school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination process that limits…

Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

420

A Study of Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) Students Within Health Science Career Preparation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation of minority students within health science career preparation programs is investigated in this study from the University of Washington. The history of minority admissions to medical and nursing schools throughout the country is reviewed. Health sciences programs for minorities at the university are discussed and the impact of the…

James, William H.; And Others

421

THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CHILD HEALTH AND CDEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Children's Health Act of 2000 authorized a consortium of Federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), to develop and implement a prospective cohort study, evaluate the effects of both chronic and intermittent exposures on child health and h...

422

A Study of the Participation of Women in the Health Care Industry Labor Force. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic and personal circumstances of women in health occupations and their labor market behavior. Using a conceptual framework (the Life Patterning Process), discussions were held in six states with a total of 279 women representing five health occupations: registered nurses,…

Lebowitz, Ann, Ed.

423

Adverse Health Outcomes Among Cosmetologists and Noncosmetologists in the Reproductive Outcomes of Salon Employees (Rose) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine adverse health outcomes, including those related to cardiovascular and skin health as well as respiratory functions, among cosmetologists aged 21 to 55 yr and to compare data to women of the same age working in other occupations. Self-reported data were analyzed from 450 cosmetologists and 511 women in other occupations who participated

Lisa Gallicchio; Susan R. Miller; Teresa Greene; Howard Zacur; Jodi A. Flaws

2010-01-01

424

Facilitating Teachers' Participation in School?Based Health Promotion—A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is on examining Norwegian teachers' perception of what factors at the school's organisational level have facilitated their participation in a school?based health promotion project. The study is based on 12 semistructured interviews with teachers from two of the pilot schools participating in the European Network of Health Promoting Schools. The findings indicate that there are

Nina Grieg Viig; Bente Wold

2005-01-01

425

Health among Swedish employees and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background. The present study is part of a 3-year longitudinal study on work and health among employees in the public sector in Sweden. The aim was to study associations between self-rated health (SRH) and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Methods. Of the 9003 employees, 7533 answered the baseline questionnaires (84%). Altogether 9373 subjects received the follow-up questionnaire, and 6617 subjects responded (71%). In total 4240 completed the questionnaire on both occasions, and this group comprised the study population. SRH consisted of the response to a single question: ‘In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, poor, or very poor?' The health was investigated in terms of the development of health status in the 3-year follow-up. The exposure factors were: financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Odds ratios were analysed using logistic regressions. Results. Good financial situation and further education were predictors in maintaining good health and in avoiding poor health. The analysis also indicated the following determinants of sustained good SRH: having a good financial situation (OR 1.99 at baseline and OR 1.87 at follow-up), having a further education compared to lower education (OR 1.17 at baseline), and not having a worsening financial situation between baseline and follow-up (OR 0.53). Conclusion. Financial situation and educational level were important factors that influence the subjective perception of health. PMID:22862746

Vingård, Eva; Lampa, Erik; Wahlstedt, Kurt

2012-01-01

426

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (DNP Psych/Mental Health)  

E-print Network

4) 604 Evidence Based Practice I 4 606 Statistical Applications for Graduate Nursing 2 6 credits Spring (Semester 5) 605 Evidence Based Practice II 3 608 Design of Health Care Delivery Systems 3 6121 Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) 4 Yr Program of Study (DNP Psych/Mental Health) Year 1 Fall

Dyer, Bill

427

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

428

Humboldt County General Plan Update Health Impact Assessment: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a tool for deliberately planning for and optimizing the ways in which we design our environments, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) holds promise for achieving environmental justice and health equity. This case study describes the application of HIA to updating a rural county's General Plan. Humboldt County, California is currently considering three development plans to accommodate future population growth, and

E. Celia Harris; Ann Lindsay; Jonathan C. Heller; Kim Gilhuly; Melanie Williams; Brian Cox; Jennifer Rice

2009-01-01

429

Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

2006-01-01

430

STATISTICAL ISSUES IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AMBIENT ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although the ecologic effects of acid rain have been widely reported, relatively little is known about the effects of acidic air pollution on human health. Some epidemiologic and animal studies suggest, however, that acidity is an important determinant of the respiratory health e...

431

Development of a Health Literacy Assessment for Young Adult College Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants: Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services,…

Harper, Raquel

2014-01-01

432

University of Colorado study reports worse outcomes for older breast cancer patients with other health problems:  

Cancer.gov

Older breast cancer patients with certain other health problems have higher mortality rates than patients without these problems according to a study published online June 30. The other health problems, or "comorbidities," include heart attack and other heart-related problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and others.

433

The School Health Education Study + 50 Years: Scholars' Reflections on Its Impact and Legacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Launched 50 years ago, the School Health Education Study (SHES) examined the health education offerings in 135 public school systems, in 38 states, and over 1100 elementary schools and 350 secondary schools. In its second year, knowledge surveys were administered to students in grades 6, 9 and 12 at many of these schools. Analysis of…

McDermott, Robert J.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

2011-01-01

434

Television for the Promotion of Health and Nutrition Information--A Study of Indian Urban Viewers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of urban television viewers in India that examined television as an educational medium for promoting health and nutrition information. Data are reported on audience characteristics, viewing patterns and times, special audience programs, health and nutrition programs, format preferences, and audience reaction. (EAM)

Saibaba, A.; And Others

1993-01-01

435

A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

Blake Payne, Ruthanna

2010-01-01

436

Information, Advertising and Health Choices: A Study of the Cereal Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effects of information on consumer and producer behavior by focusing on the ready-to-eat cereal market during a period in which information developed about the health benefits of fiber cereal consumption. Although cereal producers were initially prohibited from advertising these health benefits, the regulatory ban against producer advertising was lifted during the period we study. Our results

Pauline M. Ippolito; Alan D. Mathios

1990-01-01

437

Health care for irregular migrants: pragmatism across Europe. A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health services in Europe face the challenge of delivering care to a heterogeneous group of irregular migrants (IM). There is little empirical evidence on how health professionals cope with this challenge. This study explores the experiences of health professionals providing care to IM in three types of health care service across 16 European countries. Results Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals in 144 primary care services, 48 mental health services, and 48 Accident & Emergency departments (total n = 240). Although legal health care entitlement for IM varies across countries, health professionals reported facing similar issues when caring for IM. These issues include access problems, limited communication, and associated legal complications. Differences in the experiences with IM across the three types of services were also explored. Respondents from Accident & Emergency departments reported less of a difference between the care for IM patients and patients in a regular situation than did respondents from primary care and mental health services. Primary care services and mental health services were more concerned with language barriers than Accident & Emergency departments. Notifying the authorities was an uncommon practice, even in countries where health professionals are required to do this. Conclusions The needs of IM patients and the values of the staff appear to be as important as the national legal framework, with staff in different European countries adopting a similar pragmatic approach to delivering health care to IM. While legislation might help to improve health care for IM, more appropriate organisation and local flexibility are equally important, especially for improving access and care pathways. PMID:22340424

2012-01-01

438

Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the many rigorously collected data will make it possible to study, for example, the general effect that different levels of physical activity may have on various health conditions and on proxy measures of life-style conditions. Specifically, it will help answer the question on whether increased physical activity in school has a positive effect on health in children. PMID:22906115

2012-01-01

439

A Comparative Study of the Proposed Models for the Components of the National Health Information System  

PubMed Central

Introduction: National Health Information System plays an important role in ensuring timely and reliable access to Health information, which is essential for strategic and operational decisions that improve health, quality and effectiveness of health care. In other words, using the National Health information system you can improve the quality of health data, information and knowledge used to support decision making at all levels and areas of the health sector. Since full identification of the components of this system – for better planning and management influential factors of performanceseems necessary, therefore, in this study different attitudes towards components of this system are explored comparatively. Methods: This is a descriptive and comparative kind of study. The society includes printed and electronic documents containing components of the national health information system in three parts: input, process and output. In this context, search for information using library resources and internet search were conducted, and data analysis was expressed using comparative tables and qualitative data. Results: The findings showed that there are three different perspectives presenting the components of national health information system Lippeveld and Sauerborn and Bodart model in 2000, Health Metrics Network (HMN) model from World Health Organization in 2008, and Gattini’s 2009 model. All three models outlined above in the input (resources and structure) require components of management and leadership, planning and design programs, supply of staff, software and hardware facilities and equipment. Plus, in the “process” section from three models, we pointed up the actions ensuring the quality of health information system, and in output section, except for Lippeveld Model, two other models consider information products and use and distribution of information as components of the national health information system. Conclusion: the results showed that all the three models have had a brief discussion about the components of health information in input section. But Lippeveld model has overlooked the components of national health information in process and output sections. Therefore, it seems that the health measurement model of network has a comprehensive presentation for the components of health system in all three sections-input, process and output. PMID:24825937

Ahmadi, Maryam; Damanabi, Shahla; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

2014-01-01

440

Regulatory barriers to equity in a health system in transition: a qualitative study in Bulgaria  

PubMed Central

Background Health reforms in Bulgaria have introduced major changes to the financing, delivery and regulation of health care. As in many other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, these included introducing general practice, establishing a health insurance system, reorganizing hospital services, and setting up new payment mechanisms for providers, including patient co-payments. Our study explored perceptions of regulatory barriers to equity in Bulgarian child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results The participants in our study reported a variety of regulatory barriers which undermined the principles of equity and, as far as the health insurance system is concerned, solidarity. These included non-participation in the compulsory health insurance system, informal payments, and charging user fees to exempted patients. The participants also reported seemingly unnecessary treatments in the growing private sector. These regulatory failures were associated with the fast pace of reforms, lack of consultation, inadequate public financing of the health system, a perceived "commercialization" of medicine, and weak enforcement of legislation. A recurrent theme from the interviews was the need for better information about patient rights and services covered by the health insurance system. Conclusions Regulatory barriers to equity and compliance in daily practice deserve more attention from policy-makers when embarking on health reforms. New financing sources and an increasing role of the private sector need to be accompanied by an appropriate and enforceable regulatory framework to control the behavior of health care providers and ensure equity in access to health services. PMID:21923930

2011-01-01

441

A Comparative Study of 11 Local Health Department Organizational Networks  

PubMed Central

Context Although the nation’s local health departments (LHDs) share a common mission, variability in administrative structures is a barrier to identifying common, optimal management strategies. There is a gap in understanding what unifying features LHDs share as organizations that could be leveraged systematically for achieving high performance. Objective To explore sources of commonality and variability in a range of LHDs by comparing intraorganizational networks. Intervention We used organizational network analysis to document relationships between employees, tasks, knowledge, and resources within LHDs, which may exist regardless of formal administrative structure. Setting A national sample of 11 LHDs from seven states that differed in size, geographic location, and governance. Participants Relational network data were collected via an on-line survey of all employees in 11 LHDs. A total of 1 062 out of 1 239 employees responded (84% response rate). Outcome Measures Network measurements were compared using coefficient of variation. Measurements were correlated with scores from the National Public Health Performance Assessment and with LHD demographics. Rankings of tasks, knowledge, and resources were correlated across pairs of LHDs. Results We found that 11 LHDs exhibited compound organizational structures in which centralized hierarchies were coupled with distributed networks at the point of service. Local health departments were distinguished from random networks by a pattern of high centralization and clustering. Network measurements were positively associated with performance for 3 of 10 essential services (r > 0.65). Patterns in the measurements suggest how LHDs adapt to the population served. Conclusions Shared network patterns across LHDs suggest where common organizational management strategies are feasible. This evidence supports national efforts to promote uniform standards for service delivery to diverse populations. PMID:20445462

Merrill, Jacqueline; Keeling, Jonathan W.; Carley, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

442

Literacy on the Line. Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Proceedings (21st, Adelaide, Australia, September 24-26, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the Workplace" (Scheeres,…

Shore, Sue, Ed.

443

Publication rate for funded studies from a major UK health research funder: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate what percentage of National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme-funded projects have published their final reports in the programme's journal HTA and to explore reasons for non-publication. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Failure to publish findings from research is a significant area of research waste. It has previously been suggested that potentially over 50% of studies funded are never published. Participants All NIHR HTA projects with a planned submission date for their final report for publication in the journal series on or before 9 December 2011 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The projects were classified according to the type of research, whether they had been published or not; if not yet published, whether they would be published in the future or not. The reasons for non-publication were investigated. Results 628 projects were included: 582 (92.7%) had published a monograph; 19 (3%) were expected to publish a monograph; 13 (2.1%) were discontinued studies and would not publish; 12 (1.9%) submitted a report which did not lead to a publication as a monograph; and two (0.3%) did not submit a report. Overall, 95.7% of HTA studies either have published or will publish a monograph: 94% for those commissioned in 2002 or before and 98% for those commissioned after 2002. Of the 27 projects for which there will be no report, the majority (21) were commissioned in 2002 or before. Reasons why projects failed to complete included failure to recruit; issues concerning the organisation where the research was taking place; drug licensing issues; staffing issues; and access to data. Conclusions The percentage of HTA projects for which a monograph is published is high. The advantages of funding organisations requiring publication in their own journal include avoidance of publication bias and research waste. PMID:23645914

Turner, S; Wright, D; Maeso, R; Cook, A; Milne, R

2013-01-01

444

An Ethnographic Study of the Social Context of Migrant Health in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. Methods and Findings This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. Conclusions Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making. PMID:17076567

Holmes, Seth M

2006-01-01