Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease. PMID:12113486
Robertson, B.; Sinclair, M. I.; Forbes, A. B.; Veitch, M.; Kirk, M.; Cunliffe, D.; Willis, J.; Fairley, C. K.
Observations of winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (~80-110 km) measured at the geographically conjugate locations of Adelaide (35°S, 138°E) and Kyoto (35°N, 136°E) in the years 1983-1985 are used to study the hemispheric differences in the behavior of the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Comparisons of the tidal amplitude and phase parameters show that there are distinct
R. A. Vincent; T. Tsuda; S. Kato
Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives. PMID:18664294
Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A
This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001-2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ? 55 years, and those employed in 'agriculture, forestry and fishing' and 'electricity, gas and water'. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. PMID:24906072
Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana
Background With evidence to support early assessment and management of TIAs, the role of the general practitioner (GP) needs to be considered in developing a TIA service in Western Adelaide. We thus aimed to determine GP knowledge of TIA assessment and management and identify perceived barriers, in order to tailor subsequent GP education and engage primary care in the co-ordinated care of TIA patients. Findings A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all GPs (n?=?202) in the Adelaide Western General Practice Network. Response frequencies were calculated for all variables, and associations examined by univariate analysis. 32 GPs responded. All respondents correctly identified early risk of stroke following a TIA. Difficulty accessing neurological expertise was identified as a barrier (40.6?%), as was a lack of GP knowledge (18.8?%). Areas for improvement included access to neurologists (36.7?%), relevant guidelines and education (43.3?%). Conclusions Diagnosis of TIA is difficult and this study highlights the need for further education and practical guidelines for GPs. With this training, GPs could be better equipped to assess and manage TIAs effectively in the community in consultation with stroke physicians. PMID:22676859
Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves. PMID:23759952
Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha
Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ?$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. The health belief model could be useful to guide the design and implementation of interventions to promote adaptive behaviours during heat waves. PMID:23759952
Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha
The stability of children's disorders was studied, using Adelaide versions of the Conners teachers and parent rating scales, with 5- to 12-year-olds. Of the 20 scales, 14 had high or moderate test-retest stability over the 1-year interval. Most scales also showed discriminant validity over this time. All but 2 of the 14 stable scales gave moderate stability coefficients at each
R. A. Glowfl; P. H. Glow; E. E. Rump
This study aimed to document the level of rural activity and curriculum content in the Adelaide University Medical School. A questionnaire was distributed to all heads of departments within the Medical School and additional information was obtained from reports and discussions with key personnel. There has been an increase in the proportion of students with a rural background enrolled from 9% in 1994 to 22% in 2000. There has also been an increase in the number of weeks available for rural placements from 12 (mostly optional) to 29 weeks (some mandatory), and an increase in the number of departments offering rural placements. There has also been improved academic support to rural practitioners and many departments directly provide services in rural communities. A new combined University Department of Rural Health (UDRH)/Rural Clinical School associated with the Adelaide University Medical School aims to provide at least half of all clinical training to 25% of all medical students of Australian origin. PMID:12121412
Laurence, Caroline; Newbury, Jonathan; Wilkinson, David
Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (?² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change. PMID:23343978
Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha
JAVA PROGRAMMING Ken Hawick University of Adelaide, Australia Present Address: Massey University, New Zealand Email email@example.com Revised: September 2003 #12;COURSE OVERVIEW #12;Java in the Java programming language and environment, focusing on the core language features. A number of worked
This study assessed the psychometric properties of two subscales of the Adelaide Behaviour Disorder Scale that have been hypothesized to describe conduct problems and emotional problems of adults with intellectual disability. Criterion scores for identifying individuals needing clinical intervention were established and validated against…
Bond, Malcolm J.; Tustin, R. Don
The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.
Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.
LONGITUDINAL WAVES IN SLENDER MOONPOOLS E. O. Tuck, The University of Adelaide, AUSTRALIA (firstname.lastname@example.org) and J. N. Newman, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (email@example.com) SUMMARY An asymptotic slender body as that of the shorter lateral modes. An asymptotic slender body theory for such waves is presented here and compared
This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. PMID:23656732
Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David
This paper examines prosocial and moral behaviours that underpin survival strategies and food acquisition practices among a sample of food insecure homeless youth in Adelaide, Australia. The mixed method study included a study involving in-depth interviews about food procurement and food sharing practices with homeless youth (n = 15) aged 15–24 years. Interviewees demonstrated proactive prosocial behaviours including sharing food,
Susan L. Booth; John Coveney
This paper focuses on the political activism of three women teachers, Lizzie Hales, Phebe Watson and Adelaide Miethke, in the city of Adelaide, South Australia, during the post-suffrage era. With the exception of Adelaide Miethke, none of these women are known to historians who are interested in post-suffrage feminism, and in the history of education the focus has been mostly
Lynne Trethewey; Kay Whitehead
Slender Planing Surfaces E.O. Tuck The University of Adelaide, Australia 5005 Abstract A theory for slender planing surfaces of general shape at high Froude number was formulated by Casling . Although relative to both beam and length (flat ship), (3) small beam relative to length (slender planform), and (4
A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration among the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Additional Information The Nurses' Health Study was launched in 1976, when 121,700 registered nurses, aged 30-55 years, responded to a mailed questionnaire regarding their health and lifestyle. Women continue to be followed via questionnaires every 2 years. Incident cases of cancer and selected other diagnoses are documented by reviewing medical records.
The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of survival curves was variability observed in these experiments suggests that the application of such survival data for establishing management criteria for septic tank systems--by, for example, the use of soil moisture characteristic curves to give estimates of movement in the soil--is inappropriate. PMID:7103482
Parker, W F; Mee, B J
For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s Health Study has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.
The Women's Health Study (WHS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a 2x2 factorial design, and conducted among 39,876 female health professionals in the United States. The WHS is sponsored by both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Participants were randomly assigned to either Vitamin E (600 IU every other day) or placebo; and to aspirin (100 mg every other day) or placebo.
as maiúsculas permitem ultrapassar o limite do privado, romper com a imagem do amor cor de rosa ou dos anúncios publicitários que se valem da família feliz para vender carros. A obra entra nas lutas internas do poder, nas pequenas ou grandes maldades, nas... social externo? Adelaide Amaral desenvolve sua produção na interseção entre o público e o privado, e talvez seja esta a razão do seu êxito.2 A sociedade brasileira sente e ressente a fragmentação e a globalização do estágio atual do sistema capitalista...
Ravetti, Graciela; Rojo, Sara
firstname.lastname@example.org Rhys Hill email@example.com Anton van den Hengel anton angle, positive, or negative inner product), the distortion is big. For an obtuse angle, if it is far mean: if you know the normalised margin is big, you know both the normalised margin and unnormalised
Shi, Qinfeng "Javen"
The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...
The Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS) is a prospective cohort comprised of 19,924 women ages 35 and over, living in the tri-state region surrounding the Mayo Clinic (Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin), without a history of breast cancer, who were scheduled for a screening mammogram at the Mayo Clinic between October 2003 and September 2006. All women had a 4-view screening mammogram at the time of enrollment and completed a self-administered questionnaire.
FACULTY of HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF HEALTH STUDIES The Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Health Studies at Western University invites applications for: 1-YEAR FULL-TIME LIMITED TERM FACULTY health sciences centre. The School of Health Studies (www.uwo.ca/fhs/health_studies/index.html) is one
Sinnamon, Gordon J.
The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including neurotoxicity reproductive effects, immunologic effects, nonmalignant respiratory disease, kidney disease, and growth and development among children; 3) evaluate disease risks among spouses and children of farmers that may arise from direct contact with pesticides and agricultural chemicals used in the home lawns and gardens, and from indirect contact, such as spray drift, laundering work clothes, or contaminated food or water; 4) assess current and past occupational and nonoccupational agricultural exposures using periodic interviews and environmental and biologic monitoring; 5) study the relationship between agricultural exposures, biomarkers of exposure, biologic effect, and genetic susceptibility factors relevant to carcinogenesis; and 6) identify and quantify cancer and other disease risks associated with lifestyle factors such as diet, cooking practices, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and hair dye use. In the first year of a 3-year enrollment period, 26,235 people have been enrolled in the study, including 19,776 registered pesticide applicators and 6,459 spouses of registered farmer applicators. It is estimated that when the total cohort is assembled in 1997 it will include approximately 75,000 adult study subjects. Farmers, the largest group of registered pesticide applicators comprise 77% of the target population enrolled in the study. This experience compares favorably with enrollment rates of previous prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8732939
Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McMaster, S B; Zahm, S H; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Rothman, N; Dosemeci, M; Bond, A E; Blair, A
Objectives Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Design Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004–2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004–2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Setting Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). Participants 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25–74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/? anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Results Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 5% to 30% in the 35–39 and 70–74 age groups, respectively. Similar mean 2003–2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Conclusions Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural/regional areas. Needs assessments are required for different settings to elucidate relative contributions of the multiple determinants of risk and appropriate cardiac healthcare strategies to improve outcomes. PMID:23975263
Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A
A field study of sleep and fatigue in a regular rotating 12-h shift system S.D. Baulk a,b,*, A. Fletcher a,1 , K.J. Kandelaars a,1 , D. Dawson a , G.D. Roach a a Centre for Sleep Research, University Institute for Sleep Health, Repatriation General Hospital, Daws Road, Daw Park, Adelaide, SA 5041, Australia
National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. 3 VU of ocean salinity during glacial periods12 , an appraisal of offshore groundwater as an element in global important clues to the natural variability of the hydrological cycle over thousands of years, or even longer
Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.
Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the relation between passive smoking and childhood acute respiratory illness. DESIGN--The study involved an initial postal survey on a random sample of children followed by a case-control study based on the survey. A respiratory illness score was calculated from maternal reports of episodes of illness in the previous 12 months. SETTING--The study was a population survey based on Adelaide metropolitan area in South Australia. PARTICIPANTS--The reference population (n = 13,996) was all live born children registered in South Australia in 1983 whose parents lived in Adelaide metropolitan area. Of these, 4985 families were contacted by post and from 2125 respondents, 1218 (58%) gave consent for home interview. "Cases" were children with respiratory illness scores in the top 20%, controlling for age and time of year (n = 258); "controls" were taken in the bottom 20% (n = 231). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Maternal smoking in the first year of life was associated with a doubling in relative odds of respiratory proneness in the child (odds ratio = 2.06, 95% CI 1.25-3.39) after adjustment for confounding by parental history of respiratory illness, other smokers in the home, use of group child care, parent's occupation, and levels of maternal stress and social support. There was no evidence that this association was attributable to differences in the way smoking and non-smoking parents perceived or managed childhood acute respiratory illness. Maternal smoking in the first year, without smoking in pregnancy, was also associated with increased risk of respiratory proneness (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.03-3.0), showing an effect of passive smoking independent of any in utero effect. There was a strong negative effect modification by breast feeding: relative odds of respiratory proneness with maternal smoking were seven times higher among children who were never breast fed than among those who were breast fed. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest a relatively small but real effect of passive smoking on childhood acute respiratory illness. Effect modification by breast feeding may be due to a combination of behavioural and biological mechanisms. PMID:2273361
Woodward, A; Douglas, R M; Graham, N M; Miles, H
Lung Health Study I, to determine the effects of Special Care, compared to Usual Care, on rate of decline in pulmonary function in a group of cigarette smokers identified as having mild abnormalities in pulmonary function. Lung Health Study III is to determine the long-term effec...
The El Paso Childrens Health Study consisted of two waves of exposure monitoring, respiratory health questionnaires, and lung function examinations. The exposure assessment began with a pilot study using passive samplers for nitrogen dioxide in February, 1999 and was followed b...
HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning....
This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006\\/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism
Anna M. Ziersch; Gilbert Gallaher; Fran Baum; Michael Bentley
Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies Â Health Services Â Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSV] College Major GPA Important Notes Semester One: [14 Credit Hours] IHS 10000 Careers in Health Sciences and Human for graduation IHS 44010 Research Design and Statistical Methods for the Health Professions 3 PHIL 40005 Health
Dental students in third (n?=?35) and fifth years (n?=?50) at Adelaide and Trinity College Dental Schools were surveyed about their experiences of assessment and their perceptions of the importance of particular aspects of assessment. Students reported on their assessment experience within their programmes by describing a critical assessment incident and their response to it, and also rated assessment purposes and
Tracey Winning; Elaine Lim; Grant Townsend
3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. 1 3-D inversion of magnetic induced polarization firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com INTRODUCTION The magnetic induced polarization (MIP) is used as an alternative method to derive information relating to the induced polarization characteristics of the subsurface through
Oldenburg, Douglas W.
The Adelaide Geosyncline is a deeply subsident Neoproterozoic to Middle Cambrian basin complex in South Australia with a record of at least five major successive rift cycles. Each rift system has its own locus and orientation. Although the rift events led to the breakup of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia of which, according to the SWEAT hypothesis, Australia was a part
W. V Preiss
Preprint for ISSNIP 2011, Adelaide. Â© IEEE Synaptic Dynamics Influence the Phase of a Neural. Facilitation and vesicle recycling rates also influence the phase. I. INTRODUCTION Most chemical synapses sites that are divided between active zones, with each active zone being the presynaptic axonal target
3DEMIII Workshop, February 2003, Adelaide. Efficient 3-D Electromagnetic Modeling in the Presence@uts.cc.utexas.edu INTRODUCTION The advent of a commercial electromagnetic (EM) multi- component borehole logging tool petrophysical interpretation of induction logging tool responses and to date remains an open challenge (Moran
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...
This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.
school of nursing and health studies lead gloBallY first Year entry rn-to-Bsn (Bachelor of science studies #12;school of nursing and health studies The University of Washington Bothell opens the door their studies. WhY Pursue Your health career at uW Bothell? aBout the school of nursing and health studies #12
Roadmap: Integrated Health Studies Â Health Services Â Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSV] College Major GPA Important Notes Semester One: [14 Credit Hours] IHS 10000 Careers in Health Sciences and Human Credit Hours] Requirement: apply for graduation IHS 44010 Research Design and Statistical Methods
This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522
Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael
The Adelaide System forms the uppermost Precambrian sequence in South Australia and the Wooltana Volcanics lie near its base. Though affected by Palaeozoic metamorphism, the least?altered samples give a minimum age of 850 ± 50 m.y., so that the base of the System is about 900 m.y. old or more. The unmetamorphbsed Roopena Volcanics of northeastern Eyre Peninsula are 1,345
W. Compston; A. R. Crawford; V. M. Bofinger
42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate health communication for promoting health, i.e. ‘health promoting communication’. PMID:23363566
This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...
This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242
Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud
for (check): Medical Studies Health Care Administration Dental Studies Occupational Therapy Veterinary & Occupational Health You are able to complete this application by simply typing your information into the spaces Informatics & Information Management Emphasis _____ BS Â Environmental & Occupational Health ____ Bachelors
42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
Caladenia behrii, a sexually deceptive orchid, is an endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. We examined\\u000a pollination success among individuals of different colours and heights in three populations of C. behrii in the northern Adelaide region. The labellum of C. behrii varies from cream to deep maroon. Over five years, the pollination success (pollinia deposited on
C. R. Dickson; S. Petit
Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational
Traditionally administrative hospital discharge databases have been mainly used for administrative purposes. Recently, health services researchers and population health researchers have been using the databases for a wide variety of studies; in particular health care outcomes. Tools, such as comorbidity indexes, have been developed to facilitate this analysis. Every time the coding system for diagnoses and procedures is revised or
Christie Sambell; Hude Quan; Helen Johansen
. Courses in Psychology and Health Promotion provide avenues to explore sport and health in a wider context. In this way, we may begin to explore how sport and exercise can play a significant role in a society and what concerning a specific module should be made to the course co-ordinator for that module (See University
319 Health and Environment HS 301 Death and Dying: Exploring New Paradigms Group B ESS 315 Exercise Psychology ESS 325 Exercise and Disease ESS 330 Exercise and Health Promotion ESS 360 Exercise and Healthy General Biology II BIOL 113 Human Anatomy BIOL 115 Survey of Human Physiology BIOL 134 Microbiology Total
This study aimed to describe the establishment of a new University Department of Rural Health (UDRH) in South Australia and to report early achievements. In May 1997, the UDRH was established, key staff were recruited, infrastructure was developed and in April 1998 a Joint University Committee on Rural and Remote Health was formed. By mid-1999, 14 full-time equivalent staff were employed in Whyalla and Adelaide. Early achievements include: review of undergraduate rural placements; increased rural clinical placements by 1000 student-weeks; partnership with the Dental School resulting in training opportunities and falling public waiting lists; multidisciplinary teaching practices in four rural sites; priority public health projects established; competitive research grants won; and a capital grant to strengthen Aboriginal health services infrastructure secured. These early achievements demonstrate UDRH potential to have a real impact on health worker education, service delivery, and public health status in rural and remote areas. This strong foundation must now be built on. PMID:10732512
Wilkinson, D; Blue, I; Symon, B; Fuller, J; Smith, M
The historic tide gauge records from Port Adelaide and Outer Harbour are one of the more important datasets from the Australian region purporting to show a significant rate of local sea level rise. However, geological evidence including radiocarbon dated palaeosea level indicators, indicates that most of this rise is due to subsidence of the land. The subsidence is significant but
A. P. Belperio
as medicine in disease prevention and treatment, women's rights to adequate food and nutrition, and globalPublic Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Rick Welsh, Department Chair, 315-443-4060 304 Lyman Hall The Department of Public Health, Food Studies
Health disparities are increasingly studied in and across a growing array of societies. While novel contexts and comparisons are a promising development, this commentary highlights four challenges to finding appropriate and adequate health measures when making comparisons across groups within a society or across distinctive societies. These challenges affect the accuracy with which we characterize the degree of inequality, limiting possibilities for effectively targeting resources to improve health and reduce disparities. First, comparisons may be challenged by different distributions of disease and second, by variation in the availability and quality of vital events and census data often used to measure health. Third, the comparability of self-reported information about specific health conditions may vary across social groups or societies because of diagnosis bias or diagnosis avoidance. Fourth, self-reported overall health measures or measures of specific symptoms may not be comparable across groups if they use different reference groups or interpret questions or concepts differently. We explain specific issues that make up each type of challenge and show how they may lead to underestimates or inflation of estimated health disparities. We also discuss approaches that have been used to address them in prior research, note where further innovation is needed to solve lingering problems, and make recommendations for improving future research. Many of our examples are drawn from South Africa or the United States, societies characterized by substantial socioeconomic inequality across ethnic groups and wide disparities in many health outcomes, but the issues explored throughout apply to a wide variety of contexts and inquiries. PMID:24561776
Burgard, Sarah A.; Chen, Patricia V.
We describe the operation of four University Teaching Practices established by the South Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Health (SACRRH) and the Adelaide University Department of General Practice. These practices were established in response to the acknowledged difficulty in recruiting and retaining GPs in rural South Australia. The practices are co-located with a hospital or accident and emergency service and community based nurses and allied health professionals. They provide integrated health care and multidisciplinary health care student placements in a learning environment where students experience rural multidisciplinary practice and country life. The study found that although the sites differed in significant ways, they all provided integrated care and effective placements for students. This style of health care delivery is flexible and broadly applicable. Sustainability is achieved through financially viability, attracting and retaining health care professionals and the development of electronic information systems, to support integrated practice. PMID:11998266
Taylor, J; Blue, I; Misan, G
Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...
How does one learn about primary health care? Some might attend public health schools while others will find different ways to explore this fascinating field on their own. One particularly nice resource on the subject is this course from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Offered as part of the Open Course Ware initiative, the course was first developed in the fall of 2011 and was co-taught by Henry Taylor and Henry Perry. It was designed to introduce students to "the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries." The materials here include the syllabus, lecture materials, readings, and assignments. Within the Lecture Materials section visitors can watch or listen to conversions on the roots of community-based primary health care and women's empowerment via public health. Additionally, visitors can look over the course assignments or check out some of the discussion questions.
An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...
42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health...assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health...assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health...assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health...assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis 3 Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis ACCT 205 Introduction to Financial Accounting ACCT 206 Introduction to Managerial Accounting HLTHST 330 Health Information Management I with lab HLTHST
The Helsinki Health Study cohort was set up to enable longitudinal studies on the social and work related determinants of health and well-being, making use of self-reported as well as objective register data. The target population is the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among employees reaching 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years of age in each year. The number of responders at baseline was 8960 (80% women, response rate 67%). Additional age-based health examination data were available. A follow up survey was conducted in 2007 yielding 7332 responders (response rate 83%). Measures of health include health behaviours, self-rated health, common mental disorders, functioning, pain, sleep problems, angina symptoms and major diseases. Social determinants include socio-demographics, socio-economic circumstances, working conditions, social support, and work-family interface. Further register linkages include sickness absence, hospital discharge, prescribed drugs, and retirement updated at the end of 2010. The cohort allows comparisons with the Whitehall II study, London, UK, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study from western Japan. The cohort data are available for collaborative research at Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. PMID:22467288
Lahelma, Eero; Aittomäki, Akseli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lallukka, Tea; Martikainen, Pekka; Piha, Kustaa; Rahkonen, Ossi; Saastamoinen, Peppiina
42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of results...assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of results...assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results...assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of results...assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...
www.abdn.ac.uk/study Global Health & Management Master of Science/Postgraduate Diploma MSc on Health Systems and Policy, Managing for Health and Global Health. Global Health topics include: Â· Poverty these intersect with broader structural issues. The aim is to develop multidimensional views of global health
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938
Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
The phase locked two day wave (PL/TDW) during austral summer is the most dramatic large scale event of the upper mesosphere. The PL/TDW wave can achieve amplitudes exceeding 70 m/s and involve the entire southern hemisphere and much of the northern hemisphere. The winds accelerate over a period of about 1 week and are accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the two-day wave period at close to 48 hours. We have examined meteor wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30S, 70.1W) and MF radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7S, 138.6E) located at similar latitudes. We find a remarkable coincidence between the oscillations. When adjustments for the separation in longitude are made the oscillations are nearly in phase. The amplitude of the oscillation is significantly greater at Chili, where winds approach 100 m/s. The diurnal tide is greatly diminished at both locations. These observations support the explanation that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability of the diurnal tide (Walterscheid and Vincent, JGR, 1996). We will also present analysis of airglow data for the two-day wave at both locations.
Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Vincent, R. A.; Franke, S. J.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Zhao, Y.
Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219
Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen
population-wide health status cannot be achieved without learning and literacy skills. Thus, the mission health and literacy; Health Studies, which focuses on health promotion and disease preventionHBS Department of Health and Behavior Studies Teachers College Columbia University Annual End
This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...
The purpose of the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health is to investigate the relationship between diet, lifestyle factors, molecular markers, and cancer incidence in Canada. The cohort was established predominantly by recruiting alumni from the Universities of Alberta, Toronto, and Western Ontario between 1995 and 1998, but also includes a small contingent recruited mostly in 1992 through the Canadian Cancer Society.
In this country, little research has been undertaken into the difficulties faced by students and the contributory stressors. It is apparent that they have a lot with which to content. Identification of stressors, assessement of stress levels and consequences on mental health appear vital.A pilot study was undertaken of 40 studets: 10 males aged under 21 years, ten males 21–40
Evelyn Millings Mionk; Zahid Mahmood
Official Master's of Public Health Community Health Education Program of Study Form Student 7234 COMMUNITY HEALTH ANALYSIS 3 COHE 7237 RURAL COMUNITY HEALTH ISSUES 3 COHE 7238 enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES 18 credits Dept
Hutcheon, James M.
An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness/wellness history. At the end of the month the calendar is returned by mail. Families participated in the survey from the time of induction (after September 1, 1984) to August 31, 1985. Coincident with the symptom survey, indoor air pollution measurements are made in each home and in the elementary schools of the participating student.
Spengler, J.D.; Reed, M.P.; Leberet, E.; Chang, B.H.; Ware, J.H.
Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P?0.001) and the oral assessment (1.36, 1.19 to 1.55; P?0.001) stage of selection. The UMAT preparatory activities associated with the offer of an interview were attendance of a training course by a private organisation (1.75, 1.35 to 2.27: P?0.001), use of online services of a private organisation (1.58, 1.23 to 2.04; P?0.001), and familiarising oneself with the process (1.52, 1.15 to 2.00; p?=?0.021). The oral assessment activities associated with an offer of a place included refining and learning a personal resume (9.73, 2.97 to 31.88; P?0.001) and learning about the course structure (2.05, 1.29 to 3.26; P?=?0.022). For the UMAT, applicants who found difficulties with learning for this type of test (0.47, 0.35 to 0.63: P?0.001), with the timing of UMAT in terms of school exams (0.48, 0.5 to 0.66; P?0.001) and with the inability to convey personal skills with the UMAT (0.67, 0.52 to 0.86; P?=?0.026) were significantly less likely to be offered an interview. Conclusions Medical schools make an enormous effort to undertake a selection process that is fair and equitable and which selects students most appropriate for medical school and the course they provide. Our results indicate that performance in the selection processes can be improved by training. However, if these preparatory activities may be limited to those who can access them, the playing field is not even and increasing equity of access to medical schools will not be achieved. PMID:24289521
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...
The Johns Hopkins University's Bloomberg School of Public Health has participated in the OpenCourseWare program for a number of years, and this course is one of their most recent offerings. Created by Henry Taylor and Henry Perry, these course materials introduce "students to the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries." On this course site, visitors can read through the syllabus, examine the course schedule, and look over the lecture materials. In the lecture materials area, visitors will find lecture slides and their corresponding audio files. Some of the topics covered here include the roots of community-based primary health care and women's empowerment in Afghanistan. Finally, visitors can check out some of the course readings, which are offered in the pdf format.
The NIH-AARP (formally known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study was initiated to investigate relations among diet, lifestyle, and cancer. In 1995 and 1996, the study recruited more than 560,000 AARP members, aged 50 to 71 years, who resided in one of six states (California, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Louisiana) or in two metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia, and Detroit, Michigan). The baseline questionnaire collected information on diet and some lifestyle factors.
Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443
Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan
Health Education Health Sciences Physical Activity/Exercise School Health " e programs in the School contains a common core of courses with four separate concentrations: community health education, health sciences, physical activity/exercise, and school health. Additional information about the program, faculty
In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual temperature is - 3 °C. Permafrost thickness was calculated to range between 112 and 157 m, depending on the heat flow values adopted. The presence of sub-sea permafrost cannot be excluded considering the depth of the shelf around Rothera Point and its glacial history.
Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter
Background: Studies comparing socioeconomic inequalities in health using several health indicators are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to compare the shape and magnitude of occupational class inequalities across key domains of health, i.e. the subjective, functional and medical domains. Additionally, we examine whether physical or mental workload will affect these inequalities, and whether these effects are specific to particular health
Eero Lahelma; Pekka Martikainen; Ossi Rahkonen; Eva Roos; Peppiina Saastamoinen
As a result of a desire amongst the hospital staff to improve the management of dying children and their families, a four person subcommittee was appointed to investigate this area of care. Nineteen persons were interviewed (15 hospital staff members and four parents) and 12 written submissions were received (10 from staff and two from parents) over a 10 week period. An analysis of one year's deaths of Adelaide Children's Hospital patients showed that most took place in the hospital and about one in five were at home. Nearly 60% occurred in children aged 0-5 years, 15% in those aged 6-10 years, 15% in those aged 11-15 years, and 13% in children aged more than 15 years. The four commonest causes of death were: cancer (27%), congenital abnormalities (19%), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (16%), and trauma (11%). Sudden unexpected deaths are most common, particularly for infants. Recommendations included improved privacy for families and friends; more sensitive body viewing, mortuary, autopsy and funeral arrangements; and better in-service education for staff and information giving for families. Areas of insufficient staff support were identified and the appointment of a specialist palliative care clinical nurse consultant was proposed. Stronger links with palliative and hospice care teams, general practitioners and community nurses were suggested. Addressing the issues of living and dying, and working through the stages of grief are integral parts of long term clinical care. The need for good continuity of psychosocial support was a recurring theme. More awareness of the availability of the specialised pain relief service was required. Ethical issues should be addressed as part of the general development of education and information services. The advantages and limitations of the enquiry are discussed and the model is proposed as a potentially useful one for both paediatric and adult palliative care and hospice care service development. PMID:1703264
Ashby, M A; Kosky, R J; Laver, H T; Sims, E B
The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study began in 1996. It enrolled approximately 1,200 women with early stage breast cancer and has completed 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up. Follow-up has been both active (at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years for recurrences and updates of exposure variables) and passive (yearly through the respective SEER registries for vital status and second primaries).
Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health.......................................................................................................25 2.2.1 A profile of the six case study sites........................................................28 2.2.2 Case study characteristics
Birmingham, University of
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness
Katarina Hjelm; Esther Mufunda
major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);
Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young
We addressed the need for a biomarker of ingestion exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products by performing a human exposure trial. We evaluated urinary excretion of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) as an exposure biomarker using 10 volunteers who normally consume their domestic tap water. We recruited the volunteers at a water quality research laboratory in Adelaide, Australia. Participants maintained a detailed consumption and exposure diary over the 5-week study. We also analyzed tap water and first morning urine (FMU) samples for TCAA, and tap water for chloral hydrate (CH). We documented both interindividual and intraindividual variability in TCAA ingestion and urinary excretion, and both were substantial. With a TCAA-free bottled water intervention, we used creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA levels to estimate urinary TCAA excretion half-lives for three of the participants. We observed correspondence over time between estimated TCAA excretion, calculated from TCAA + CH ingestion levels, and measured TCAA urinary excretion. This study demonstrates the merits and feasibility of using TCAA in FMU as an exposure biomarker, and reveals remaining concerns about possible alternate sources of TCAA exposure for individuals with low drinking water ingestion exposure. PMID:12117645
Froese, Kenneth L; Sinclair, Martha I; Hrudey, Steve E
Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…
Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.
The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of
S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief contains information on asthma relative to health education, physical education and activity, and health services. Included is data on the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency?-?participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems?-?relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators. PMID:25480855
Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah
Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1) facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2) the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1) factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2) the need for social support; (3) pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4) access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population. PMID:24895667
Graham, Candida; de Leeuw, Sarah; Griffiths, Brenda
45080 Physiology of Exercise 3 PHIL 40005 Health Care Ethics 3 General Elective (lower or upper Core Summary on page 2 Semester Three: [16 Credit Hours] ATTR/EXSC 25057 Human Anatomy and Physiology I/EXSC 25058 Human Anatomy and Physiology II 3 See note 2 on page 2 BSCI or CHEM 4 See note 1 on page 2; may
45080 Physiology of Exercise 3 PHIL 40005 Health Care Ethics 3 General Elective (lower or upper Core Summary on page 2 Semester Three: [16 Credit Hours] ATTR/EXSC 25057 Human Anatomy and Physiology I and Physiology II 3 BSCI or CHEM 4 See note 1 on page 2; may fulfill Kent Core Basic Sciences Kent Core
Home health nursing is a growth industry in Western industrialized countries and is a stressful occupation. The current study builds on a line of research that examined the positive effects of attachment behavior at work on health for executives, managers, military officer candidates, and basic military trainees. The present study of 175 home health nurses from the U.S. Southwest included
Bret L. Simmons; Debra L. Nelson; James Campbell Quick
Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716
de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat
It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…
Smith, David J.
Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents’ SES on their children’s health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between “rigor” and “vigor” in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities. PMID:23045672
Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R.; Pantell, Matthew S.
Global Wind Power Conference September 18-21, 2006, Adelaide, Australia Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, first results of IEA collaboration Hannele Holttinen1.firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been
given objective function, e.g. the resulting pumping velocity achieved for asymmetric structures for asymmetric structures. MODEL AND GOVERNING EQUATIONS We consider, as sketched in Fig. 1(a), an infinite a viscosity , a constant density , and containing concentrations cÂ± of ions with charges Â±Ze and mobilities
Bazant, Martin Z.
Background Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technology (HIT) policy related to public health in Canada that have succeeded, to identify remaining challenges, and to suggest future directions to improve the adoption and use of HIT in the public health system. Methods A qualitative case study was performed with 24 key stakeholders representing national and provincial organizations responsible for establishing policy and strategic direction for health information technology. Results Identified benefits of HIT in public health included improved communication among jurisdictions, increased awareness of the need for interoperable systems, and improvement in data standardization. Identified barriers included a lack of national vision and leadership, insufficient investment, and poor conceptualization of the priority areas for implementing HIT in public health. Conclusions The application of HIT in public health should focus on automating core processes and identifying innovative applications of HIT to advance public health outcomes. The Public Health Agency of Canada should develop the expertise to lead public health HIT policy and should establish a mechanism for coordinating public health stakeholder input on HIT policy. PMID:23705692
7133 EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH METHODS I 3 EPID 7134 EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH METHODS II 3 EPIDOfficial Master's of Public Health Â Epidemiology Program of Study Form Student Name PUBH 6541 BIOSTATISTICS 4 PUBH 6532 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 PUBH 6533 EPIDEMIOLOGY 3
Hutcheon, James M.
The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...
Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies. Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...
Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…
Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...
Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…
Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin
BACKGROUND: The specific health services provided to students at school and the model for delivering these services vary across districts and schools. This article describes the characteristics of school health services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS)
Nancy D. Brener; Gale R. Burstein; Martha L. DuShaw; Mary Vernon-Smiley; Linda Caldart-Olson; Judy Robinson
42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...
This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed. PMID:19213480
Hyde, Cheryl A
Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321
Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui
From new lightcurves obtained near their 2014 oppositions rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 18 Melpomene 11.571 ± 0.002 hours, 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 234 Barbara 26.473 ± 0.002 hours, amplitude 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 236 Honoria 12.336 ± 0.001 hours, 0.23 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 520 Franziska 16.507 ± 0.001 hours, 0.35 ± 0.02 magnitudes; and 525 Adelaide 19.967 ± 0.001 hours, amplitude 0.35 ± 0.03 magnitudes near celestial longitude 180 degrees and 0.02 ± 0.01 magnitudes at celestial longitude 57 degrees, latitude -4 degrees. The amplitude - aspect method strongly suggests the latter position lies within a few degrees of one of the two rotational poles.
In 2004, the National Oral Health Policy (PNSB) - Smiling Brazil was launched. Its guidelines seek to qualify Primary Health Care, ensure comprehensive actions, work on the basis of health surveillance, plan actions in accordance with the epidemiology and information available on the territory, financing and scheduling the research agenda so that the work can be based on scientific evidence. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the perspectives of health care professionals and managers on oral health care after launching the PNSB. For the gathering of information, an oral interview was conducted with health care professionals and managers and direct observation of oral health services. The interpretation of meaning method was used for analysis of the interviews. Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, even though the care and the oral health actions have been amplified and qualified, the cities still find it difficult to implement their basic premises. PMID:25650618
Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Aciole, Geovani Gurgel
Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…
Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.
A study measured the connotations of selected health education related journals to their professional readers. The subjects were 250 randomly selected, college-affiliated health educators listed in "A National Directory of College and University Health Education Programs and Facilities 1981." Journals evaluated included: (1) "American College…
Frazer, Gregory H.; Gold, Robert S.
This summary review of the Georgia Health Education Study is a statistical presentation of scores achieved by over four thousand freshman college students in the university system of Georgia to questions on health knowledge. Data compiled from the administration of the Fast-Tyson Health Knowledge Test (1975 revision) indicates that subject…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Health and Safety.
MEDINFO 2007 #12;Studies in Health Technology and Informatics This book series was started in 1990 of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics Building Sustainable Health Systems Part 2 Edited to promote research conducted under the auspices of the EC programmes' Advanced Informatics in Medicine (AIM
Hansen, RenÃ© Rydhof
The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094
Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L
Objective: This paper provides an overview of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) and a summary of findings relating to child and adolescent mental health.Method: The CHDS is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children born in the Christchurch (New Zealand) urban region during mid 1977. This cohort has now been studied from birth to age
David M. Fergusson; John L. Horwood
Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in terms of relative importance. PMID:24093348
Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.
OBJECTIVE To analyze the role of a Municipal Health Ombudsman and its contribution to the public health management from the perspective of the public health system users and the municipal health counselors. METHODS Qualitative research approach using the case study, descriptive and transversal methods. The unit of analysis was a Municipal Health Ombudsman, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, between May and August 2010. The study was observational in nature and data were collected through interviews with two groups of stakeholders: users and municipal health counselors. We interviewed 44 Brazilian Unified Health System users who had made direct use of the Municipal Health Ombudsman and all 20 municipal health counselors. The data obtained were analyzed based on three issues: (1) nature of the data obtained; (2) discussion of subsidies to qualify the ombudsman’s functioning as a management tool; (3) proposals for actions to improve democratic management in the area of public health. RESULTS The complaints to the ombudsman denoted difficulties in access to health care services running the risk of their being perceived as shortcuts to gaining accessibility, disregarding the principle of social justice. The role of the ombudsman has the citizens’ approval. Users reported the following main functions of the ombudsman: to support the resolution of health problems, to listen and to clarify issues regarding Brazilian Unified Health System operations and procedures. Information was emphasized by health counselors as an instrument of power and access to the rights of Brazilian Unified Health System users. They highlighted that the ombudsman has the role of ensuring justice to foster an effective health policy, besides playing an important mediating role between the board of the municipal health system, its managers and citizens. Furthermore, the ombudsman was shown to have an execution role that transcends its regular functions. CONCLUSIONS The study found that the ombudsman is a key management tool in monitoring the health care system. Therefore, the establishment of the ombudsman is an advance in the field of democratic management. Nevertheless, there are challenges to be overcome in order to improve ombudsman contribution to the execution of health policies and representing citizens in ensuring their rights to health care. PMID:24789646
da Silva, Rita de Cássia Costa; Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Zucchi, Paola
Study objective: To identify ethical issues encountered by staff in the development and implementation of public health activities at two sites in Scotland. Design: Qualitative research study involving face to face semi-structured interviews with participants. Setting: A public health directorate in a National Health Service Trust, and a public health demonstration project in child health. Participants: Health promotion specialists, managers, nurses, public health consultants and specialists, researchers, trainees, and other public health staff. Main results: Three main categories of ethical issues were identified: paternalism, responsibilities, and ethical decision making. Consulting with the community and sharing information raised issues of paternalism and honesty. Participants identified multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Barriers to fulfilling responsibilities included meeting targets, working with partners, and political influences. Defining the limits of responsibilities posed challenges. Participants identified values for ideal decision making, but lack of time often led to a more pragmatic approach. Conclusion: These empirical findings complement and extend existing discussions of public health ethics, emphasising the complex nature of ethical issues in public health. The implications for public health policy and future research are discussed. PMID:15143108
This study guide was prepared to accompany "Here's to Your Health," a telecourse focusing on lifestyle factors influencing health, which was designed to provide the tools necessary for achieving and maintaining an optimal, healthy lifestyle. For each of 27 lessons, the study guide presents learning objectives, an overview of content, study…
In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…
Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios
The National Institutes of Health, owing to its broad mandate to pursue and support acquisition of knowledge in biomedicine, is very much concerned with any investigations leading to better understanding of the causes and control of human diseases. One approach is to study health and illness in special subsets of the United States population and of populations in foreign countries. In this paper, I shall touch briefly on a number of health problems and disease-oriented research topics looked at from the special perspective of Asian and Asian-American populations, hopefully to sensitize perceptions about the contributions that such studies can make to our total understanding of how best to achieve health and conquer disease. The new goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is "Health for all by the year 2000." "The aim is to enable all people of the world to attain an acceptable level of health and to lead a socially and economically productive life". (1). PMID:7084145
Chen, P S
Background Uganda, like many developing countries, is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However, serious challenges prove to hamper the attainment of these goals, particularly the health related MDGs. A major challenge relates to the human resources for health. The health system in Uganda was decentralised in the 1990s. Despite the health sector reforms, the services have remained significantly deficient and performance of health workers is thought to be one of the contributing factors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the performance of health workers after decentralisation of the health services in Uganda in order to identify and suggest possible areas for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey, using quantitative research methods was utilised. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 276 health workers in the districts of Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo in Eastern Uganda. The health workers included doctors, clinical officers, professional nurses and midwives. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. The data was analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and included both univariate and bivariate analysis. The results were presented in tabular and text forms. Results The study revealed that even though the health workers are generally responsive to the needs of their clients, the services they provide are often not timely. The health workers take initiatives to ensure that they are available for work, although low staffing levels undermine these efforts. While the study shows that the health workers are productive, over half (50.4%) of them reported that their organisations do not have indicators to measure their individual performance. The findings indicate that the health workers are skilled and competent to perform their duties. In general, the results show that health workers are proficient, adaptive, proactive and client-oriented. Conclusion Although Uganda is faced with a number of challenges as regards human resources for health, the findings show that the health workers that are currently working in the health facilities are enthusiastic to perform. This may serve as a motivator for the health workers to improve their performance and that of the health sector. PMID:23134673
All Norwegian twin pairs born 1967–1974 and still living in Norway in 1992 were invited to a health questionnaire study (Q1). 2,570 pairs (65%) participated. These cohorts and the twin cohorts born 1967–1979 were invited to a new questionnaire study (Q2) in 1998. This time 3,334 pairs (53%) participated. Almost all pairs having participated in the 1998 study were invited to an interview study of mental health (MHS), taking place 1999–2004. 1,391 complete pairs (44%) participated. The questionnaire studies included extensive data on somatic health with fewer items on mental health and demography. Health-related and demographic information available from the Medical Birth Registry on all invited twins was applied to predict participation to the first study. A few registry variables indicating poor health predicted nonparticipation in Q1. Health information and demography from Q1 were tested as predictors of participation in the follow-up study (Q2). Monozygosity, female sex, being unmarried, having no children, and high education predicted participation, whereas few indicators of poor mental and somatic health and unhealthy lifestyle moderately predicted nonparticipation in Q2. No health indicators reported in Q2 predicted further participation. Standard genetic twin analyses of indicators of various mental disorders from Q2, validated by diagnostic data from the MHS, did not indicate differences in genetic/environmental covariance structures between participants and nonparticipants in MHS. In general the results show a moderate selection towards good mental and somatic health. Attrition from Q2 to the MHS does not appear to affect twin analyses of mental health related variables. PMID:19335186
Tambs, Kristian; Rønning, Torbjørn; Prescott, C. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Torgersen, Svenn; Harris, Jennifer R.
Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully. Additional formative and operational research is essential to explore the true potential of the technology. Frameworks for regulation in regards to eHealth governance should be the aim of future research on the integration of eHealth and mHealth into the Bangladesh health system. PMID:24934164
Health planning is an essential function of the state. For it to be successful, a number of conditions need to be satisfied. In particular it needs to be flexible, participative and integrated with other decision processes. Despite some strengths, the health planning system in Pakistan has generally failed to provide the framework to allow such an approach. Links between strategic and operational planning have been weak; decision-making has been very centralized; there has been a lack of functional clarity; the respective roles of bureaucrats and politicians have been unclear; and, links between capital and recurrent budgets and between planning and implementation have been weak. As a result, there is a number of imbalances in the allocation of resources. The introduction of a revised health planning system for Pakistan is discussed. The constraints on such a system and an initial assessment of its success are presented. PMID:10175303
Green, A; Rana, M; Ross, D; Thunhurst, C
This study provided a comprehensive assessment of the association between social support and health using longitudinal data from the Veterans Health Study. Unlike previous studies which examined the relationship between one single domain of social support with either mental or physical health, the present study assessed the effects of three different domains of social support on multiple measures of health.
Xinhua S. Ren; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; Lewis Kazis
The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze some relevant issues which arise when the concept of metrological traceability is applied to health care facilities. Discussion is structured around the results that were obtained through a characterization and comparative description of the practices applied in 45 different Portuguese health entities. Following a qualitative exploratory approach, the information collected was the support for the initial research hypotheses and the development of the questionnaire survey. It was also applied a quantitative methodology that included a descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the experimental data set.
Ferreira, M.; Matos, A.
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...
RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant? *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...
Recently, the Veterans Administration (VA) Under Secretary for Health has designated functional status as one of the domains of value for the system, given its increasing importance for clinical care. The Veterans Health Study (VHS) was designed to assist the VA in monitoring outcomes and measuring the case mix of patients who use the VA. The Veterans SF-36 (short form
Lewis E. Kazis; Xinhua S. Ren; Austin Lee; Katherine Skinner; William Rogers; Jack Clark; Donald R. Miller
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A
Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...
Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children. PMID:22029735
This cross-national study examines factors that impact eHealth infrastructure and usage growth. The independent variables in the study are: confidence in heath care system, perception of one’s state of health, per capita national expenditure in health, % of people belonging to voluntary organizations concerned with health, human development index, cost of health care per capital, and cost of health care
Kallol Bagchi; Godwin Udo; Mark Kesh
The VIP is a long-term project intended for health promotion of the population of the county of Västerbotten (approximately 254,000 inhabitants). All individuals 40, 50, and 60 years of age in the county are invited for screening. They are asked to complete a questionnaire concerning various lifestyle factors, including diet, and to donate a blood sample to be frozen for later research purposes.
Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a) Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care); (b) Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction); and (c) Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability). Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of community satisfaction with the service; and the impact of a health service on community viability. While the need to reduce the rural-urban health service disparity in Australia is pressing, the evidence regarding how to move forward is inadequate. This comprehensive evaluation will add significant new knowledge regarding the characteristics associated with a sustainable rural primary health care service. PMID:21356123
...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...
...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...
...OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Proposed Collection: Title: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office,...
Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212
Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro
Roadmap: Insurance Studies Â Life and Health Insurance Â Bachelor of Science [RE of Macroeconomics 3 Fulfills Kent Core Additional INS 29000 Introduction to Insurance and Risk 3 Semester Five: [15 Credit Hours] BMRT 21052 Professional Selling Techniques 3 INS 49010 Life and Health Insurance Law
This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…
Mullan, Marie R.
In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and
Tracey J. Woodruff; Jennifer D. Parker; Lyndsey A. Darrow; Rémy Slama; Michelle L. Bell; Hyunok Choi; Svetlana Glinianaia; Katherine J. Hoggatt; Catherine J. Karr; Danelle T. Lobdell; Michelle Wilhelm
Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (...
Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, Brown TT, Hayat MJ, Fiedler IG. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1043-51. Objectives: To clarify sexuality issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify the appropriate timing of sexual health interventions. Design: Longitudinal analysis of the survey responses of persons with SCI at 4 intervals
Thomas L. Fisher; Prakash W. Laud; Margaret G. Byfield; Traci T. Brown; Matthew J. Hayat; Irma G. Fiedler
Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…
Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen
Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions Poor and good health influence early retirement via several different pathways. To prolong working life, a dialogue between employers and employees and tailored work-related interventions may be helpful. PMID:23551994
The impact of health behaviors on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and HealthCare Utilization (HCU) was examined in a sample of male veterans. We examined the relationship between health behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, exercise, seat belt use, cholesterol level, and body mass index [BMI]), and HRQoL and HCU, among Veterans Health Study participants providing complete baseline (t0) and 12-month follow-up (t12) data. (Respective sample sizes were 1242 and 1397.) HRQoL measures were derived from the SF-36, expressed as physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Prospective 12-month outpatient and inpatient utilization data were obtained from a VA administrative database. Exercise and BMI were significant PCS predictors at t0 and t12, adjusting for age, social supports, education, employment status, and comorbidities. Smoker status was negatively associated with PCS only at t0. Nonproblem (no abuse) alcohol users had significantly higher t0 PCS scores than nonusers. Only current problem alcohol use was associated with lower MCS at t0 and t12 in multivariate analyses. Regarding HCU, current smokers had fewer medical visits than never smokers; alcohol nonusers had more medical visits than current alcohol users, current problem users, and former problem users. No behaviors were associated with mental health visits or inpatient stays. HRQoL is negatively affected by poor health behaviors. HRQoL and physical health may be improved by practitioners targeting these behaviors for preventive interventions. This study did not support an association between poor health behaviors and higher HCU. Future research should consider the effect of moderating variables on this relationship. PMID:15923947
Borzecki, Ann M; Lee, Austin; Kalman, David; Kazis, Lewis E
Despite an extensive evidence-base linking patterns of health with social determinants, recent public health policy has emphasized 'lifestyle diseases' and risk factor modification through behavioural and pharmacological intervention. In England, one manifestation of this has been the launch of the National Health Service Health Check programme. This paper reports findings from a small-scale qualitative study exploring experiences of engaging with a community-based health check in Knowsley, England, among 17 males and 19 females, with varying levels of risk for cardiovascular disease, who agreed to be contacted for the purpose of research at the time they underwent their check. Analysis revealed that the community-based nature of the checks provided opportunities for people to find out more about their health who might not otherwise have done so. Participants expressed a range of responses to the communication of the risk score, often revealing their confusion about its meaning. Changes in behaviour were identified, which participants connected with having had a check. This study raises questions about where, how and by whom health checks are delivered. Emphasis on health checks reflects the dominant individualist ideology, but this study also suggests that the process provides opportunities to enable and empower individuals, albeit in small ways. However, they remain a 'downstream' approach to public health, emphasizing medical and behavioural options for risk factor reduction rather than focussing on primary prevention through changes to the wider environment. Furthermore, although developed as a central feature of the UK's strategy to reduce health inequalities, health checks may widen them. PMID:25073761
Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Alford, Simon; Cushing, Jill; Panter, Lee
This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.
Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.
This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. PMID:22771080
Resveratrol does not affect health, longevity in population study May 16, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound in red wine, grapes, and nuts, ... 12, 2014, researchers report that dietary resveratrol did not provide such effects in a group of community- ...
This report presents data collection measures and methods for the evaluation of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Measures of patient health were survival, the Sickness Impact Profile, self-rated health, the Mini-Mental State Exam, Psychological Distress Scale, Social Support Scale, and Problem Behaviors Scale. Measures of health for the care giver were: Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, health perceptions, Psychological Distress Scale, life satisfaction, Social Support Scale, and Caregiver Burden Scale. We also assessed patient and care giver satisfaction with the care received by the patient. Measures of health status and outcomes were assessed primarily through patient and care giver interview at study enrollment, 6 months, and 12 months. Utilization and cost both within and outside VA were assessed for hospital, ambulatory care, nursing home, ADHC, home care, pharmacy, laboratory, and other forms of health care. Sources of utilization data included VA's computerized patient database, VA medical records, patient questionnaires, care giver questionnaires, and health care providers outside VA. Costs were obtained from VA's cost accounting system, VA Central Office, VA's contracts with outside providers, and directly from outside providers. Utilization and cost were assessed for each patient for a period of 1 year after entry into the study. PMID:8361244
Chapko, M; Rothman, M L; Ehreth, J; Hedrick, S C; Sullivan, J; Erdly, W; Cooper, S
The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…
World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.
OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on improving the quality of case studies in health services research. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data, drawing from previous case study research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Guidance is provided to two audiences: potential case study investigators (eight items) and reviewers of case study proposals (four additional items). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The guidance demonstrates that many operational steps can be undertaken to improve the quality of case studies. These steps have been a hallmark of high-quality case studies in related fields but have not necessarily been practiced in health services research. CONCLUSIONS: Given higher-quality case studies, the case study method can become a valuable tool for health services research. Images Figure 3 PMID:10591280
Yin, R K
This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally-representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the U.S. in 1994-95 who have been followed for fifteen years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including siblings pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community. PMID:23231780
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported effect of consumer and caregiver-led education for pharmacy students\\u000a and to explore the goals, challenges and benefits of mental health consumer educators providing education to health professional\\u000a students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Five focus groups (mean duration 46 min, SD 22 min) were held with 23 participants (11 undergraduate pharmacy students, 12\\u000a mental health consumer educators)
Claire L. O’Reilly; J. Simon Bell; Timothy F. Chen
It has been argued that social class, if not dead, is at least a 'zombie category' in contemporary Western society. However, epidemiological evidence shows that class-based inequalities have either persisted or widened, despite overall improvements in the health of Western populations. This article presents an exploratory qualitative study of the individualization of class identity and health conducted in a southern English city. Findings are presented in consideration of two competing argumentative positions around which participants worked to negotiate class identity and health. The first of these positions denied the significance of class for identity and health and was associated with the individualised heroic and stoic narratives of working class identity. The second position acknowledged the reality of class relations and their implications for health and identity, being associated with structurally and politically orientated narratives of middle class identity. In sum, resistance to class was associated with talk about individual, private experience whereas the acceptance of class was linked to discussion of health as a wider social or political phenomenon. This evidence lends qualified support to the individualization thesis: inequalities in health existing on structural or material levels are not simply reproduced, and indeed in some contexts may even juxtapose, accounts of social identity in interview and focus group contexts. Class identity and health are negotiated in lay talk as participants shift argumentatively back and forth between competing positions, and public and private realms, in the attempt to make sense of health and illness. The promotion of greater awareness and interest in health inequalities within wider public discourse may well help support attempts to tackle these injustices. PMID:15246166
Bolam, Bruce; Murphy, Simon; Gleeson, Kate
Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations. PMID:14713660
Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice
Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357
Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M
Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
BACKGROUND: Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in
Petra Verdonk; Hannes Seesing; Angelique de Rijk
Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334
This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710
Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...
Handling Study Project Overview Research studies have found that foodborne illnesses from Escherichia coli come together in an effort to better understand the environmental causes of foodborne illness. Coli O157:H7, thereby decreasing the risk of developing a foodborne illness. The health effects from
The abstract describes the collaborative effort between the NCI, the NIEHS, the U.S. EPA, and NIOSH to conduct the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). The AHS is a prospective epidemiological study to identify factors that may affect the rate of cancer and other diseases among farme...
Background To assess the association of income-related social mobility between the age of 13 and 30 years on health-related quality of life among young adults. Methods In 1988-89 n?=?7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n?=?4,604 children (60.0%) and n?=?4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06 n?=?632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% of those traced and living in Adelaide). Results Multivariate regressions adjusting for sex, tooth brushing and smoking status at age 30 showed that compared to upwardly mobile persons social disadvantage was associated (p?0.05) with more oral health impact (Coeff?=?5.5), lower EQ-VAS health state (Coeff?=?-5.8), and worse satisfaction with life scores (Coeff?=?-3.5) at age 30 years, while downward mobility was also associated with lower satisfaction with life scores (Coeff?=?-1.3). Conclusions Stable income-related socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more oral health impact, and lower health state and life satisfaction, while being downwardly mobile was associated with lower life satisfaction at age 30 years. Persons who were upwardly mobile were similar in health outcomes to stable advantaged persons. PMID:24735954
Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715
Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial...CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial...CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...
Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.
Maynard, Nancy G.
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This paper outlines a small-scale research project that utilised a modified grounded theory approach in order to explore the role of risk assessment in health visitors' child protection work. A review of the literature investigated the role of risk assessment in current health and social care policy. Structured focus group and interview work enabled the opinions of health visitors to be collected about the factors that enable them to identify, analyse and manage issues of risk to children.Transcripts were analysed with reference to the literature review. The health visitors considered aspects of their relationship with clients to influence the identification, analysis and management of risk to children. The results suggest that health visitors are not convinced that the Common Assessment Framework or health assessment tools assist in their management of risk to children. The findings of this study are based on data collected from a small sample of health visitors, and conclusions are therefore tentative, but aim to contribute to wider professional debate about risk management in child protection work. PMID:19480117
Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach to evaluation at the beginning of implementation made the work more effective. Supporting evaluation to inform future implementations is important.
Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula
:The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and
William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays; Tanya M. Burton; Raynard S. Kington
The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and
MPH William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays
The research component of the World Health Organization's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program was established to provide new knowledge on scientifically valid and socially and economically acceptable ways of reducing high levels of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in order to achieve the global goal of reducing the level of maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. From the start of the program, more than 300 applications for support were received; 223 were submitted to the steering committee, of which 84 received funding. Not all of the studies have been completed. Among those studies which have been completed, however, several have been published in national and international journals, and some have been presented in a format generally inaccessible to those working in maternal health and safe motherhood. This paper introduces a special issue of World Health Statistics Quarterly which has brought together unpublished research results in the attempt to more widely disseminate research findings. A great deal of information has been obtained on levels of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Examples of health service and community interventions to improve maternal health have been identified, while information has accumulated on the main causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, hemorrhage, anemia, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, sepsis, obstructed labor, and abortion. This valuable methodological and practical data have been collected despite constraints upon the scope and nature of the research and upon the methodologies used. PMID:7571705
Background Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of participants. Methods We applied a pretest–posttest study design. The WHS consisted of online screening on impaired work functioning and mental health followed by online automatically generated personalized feedback, online tailored advice, and access to self-help EMH interventions. The effects on work functioning, stress, and work-related fatigue after 3 months were analyzed using paired t tests and effect sizes. Results One hundred and twenty-eight nurses and allied health professionals participated at pretest as well as posttest. Significant improvements were found on work functioning (p = 0.01) and work-related fatigue (p < 0.01). Work functioning had relevantly improved in 30% of participants. A small meaningful effect on stress was found (Cohen d = .23) in the participants who had logged onto an EMH intervention (20%, n = 26). Conclusion The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement. PMID:25516815
Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.
Published by the Virtual Health Care Team at the University of Missouri â?? Columbia School of Health Professions and created by Lorilie A. Weber-Hardy, the purpose of this case is to "test the knowledge and to build confidence in the advanced respiratory care practitioner's ability to critically think and perform in the care of a pediatric near-drown patient." In this case, a six-year-old boy has fallen into a freshwater lake and users are guided through the case in order to identify what equipment and procedures are needed for intubation and to raise the child's body temperature. The "Bibliography" section leads users to further online resources for more information. This case study along with all the cases available from the Virtual Health Care Team, are excellent additions to a classroom activity or assessment in order to help students prepare for health care careers.
Weber-Hardy, Lorilie A.
We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...
In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health. PMID:19215915
Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle
Roadmap: Communication Studies Â Health Communication Â Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College of Communication and Information School of Communication Studies Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated Major GPA Important Notes Semester One: [16 Credit Hours] COMM 20000 Foundations of Communication 3 C
Roadmap: Communication Studies Â Health Communication Â Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College of Communication and Information School of Communication Studies Catalog Year: 2012Â2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated Major GPA Important Notes Semester One: [16 Credit Hours] COMM 15000 Introduction to Human Communication
Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732
AIMSTo assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.METHODSA total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.RESULTSCompared
J Williams; S Jackson; A Maddocks; W-Y Cheung; A Love; H Hutchings
Primary Health Care is essential health care based on delivering integrated health services (curative and preventive). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted this approach in 1980, and by the year 1987 the Ministry of Health had established 1477 Primary Health Care centers. The expansion in Primary Health Care created a need for various types of evaluation. Theorists recommended the study
Ahlam A. Mansour; Muneera H. Al-Osimy
Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619
Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon
The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program. PMID:24297005
George, Melissa W.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Heather L.; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D.
Exposure assessment is an integral component of occupational and environmental epidemiology, risk assessment and management, as well as regulatory compliance. For the most part, air sampling and analysis tools used in occupational and environmental exposure assessments are based on technologies that have changed little since the 1970s. In many cases the lack of simple, inexpensive, exposure assessment technologies has limited epidemiologists' and risk assessors' ability to evaluate the environmental and occupational causes of disease. While there have been tremendous investments and advances in medical diagnostic and biomonitoring technologies (e.g., glucose testing, human genetics), there has been less effort invested in advancing the science of exposure assessment. Recent developments in sensor technology have focused on medical and homeland security applications. Developing and applying new sensors to health effects studies can revolutionize the way epidemiologic studies are conducted. Time-series studies that investigate short-term (hours to days) changes in exposure that are linked to changes in health care encounters, symptoms, and biological markers of preclinical disease and/or susceptibility are needed to more fully evaluate the impact of chemicals and other agents on health. Current sampling technology limits our ability to assess time-varying concentrations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of air sampling and health assessment and the potential application of novel sensor technology for use in health effects studies.
Breysse, Patrick N.
This paper is a report of a study exploring mental health service users' (MHSUs') experiences of diabetes care. Diabetes is a growing clinical concern in mental health nursing practice. However, little is known about MHSUs' experience of diabetes care. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were held between June and October 2011, with seven MHSUs who had diabetes. Participants reported experiences of stigma and diagnostic overshadowing (DO) when reporting symptoms of diabetes or when feeling unwell. Participants also encountered a split between their mental health and diabetes care needs, which resulted in a lack of holistic or integrated care. All participants mentioned experiencing complications of diabetes even to the extent of diabetic ketoacidosis. Mental health nurses (MHNs) must critically reflect on their attitudes towards service users that report physical symptoms to ensure that stigma and DO do not constitute barriers to appropriate screening and treatment. The complex relationship that exists between mental illness and diabetes requires MHNs to ensure physical and mental health care are wholly integrated and not split. Education needs are apparent so that symptoms and complications can be recognized and treated accordingly. PMID:24548452
BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers
Annette AM Gerritsen; Inge Bramsen; Walter Devillé; Loes HM van Willigen; Johannes E Hovens; Henk M van der Ploeg
The purpose of this study was to examine the association of public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent health-related outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of American adolescents in grades 7–12. The public religiosity variable combines two items measuring frequency of attendance at religious services and frequency of
James M. Nonnemaker; Clea A. McNeely; Robert Wm. Blum
BACKGROUND: US schools employ an estimated 6.7 million workers and are thus an ideal setting for employee wellness programs. This article describes the charac- teristics of school employee wellness programs in the United States, including state-, district-, and school-level policies and programs. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6
Danice K. Eaton; Eva Marx; Sara E. Bowie
...Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance...review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of...
...Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance...review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of...
Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS): Description of a multidisciplinary, New York, NY, USA Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a multidisciplinary and large arsenic (As) exposure on various health outcomes, including premalignant and malignant skin tumors, total
van Geen, Alexander
Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress. Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity. PMID:23865016
Doaee, SH; Olyaeemanesh, A; Emami, SH; Mobinizadeh, M; Abooee, P; Nejati, M; Zolani, GS
"Health, Aging and Environments" aims to bring together the resonant fields of health studies, gerontology, aging studies and other disciplines that focus on social studies of health, aging throughout the conference include: How should healthcare priorities change as a response to aging populations
BACKGROUND: Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. METHODS: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Structural facilitators
Alicia O'Cathain; Jon Nicholl; Elizabeth Murphy
The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs. PMID:22924201
Adepoju, Joseph A
Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%), and many have less than 8th grade education (48%), and fall below the poverty level (59%). Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26%) and cognitive (7%) impairment, obesity (57%), type 2 diabetes (40%), hypertension (69%), arthritis (50%) and depressive symptomatology (60%). Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities. PMID:20193082
Cognitive impairment is associated with increased mortality, depending on the severity of impairment. We analyzed data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), using Cox proportional hazards regression models to quantify the effect of the impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and medical risk factors, we found the resulting relative risks to range from 1.19 for mild impairment to 1.98 for
Robert M. Shavelle
The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in
Han K. Kang; Nancy A. Dalager; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson; Genevieve M. Matanoski; Sukon Kanchanaraksa; Peter S. J. Lees
The purpose of this project is to demonstrate, through a case study, how York Community Services (YCS) is a leader in the delivery ofprimary health care through its integration ofhealth, legal and social services. YCS is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. YCS's mandate is to serve populations that have traditionally been on the margins ofsociety and therefore have had difficulty
Monica M. Lancaster; David P. Thow
Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses. Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...
In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...
In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...
Although mental health has become the predominant area of social work practice, there is a lack of concrete information regarding what social workers actually provide and to whom. This situation becomes more critical as social work competes for clients and concentrates on improving the profession's image. The data used in this study were obtained from questionnaire responses from a sample
Travis J. Courville; Kathryn F. Kennedy
We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…
Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.
We have shown that an interactive microcomputer system using noninvasive cardiovascular measurements during exercise is both possible and practical. Experimental use of the system has verified our choice of variables as appropriate for automatic generation of a cardiovascular data base, but additional studies are required to determine the system's sensitivity for assessing health-effect decrements.
Petrovick, M.L.; Kizakevich, P.N.; Stacy, R.W.; Haak, E.D. Jr.
Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...
This article describes the Betula Study with respect to objectives, design, participants, and assessment instruments for health and cognition. Three waves of data collection have been completed in 5-year intervals since 1988–1990. A fourth wave started in 2003 and will be completed in 2005. An overview of Betula research is presented under the headings of memory and cognition and cognitive
Lars-Göran Nilsson; Rolf Adolfsson; Lars Bäckman; Cindy M. de Frias; Bo Molander; Lars Nyberg
Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283
Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.
This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.
Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris
Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...
Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...
A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)
Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves
This book considers the role of and the need for primary health care leadership, drawing upon case studies and research from the World Health Organization (WHO) communities. The differing levels and functions of leadership in primary health care are delineated, with particular emphasis given to regarding the leadership concept as "effective…
Flahault, Daniel; Roemer, Milton I.
The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in…
Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima
As one article in a series on Global Mental Health Practice, Simone Honikman and colleagues from South Africa provide a case study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project, which delivered mental health care to pregnant women in a collaborative, step-wise manner, making use of existing resources in primary care.
Simone Honikman; Thandi van Heyningen; Sally Field; Emily Baron; Mark Tomlinson
Background Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns. Objective The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies. Methods Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites. Results Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive outcomes for a variety of health conditions. PatientsLikeMe and 23andMe are the leading operators of researcher-organized, crowdsourced health research studies. These operators have published findings in the areas of disease research, drug response, user experience in crowdsourced studies, and genetic association. Quantified Self, Genomera, and DIYgenomics are communities of participant-organized health research studies where individuals conduct self-experimentation and group studies. Crowdsourced health research studies have a diversity of intended outcomes and levels of scientific rigor. Conclusions Participatory health initiatives are becoming part of the public health ecosystem and their rapid growth is facilitated by Internet and social networking influences. Large-scale parameter-stratified cohorts have potential to facilitate a next-generation understanding of disease and drug response. Not only is the large size of crowdsourced cohorts an asset to medical discovery, too is the near-immediate speed at which medical findings might be tested and applied. Participatory health initiatives are expanding the scope of medicine from a traditional focus on disease cure to a personalized preventive approach. Crowdsourced health research studies are a promising complement and extension to traditional clinical trials as a model for the conduct of health research. PMID:22397809
In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences. PMID:20811952
Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B
This article discusses health inequalities based on acute childhood respiratory diseases in the coverage area of a health center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to help plan local health promotion activities. The work was based on ecological studies using the geographic area as the unit of analysis, allowing a comparison of health and socioeconomic indicators based on census data. Indicators were constructed for "social inclusion" and "housing quality", generating the "potential exposure index", which reflects the respiratory disease risk conditions. Statistical treatment included grouping according to the cluster technique. Four homogenous social groups were identified in terms of risk conditions for acute respiratory diseases. Groups III and IV, with the worst socioeconomic conditions, showed important differences in comparison to groups I and II. The differences in mortality from pneumonia suggest important health inequalities. The results allow the geographic localization of the highest and lowest concentration of needs in terms of living conditions and the comparison of census tracts for recognizing distinct needs, thus supporting proposals for inter-sector collaboration. PMID:18209834
Chiesa, Anna M; Westphal, Marcia F; Akerman, Marco
Evidence from animal, human cross-sectional, case-control, and prospective studies indicate that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a promising treatment to delay the onset of symptoms of dementia. The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) is the first double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial designed to test the hypothesis that HRT reduces the incidence of all-cause dementia in women aged 65
Sally A. Shumaker; Beth A. Reboussin; Mark A. Espeland; Stephen R. Rapp; Wendy L. McBee; Maggie Dailey; Deborah Bowen; Tim Terrell; Beverly N. Jones
Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880
Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali
Methods: Participants in the Veterans Health Study, a 2-year longitudinal study, were recruited from a repre- sentative sample of patients receiving ambulatory care at 4 VA facilities in the New England region. The Veter- ans Health Study patients received questionnaires of health status, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey; and a health examination, clini- cal assessments,
Lewis E. Kazis; Donald R. Miller; Jack Clark; Katherine Skinner; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Avron Spiro III; Susan Payne; Graeme Fincke; Alfredo Selim; Mark Linzer
The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.
...provide needed information about the health of U.S. adolescents and influences on their health. The study has collected information on adolescent health behaviors and social and environmental contexts for these behaviors annually for three...
...Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss...issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH...for the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with...
...Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss...issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH...for the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with...
...Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss...issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH...for the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with...
This thesis describes MOSHPIT, an open source project health monitoring tool that can be used to assess project health over time. The free and open source project Twisted is used as a case study in analyzing project health ...
McKellar, Jessica T
The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data—public, sensitive and restricted—can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021
Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John WR; Weir, David R
A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…
Johnson, Hans H.; And Others
In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…
Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga
Clinical Social Franchising Case Study Series: DKT's Andalan Indonesia 1 The Global Health GroupKt's andalan indonesia #12;Copyright Â© 2012 The Global Health Group The Global Health Group Global Health Email: email@example.com Website: globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group Ordering
Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health. PMID:12499453
Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T
1998Second InternationalConferenceon Knowledge-Based IntelligentElectronicSystems, 21-23April 1998,Adelaide, Australia. Editors, L.C. Jain and R.KJain InteractiveAnimation for Visualisationof Mapping of Parallel
and Ungar [51 supports cartoon-style animation techniques. They describe three principles (solidity,Adelaide, Australia. Editors, L.C. Jain and R.KJain InteractiveAnimation for Visualisationof Mapping programming environment. Extending the use of animation techniques will have a two fold effect
This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.
Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n?=?210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important finding of this study is the large number of Baby Boomers who indicated that they would be happy to work part-time or never retire. Policies and continued dialogue aimed at making the workplace a safe, flexible and welcoming environment to accommodate this wish, and to entice others to take up this option over complete withdrawal from the labour force, is required. PMID:24731726
The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of quantitative information on the relations between elements in the soil and human health;
Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.
The National Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program and the family practice specialty were both created around 1970, in part to help meet the health care needs of medically underserved populations. Because these two entities share the common goal of alleviating physician shortages in rural areas, a study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of their interaction. Questionnaires were mailed to all AHEC projects and all nonmilitary family practice residency programs. Response rates were 100% and 79%, respectively. Elective rural rotations (usually preceptorships) are offered by 135 (49%) residencies, but only 84 (31%) require them. Fourteen (64%) AHEC projects interact with family practice residencies; however, only 9% (15/167) of the programs in those states utilize AHEC resources. The authors conclude that additional rural rotations could be offered to family practice residents by taking advantage of under-utilized resources of the National AHEC Program. PMID:2744284
Blondell, R D; Smith, I J; Byrne, M E; Higgins, C W
Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415
Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti
Interventions designed to improve professional practices and healthcare organization are regularly implemented in all health systems. Their effectiveness on quality of care should be properly evaluated prior to their widespread implementation. Intervention studies can be conducted for this purpose according to a rigorous methodology in order to provide results with a good level of evidence. This article describes the main phases of an intervention study, including definition of the intervention, choice of study design, outcomes assessment, and writing of the report. It also addresses methodological issues of intervention studies designed to improve quality of care, such as cluster-randomization or the use of quasi-experimental designs. One of the specific features of these studies is that professionals are the targets, while patients are the beneficiaries of the intervention. A good knowledge of the specific features of studies designed to improve quality of care is essential to conduct research, or to evaluate the quality of the evidence from published studies. PMID:25380267
Zaugg, Vincent; Savoldelli, Virginie; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre
There is a need to understand the practicality, validity and reliability of using utility measures with children and adolescents. We designed a pilot study in order to help guide the selection of an appropriate health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaire for adolescents to be used in the context of a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of family therapy versus standard treatment for adolescents aged 11-17 years. The pilot study was carried out on a school sample of adolescents in the same age range as the RCT. Adolescents were asked to fill in three HRQoL questionnaires: the standard EQ-5D, the licensed Health Utilities Index HUI, and the child-friendly version of the standard EQ-5D: the EQ-5D for youth (EQ-5D-Y). This report explores the problems with the language and concepts embodied within those HRQoL questionnaires and open discussion regarding how we can value the health of adolescents for cost-utility analysis in a larger study. PMID:21785871
Oluboyede, Yemi; Tubeuf, Sandy; McCabe, Chris
Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have significant meaning for future public health programs, which should be more tailored with use of such knowledge on behavioral clustering via e.g. Transfer Learning. PMID:24305509
Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid interpretation, we will undertake qualitative work with 15 young people, including interviews, non-participant observation and diary collection. Discussion This study will evaluate the effect of service components of transitional care, rather than evaluation of specific models that may be unsustainable or not generalisable. It has been developed in response to numerous national and international calls for such evaluation. PMID:23875722
South Africa's health system consists of a large public sector and a smaller but fast-growing private sector. Health care varies from the most basic primary health care, offered free by the state, to highly specialized health services available in the private sector for those who can afford it. The responsibility for the overall performance of a country's health system lies
S. Nkundlaa; D. Pottas; M. M. Eloff
This comprehensive school health education program offers a planned sequential curriculum for grades K-12 based on student needs, current and emerging health concepts, and social issues. It integrates the physical, mental, emotional, and social dimensions of health. The 10 areas covered are: (1) consumer health; (2) dental health; (3) disease…
Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.
Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further analyses with a larger study group is warranted. PMID:25757670
Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS
Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…
Yi, Yong Jeong
The School health policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of suicide prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education
Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams
Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730
Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M
Some patients with an asthma diagnosis have a poor controlled asthma. One explanation may be an incorrect diagnosis. Aim. The aim of the study was to diagnose and classify patients with non-infectious lower respiratory tract problems in primary health care using internationally applied diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests. Patients and Methods. New adult patients visiting a primary health care centre due to lower airway problems were included. The diagnostic tests included FEV1, FVC, PEF, two questionnaires, methacholine test, and skin prick test. Results. The patients (n = 43) could be divided into four groups: asthma (28%), asthma-like disorder (44%), idiopathic cough (12%), and a nonreversible bronchial obstructive group (16%). The asthma and asthma-like groups showed similar patterns of airway symptoms and trigger factors, not significantly separated by a special questionnaire. Phlegm, heavy breathing, chest pressure/pain, cough, and wheezing were the most common symptoms. Physical exercise and scents were the dominating trigger factors. Conclusions. Nonobstructive asthma-like symptoms seem to be as common as bronchial asthma in primary health care. Due to the similarities in symptoms and trigger factors the study supports the hypothesis that asthma and nonobstructive asthma-like disorders are integrated in the same “asthma syndrome,” including different mechanisms, not only bronchial obstruction. PMID:24817894
Ringsberg, Karin C.; Bjärneman, Paula; Larsson, Ronny; Wallström, Elisabeth; Löwhagen, Olle
Some patients with an asthma diagnosis have a poor controlled asthma. One explanation may be an incorrect diagnosis. Aim. The aim of the study was to diagnose and classify patients with non-infectious lower respiratory tract problems in primary health care using internationally applied diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests. Patients and Methods. New adult patients visiting a primary health care centre due to lower airway problems were included. The diagnostic tests included FEV1, FVC, PEF, two questionnaires, methacholine test, and skin prick test. Results. The patients (n = 43) could be divided into four groups: asthma (28%), asthma-like disorder (44%), idiopathic cough (12%), and a nonreversible bronchial obstructive group (16%). The asthma and asthma-like groups showed similar patterns of airway symptoms and trigger factors, not significantly separated by a special questionnaire. Phlegm, heavy breathing, chest pressure/pain, cough, and wheezing were the most common symptoms. Physical exercise and scents were the dominating trigger factors. Conclusions. Nonobstructive asthma-like symptoms seem to be as common as bronchial asthma in primary health care. Due to the similarities in symptoms and trigger factors the study supports the hypothesis that asthma and nonobstructive asthma-like disorders are integrated in the same "asthma syndrome," including different mechanisms, not only bronchial obstruction. PMID:24817894
Ringsberg, Karin C; Bjärneman, Paula; Larsson, Ronny; Wallström, Elisabeth; Löwhagen, Olle
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...
Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…
Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica
Innovations in the training of community health personnel that emphasize the importance of the development of health personnel able and willing to serve the community by providing health care, promoting health, preventing disease, and caring for those in need are examined. The need for effective and efficient training programs relevant to present…
Katz, F. M., Ed.; Fulop, T., Ed.
Background There is an increasing push for ‘evidence-based’ decision making in global health policy circles. However, at present there are no agreed upon standards or guidelines for how to evaluate evidence in global health. Recent evaluations of existing evidence frameworks that could serve such a purpose have identified details of program context and project implementation as missing components needed to inform policy. We performed a pilot study to assess the current state of reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions. Methods We identified three existing criteria sets for implementation reporting and selected from them 10 criteria potentially relevant to the needs of policy makers in global health contexts. We applied these 10 criteria to 15 articles included in the evidence base for three global health interventions chosen to represent a diverse set of advocated global health programs or interventions: household water chlorination, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and lay community health workers to reduce child mortality. We used a good-fair-poor/none scale for the ratings. Results The proportion of criteria for which reporting was poor/none ranged from 11% to 54% with an average of 30%. Eight articles had ‘good’ or ‘fair’ documentation for greater than 75% of criteria, while five articles had ‘poor or none’ documentation for 50% of criteria or more. Examples of good reporting were identified. Conclusions Reporting of context and implementation information in studies of global health interventions is mostly fair or poor, and highly variable. The idiosyncratic variability in reporting indicates that global health investigators need more guidance about what aspects of context and implementation to measure and how to report them. This lack of context and implementation information is a major gap in the evidence needed by global health policy makers to reach decisions. PMID:24886201
Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777
Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a major contribution to the field of knowledge transfer and implementation science. PMID:20416054
A major challenge this century is to identify ways to reliably supply water to urban areas under the increasing pressures of population growth, urbanisation and climate change. A proper consideration of sustainability is the key to solving the urban water supply system (UWSS) problem, as it ensures that a holistic approach is taken, whereby the economic, environmental, social, technical and
B. S. Staniford; H. R. Maier
Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396
Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza
The Black Church is the only institution that has consistently served the interest of African Americans, and there is no other institution in the African American community that rivals its influence (Camara, 2004). The spiritual well-fare, social support, health, and well-being of its people have been one of its main goals. With health disparities of African Americans still at an alarming rate, the Black Church has used informal education as a means to impart knowledge on health, as well as other non-religious and religious topics. One of the avenues least researched within the Black Church is the pastor's perception of its educational role in health and wellness and its efforts to reduce health discrimination and health disparities between African American and European Americans in the U.S. Since social justice appears as a theme and concern in the traditions of many churches, it is only appropriate that, among other things, the Black Church should address the issue of health education and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore African American pastors' perceptions of the role of the Black Church in providing health care, health education, and wellness opportunities to African Americans. Many pastors reported their church provided some form of health education and/or health screenings. Their perceptions about the important issues facing their congregants versus African Americans in general were quite similar. PMID:23563927
Rowland, Michael L; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette
Background Previous studies on self-rated health among nurses have indicated an association of low job satisfaction and stress in relation to poor self-rated health. The relationship between self rated health and the specific work characteristics and health related behaviours of nurses to our knowledge have not been adequately studied. Objective To investigate the health profile of nurses working in hospitals in North West Greece and to examine the associations between self rated health (SRH) and health related behaviours and work characteristics in this group of hospital employees. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 443 nurses working in all the hospitals in North West Greece. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of health related behaviours and work characteristics with self rated health among the nurses. Results A total of 353 responded to the questionnaire (response rate 80%) of which 311 (88%) were female and 42 (12%) male. The mean age (standard deviation) of the respondents was 36 years (5.6) and their mean years of working as nurses were 13.5 years (5.9). Almost half of the nurses' smoked, and about one third were overweight or obese. About 58% (206) of the nurses reported having poor health while 42% (147) reported having good health. Self-rated health was independently associated with gender, effort to avoid fatty foods and physical activity, according to multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The population studied presented a relatively poor health profile, and a high proportion of poor SRH. Though female gender and effort to avoid fatty foods were associated with poor SRH, and exercise and white meat consumption with good SRH, specific work characteristics were not associated with SRH. PMID:16364183
Pappas, Noula A; Alamanos, Yannis; Dimoliatis, Ioannis DK
Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711
van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G
Abstract: Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants ’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heatInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10 2165
Behaviours In Adelaide; Derick A. Akompab; Peng Bi; Susan Williams; Janet Grant; Iain A. Walker; Martha Augoustinos
to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition
In a community-based health insurance (CBHI) introduced in 2004 in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso, poor perceived quality of care by CBHI enrollees has been a key factor in observed high drop-out rates. The poor quality perceptions have been previously attributed to health worker dissatisfaction with the provider payment method used by the scheme and the resulting financial risk of health centers. This study applied a mixed-methods approach to investigate how health workers working in facilities contracted by the CBHI view the methods of provider payment used by the CBHI. In order to analyze these relationships, we conducted 23 in-depth interviews and a quantitative survey with 98 health workers working in the CBHI intervention zone. The qualitative in-depth interviews identified that insufficient levels of capitation payments, the infrequent schedule of capitation payment, and lack of a payment mechanism for reimbursing service fees were perceived as significant sources of health worker dissatisfaction and loss of work-related motivation. Combining qualitative interview and quantitative survey data in a mixed-methods analysis, this study identified that the declining quality of care due to the CBHI provider payment method was a source of significant professional stress and role strain for health workers. Health workers felt that the following five changes due to the provider payment methods introduced by the CBHI impeded their ability to fulfill professional roles and responsibilities: (i) increased financial volatility of health facilities, (ii) dissatisfaction with eligible costs to be covered by capitation; (iii) increased pharmacy stock-outs; (iv) limited financial and material support from the CBHI; and (v) the lack of mechanisms to increase provider motivation to support the CBHI. To address these challenges and improve CBHI uptake and health outcomes in the targeted populations, the health care financing and delivery model in the study zone should be reformed. We discuss concrete options for reform based on the study findings. PMID:24681326
Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Souares, Aurélia; Traoré, Adama; Bicaba, Brice; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer
This article reflects on a positive example of health research translation. Research conducted in a disadvantaged urban community in Johannesburg by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Urban Health as part of the Health Environment and Development study led to a number of community-led health promotion initiatives. Using the Research and Policy in International Development framework for analyzing the links between research and practice, the process and outcomes that have transformed local approaches to health are reviewed. Lessons learned may prove useful to others seeking to use health research to influence local approaches to health. PMID:21444923
Plagerson, Sophie E; Mathee, Angela
Objectives We evaluated the use of hearing health care services (hearing testing and hearing aids) by adults aged 21 to 84 years. Methods Hearing was tested and medical and hearing health histories were obtained as part of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study between 2005 and 2008 (n = 3285, mean age = 49 years). Results Of the cohort, 34% (55% of participants aged ? 70 years) had a hearing test in the past 5 years. In multivariate modeling, older age, male gender, occupation, occupational noise, and having talked with a doctor about a hearing problem were independently associated with having had a hearing test in the past 5 years. Hearing aid use was low among participants with a moderate to severe hearing impairment (22.5%) and among participants with a hearing handicap (8.6%), as determined by the Hearing Handicap Inventory. Conclusions Data support the need for improvement in hearing health care. Hearing aids’ effectiveness is limited if patients do not acquire them or do not use them once acquired. Future research should focus on developing effective strategies for moving patients from diagnosis to treatment. PMID:23597370
Nash, Scott D.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Tweed, Theodore S.
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2013 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2014 3 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community
Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis, 2012 Prevention and Addiction Studies Emphasis HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 255 Introduction to Field of Addictions HLTHST 258 Blood Borne Pathogens for Addictions Professionals HLTHST 356 Community
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...
... With Us A long term health study for oil spill clean-up workers and volunteers Follow-up ... health study for individuals who helped with the oil spill cleanup, took training, signed up to work, ...
The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...
...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. 725.92 Section 725.92 ...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access...Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms. (a) Information other than...
This article describes the income replacement ratio as a measure of retirement income adequacy and identifies several issues analysts must consider when calculating a replacement ratio. The article presents the income replacement ratios experienced by participants in the original sample cohort of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), who were born between 1931 and 1941. Replacement ratios are shown by the respondent's birth cohort, age when first classified as retired in the HRS, and preretirement income quartile. Median replacement ratios fall as the retirement period grows longer. PMID:23113428
Purcell, Patrick J
A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn. PMID:17193808
López Piñero, José María
Quality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health Thanh Tin Tang.firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Kathy Griffiths and Helen Christensen Centre for Mental Health Research, ANU crawl- ing, mental health, depression 1 Introduction Searching for health information is a common activ
Background. Inadequate health literacy, or difficulty in obtaining and understanding health information, may be a barrier in educating patients about their heart failure. ^ Objectives. The first objective of this study was to model the relationship between health literacy, health locus of control, years of formal education, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care in patients with heart failure. The second objective of
Aleda M Chen
BACKGROUND: Healthy Schools programmes may assist schools in improving the oral health of children through advocating a common risk factor approach to health promotion and by more explicit consideration of oral health. The objectives of this study were to gain a broad contextual understanding of issues around the delivery of oral health promotion as part of Healthy Schools programmes and
Emma Stokes; Cynthia M Pine; Rebecca V Harris
The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses, exciting opportunities are opening up to unravel the causes of problems in craniofacial growth and common oral diseases in human populations. PMID:24117977
Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D
This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…
McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia
This research project aimed to further knowledge regarding the relationship between community capacity building (CCB), community development and health within the context of the Health Issues in the Community (HIIC) ...
The study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) and student academic performance. Data were collected from schools and the community for three reports for 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS), the National…
Vinciullo, Frances M.; Bradley, Beverly J.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
Vital statistics, published by the National Statistics Institute in Spain, are a highly important source for the study of perinatal health nationwide. However, the process of data collection is not well-known and has implications both for the quality and interpretation of the epidemiological results derived from this source. The aim of this study was to present how the information is collected and some of the associated problems. This study is the result of an analysis of the methodological notes from the National Statistics Institute and first-hand information obtained from hospitals, the Central Civil Registry of Madrid, and the Madrid Institute for Statistics. Greater integration between these institutions is required to improve the quality of birth and stillbirth statistics. PMID:24878259
Juárez, Sol Pía
Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826
Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till
Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population.\\u000a Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence,\\u000a they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes\\u000a in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal
Rachel Tham; John S Humphreys; Leigh Kinsman; Penny Buykx; Adel Asaid; Kathy Tuohey
Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959
Background Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Methods Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40–45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR?=?3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR?=?4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR?=?1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (<6.5 hours) was particularly high, whereas insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Conclusions Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low-threshold interventions should consequently be a prioritized task for public health policy. PMID:25024049
Background Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries. Objectives To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. Methods From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors. Results We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries’ average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries (i.e. Manitoba Health, Northwest Territories Department of Health and Social Services, Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services and Yukon Department of Health and Social Services). Conclusions There is inequity in availability of peer-reviewed research in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. This inequity could present a problem, as each province and territory is responsible for formulating and implementing evidence-informed health policies and services for the benefit of its population. PMID:23514333
The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…
Gender-based inequalities in health have been frequently documented. This paper examines the extent to which these inequalities reflect the different social experiences and conditions of men's and women's lives. We address four specific questions. Are there gender differences in mental and physical health? What is the relative importance of the structural, behavioural and psychosocial determinants of health? Are the gender
Margaret Denton; Steven Prus; Vivienne Walters
A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…
Price, James; Sidani, Jaime
[EH-BS-IHS-HCAS] College of Education, Health, and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog and Title Credit Hours Upper Div. Min. Grade Major GPA Important Notes Semester One: [14 Credit Hours] IHS in fall only IHS 44010 Research Design and Statistical Analysis for the Health Professions 3 PHIL 40005
Addressing American Indians and the Indian Health Service (IHS), this report focuses on the process of Indian involvement and self-determination in health, emphasizing improvement of the effectiveness and responsiveness of Indian health services. Data derived from written documents, statistical figures, and personal interviews with over 200 people…
Press, Daniel S.; And Others
As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with
Xinhua S. Ren; Lewis Kazis; Austin Lee; William Rogers; Susan Pendergrass
Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of social inequalities in health care
Jarno Habicht; Anton E. Kunst
...Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section...Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From...studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in...
Recent studies suggest that violence in health care environments, especially mental health care, appears to be increasing. Although there is a lack of cross-cultural studies to prove it, this increase in violence would seem to be an international phenomenon. The present study sought to compare the extent and nature of violence encountered by mental health nurses in Sweden and England.
Peter Nolan; Joaquim Soares; Janie Dallender; Sarah Thomsen; Bengt Arnetz
Objective: Development of guidelines for publication of evaluation studies of Health Infor- matics applications. Methods: An initial list of issues to be addressed in reports on evaluation studies was drafted based on experiences as editors and reviewers of journals in Health Informatics and as authors of systematic reviews of Health Informatics studies, taking into account guide- lines for reporting of
Jan L. Talmon; Elske Ammenwerth; Jytte Brender; Nicolette De Keizer; Pirkko Nykänen; Michael Rigby
Environmental pollution, primarily from industrialization, has caused significant adverse effects to humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Attempts have been made to reduce and prevent these pollutants through better waste management practices. Incineration is one such practice, which seeks to prevent adverse health impacts to future generations by destroying waste today, without increasing risk to those living near incineration facilities in the process. As with any industrial process, however, proper design and operation are important requirements to ensure the facility can be operated safely. Any technology that cannot be managed safely should not be considered acceptable. This paper reviews the scientific basis of past allegations associated with the process of hazardous waste incineration. These five case studies, which have attracted considerable public attention, have not been shown to be scientifically accurate of factually based. This paper attempts to separate fact from fiction and to show some of the consistent inaccuracies that were repeated throughout all five studies. In reviewing the above cases and others in the literature, several common elements become apparent. 1. Most of the reports are based on single newspaper articles, activist newsletters, interviews with admittedly biased respondents, and other secondary or inappropriate sources of information that do not withstand scientific scrutiny. 2. Research studies are quoted incompletely or out of context. Often the original point made by the researcher is the exact opposite of the impression left by Costner and Thornton. 3. In four of five cases, no data were supplied to substantiate the claims. As an observation, where substantive research data do not exist to support allegations of adverse health effects, a tendency seems to be increasing over time to make allegations and then not provide supporting data. Because public damage is often done simply by making the allegation, this tactic appears to be effective. Thus, unsubstantiated allegations should not go unchallenged. 4. A relatively small group of people appears to be consistently generating most of the allegations. 5. The format of the allegations tends to be similar; often just the name of the facility changes. 6. Furthermore, these same few individuals tend to repeat the same allegations about the same facilities, even after the allegations have been long since proven incorrect. Despite the widespread prevalence of incineration facilities around the world and the millions of tons of waste destroyed in them each year, surprisingly few reports of adverse health effects exist in the scientific literature relative to other types of waste management practices. 7. The existing reports do not indicate that hazardous waste incineration has widespread potential for adverse health effects. However, as with all industrial processes, care must be taken to ensure that facilities are well designed and well operated to minimize or prevent adverse health effects. As with all environmental exposures, potential impacts on public health need to be addressed scientifically. Making a scientifically valid connection between operation of an incinerator and resulting disease within a population is a difficult undertaking, requiring the combined efforts of toxicologists, epidemiologists, chemists, physicians, and persons in other disciplines. Nevertheless, concerns regarding potential impacts of incineration must be addressed and communicated, both accurately and effectively, if the actual risks of incineration are to become widely understood. PMID:8794540
Pleus, R C; Kelly, K E
Study Objectives Health care utilization has progressively increased, especially among Medical Aid beneficiaries in South Korea. The Medical Aid classifies beneficiaries into two categories, type 1 and 2, on the basis of being incapable (those under 18 or over 65 years of age, or disabled) or capable of working, respectively. Medical Aid has a high possibility for health care utilization due to high coverage level. In South Korea, the national health insurance (NHI) achieved very short time to establish coverage for the entire Korean population. However there there remaine a number of problems to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the differences in health care utilization between Medical Aid beneficiaries and Health Insurance beneficiaries. Methods & Design Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study from 2008 to 2012 using propensity score matching. Of the 2,316 research subjects, 579 had Medical Aid and 1,737 had health insurance. We also analyzed three dependent variables: days spent in the hospital, number of outpatient visits, and hospitalizations per year. Analysis of variance and longitudinal data analysis were used. Results The number of outpatient visits was 1.431 times higher (p<0.0001) in Medical Aid beneficiaries, the number of hospitalizations per year was 1.604 times higher (p<0.0001) in Medical Aid beneficiaries, and the number of days spent in the hospital per year was 1.282 times higher (p<0.268) for Medical Aid beneficiaries than in individuals with Health Insurance. Medical Aid patients had a 0.874 times lower frequency of having an unmet needs due to economic barrier (95% confidence interval: 0.662-1.156). Conclusions Health insurance coverage has an impact on health care utilization. More health care utilization among Medical Aid beneficiaries appears to have a high possibility of a moral hazard risk under the Health Insurance program. Therefore, the moral hazard for Medical Aid beneficiaries should be avoided. PMID:25816234
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol
To meet the rapidly expanding need for musculoskeletal (MSK) specialists [physiotherapists (PTs), physiatrists] in haemophilia care in China, a 4-day Train the Trainer workshop was conducted in July/August 2009 in Beijing. A key focus was to train the participants to administer the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) version 2.1 for effectively evaluating the MSK health of boys <18 years of age with haemophilia. The aim of this study was to test the HJHS version 2.1 inter- and intra-rater reliability in a group of Chinese PTs and physiatrists with limited experience in haemophilia care. Each of the trained Chinese physiatrists and PTs examined eight boys 4-17 years old with moderate and severe haemophilia on day 1 and repeated the examination on the same patients the next day using the HJHS version 2.1. The boys had a wide range of target joint involvement and arthropathy. The HJHS score sheet, work sheets and manual had been translated into simple Chinese prior to the study. The interrater (ICC 0.90) and intra-rater (ICC 0.91) reliability was excellent. The internal consistency of the HJHS items was also excellent with Cronbach's alpha of 0.86. With basic training in the administration of the HJHS version 2.1, the tool was reliably administered by Chinese PTs and physiatrists with limited haemophilic experience. PMID:24330460
Sun, J; Hilliard, P E; Feldman, B M; Zourikian, N; Chen, L; Blanchette, V S; Luke, K H; Poon, M C
Background The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia has been publishing Health and Health related indicators of the country annually since 1987 E.C. These indicators have been of high importance in indicating the status of health in the country in those years. However, the trends/patterns of these indicators and the factors related to the trends have not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In addition, there were minimal efforts to develop a model for predicting future values of Health and Health related indicators based on the current trend. Objectives The overall aim of this study was to analyze trends of and develop model for prediction of Health and Health related indicators. More specifically, it described the trends of Health and Health related indicators, identified determinants of mortality and morbidity indicators and developed model for predicting future values of MDG indicators. Methods This study was conducted on Health and Health related indicators of Ethiopia from the year 1987 E.C to 2000 E.C. Key indicators of Mortality and Morbidity, Health service coverage, Health systems resources, Demographic and socio-economic, and Risk factor indicators were extracted and analyzed. The trends in these indicators were established using trend analysis techniques. The determinants of the established trends were identified using ARIMA models in STATA. The trend-line equations were then used to predict future values of the indicators. Results Among the mortality indicators considered in this study, it was only Maternal Mortality Ratio that showed statistically significant decrement within the study period. The trends of Total Fertility Rate, physician per 100,000 population, skilled birth attendance and postnatal care coverage were found to have significant association with Maternal Mortality Ratio trend. There was a reversal of malaria parasite prevalence in 1999 E.C from Plasmodium Falciparum to Plasmodium Vivax. Based on the prediction from the current trend, the Millennium Development Goal target for under-five mortality rate and proportion of people having access to basic sanitation can be achieved. Conclusion The current trend indicates the need to accelerate the progress of the indicators to achieve MDGs at or before 2015, particularly for Maternal Health and access to safe water supply. PMID:20003381
Study objective: To determine the involvement in civil society groups (CSGs) and the impact of this on health. Design: Case study, cross sectional, self completion questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Setting: Residents in two suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Participants: Every household (1038) received a questionnaire asking the adult with the next birthday to complete it. A total of 530 questionnaires were returned. Sixteen questionnaire respondents were also interviewed. Main results: 279 (53%) questionnaire respondents had been involved in a CSG in the past 12 months, 190 (36%) in locally based CSGs, and 188 (35%) in CSGs outside the area. Eleven of the 16 interviewees had been involved in a CSG. A path analysis examined the relation between demographic variables, CSG involvement, and mental and physical health, as measured by the SF-12. Physical health was negatively associated with CSG involvement and older age, and positively associated with working full time or part time and higher education level. Mental health was positively associated with older age, working full time or part time, and higher income but negatively associated with having a child under 18, speaking a language other than English and higher education level. Very few interviewees made a direct link between CSGs and positive individual health outcomes, though some positive community level outcomes were noted. More consistent were reports of the detrimental effects of CSG involvement on mental and physical health. Conclusions: Involvement in CSGs was significant but not always positive for health. It is possible that CSG involvement is good for a community but not necessarily for the individual. PMID:15143118
Ziersch, A; Baum, F
Background: With objective of health systems strengthening, as visualized under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM); one key strategic intervention is up-gradation of health service delivery facilities so as to provide sustainable quality care with accountability and people's participation, which required the development of a proper management structure called Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS). It is the State's attempt to make health everyone's business by de-mystifying health-care delivery at district and sub-district levels with reference to facility based health-care delivery by encouraging citizen's participation in management bodies. Objective: The study was an attempt to define ‘functional Health Systems’ with a focus on strategic issues concerning RKS operations. Materials and Methods: A mixed-method, multi-site, collective case study approach was adopted. In-depth interviews of key-stakeholders were conducted. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and coded inductively. Results: RKS is yet to bring out quality component to the health services being provided through facilities. This can be attributed to structural and managerial weakness in the system; however, certainly NRHM has been consistent in creating a road-map for benefitting local community and their participation through RKS. Conclusion: The progress of the RKS can further be enhanced by giving due priority to critical areas. Furthermore, the results emphasize an urgent need for devising strategies and actions to overcome significant systemic constraints as highlighted in the present study. PMID:24302823
Adsul, Neha; Kar, Manoj
Introduction Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy required to contribute effectively to it. Their knowledge of this subject, their understanding and interpretation of how it could be taught, was not fully understood. Methodology This research aimed to understand how public health nurse educators’ professional knowledge could be conceptualised and to develop a substantive theory of their knowledge of teaching public health, using a qualitative data analysis approach. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews (n=26) were conducted with eleven university-based PHNEs. Results Integrating public health into all aspects of life was seen as central to the knowing and teaching of public health; this was conceptualised as ‘embodying knowledge’. Participants identified the meaning of embodying knowledge for teaching public health as: (a) possessing a wider vision of health; (b) reflecting and learning from experience; and (c) engaging in appropriate pedagogical practices. Conclusion The concept of public health can mean different things to different people. The variations of meaning ascribed to public health reflect the various backgrounds from which the public health workforce is drawn. The analysis indicates that PHNEs are embodying knowledge for teaching through critical pedagogy, which involves them engaging in transformative, interpretive and integrative processes to refashion public health concepts; this requires PHNEs who possess a vision of what to teach, know how to teach, and are able to learn from experience. Their vision of public health is influenced by social justice principles in that health inequalities, socioeconomic determinants of health, epidemiology, and policy and politics are seen as essential areas of the public health curriculum. They believe in forms of teaching that achieve social transformation at individual, behavioural and societal levels, while also enabling learners to recognise their capacity to effect change. PMID:23809694
Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents’ perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term “tangible evidence,” creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study’s findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants’ sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower income, higher minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants’ experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health. PMID:18995942
Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan
Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and social movements. Further research on the value of community control of PHC services and the types of policy, resource and managerial environments that support action on social determinants is warranted by this study’s findings. PMID:23663304
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...
This paper describes a project to enhance the learning experience of students, in which a multimedia healthcare case study and associated tasks are being developed and evaluated within the Distance Learning MSc in Health Informatics programme at the University of Sheffield. The paper provides background context and motivation for the case study, followed by a description of its content, which
R. Bacigalupo; P. A. Bath; A. Booth; B. M. Eaglestone; P. Levy; P. Procter
Nutritional and hygienic practices contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates related to malnutrition in Madagascar. This study, a research effort that brought together charitable organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and university collaborators, investigates women's health knowledge in the Anosy region of Madagascar. The needs assessment sought to characterise women's knowledge and understanding of nutrition and hygiene. Eight focus groups of 13-60 women each were conducted in the seven most impoverished communes of the Anosy region (n=373). Participants were recruited with the aid of a UK-Malagasy partnered NGO, Azafady. Study findings show that women fully understand the interplay between poor nutrition, hygiene and malnutrition but are unable to change everyday practices because the barriers to better nutrition and hygiene seem beyond their control. These findings may be used to prioritise projects and research seeking to improve nutrition and hygiene, thus reducing malnutrition in the Anosy region. PMID:21416417
Dell, Evelyn M; Erikson, S L; Andrianirina, E; Smith, Gabrielle
Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents' perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term "tangible evidence," creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study's findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants' sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower-income, higher-minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants' experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health. PMID:18995942
Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan
Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507
Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki
This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632
Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha
This article assesses the relative importance of several factors believed to reduce the likelihood of health insurance coverage among working Latinos in California, including cost, immigration history, availability of insurance, beliefs about insurance, and beliefs about health and health care. According to a survey of 1,000 randomly selected…
Greenwald, Howard P.; O'Keefe, Suzanne; DiCamillo, Mark
Modern workplace health promotion (WHP) requires collaboration, partnerships, and alliances with both internal and external stakeholders. However, the identification of the key stakeholders as well as the systematic mapping of their views has barely been covered in the existing research literature. This article describes the stakeholders and stakeholder positions in WHP in Finland. In this study, the stakeholders were classified as internal, interface, and external stakeholders. Furthermore, based on the authors' research, stakeholders and their positions were represented on a stakeholder map as well as by the power-interest matrix of the stakeholders. The governmental authorities play a key role in driving the strategic change toward WHP by preparing the required legislation and regulatory measures. However, both active employers and active employees can through their own work accelerate the development of new WHP services. Close collaboration between employers and employees is required at the individual workplaces. Some stakeholders, such as pension funds and occupational health services (OHS) providers, can act as important driving forces and support the strategic implementation of WHP in the workplaces. However, alone they have only limited opportunities to organize the WHP activities. Understanding the various stakeholders and the systematic mapping of their positions is essential for the successful planning and implementation of WHP activities. PMID:22845731
Auvinen, Ari-Matti; Kohtamäki, Kari; Ilvesmäki Msc, Antti
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.
Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.
This article presents evaluative information on the use of the original Ontario Child Health Study scales to serve as original-level measures of conduct disorder, hyperactivity and emotional disorder among children in the general (non clinic) population. Problem checklist assessments were obtained from parents and teachers of children aged six to 16 and youth aged 12 to 16 drawn from a general population (n = 1,751); and a mental health clinic sample (n = 1,027) in the same industrialized, urban setting. The results showed that the original OCHS scales possess adequate psychometric properties to be used as original-level measures of disorder. Correlations between individual items and their hypothesized scales were very strong, indicating convergent validity, while correlations between the same items and other (non hypothesized) scales were lower, indicating discriminant validity. Item analyses indicated that individual scale items possess both convergent and discriminant validity. Although the scales were skewed to the positive end of the continuum, they demonstrated good internal consistency (all estimates > or = 0.74) and test-retest (all estimates > or = 0.65) reliability. Finally, three different validity analyses confirmed hypotheses about how the original OCHS scales should perform if they provide useful measures of disorder. PMID:8402433
Boyle, M H; Offord, D R; Racine, Y; Sanford, M; Szatmari, P; Fleming, J E
BACKGROUND: Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional,
Kathleen M Griffiths; Helen Christensen; Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: In Greece there is lack of large epidemiological studies regarding morbidity and mortality in primary health care. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and morbidity of the most common diseases in a large population sample from primary health care. METHODS: Four primary health centres were randomly selected. During one year period, 12 visits were
Markos Minas; Nikolaos Koukosias; Elias Zintzaras; Konstantinos Kostikas; Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
In this paper we present data from three research studies on stress, coping and burnout in mental health nurses. All three studies used a range of self report questionnaires. Measures included a demographic checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the DCL Stress Scale and the Cooper Coping Skills Scale. In all, 648 ward based mental health
Leonard Fagin; Jerome Carson; John Leary; Nicolette De Villiers; Heather Bartlett; Patty OMalley; Maria West; Stephen Mcelfatrick; Daniel Brown
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents the results of the study in the area of physical activity, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Physical…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…
Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng
1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences
...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time...health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the “Notices” section of the...
...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time...health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the “Notices” section of the...
...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time...health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the “Notices” section of the...
BACKGROUND: The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. METHODS: The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on
Julie Leask; Claire Hooker; Catherine King
Integration of health information is critical to the provision of effective, quality care in today's fragmented health care system. The increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and the demand for a comprehensive understanding of patient health on the part of providers are driving the need for the integration of health information through electronic health information systems. Two distinct health information systems currently utilized in the health care field include electronic medical records (EMR) and chronic disease management systems (CDMS). The integration of these systems is likely to enable the efficient management of health information and improve the quality of health care as it would provide real-time patient information in a coordinated manner. The lack of real-time information may result in delayed treatment, uninformed decisions, inefficient resource use, and medical errors. Despite their importance and widespread support, these systems have slow provider adoption rates. Our understanding of how health information technology may be used to improve health care is limited by the relative paucity of research on the adoption, integration, and implementation of these 2 types of systems. This paper documents the use of an EMR at Marshfield Clinic, a multidisciplinary group practice in the United States. We review the concomitant use of an EMR for clinical data capture and the implementation of a proprietary CDMS, InformaCare, for care management of chronic diseases. These 2 systems allow providers to deliver health care using evidence-based guidelines that meet the Institute of Medicine's aim of providing safe, efficient, patient-centered, and timely care. PMID:17718659
Follen, Marilyn; Castaneda, Rachel; Mikelson, Melissa; Johnson, Debrah; Wilson, Alisa; Higuchi, Keiko
Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881
Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors. PMID:22712826
There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to health equity. PMID:25103343
Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry
Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical activity may benefit from greater insight in the tensions between health behaviours and masculinity. PMID:21092090
...Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety...reviewing confidentiality claims for chemical identities in health and safety studies...the manufacturing or processing of a chemical substance or mixture or, in the...
Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P
This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741
Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura
This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457
Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie
Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N?=?51 were contacted and N?=?33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P?=?0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P?0.001). There was evidence of a correlation between the overall public health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r?=?0.61, P?0.001). Conclusions The study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091
In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358
Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy and postpartum depression are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. While antidepressants are readily used in pregnancy, studies have raised concerns regarding neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed infants. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, most frequently from fish oil, has emerged as a possible treatment or prevention strategy for MDD in non-pregnant individuals, and may have beneficial effects in pregnant women. Although published observational studies in the psychiatric literature suggest that maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency may lead to the development of MDD in pregnancy and postpartum, there are more intervention trials suggesting clinical benefit for supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in MDD. Methods/Design The Mothers, Omega-3 and Mental Health study is a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may prevent antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among pregnant women at risk for depression. We plan to recruit 126 pregnant women at less than 20 weeks gestation from prenatal clinics at two health systems in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the surrounding communities. We will follow them prospectively over the course of their pregnancies and up to 6 weeks postpartum. Enrolled participants will be randomized to one of three groups: a) EPA-rich fish oil supplement (1060 mg EPA plus 274 mg DHA) b) DHA-rich fish oil supplement (900 mg DHA plus 180 mg EPA; or c) a placebo. The primary outcome for this study is the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score at 6 weeks postpartum. We will need to randomize 126 women to have 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in participants' mean BDI scores with EPA or DHA supplementation compared with placebo. We will also gather information on secondary outcome measures which will include: omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in maternal plasma and cord blood, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) in maternal and cord blood, need for and dosage of antidepressant medications, and obstetrical outcomes. Analyses will be by intent to treat. Discussion This study compares the relative effectiveness of DHA and EPA at preventing depressive symptoms among pregnant women at risk. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: NCT00711971 PMID:21696635
Background: The specific health services provided to students at school and the model for delivering these services vary across districts and schools. This article describes the characteristics of school health services in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and school practices. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control…
Brener, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Lani; Wolfe, Linda C.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary; Caldart-Olson, Linda
courses in the major. Students who intend to apply to colleges of medicine or dentistry should take CHEM to College Writing 3 ENGL 102 Intro to College Writing and Research 3 UF 100 Intellectual Foundations 3 UF Environmental Health HLTHST 109 Drugs: Use and Abuse HLTHST 207 Nutrition HLTHST 304 Public Health HLTHST 356
Background: Because of the widespread access to health information on the Internet, researchers have begun to investigate e-health literacy skills among college students. Preliminary findings indicate that the general population of college students may not have adequate skills to sufficiently search for, locate, and/or evaluate electronic sources…
Hanik, Bruce; Stellefson, Michael
Objectives To identify factors that predicted incident use of assistive walking devices (AWDs) and to explore whether AWD use was associated with changes in osteoarthritis of the knee. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 2,639 elderly men and women in the Health ABC (Health, Aging and Body Composition). Study followed for incident use of AWDs, including a subset of 874 with prevalent knee pain. Participants NA Interventions NA Main Outcome Measures Incident use of AWDs, mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores and frequency of joint space narrowing on knee radiographs over a three year time period. Results AWD use was initiated by 9% of the entire Health ABC cohort and 12% of the knee pain subset. Factors that predicted use in both groups were age ?73 [entire cohort: OR 2.07 (95% CI 1.43, 3.01); knee pain subset: OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.16, 3.03)], black race [entire cohort: OR 2.95 (95% CI 2.09, 4.16); knee pain subset: OR 3.21 (95% CI 2.01, 5.11)] and lower balance ratios [entire cohort: OR 3.18 (95% CI 2.21, 4.59); knee pain subset: OR 3.77 (95% CI 2.34, 6.07)]. Mean WOMAC pain scores decreased slightly over time in both AWD and non-AWD users. 20% of non-AWD users and 28% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing of the tibiofemoral joint in at least one knee. 14% of non-AWD users and 12% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing in the patellofemoral joint in at least one knee. Conclusions Assistive walking devices are frequently used by elderly men and women. Knee pain and balance problems are significant reasons why elderly individuals initiate use of an assistive walking device. In an exploratory analysis, there was no consistent relationship between use or nonuse of an AWD and WOMAC pain scores or knee joint space narrowing progression. Further studies of the relationship of use of AWDs to changes in knee osteoarthritis are needed. PMID:23041146
Carbone, Laura D.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Liu, Caiqin; Kwoh, Kent C.; Neogi, Tuhina; Tolley, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael
Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587
Background Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers’ access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers’ preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. Design and Methods A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Results Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community. PMID:25170467
Greenstock, Louise; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Bingham, Amie; Naccarella, Lucio; Elliott, Kristine; Morris, Michal
Objectives. We examined whether the risk of premature mortality associated with living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods varies according to the health status of individuals. Methods. Community-dwelling adults (n?=?566?402; age?=?50–71 years) in 6 US states and 2 metropolitan areas participated in the ongoing prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, which began in 1995. We used baseline data for 565?679 participants on health behaviors, self-rated health status, and medical history, collected by mailed questionnaires. Participants were linked to 2000 census data for an index of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. The main outcome was all-cause mortality ascertained through 2006. Results. In adjusted survival analyses of persons in good-to-excellent health at baseline, risk of mortality increased with increasing levels of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. Neighborhood socioeconomic mortality disparities among persons in fair-to-poor health were not statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, educational achievement, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Conclusions. Neighborhood socioeconomic inequalities lead to large disparities in risk of premature mortality among healthy US adults but not among those in poor health. PMID:21852636
Schootman, Mario; Major, Jacqueline M.; Torres Stone, Rosalie A.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Park, Yikyung; Lian, Min; Messer, Lynne; Graubard, Barry I.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur
This report, written for the general public, presents the results of a 15-month study of the health-related effects of marijuana. The introduction describes the goals and procedure for the study, including the composition of the 22-member steering committee and its functions, and the sources of information used for the study, i.e., published…
Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.
Objective To evaluate the policy making process, implementation by NHS organisations, and patients’ and carers’ experiences of efforts to introduce an internet accessible personal electronic health record (HealthSpace) in a public sector healthcare system. Design Mixed method, multilevel case study. Setting English National Health Service; the basic HealthSpace technology (available throughout England) and the advanced version (available in a few localities where this option had been introduced) were considered. Main outcome measures National statistics on invitations sent, HealthSpace accounts created, and interviews and ethnographic observation of patients and carers. Data analysis was informed by a socio-technical approach which considered macro and micro influences on both adoption and non-adoption of innovations, and by the principles of critical discourse analysis. Participants 56 patients and carers (of whom 21 opened a basic HealthSpace account, 20 had diabetes but were not initially using HealthSpace, and 15 used advanced HealthSpace accounts to exchange messages with their general practitioner), 3000 pages of documents (policies, strategies, business plans, minutes of meetings, correspondence), observational field notes, and 160 interviews with policy makers, project managers, and clinical staff. Results Between 2007 and October 2010, 172?950 people opened a basic HealthSpace account. 2913 (0.13% of those invited) opened an advanced account, compared with 5-10% of the population anticipated in the original business case. Overall, patients perceived HealthSpace as neither useful nor easy to use and its functionality aligned poorly with their expectations and self management practices. Those who used email-style messaging were positive about its benefits, but enthusiasm beyond three early adopter clinicians was low, and fewer than 100 of 30?000 patients expressed interest. Policy makers’ hopes that “deploying” HealthSpace would lead to empowered patients, personalised care, lower NHS costs, better data quality, and improved health literacy were not realised over the three year evaluation period. Conclusion Unless personal electronic health records align closely with people’s attitudes, self management practices, identified information needs, and the wider care package (including organisational routines and incentive structures for clinicians), the risk that they will be abandoned or not adopted at all is substantial. Conceptualising such records dynamically (as components of a socio-technical network) rather than statically (as containers for data) and employing user centred design techniques might improve their chances of adoption and use. The findings raise questions about how eHealth programmes in England are developed and approved at policy level. PMID:21081595
Safety-net health clinics have been shown to reduce hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. Their impact on rehospitalization after hospital discharge is unknown. We hypothesized that use of publicly-funded safety-net health clinics would reduce rates of rehospitalization among patients with diabetes. We expected this effect to be most evident among the most vulnerable patients. Linking data from the Philadelphia Health Care
Vivian G. Valdmanis Jessica M. Robbins; David A. Webb
Background The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia. Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum. Methods A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation. Results Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery. Conclusion Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation. PMID:23761998
Alanazi, Abdullah Foraih
The Health and Ecological Effects Subcommittee (HEES) of the Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis (Council), of the Science Advisory Board, has reviewed precursors to the first Prospective Study: Report to Congress. The HEES concludes that the approach to the health/ecological effects assessment lacks a framework for ecological evaluations. The Agency should develop a comprehensive methodology for valuing natural resources and ecological services, incorporating contemporary ecological thinking and findings. The HEES encourages the Agency to explore valuations at the watershed level or large (or other scales of concern) to avoid double-counting of pollutant effects and interactions among pollutants.
Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (N = 89, 656) in North Carolina and Iowa, the authors computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing deaths from time of the enrollment (1993–1997) through 2007 to state-specific rates. To compensate for the cohort's overall healthiness, relative SMRs were estimated by calculating the SMR for each cause relative to the SMR for all other causes. In 1,198,129 person-years of follow-up, 6,419 deaths were observed. The all-cause mortality rate was less than expected (SMRapplicators = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.55; SMRspouses = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.55). SMRs for all cancers, heart disease, and diabetes were significantly below 1.0. In contrast, applicators experienced elevated numbers of machine-related deaths (SMR = 4.15, 95% CI: 3.18, 5.31), motor vehicle nontraffic accidents (SMR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.81, 4.14), and collisions with objects (SMR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.34). In the relative SMR analysis for applicators, the relative mortality ratio was elevated for lymphohematopoietic cancers, melanoma, and digestive system, prostate, kidney, and brain cancers. Among spouses, relative SMRs exceeded 1.0 for lymphohematopoietic cancers and malignancies of the digestive system, brain, breast, and ovary. Unintentional fatal injuries remain an important risk for farmers; mortality ratios from several cancers were elevated relative to other causes. PMID:21084556
Waggoner, Jenna K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Umbach, David M.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Knott, Charles; London, Stephanie J.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent W.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lubin, Jay H.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hoppin, Jane A.
Human beings are living between 70 and 90% inside of premises, where numerous air pollutants are existing: some of them have outdoor sources (industry, domestic burning, car traffic), some are produced indoors by human activities and equipment, by animals, or by various materials, products and furniture. According to their nature, they are listed as biological, physical or chemical pollutants. About health, serious poisonings and acute effects attributed to indoor air pollutants, and even short term effects (like sick building syndrome, infectious illness, pneumopathies,...), can be relatively easy to distinguish. Inversely the involvement of these pollutants in long term effects (like chronic bronchitis, asthma, cancers,...) is more difficult to establish. During the last 15 years we carried out several studies, which allowed us to separate the chemical air contaminants into two categories: those produced outdoors (sulphur dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, nitrates), of whom we calculated the penetration coefficients, and those from both origin, outside and inside (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, aldehydes, particles, cadmium, vanadium, sulphates, ammonium salts). Aldehydes, which present important health risks, were especially investigated: in an office where several cigarettes were burning the measured concentrations were high in comparison with the threshold values existing in some foreign countries; in a cafeteria they were relatively low. To estimate the impregnation of non smokers by environmental tobacco smoke, we also determined, during same spaces of time, on the one hand nicotine in air, on the other hand nicotine and its metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed people. We thus observed that, in "real" situations, this impregnation is as a general rule extremely low. PMID:8038995
Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income\\u000a countries (LMICs), implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation\\u000a framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration\\u000a sites.
Inge Petersen; Joshua Ssebunnya; Arvin Bhana; Kim Baillie
Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.Design Health impact assessment study.Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.Participants 181 982 Bicing subscribers.Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity,
David Rojas-Rueda; Audrey de Nazelle; Marko Tainio; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American, and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of SES and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of SES on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the “rights and freedoms gradient of health” in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health. PMID:23162498
Bezo, Brent; Maggi, Stefania; Roberts, William L.
Objectives The study aimed to determine whether exposure to a volcanic eruption was associated with increased prevalence of physical and/or mental symptoms. Design Cohort, with non-exposed control group. Setting Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5?weeks in spring 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9?months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Participants Adult (18–80?years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The participation rate was 72%. Main outcome measures Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic), in the previous month (recent), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Results The likelihood of having symptoms during the last month was higher in the exposed population, such as; tightness in the chest (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.8), cough (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), phlegm (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2), eye irritation (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.1) and psychological morbidity symptoms (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Respiratory symptoms during the last 12?months were also more common in the exposed population; cough (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9), dyspnoea (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), although the prevalence of underlying asthma and heart disease was similar. Twice as many in the exposed population had two or more symptoms from nose, eyes or upper-respiratory tract (24% vs 13%, p<0.001); these individuals were also more likely to experience psychological morbidity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 6.5) compared with individuals with no symptoms. Most symptoms exhibited a dose–response pattern within the exposed population, corresponding to low, medium and high exposure to the eruption. Conclusions 6–9?months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, residents living in the exposed area, particularly those closest to the volcano, had markedly increased prevalence of various physical symptoms. A portion of the exposed population reported multiple symptoms and may be at risk for long-term physical and psychological morbidity. Studies of long-term consequences are therefore warranted. PMID:23144261
Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Hauksdottir, Arna; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Einarsdottir, Gunnlaug; Runolfsson, Halldor; Briem, Haraldur; Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Björn; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Pétursdóttir, Gudrun
This report presents an overview of the second grant year of the Tennessee Health Studies Agreement. During the second year of the Health Studies Agreement, the dose reconstruction feasibility study will be completed. The State and the ORHASP will plan a strategy for identifying opportunities to perform analytical epidemiological studies in the Oak Ridge area to determine if adverse health outcomes have occurred as a result of ORR operations.
The Look Action for Health in Diabetes AHEAD Study was designed as a long-term randomized controlled clinical trial and powered to detect differences in cardiovascular outcomes, the primary cause of early morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes, among subjects randomized to receive an intensive lifestyle intervention or a control group of diabetes support and education. The study was terminated early due to the absence of any difference in the primary outcome, defined as a composite of the first postrandomization occurrence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, or angina requiring hospitalization. However, important secondary favorable outcomes were observed in those receiving the intensive lifestyle intervention. This included more weight loss, greater fitness, less disability, less depression, reductions in sleep apnea and urinary incontinence, better glycemic control, and more subjects experiencing diabetes remission. These results underscore the importance of lifestyle interventions as a component of diabetes therapy. Long-term follow-up of Look AHEAD participants is planned, despite discontinuation of the intensive lifestyle program. PMID:24910828
Korytkowski, Mary T
Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.
Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula
This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.
James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…
Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong
Little is known about the quality of online sexual health information, how young people access the Internet to answer their sexual health questions, or an individual's ability to sort through myriad sources for accurate information. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how college students search for online sexual health…
Buhi, Eric R.; Daley, Ellen M.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; Smith, Sarah A.
sensors networks  and wireless network systems (WLAN, WMAN, UMTS, Bluetooth, etc.), the wireless userFeasibility Study of a Joint E-Health Mobile High-Speed and Wireless Sensor System Dimitris sensor technology, for delivering electronic health (e-health) pervasive applications. The performance
PhD Scholarship in an EU Cost-effectiveness Study of Diabetes and Health Literacy UCD Michael for a 3 year fully funded PhD Scholarship in the research area of diabetes and health literacy, commencing implementation'. What is the value of the Health Literacy Scholarship? This funded research Scholarship will fund
Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…
Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv
Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…
Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank
The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…
Philbrick, Jodi Lynn
BACKGROUND: It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL) of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measuring HRQL in general injury populations with a generic health state measure to summarize existing knowledge.
Suzanne Polinder; Juanita A Haagsma; Eefje Belt; Ronan A Lyons; Vicki Erasmus; Johan Lund; Ed F van Beeck
The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…
Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.
Hudson Valley Migrant Health (HVMH) (a Public Health Service program) collaborated with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) on a study of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis among migrant farmworkers in the mid-Hudson region of New York. CDC research personnel…
Nolon, Anne K.; O'Barr, James
A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.
Engagement with Online Mental Health Interventions: An Exploratory Clinical Study of a Treatment James Joyce St., Dublin 1 firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Online mental health interventions can benefit and qualitative results contribute towards our understanding of engagement. Author Keywords Mental health; online
The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…
Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.
Objective To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121?700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32?825 women provided blood samples. Participants 4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data. Results Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were ?0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend=0.004). Conclusion In this large study, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. These results further support the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for promoting health and longevity. PMID:25467028
Crous-Bou, Marta; Fung, Teresa T; Prescott, Jennifer; Julin, Bettina; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank B
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that people living with depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions are twice as likely to have tried e-cigarettes and three times as likely to be current users of the controversial battery-powered nicotine-delivery devices, as people without mental health disorders.
The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…
Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.
Background: Utility, a concept derived from economics, is the desirability or preference that individuals exhibit for a certain health state. Utility measurement could be viewed as an alternative means of appraising the quality of life of individuals affected by a chronic illness such as schizophrenia. Traditional techniques of utility measurement involve 2 steps: (i) identifying the different health states experienced
Lakshmi N. Voruganti; A. George Awad; L. Kola Oyewumi; Leonardo Cortese; Sandra Zirul; Ravinder Dhawan
Context Lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to live in contaminated environments. This may partly explain socioeconomic health inequalities. Aims Does noise nuisance contribute to socio-economic inequalities in subjective health? Method This research is based on the last Belgian census data carried out in 2001. We work on a 10% sample of the Belgian population. The data are processed through
Schmit C; Lorant V
Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) leaving institutions pass through a transition stage that makes them vulnerable to inadequate health care. They enter into community care under general practitioners (GPs) who are often untrained and inexperienced in their needs. Specifically designed health reviews may be of assistance to both…
Lennox, N.; Rey-Conde, T.; Cooling, N.
Grassroots Educare Trust is a training and service organization for community-controlled educare centers. Sharon Hostetler, a volunteer community health worker/trainer, helped launch a 6-day health program for educare workers in South Africa. In post-aparthied South Africa, the preschool field has been identified as an important target group for…
Atmore, Eric, Ed.
The current economic crisis in Africa has posed a serious challenge to policies of comprehensive and equitable health care. This paper examines the extent to which the Zimbabwe government has achieved the policy of \\
Rene Loewenson; David Sanders; Rob Davies
The article presents a case study of an outpatient mental health clinic serving Latino older adults. The study explored staff perceptions on the clinic development and the context within an immigrant multicultural community. The study used in-depth, semistructured interviews with support staff, clinical social workers, and administrators. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic content analysis. The mental health clinic formation was perceived by staff as an ecological process stemming from the needs of the Latino immigrant senior clients. A close knit and interdependent culture allowed the clinic to adjust to diversity and changing cultural contexts. PMID:22852993
Ortiz, Daniel Vélez
Background Slovenia's national eHealth strategy aims to develop an efficient, flexible and modern health care informatics framework that\\u000a would be comparable to the most successful EU countries. To achieve this goal, the gap between availability and usage of information\\u000a and communication technology by primary care physicians needs to be reduced.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a As recent efforts show, consensus on information and communication technology purpose
Rade J Iljaž; Matic Megli?; Igor Švab
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.
Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.
This descriptive pilot study was conducted to determine whether health conditions and health care access differ between male and female long-haul truck drivers. Data indicated that 54% of men and 66% of women had a health care provider, but 21% of men and 35% of women had no health insurance. Male and female drivers both reported common health problems (e.g., back pain, sinus problems, hypertension, headaches, and arthritis). While working, drivers of each gender often waited until returning home to seek treatment for health problems. Approximately half of the drivers expressed dissatisfaction with health care while "on the road." Occupational and environmental health nurses could address the health needs of drivers by conducting examinations and distributing wellness information at truck stop clinics and from mobile health vans, posting health information within truck stop driver lounges, creating interactive websites with real-time health care information, attending trucker trade shows to conduct health screening, or providing health information through occupational or trade magazines and newsletters. PMID:19780514
Layne, Diane M; Rogers, Bonnie; Randolph, Susan A
Changing and often declining health among elderly individuals makes interpreting the long-standing association between self-reported health (SRH) and mortality potentially problematic. This analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Aging from 1984 through 1986 explores changes over time in the association between a single self-report of health and survival among 4380 noninstitutionalized individuals aged 70 and older. Health was reported as
Mark D. Grant; Zdzisiaw H. Piotrowski; Rick Chappell
Background There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost-effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 frontline clinical officers, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses in Kitui district (Eastern province) and Thika and Nyeri districts (Central province) in Kenya. The study was conducted in health facilities providing integrated HIV and reproductive health services (post-natal care and family planning). All interviews were conducted in English, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results Providers reported delivering services in provider-level and unit-level integration, as well as a combination of both. Provider experiences of actual integration were mixed. At personal level, providers valued skills enhancement, more variety and challenge in their work, better job satisfaction through increased client-satisfaction. However, they also felt that their salaries were poor, they faced increased occupational stress from: increased workload, treating very sick/poor clients, and less quality time with clients. At operational level, providers reported increased service uptake, increased willingness among clients to take an HIV test, and reduced loss of clients. But the majority also reported infrastructural and logistic deficiencies (insufficient physical room space, equipment, drugs and other medical supplies), as well as increased workload, waiting times, contact session times and low staffing levels. Conclusions The success of integration primarily depends on the performance of service providers which, in turn, depends on a whole range of facilitative organisational factors. The central Ministry of Health should create a coherent policy environment, spearhead strategic planning and ensure availability of resources for implementation at lower levels of the health system. Health facility staffing norms, technical support, cost-sharing policies, clinical reporting procedures, salary and incentive schemes, clinical supply chains, and resourcing of health facility physical space upgrades, all need attention. Yet, despite these system challenges, this study has shown that integration can have a positive motivating effect on staff and can lead to better sharing of workload - these are important opportunities that deserve to be built on. PMID:23311431
Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of formal health service utilization costs during older adults’ transition from community to institutional care. Methods Participants were 127 adults (age ? 65) from the British Columbia sample (N = 2,057) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who transitioned from community to institutional care between 1991 and 2001. Health service utilization costs were measured using Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk at five time points: > 12 months, 6–12 months, and ? 6 months preinstitutionalization, and ? 6 months and 6–12 months postinstitutionalization. Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk was measured for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs by calculating total health service use over time, divided by the number of days the participant was alive. Results Significant differences in Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk were observed for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs over time. All health service utilization costs increased significantly during the 6–12 months and ? 6 months prior to institutionalization. Postinstitutionalization Continuing Care costs continued to increase at ? 6 months before decreasing at 6–12 months, while decreases occurred for Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare costs relative to preinstitutionalization costs. Conclusions The increases in costs observed during the year prior to institutionalization, characterized by a flurry of health service utilization, provide evidence of distinct cost patterns over the transition period. PMID:24883162
Naslund, John A.; Sauter, Agnes H.; Gutman, Gloria; Beattie, B. Lynn
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that people with low level of education have increased rates of mental health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between level of education and psychological distress, and to explore to which extent the association is mediated by sense of mastery, and social variables like social support, negative life events,
Odd Steffen Dalgard; Arnstein Mykletun; Marit Rognerud; Rune Johansen; Per Henrik Zahl
Americans. Health Economics 2010;19(8):979-93. 33. Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor Jr DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T. Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the Health and Retirement Study. Journal of Women's Health... associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: Results from the Health and Retirement Study. J Womens Health 2004;13:85-91. 34. Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala N-B, et al. Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults...
Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Brunner, Eric J.; Monsivais, Pablo
Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life. PMID:23800179
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in the relationship between functional disability and the use of health care services in a nationally representative sample of older adults by using the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization. Design and Methods: The study used 12 years of longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004),
Mary Elizabeth Bowen; Hector M. Gonzalez
Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment
R M Hare
Experiences has shown that utilization of ICT in health sector requires national commitment and planned efforts to make the best use of existing capacity. Establishing the main directions as well as planning the detailed steps needed are key to achieving longer-term goals such as health sector efficiency, reform or more fundamental transformation. Collaboration between the health and ICT sectors, both public and private, is central to this effort. As the major United Nations agencies for health and telecommunications respectively, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have recognized the importance of collaboration for eHealth in their global resolutions, which encourage countries to develop national eHealth strategies; the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is the proof of these recommendations. In this study a mapping of eHealth components in WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit and our national eHealth vision is presented. PMID:25160183
Riazi, Hossein; Jafarpour, Maryam; Bitaraf, Ehsan
The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% n