... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...
ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...
Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.
Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…
Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve
Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868
Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits. PMID:25369623
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The author discussed some points regarding the process of differentially diagnosing ADHD from antisocial personality disorder with antisocial behaviors, such as the use of amphetamines, theft, and violence, and borderline personality disorder with eating disorder, self-harming, overdose, and domestic violence. Firstly, the characteristics of ADHD are a lack of interest in criminal activity, cunning, cruelty, or coming from a broken home, which are frequently observed in cases of conduct disorder. The second point concerns the main anxieties and conflicts of those with ADHD and borderline personality disorder. ADHD patients usually do not have anxieties regarding sensitiveness in interpersonal relationships, which borderline patients are likely to have. The characteristic anxieties of ADHD patients usually involve self-reproach, self-deprecation, and self-hatred derived from various kinds of mistake associated with ADHD symptoms, such as a short attention span, restlessness, and impulsiveness. Finally, the author points out that we also have to be aware of the various kinds of identity problem, even in the case of patients with typical symptoms of ADHD. PMID:26721071
Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve
Background Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by this very early time period. Methods Secondary analysis of data from children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative cohort of U.S. children born in 2001. Data include information from birth certificates, parent and teacher questionnaires, and in-person developmental assessments conducted with children at intervals from birth through kindergarten entry. The analytic sample included children enrolled in the ECLS-B at the 60-month assessment (N=6,550). Results Black children in the U.S. were 70% (1 - OR of .30) less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than otherwise similar White children. Hispanic children initially appeared to be under-diagnosed for ADHD. However, their disparity with Whites became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for whether a language other than English was primarily spoken in the home. Analyses of kindergarten teacher-reported classroom behavior indicated that neither Black nor Hispanic children displayed less frequent ADHD-related behaviors than Whites. Conclusions Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the U.S. PMID:24456307
Olivetti, Emanuele; Greiner, Susanne; Avesani, Paolo
The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects the school-age population and has large social costs. The scientific community is still lacking a pathophysiological model of the disorder and there are no objective biomarkers to support the diagnosis. In 2011 the ADHD-200 Consortium provided a rich, heterogeneous neuroimaging dataset aimed at studying neural correlates of ADHD and to promote the development of systems for automated diagnosis. Concurrently a competition was set up with the goal of addressing the wide range of different types of data for the accurate prediction of the presence of ADHD. Phenotypic information, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and resting state fMRI recordings were provided for nearly 1000 typical and non-typical young individuals. Data were collected by eight different research centers in the consortium. This work is not concerned with the main task of the contest, i.e., achieving a high prediction accuracy on the competition dataset, but we rather address the proper handling of such a heterogeneous dataset when performing classification-based analysis. Our interest lies in the clustered structure of the data causing the so-called batch effects which have strong impact when assessing the performance of classifiers built on the ADHD-200 dataset. We propose a method to eliminate the biases introduced by such batch effects. Its application on the ADHD-200 dataset generates such a significant drop in prediction accuracy that most of the conclusions from a standard analysis had to be revised. In addition we propose to adopt the dissimilarity representation to set up effective representation spaces for the heterogeneous ADHD-200 dataset. Moreover we propose to evaluate the quality of predictions through a recently proposed test of independence in order to cope with the unbalancedness of the dataset. PMID:23060755
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Pressman, Leah J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Carpenter, Erika M.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Lynn, Deborah; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Yang, May H.; Smalley, Susan L.
Objective: Family environmental factors as well as parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status have shown associations with variability in ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the links among family environment, parental psychiatric diagnosis, and child impairment within a sample of ADHD-affected sibling pairs…
Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali
As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…
Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Weiss, Margaret; Stein, Mark A
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing but usually treatable condition. Popular culture propagates the myth that ADHD recedes with age; this is not the case. Although it is common, <20% of adults with ADHD are diagnosed or treated. Adults with ADHD show significant comorbidities with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use, oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorders, sleep problems, and learning disabilities. However, symptoms that result from ADHD, such as mood symptoms or lability, are often mistaken for comorbid disorders. Comorbidity with ADHD impacts treatment compliance, treatment response, and patient insight. Insufficient data on the interaction between ADHD and comorbidities impedes proper diagnosis and treatment. Better clinical tools for assessing these conditions are needed. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatments for adult ADHD include stimulants, dexmethylphenidate, and the nonstimulant atomoxetine. Effect sizes of approved medicines at approved doses are half those seen in children. Adults may also need longer duration of medication effects than children. Short-acting stimulants are likely to result in poorer adherence and have a higher risk for diversion or abuse. Risk of abuse is a major concern; stimulant treatments are controlled substances, and children with ADHD show increased risk of substance abuse. Psychosocial interventions may be beneficial in treating both ADHD and comorbidities.In this expert roundtable supplement, Margaret Weiss, MD, PhD, presents a comprehensive overview of complications surrounding differential diagnosis in adults with ADHD. Next, Mark A. Stein, PhD, reviews evaluation, comorbidity, and development of a treatment plan in this population. Finally, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, provides a discussion on the pharmacologic options available for adults with ADHD, considering dosages specific to adults and common comorbidities. PMID:17667893
Sidhu, Gagan S; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Greiner, Russell; Brown, Matthew R G
This study explored various feature extraction methods for use in automated diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data. Each participant's data consisted of a resting state fMRI scan as well as phenotypic data (age, gender, handedness, IQ, and site of scanning) from the ADHD-200 dataset. We used machine learning techniques to produce support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that attempted to differentiate between (1) all ADHD patients vs. healthy controls and (2) ADHD combined (ADHD-c) type vs. ADHD inattentive (ADHD-i) type vs. controls. In different tests, we used only the phenotypic data, only the imaging data, or else both the phenotypic and imaging data. For feature extraction on fMRI data, we tested the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), different variants of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of FFT and PCA. PCA variants included PCA over time (PCA-t), PCA over space and time (PCA-st), and kernelized PCA (kPCA-st). Baseline chance accuracy was 64.2% produced by guessing healthy control (the majority class) for all participants. Using only phenotypic data produced 72.9% accuracy on two class diagnosis and 66.8% on three class diagnosis. Diagnosis using only imaging data did not perform as well as phenotypic-only approaches. Using both phenotypic and imaging data with combined FFT and kPCA-st feature extraction yielded accuracies of 76.0% on two class diagnosis and 68.6% on three class diagnosis-better than phenotypic-only approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of using FFT and kPCA-st with resting-state fMRI data as well as phenotypic data for automated diagnosis of ADHD. These results are encouraging given known challenges of learning ADHD diagnostic classifiers using the ADHD-200 dataset (see Brown et al., 2012). PMID:23162439
Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith; Blacher, Jan
Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders. Using current diagnostic criteria, disruptive behavior disorders, specifically Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), appear to be the most prevalent co-occurring disorders. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for children and…
Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia
Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…
Edmunds, Alan; Martsch-Litt, Shelley
Canadian teachers in inclusive classrooms are encountering more students with ADHD-like behaviours and making more referrals for formal diagnosis of the condition. Previous research suggests that ADHD diagnoses are susceptible to highly inconsistent and arbitrary assessment processes/criteria (Sanford & Ridley, 1995), thus probably contributing to…
Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.
Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…
Brimble, Mandy J
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. The condition impacts on multiple aspects of an individual's life, as it can affect motor skills, social relationships, self-esteem and educational success. The diagnosis and management of this condition is of concern to healthcare professionals and is a topic often debated by the media. The most recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance on diagnosing and managing ADHD in children, young people and adults has triggered a resurgence of this debate. The NICE guidance is particularly interesting because it states that behavioural therapies, rather than medications, should be the first-line treatment. While this apparent reversal in approach will be welcomed by some, this is an emotive issue and will no doubt also meet with strong opposition. This paper seeks to explore and discuss the existing evidence relating to medication versus behavioural therapies, and difficulties that may arise in implementing the latest NICE guidance. PMID:19899506
Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…
Staff, Jeremy; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steven
OBJECTIVE: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur across early and middle childhood is currently unknown. We examined the over-time dynamics of race/ethnic disparities in diagnosis from kindergarten to eighth grade and disparities in treatment in fifth and eighth grade. METHODS: Analyses of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 17 100) using discrete-time hazard modeling. RESULTS: Minority children were less likely than white children to receive an ADHD diagnosis. With time-invariant and -varying confounding factors statistically controlled the odds of ADHD diagnosis for African Americans, Hispanics, and children of other races/ethnicities were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60%–76%), 50% (95% CI: 34%–62%), and 46% (95% CI: 26%–61%) lower, respectively, than for whites. Factors increasing children’s risk of an ADHD diagnosis included being a boy, being raised by an older mother, being raised in an English-speaking household, and engaging in externalizing problem behaviors. Factors decreasing children’s risk of an ADHD diagnosis included engaging in learning-related behaviors (eg, being attentive), displaying greater academic achievement, and not having health insurance. Among children diagnosed with ADHD, racial/ethnic minorities were less likely than whites to be taking prescription medication for the disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by kindergarten and continue until at least the end of eighth grade. Measured confounding factors do not explain racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Culturally sensitive monitoring should be intensified to ensure that all children are appropriately screened, diagnosed, and treated for ADHD. PMID:23796743
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... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...
Wright, Gloria Sunnie
Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…
Merkt, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate aspects of health and motivation in a subpopulation of college students with ADHD. Method: Seventy-seven college students with self-reported ADHD (49 women; M age = 25.82, SD = 4.62) and 120 college students without ADHD (65 women; M age = 25.17, SD = 5.41) participated in an online survey assessing their health, dietary habits, and achievement motivation. Results: College students with ADHD showed impairment in psychological functioning, impairment in their mental health, and reported more ambition and less self-control. Furthermore, we found gender differences: Women with ADHD reported worse psychological functioning, and the gender differences in obsessive-compulsive behavior and compensatory effort were mediated by the timing of diagnosis. Conclusion: College students, especially women, with ADHD struggle with health-related issues. Some of these gender differences might be due to under diagnosis of girls in childhood. Differences in achievement motivation might indicate compensatory mechanisms. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24554297
Piñeiro-Dieguez, Benjamin; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; García-García, Pilar; Soler-López, Begoña
Objective: The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Method: Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. Results: In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). Conclusion: A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24464326
Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn
The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…
This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…
... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...
Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter
Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...
Weyandt, Lisa L.; DuPaul, George
Objective: According to the American Psychiatric Association, 3% to 7% of the school-age population has ADHD and many children continue to display significant symptoms throughout adolescences and adulthood. Relative to the childhood literature, less is known about ADHD in adults, especially college students with ADHD. The principle purpose of this…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah
Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…
Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.
Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…
Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John
Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…
The aim of this paper is to build a case for the utility of conceptualizing ADHD, not as a unitary disorder that contains several subtypes, but rather as a marker of impairment in attention and/or impulsivity that can be used to identify one of several disorders belonging to a spectrum. The literature will be reviewed to provide an overview of what is known about ADHD in terms of heterogeneity in symptomatology, neuropsychology, neurobiology, as well as comorbidity with other diseases and treatment options. The data from these areas of research will be critically analyzed to support the construct of a spectrum of disorders that can capture the great variability that exists between individuals with ADHD and can discriminate between separate disorders that manifest similar symptoms. The symptoms associated with ADHD can be viewed as dimensional markers that point to a spectrum of related disorders that have as part of their characteristics impairments of attention and impulsivity. The spectrum can accommodate symmetrically and asymmetrically comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with ADHD as well as the wide heterogeneity known to be a part of the ADHD disorder. Individuals presenting with impairments associated with ADHD should be treated as having a positive marker for a spectrum disorder that has as part of its characteristics impairments of attention and/or impulsivity. The identification of impairment in attention and/or impulsivity should be a starting point for further testing rather than being an endpoint of diagnosis that results in pharmacological treatment that may or may not be the optimal therapy. Rather than continuing to attribute a large amount of heterogeneity in symptom presentation as well as a high degree of symmetric and asymmetric comorbidity to a single disorder, clinical evaluation should turn to the diagnosis of the type of attentional deficit and/or impulsivity an individual has in order to colocate the individual's disorder on a
Wender, P H; Wolf, L E; Wasserstein, J
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, genetically transmitted neurological disorder, with onset in childhood, probably mediated by decreased brain dopaminergic functioning. The first author was one of the earliest to describe the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. Prevalence and natural history data suggest that of the 3 to 10% of children diagnosed with ADHD, one- to two-thirds (somewhere between 1 and 6% of the general population) continue to manifest appreciable ADHD symptoms into adult life. This paper describes how ADHD in adults can be readily diagnosed and treated, despite resembling or coexisting with other psychiatric disorders. The Wender Utah diagnostic criteria address adult characteristics of the disorder. Informant and patient interviews and rating scales are used to determine the psychiatric status of the patient as a child, make a retroactive diagnosis of childhood ADHD, and establish the current diagnosis of the adult. Stringent diagnosis is key to determining effective treatment. Dopamine agonist stimulant medications appear to be the most effective in treating ADHD. About 60% of patients receiving stimulant medication showed moderate-to-marked improvement, as compared with 10% of those receiving placebo. The core symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, mood lability, temper, disorganization, stress sensitivity, and impulsivity have been shown to respond to treatment with stimulant medications. Non-dopaminergic medications, such as the tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs have generally not been useful in adults with ADHD in the absence of depression or dysthymia. Pemoline is no longer approved for use in these patients, despite early favorable reports. Appropriate management of adult patients with ADHD is multimodal. Psychoeducation, counseling, supportive problem-directed therapy, behavioral intervention, coaching, cognitive remediation, and couples and family therapy are useful adjuncts to medication management
While many people tend to think of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a childhood problem, at least two-thirds of children with ADHD maintain symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity into adulthood. This article presents the fifth of a 10-part series exploring ADHD. The author provides some background…
Adler, Lenard A
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859
Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666
Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:26825556
Templeton, Rosalyn A.
This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…
Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder in which approximately two thirds of patients experience impairment in adulthood. Although some adults with ADHD were diagnosed as children, many are first diagnosed as adults. This poses particular challenges given the limited familiarity with ADHD of many adult mental health services. As a result, several organizations, including the Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the National Institutes of Health, and the British Association for Psychopharmacology, have developed practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of adults with ADHD. This article reviews those guidelines in order to examine current best practices in adult ADHD. There is considerable agreement among these guidelines, which should be a critical part of moving from emerging knowledge to patient care, although both empirical evaluation and ongoing updates as new knowledge emerges will be important for their future development. PMID:17915083
Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research. PMID:27399309
Bari, A; Robbins, T W
Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324
Brock, Stephen E.
While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom…
Wilmshurst, Linda; Peele, Marella; Wilmshurst, Luke
Objective: The study examines psychological well-being and self-concept in college students diagnosed with ADHD. Method: We surveyed 17 undergraduate college students with ADHD and 19 undergraduate controls concerning academic and emotional support received from family and friends. All students completed the Connor's Continuous Performance Test…
Wright, Craig; Shelton, Doug; Wright, Michalle
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioural disorder that presents frequently in paediatric and mental health settings. Children with ADHD present with symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, distractibility and impulsivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with a summary of contemporary issues relevant…
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...
... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...
... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...
Young, Susan; Bramham, Jessica; Gray, Katie; Rose, Esther
Objective: To evaluate the psychological impact of receiving a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and treatment with medication and to examine how diagnosis and treatment with medication changes an individual's self-perception and view of the future. Method: Participants were eight individuals diagnosed with ADHD at a tertiary service. Semistructured…
Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.
Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…
Orendorff, Kimberly A.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is often identified when a child first enters school. About 2% of boys and girls in our population are diagnosed with the disorder (Kaufmann, 2000). Although ADHD is the most frequent reason that children are referred to a mental health professional, the diagnosis of ADHD…
Young, Susan; Gray, Katie; Bramham, Jessica
Objectives: The objectives are to explore the experience of living with a person who has undergone a process of diagnosis in his or her adult years and to examine, from the partner's perspective, how diagnosis and treatment with medication affects the ADHD patients' understanding of themselves, their behavior, and their relationships with others.…
... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...
Agapitou, Paraskevi; Andreou, Georgia
The present study examined the impact of preschool ADHD on linguistic and metalinguistic awareness and mental ability. Eight subscales of the Athina Test were administered to ADHD preschoolers and a control group. Results showed that ADHD preschoolers performed significantly lower than the control group in all tasks. The greatest difficulty for…
Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.
Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and
Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten
Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680
This digest summarizes what is known about gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It identifies three subtypes of ADHD, noting both criteria for diagnosis and the subjective determination of what constitutes significant impairment. Discussion of differences in gifted and non-gifted children with ADHD reports findings…
Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne
Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…
Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Raggi, Veronica L.
Objective: Recent evidence suggests that ADHD persists into adulthood, but the best means of diagnosis and the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD are unknown. Method: The current study explores the relationships of these measures in a sample of 69 mothers of children with ADHD. Results: This study determines the concordance of (a)…
Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Volk, Heather E.; Todd, Richard D.
Background: Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general…
Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten
Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…
Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda
This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…
Thompson, Amanda Chi; Lefler, Elizabeth K
The current study examined ADHD stigma within a college-enrolled young adult population, including the debate regarding the cause of stigma: label or behavior. In Phase 1, 135 college students rated stigma toward one of the four fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD alone, the behaviors associated with ADHD alone, the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or neither the label nor behaviors. In Phase 2, 48 college students rated stigma toward one of the two assigned fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or the label of Depression and a set of behaviors associated with Depression. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the label and the behaviors would cause the highest levels of ADHD stigma and that ADHD would elicit more stigma than Depression. In Phase 1, stigma was associated with the behaviors of ADHD, but not the label. In Phase 2, ADHD and Depression were found to be equally stigmatized. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26135022
... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...
Neece, Cameron; Baker, Bruce; Lee, Steve
Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at heightened risk for developing ADHD. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for youth with ID remains controversial. To advance research on validity, the present study examined the hypothesized precursors to ADHD in typically developing adolescents (TD) and adolescents with ID, specifically with regard to family history of ADHD, molecular genetics, and neuropsychological functioning. Results indicated that youth ADHD symptoms were related to parental ADHD symptoms regardless of the adolescent’s cognitive functioning. Additionally, findings suggested that the DRD4 genetic variant and adolescent set-shifting abilities were related to adolescent ADHD symptoms independent of cognitive functioning. This study provides an initial investigation of the biological correlates of ADHD among youth with ID. PMID:23665431
Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.
Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population
Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.
Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…
Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…
Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…
Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul
The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally
MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...
Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T
Objective: Children with ADHD have heterogeneous behavioral and neuropsychological profiles. The aim of this study was to examine the possible utility of executive function (EF) subtypes within ADHD. Method: Participants were 357 children aged 6 through 13 with a diagnosis of ADHD. Children completed a brief laboratory battery measuring EF, including response inhibition, response variability, speed, and set-shifting. Children also completed standardized intelligence and achievement testing. Results: Two-way cluster analysis of EF profiles of children with ADHD produced a three-cluster solution, labeled poor inhibitory control, poor set-shifting/speed, and intact task performance. Clusters significantly differed in measures of intelligence, academic achievement, and other disruptive behavior and anxiety/mood symptoms. Conclusion: These findings further support the idea that children with ADHD have heterogeneous EF profiles and suggest that the theory of ADHD should consider these individual differences in EF profiles within the ADHD diagnostic category. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24214969
A Global ADHD Working Group of experienced clinicians and researchers was gathered to review the latest evidence, discuss current best practice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and make a statement based on consensus. The statement aims to re-affirm ADHD as a valid disorder that exists across different cultures, has a significant global impact, and should be diagnosed and effectively treated wherever it occurs. ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders of childhood and impacts on many aspects of development, including social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in the home and school environment. Although these findings are from developed countries, the impact in developing countries is likely to be similar. There is strong supportive evidence for the validity of ADHD as a syndrome with neurobiological aspects, and complex genetic factors are primarily implicated in the aetiology. Accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment is important to enable appropriate and successful management of symptoms. ADHD is a persistent condition that needs to be treated and monitored over time. The evidence supporting medication-based interventions (such as methylphenidate) is strong and consensus treatment algorithms to guide the multimodal treatment of ADHD, alone and in combination with common comorbidities, are suggested. PMID:15959658
Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Danforth, Jeffrey S; Brooks, Donna
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition typically arising in childhood, which untreated, can have consequences reaching into adolescence and beyond. Effective pharmacological treatment is available and has become widespread in the West. Outcomes for both the child with ADHD and the parent may be influenced by the nature of interaction between them. The authors of this article aim to review published research examining the interaction between parents and their children with ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted of studies written in English between 2000 and 2007 with the keywords ADHD and parenting. Child ADHD elicits high levels of parental stress and maladaptive parenting. The presence of parental psychopathology is common and influences the parent's response to the child's ADHD symptoms. Optimizing parent-child interaction and parental psychiatric status may improve outcomes for both parent and child. PMID:18559885
Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya
The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083–3094, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123508
Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya
The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. PMID:24123508
Wolraich, Mark L.; DuPaul, George J.
Effective, "integrated" care across clinical, classroom, and home settings: that's what every student with ADHD needs to achieve academic and social success. Now professionals have one complete, highly accessible guide to delivering this kind of coordinated treatment for children in Grades 1-8. Aligned with the AAP's new guidelines for ADHD…
Bolea, B; Adamou, M; Arif, M; Asherson, P; Gudjonsson, G; Müller, U; Nutt, D J; Pitts, M; Thome, J; Young, S
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not restricted to children. Abundant evidence from follow-up studies accumulated since the 1970s supports the concept of ADHD in adulthood. Genetic research points to a heritability of 76%, and neuroimaging studies have reported structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with ADHD. Contrary to popular belief, ADHD is not a culturally bound disorder and has been described worldwide. ADHD has a cost for society, as adults with this disorder suffer from increased rates of unemployment and psychiatric comorbidity, including substance use disorders. Studies undertaken in forensic populations describe high rates of ADHD in these groups, particularly amongst young offenders. One of the main issues in the diagnosis of ADHD in the adult is the fact that most clinicians have not been educated to diagnose and treat ADHD. Effective pharmacological treatments for ADHD are available and should be prescribed for these patients. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) guidelines established a benchmark for service development required to treat ADHD adequately in the adult population. However, the implementation of new services has been slow. More resources are needed to effectively assess and treat ADHD in the adult. PMID:21890596
ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…
Blahy, Tammy Lynn
No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…
Nigg, Joel T.
Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurological disorder, is not formally recognized in the educational systems across Canada. As a result, there is little opportunity for collaboration or sharing of information between the medical/research community and the educational system. Because ADHD is not formally identified,…
Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.
With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…
Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…
Hässler, Frank; Dück, Alexander; Reis, Olaf; Buchmann, Johannes
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 2% to 6%, one of the most common neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adolescents, persisting into adulthood. Comorbidity and psychosocial circumstances enter into the choice of intervention strategies. Several agents have been demonstrated effective in treating individuals with ADHD. Direct or indirect attenuation of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission appears closely related to both the stimulant and nonstimulant medications efficacious in ADHD. However, important differences concerning efficacy and side effects exist both between and with the specific classes of agents like neuroleptics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, alpha-agonists, beta-blockers, buspiron, l-dopa, melatonin, pycnogenol, zinc, magnesium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and homeopathy. Elucidating the various mechanisms of action of ADHD medications may lead to better choices in matching potential responses to the characteristics of individuals. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected complementary and alternative medicine therapies for ADHD in childhood and adolescence. PMID:19105161
Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne
Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…
Caye, Arthur; Machado, Julia D; Rohde, Luís A
Objective: Few studies assessed factors associated with the agreement/disagreement between fathers and mothers when rating ADHD symptoms of their offspring. Method: Teachers and both parents assessed a referred sample of 98 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years (M age = 9.79, SD = 2.59) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP-IV) rating scale. The agreement was assessed for each of the items of the scale and correlated with variables measuring children's features, socioeconomic adversity, family functioning, and parental psychopathology. Results: Mean agreement between parents was moderate for the inattentive and good for the hyperactive-impulsive construct. Mothers tended to report more symptoms than fathers. The agreement was lower in those families where parents had discrepant educational levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant cross-informant disagreement between parents on symptoms of ADHD. Discrepant parental education has a relevant role in explaining parental disagreement in reporting ADHD symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24097846
Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George
Objective Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Method Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Results Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08–1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04–0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. Conclusion This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. PMID:25791149
Chae, Paul Kyuman; Kim, Ji-Hye; Noh, Kyung-Sun
A study involving 106 gifted children and 71 typical children (ages 6-9) evaluated the correlation between intelligence and performance on the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A). Results found gifted children with ADHD performed better on tasks of omission error, commission error, and response sensitivity than typical children with ADHD.…
Parents often are left wondering how to determine if their child's behaviors are "normal" or possibly diagnostic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other problems. This article presents a list of general guidelines that allow parents to determine the possibility of whether their children are experiencing either ADHD or a…
McCandless, Stephen; O'Laughlin, Liz
Objective: Current theories hypothesize that deficits in executive functioning (EF) are responsible for the symptoms of ADHD and that specific patterns of EF deficits may be associated with different subtypes of ADHD. The present study evaluates the validity and clinical usefulness of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, a behavior…
Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed. PMID:25769765
Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom
The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC), ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I), and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM) that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%). In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex. PMID:27500640
Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom
The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC), ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I), and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM) that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%). In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex. PMID:27500640
Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K
A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188
Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita
Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408
Webb, James T.
Many gifted and talented children are often misdiagnosed by psychologists and other health professionals as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (OD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or another of the mood disorders. The misdiagnosis can stem from mistaken assumptions being made about the social and…
Bohland, Jason W; Saperstein, Sara; Pereira, Francisco; Rapin, Jérémy; Grady, Leo
Brain imaging methods have long held promise as diagnostic aids for neuropsychiatric conditions with complex behavioral phenotypes such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This promise has largely been unrealized, at least partly due to the heterogeneity of clinical populations and the small sample size of many studies. A large, multi-center dataset provided by the ADHD-200 Consortium affords new opportunities to test methods for individual diagnosis based on MRI-observable structural brain attributes and functional interactions observable from resting-state fMRI. In this study, we systematically calculated a large set of standard and new quantitative markers from individual subject datasets. These features (>12,000 per subject) consisted of local anatomical attributes such as cortical thickness and structure volumes, and both local and global resting-state network measures. Three methods were used to compute graphs representing interdependencies between activations in different brain areas, and a full set of network features was derived from each. Of these, features derived from the inverse of the time series covariance matrix, under an L1-norm regularization penalty, proved most powerful. Anatomical and network feature sets were used individually, and combined with non-imaging phenotypic features from each subject. Machine learning algorithms were used to rank attributes, and performance was assessed under cross-validation and on a separate test set of 168 subjects for a variety of feature set combinations. While non-imaging features gave highest performance in cross-validation, the addition of imaging features in sufficient numbers led to improved generalization to new data. Stratification by gender also proved to be a fruitful strategy to improve classifier performance. We describe the overall approach used, compare the predictive power of different classes of features, and describe the most impactful features in relation to the current literature
Reviews approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) that are alternatives to the biomedical model. Addresses the general problem of description and classification of behaviors into the ADHD diagnosis and discusses perspectives on sociocultural factors in ADHD behaviors, diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Maintains that ADHD…
Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao
Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…
Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…
Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne
Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…
Webster, Raymond E.
This paper discusses the findings from a study that investigated the information processing characteristics of 93 children (ages 8-16) who have been diagnosed as having either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and combined ADHD and learning disabilities (LD). Thirty-nine average students,…
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159904.html Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk? Chances were actually ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850
Kennemer, Kordell; Goldstein, Sam
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in an adult inpatient psychiatric setting. Patient charts were reviewed from a state hospital in the western United States. Of the 292 persons served in 2002, only 6 received a diagnosis of ADHD. Of these patients, 2 received additional diagnoses for Major Depression, 1 for General Anxiety and 1 for Bipolar Disorder. Five of the 6 ADHD participants had a history of substance abuse and 4 were diagnosed with Personality Disorders. None of the 6 diagnosed with ADHD received a diagnosis of Learning Disability. A variety of nonstimulant medications were utilized to treat these patients. Characteristics of adult psychiatric populations are reviewed. Prevalence, comorbidity and implications for future research regarding adult ADHD are discussed. PMID:16083396
Moore, Elizabeth; Sunjic, Sandra; Kaye, Sharlene; Archer, Vicki; Indig, Devon
Objective: Given the paucity of research among prisoners, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity associated with adult ADHD. Method: The study was conducted at four NSW correctional facilities (2 male; 2 female). Results: Thirty-five percent of the sample screened positive for adult ADHD, and 17% of the sample met criteria for a full diagnosis. After adjustment, benzodiazepine dependence, borderline personality disorder, social phobia, antisocial personality disorder, and a number of lifetime psychological disorders remained significantly and independently associated with the diagnosis of adult ADHD. Lowering the threshold on the ADHD Self-Rating Scale to ≥3 (vs. ≥4) increased the sensitivity (80%-93%), but lowered the specificity (55%-47%). Conclusion: Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners is elevated, with substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity common. A greater acceptance of this disorder among prisoners, and appropriate treatment, is warranted. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134874
Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.
ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…
Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.
Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…
Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane
Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…
Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.
Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…
Lovecky, Deirdre V.
This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…
Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik
Importance Studies have shown that Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with transport accidents, but the magnitude of the association remains unclear. Importantly, it is also unclear whether ADHD medication reduces this risk. Objective First, to estimate the association between ADHD and the risk of serious transport accidents. Second, to explore the extent to which ADHD medication influences this risk among ADHD patients. Design, Setting, and Participants 17,408 patients with a diagnosis of ADHD were followed from 2006 to 2009 for serious transport accidents in Swedish national registers. The association between ADHD and accidents was estimated with Cox regression. To study the effect of ADHD medication, we used stratified Cox regression to compare the risk of accidents during medication period with the risk during non-medication period within the same patients. Main Outcome and Measure Serious transport accident, identified as admission to an emergency hospital care or death due to transport accident. Results Compared with individuals without ADHD, male ADHD patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–1.63) and female ADHD patients (HR=1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.71) had increased risk of serious transport accidents. In male ADHD patients, ADHD medication was associated with a 58% risk reduction (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.75), but there was no significant association in female patients. Estimates of the population attributable fractions suggested that 41% – 49% of the accidents in male patients with ADHD could have been avoided if they had been on treatment the entire follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance ADHD is associated with an increased risk of serious transport accidents, and this risk seems to be possibly reduced by ADHD medication, at least among male ADHD patients. This should lead to increased awareness of the association between serious transport accidents and ADHD medication among clinicians and
Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M
Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Garefino, Allison C.; Babinski, Dara E.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.
Objective: This study examined several questions about the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adults using data from a childhood-diagnosed sample of 200 individuals with ADHD (age M = 20.20 years) and 121 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N = 321). Method: We examined the use of self- versus…
Kearnes, Tori B.; Ruebel, Joseph B.
This study extends a body of research indicating a relationship between negative emotion and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gender differences in the self-reporting of negative emotion among college students with ADHD were examined. Sixty-four college students (39 male, 25 female), with a diagnosis of ADHD, and 109 college…
Carbonell, Claudia L.
This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…
Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne
Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III). PMID:25225947
Rowland, Andrew S; Lesesne, Catherine A; Abramowitz, Ann J
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. However, basic information about how the prevalence of ADHD varies by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and socio-economic status remains poorly described. One reason is that difficulties in the diagnosis of ADHD have translated into difficulties developing an adequate case definition for epidemiologic studies. Diagnosis depends heavily on parent and teacher reports; no laboratory tests reliably predict ADHD. Prevalence estimates of ADHD are sensitive to who is asked what, and how information is combined. Consequently, recent systematic reviews report ADHD prevalence estimates as wide as 2%-18%. The diagnosis of ADHD is complicated by the frequent occurrence of comorbid conditions such as learning disability, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorder. Symptoms of these conditions may also mimic ADHD. Nevertheless, we suggest that developing an adequate epidemiologic case definition based on current diagnostic criteria is possible and is a prerequisite for further developing the epidemiology of ADHD. The etiology of ADHD is not known but recent studies suggest both a strong genetic link as well as environmental factors such as history of preterm delivery and perhaps, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Children and teenagers with ADHD use health and mental health services more often than their peers and engage in more health threatening behaviors such as smoking, and alcohol and substance abuse. Better methods are needed for monitoring the prevalence and understanding the public health implications of ADHD. Stimulant medication is the treatment of choice for treating ADHD but psychosocial interventions may also be warranted if comordid disorders are present. The treatment of ADHD is controversial because of the high prevalence of medication treatment. Epidemiologic studies could clarify whether the patterns of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in community settings is
Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian
Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier
We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but not ADHD severity or anxiety, in the ADHD+ subgroup compared to those with ADHD only. These results highlight the importance of specifically examining autistic traits in children with ADHD for better characterization in studies of the underlying physiopathology and treatment. PMID:21108041
Kurdziel, Laura B F; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090
Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090
Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch
Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only. PMID:25374034
Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth
Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic
Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.
This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…
Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne
Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…
Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro
ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…
Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea
In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…
Fugate, C. Matthew
Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…
Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…
Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…
Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.
Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…
van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…
Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P
Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in
Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurobiological disorder, affects millions of individuals and can significantly impact an individual's life course. Research guidelines used in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment have focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress how gender and other contextual factors are considered. Consequently many women and persons from diverse cultural groups can be ignored or misdiagnosed. Undiagnosed and untreated women with ADHD are therefore limited in their potential to flourish socially, academically, interpersonally, and in their family roles. This case example of a 38-year-old African American woman illustrates how her life journey was affected by undiagnosed ADHD. PMID:19657868
... causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD ... percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury. Sugar. The idea that refined sugar ...
Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.
A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.
Mariani, John J.; Levin, Frances R.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common co-occurring mental disorder among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Clinicians must be cognizant of the complicated nature of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD when comorbid with SUD. Pharmacotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, although complementary psychotherapeutic approaches have been developed. Psychostimulant medications are the most commonly used medications to treat ADHD, but many clinicians are reluctant to prescribe stimulants to patients with SUD. Recommendations for treatment planning and clinical management for patients with co-occurring ADHD and SUD are discussed. PMID:17453606
Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W
Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544
Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier
We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…
Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph
Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…
Vereb, Rebecca L.; DiPerna, James C.
The purpose of this study was to begin to explore the relationship among teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), knowledge of common treatments for ADHD, and acceptability of different approaches to treatment for ADHD (medication and behavior management). Relationships also were explored between these variables and…
von Gontard, Alexander; Equit, Monika
ADHD and incontinence are common childhood disorders which co-occur at much higher rates than expected by chance. The aim of this review was to provide an overview both of the comorbidity of nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) and faecal incontinence (FI) in children with ADHD; and, vice versa, of the co-occurrence of ADHD in children with NE, DUI and FI. Most clinical studies have focussed on the association of ADHD and NE. Population-based studies have shown that children with DUI have an even greater risk for ADHD than those with NE. While children with FI have the highest overall comorbidity rates of psychological disorders, these are heterogeneous with a wide range of internalising and externalising disorders--not necessarily of ADHD. Genetic studies indicate that ADHD and NE, DUI and FI do not share the same genetic basis. The comorbidity is conferred by non-genetic factors. Possible aetiological and pathogenetic links between ADHD and incontinence are provided by neurophysiological, imaging and pharmacological studies. The co-occurrence has clinical implications: children with ADHD and NE, DUI and FI are more difficult to treat, show lower compliance and have less favourable treatment outcomes for incontinence. Therefore, both groups of disorders have to be assessed and treated specifically. PMID:24980793
Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B; Raboch, Jirí; Kream, Richard M; Goetz, Michal
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. It is manifested in every part of an affected child's behavior, with multiple symptomatology and heterogenous etiology. Published studies report that ADHD children may show changes in growth and development. Most of the studies on ADHD have been focused on connections between medication and growth changes and describe growth delays associated with medication. However, recent research results point to the low significance of the changes accompanying pharmacological treatment. Changes in growth may not only be a secondary effect of the treatment, but may also be specific characteristics of ADHD. PMID:24625909
Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder among children. There are 3 subtypes of ADHD: (1) with prevalent inattentive symptoms (2) with prevalent hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and (3) the combined subtype. It typically manifests itself before age 7 years and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. It is diagnosed when the hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention last long, appear at least in two environments and their intensity impairs the functioning of the child. The etiology of ADHD is not well-known but recent studies have shown that genetic factors are of big importance. Also several environmental influences that raise the risk for ADHD development have been identified. Recently, it has been postulated that the reduced activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a crucial role in ADHD pathogenesis. It is evidenced by the fact that drugs intensifying the noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission are the most successful for ADHD treatment. At present, it has been also postulated that the disturbances in endocrine and immune systems are involved in the ADHD pathogenesis. Interconnections between functions of these systems and function of neurotransmitters are better recognized now and show that disturbances in their cooperation can be involved in some psychiatric disorders. In the case of ADHD, most data are related to disturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In particular, the lower level of cortisol in children with ADHD, especially in the hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD, the disturbance in the circadian rhythm of this steroid and the lack of its inhibition by the dexamethasone have been documented. Many clinical data indicate that in children with ADHD, the psychological stress evokes a weaker activation of the HPA axis than in the control group. Epidemiological and preclinical investigations have shown that the disturbance in
Adler, Lenard A; Reingold, Lisa S; Morrill, Melinda S; Wilens, Timothy E
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of adulthood. Although clinical guidelines recommend monotherapy with stimulants or atomoxetine, combination pharmacotherapy is a common practice among clinicians. There are four main situations in which combination medications may be necessary: partial response, dose-limiting side effects, associated disorders, and comorbid diagnoses. We present data from two chart reviews that support existing research on combination pharmacotherapy. Adjunct treatment of d-methylphenidate to stimulant medications extended the duration of therapeutic effect. Adjunct treatment of mirtazapine to stimulant medications reduced associated insomnia. These data support previous research that validates the use of combination pharmacotherapy for adults with ADHD. PMID:16968624
Snitselaar, Mark A; Smits, Marcel G; Spijker, Jan
In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the ADHD-C subgroup, although not significantly (p = 0.066). RLS symptoms were correlated with particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity (ρ = 0.742; p: 0.000). ADHD patients with positive RLS scores reported higher scores on the ADHD-Rating scale compared with patients with negative RLS scores (Z: -2.968, p = 0.003), mainly due to higher hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (Z: -3.145; p = 0.002). Our findings show that clinicians need to be aware of RLS among adult ADHD patients, particularly those with severe hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. PMID:26418664
Rapport, M D; Chung, K M; Shore, G; Denney, C B; Isaacs, P
Reviews the usefulness of clinic-based and laboratory-based instruments and paradigms for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and monitoring treatment effects. Extant literature examining the performance of normal children and those with ADHD on an extensive range of neurocognitive tests, tasks, and experimental paradigms indicates that particular types of instruments may be more reliable than others with respect to detecting between-group differences. We review task parameters that may distinguish the more reliable from less reliable instruments. The value of clinic-based and laboratory-based instruments for monitoring treatment response in children with ADHD is questionable when evaluated in the context of ecologically relevant variables such as classroom behavior and academic functioning. We present a general conceptual model to highlight conceptual issues relevant to designing clinic-based and laboratory-based instruments for the purposes of diagnosing and monitoring treatment effects in children with ADHD. Application of the model to currently conceptualized core variables indicates that attention and impulsivity-hyperactivity may represent correlative rather than core features of the disorder. We discuss implications of these findings for designing the next generation of clinic-based and laboratory-based instruments. PMID:11126633
Honkasilta, Juho; Vehkakoski, Tanja; Vehmas, Simo
The contemporary education paradigm highlights the interdependency of home and school expertise. This discourse analysis study examines the narrated agentive possibilities of 18 Finnish mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD to influence and be involved in their child's schooling. Mothers' strong involvement endeavor is premised on their…
Dai, Dai; Wang, Jieqiong; Hua, Jing; He, Huiguang
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL). The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic. PMID:22969710
Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Russell, Ginny
Background Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear. Aims The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132) to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association. Results Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers’ were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16). In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but
Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla
Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941
Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip
Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management. PMID:23608188
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…
Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio
Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…
Weyandt, Lisa L.
Filled with current, practical, and useful information for professionals and individuals, this second edition summarizes the literature concerning ADHD across the lifespan. It offers a better understanding of the disorder by addressing the potential causes of ADHD, the developmental course, and numerous treatment approaches. The author delivers…
Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…
Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.
Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…
Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…
DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.
The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.
Kim, Okmi H.; Kaiser, Ann P.
Language characteristics of 11 children (ages 6-8) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 typically developing children were compared for semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language skills. Findings indicated no differences on receptive vocabulary, but children with ADHD performed worse on tests of expressive speech and…
Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.
Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and neurobiological basis of these deficits is less consistently observed. There is growing evidence that boys’ and girls’ brains develop and mature at different rates, suggesting that the trajectory of early anomalous brain development in ADHD may also be sex-specific. It remains unclear, however, whether earlier brain maturation observed in girls with ADHD is protective. In this review, we outline the current theory and research findings that seek to establish a unique neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD, highlighting sex differences in typical brain development and among children with ADHD. The review highlights findings from neurological, neurocognitive, and behavioral studies. Future research directions are suggested, including the need for longitudinal neuroimaging and neurobehavioral investigation beginning as early as the preschool years, and continuing through adolescence and adulthood, with consideration of identified sex differences in the development of ADHD. PMID:19072756
Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik
The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…
Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.
Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…
Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.
Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…
Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph
The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…
ADHD is a pervasive and persistent condition which continues into adulthood with a prevalence rate of 5%. Research demonstrates that 2% to 4% of the college learner population is affected by ADHD and, interestingly enough, ADHD symptomology prevalence rates have been shown to be higher than expected within the general college population. ADHD is a…
Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.
Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…
Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.
This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…
Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.
Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…
Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji
Objective: To examine whether participants with ADHD showed a deficit in Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference by comparing them to non-ADHD participants. Method: A group with ADHD, primarily inattentive type (n = 15), and a paired non-ADHD group (n = 15) completed the group version of the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test. Results: Asymmetric interference…
Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…
Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…
Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele
Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…
Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…
Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian
Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801
Brown, Matthew R G; Sidhu, Gagan S; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M
Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data. PMID:23060754
van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald
We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25512360
Cohen, Elizabeth F.
The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis in potentially biased ways. PMID:19251776
Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce
This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…
Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich
There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account. PMID:24311027
Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine
Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age, gender, IQ, SES and ADHD symptoms were compared among ADHD comorbid free subjects and ADHD with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Logistic regression analyses were also carried out to investigate the relationship between comorbidity and parental psychiatric status. Age range was younger in the ADHD without comorbidity and older in ADHD+internalizing disorders. No significant difference in IQ or SES was found among ADHD comorbid and comorbid-free groups. ADHD with internalizing disorder has a significantly greater association with paternal psychiatric conditions. After matching by age, gender, IQ and SES, ADHD with externalizing disorders had significantly higher total ADHD, hyperactivity/impulsivity score and single item score of difficulty awaiting turn than ADHD without comorbidity and ADHD with internalizing disorders. Older age ranges, ADHD symptom severity and parental psychopathology may be risk factors for comorbidity. PMID:22119689
Tandon, Mini; Tillman, Rebecca; Agrawal, Arpana; Luby, Joan
The study examined unique trajectories of ADHD severity from childhood (7-16 yo at baseline) through adulthood in a sample of ADHD, bipolar and healthy subjects. Comorbid disorders and temperament were examined as correlates of course of ADHD. N = 81 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, ascertained as a comparison group in a study of bipolar disorder (BP-I), were followed over a 10-year period. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) of ADHD severity was used to investigate trajectories of ADHD severity over 10 years. GMM revealed four trajectories in the N = 251 participants included in these analyses. A persisting high ADHD trajectory had the highest rates of comorbid major depressive disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. This persisting high ADHD group also had higher fantasy and lower persistence and self-directedness compared with those who displayed a pattern of decreasing ADHD symptoms over time. Psychopathologic features that characterize divergent trajectories of ADHD into adulthood are elucidated, and additional, larger studies are warranted. PMID:26830111
Donev, Rossen; Thome, Johannes
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by the typical behavioural core symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD is a usually chronic health conditions, mostly diagnosed in childhood, creating a significant challenge for youth, their families and professionals who treat it. This disorder requires long-term treatments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions, which in some cases may lead to adverse effects. Understanding the mechanism by which ADHD risk factors affect the biochemical processes in the human brain and consequentially the behaviour will help to identify novel targets for the development of therapeutics with less adverse results and better efficacy including higher responder rates. Although inflammatory responses in the brain have been recognised for years as critical in neurodegeneration and behaviour in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their role for the development, treatment and prevention of ADHD has been so far largely overlooked, although historically, ADHD symptoms were initially observed in patients who survived an ONJ infection, i.e. inflammation. In this review, we discuss the interrelationship between different ADHD risk factors and inflammation with respect to the triggered molecular mechanisms and the contribution they are likely to have to this disorder. This paper provides a rationale for future studies on ADHD with an intent to inspiring the development of new agents for a more efficient management of this disorder. PMID:21432611
As the world becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, the need for empirically sound multicultural research has come to the forefront. Based on a review of the literature, while research on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is abundant and some research on cultural issues regarding ADHD has been produced, there is relatively little…
Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Pelham, William E
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require intensive treatments to remediate functional impairments and promote the development of adaptive skills. The summer treatment program (STP) is an exemplar of intensive treatment of ADHD. STP intervention components include a reward and response-cost point system, time-out, use of antecedent control (clear commands, establishment of rules and routines), and liberal praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Parents also participate in parent management training programming to learn how to implement similar procedures within the home setting. There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the STP as an intervention for ADHD. PMID:25220085
Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A
Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the
Joelsson, Petteri; Chudal, Roshan; Gyllenberg, David; Kesti, Anna-Kaisa; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Virtanen, Juha-Pekka; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai; Gissler, Mika; Sourander, Andre
Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children diagnosed in specialized services. This study aims to describe children with ADHD in Finnish specialized healthcare by reporting the demographic characteristics, time trends in diagnosis, psychiatric comorbidity, and the validity of register-based diagnoses. All the singletons born in Finland between 1991 and 2005 and diagnosed with ADHD by 2011 were identified and their psychiatric comorbidity data was obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Parents of 69 patients were interviewed via telephone for a diagnostic validation. A total of 10,409 children were identified with ADHD, with a male: female ratio of 5.3:1 and a psychiatric comorbidity rate of 76.7 %. Of the validation sample 88 % met the diagnostic criteria of ADHD for DSM-IV. There is an increasing trend of ADHD diagnosis among both males and females. Psychiatric comorbidity is common and includes a wide range of disorders among children with ADHD. There was an increase of ADHD diagnoses especially among boys. More attention is needed to detect ADHD among girls in health services. Diagnoses in the FHDR show diagnostic validity and their sociodemographic patterns are in line with previous studies. PMID:26399420
Schneider, Benjamin N; Enenbach, Michael
Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-established and effective treatment modality. However, ADHD medications are not without side effects. Understanding the prevalence of adverse events and effective management of risks associated with stimulants and other medications used to treat ADHD is central to broad applicability and effective treatment. This review discusses the literature on the prevalence of adverse events and management strategies employed. We searched online MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles using several keywords relating to adverse events associated with ADHD medication management. We discuss the relevant data on the significance and prevalence of side effects and adverse events, highlight recent updates in the field, and suggest approaches to clinical management. PMID:25135779
Nigg, Joel T.
Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834
Millichap, J Gordon
Investigators at Yale University, New Haven, CT, conducted a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics caused by psychostimulants used in the treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:26933551
Richard Restak asserts in "The New Brain" (Rodale Books, 2003) that "ADD/ADHD isn't so much a disorder as it is a cognitive style." With this in mind, and through much trial and error, the author of this article, a second-grade teacher at Hood-Case Elementary School in Alvin, Texas, provides suggestions to keep in mind when one has ADHD children…
von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood. PMID:22371085
Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Arazi, Ayelet; Shahar, Nitzan; Karmon, Anat; Haar, Shlomi; Meiran, Nachshon; Dinstein, Ilan
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been described as a disorder where frequent lapses of attention impair the ability of an individual to focus/attend in a sustained manner, thereby generating abnormally large intra-individual behavioral variability across trials. Indeed, increased reaction time (RT) variability is a fundamental behavioral characteristic of individuals with ADHD found across a large number of cognitive tasks. But what is the underlying neurophysiology that might generate such behavioral instability? Here, we examined trial-by-trial EEG response variability to visual and auditory stimuli while subjects' attention was diverted to an unrelated task at the fixation cross. Comparisons between adult ADHD and control participants revealed that neural response variability was significantly larger in the ADHD group as compared with the control group in both sensory modalities. Importantly, larger trial-by-trial variability in ADHD was apparent before and after stimulus presentation as well as in trials where the stimulus was omitted, suggesting that ongoing (rather than stimulus-evoked) neural activity is continuously more variable (noisier) in ADHD. While the patho-physiological mechanisms causing this increased neural variability remain unknown, they appear to act continuously rather than being tied to a specific sensory or cognitive process. PMID:27179150
Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related end ophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens. PMID:21596055
McBurnett, Keith; Swetye, Michael; Muhr, Heather; Hendren, Robert L
This article reviews the current use of stimulants in adolescents. The evidence base for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents is meager compared with that of ADHD in children, and much recent research of older populations with ADHD has been directed toward adults rather than adolescents. The structure of psychosocial treatment of ADHD differs across developmental ranges. For example, in children, treatment of ADHD uses direct behavior modification via parents and teachers. Treatment approaches then change toward contracting in adolescents (acknowledging the emerging independence common at this age) and toward self-management and coaching in adults. Medication for ADHD, however, does not substantially differ across developmental epochs. In supplementation of data, specifically on adolescence, much of our understanding of treating adolescents comes from upward or downward extension of the child and adult data. Symptomatic treatment (treatment for inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsive behavior) has always been a parallel approach to diagnostic and developmentally specific selection of treatment based on an incomplete literature. In recognition, this article assumes that inference from children or adults to adolescents, in the absence of adolescent-specific data, is commonplace and often confirmed with clinical experience. Such inferences, in the face of literature gaps, in no way obviate the need for continued research focused on adolescence. PMID:24298754
Conti, Richard P
This brief note cautions clinicians about the possibility of adolescents with Conduct Disorder malingering the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to obtain medication. Presented are some guidelines to consider when the diagnosis of ADHD is indicated in forensic settings with adolescents such as the need for a comprehensive assessment and the importance of exploring the possibility of malingering. PMID:15217060
Canu, Will H.; Newman, Matthew L.; Morrow, Tara L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.
Objective: This study investigates social stigma associated with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and whether Big Five personality traits predict appraisals of affected individuals. Method: A sample of 257 undergraduates rate the desirability of targets with ADHD, minor medical problems, and with no appreciable weakness, across several social…
ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) continues to be a controversial issue among some educationalists. This paper argues that negativity towards the ADHD concept shown by some antagonists is based on outdated thinking and a lack of understanding of the diagnosis and the biopsychosocial paradigm through which it can be usefully…
Fleischmann, Amos; Miller, Erez C.
This study systematically analyzed life stories of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were diagnosed in adulthood, using an adapted version of Labov's textual-analysis method. These life stories provided an opportunity to examine the processes experienced by these individuals before and after the diagnosis of ADHD,…
As the diagnosis of AD/HD becomes more frequent in our schools, and as many individuals across ages embrace an AD/HD identity, scholars need to account for the lived experience of the disorder to understand the meanings individuals give to it. This paper analyses the relationship between ethical practices of self-formation, power, and knowledge…
Samuelsson, S.; Lundberg, I.; Herkner, B.
The present study examined the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) in male adults. Participants were 120 men, of whom 24 were classified as having ADHD. The basis for the diagnosis was two self-report scales validated by interviews and background data. An extensive battery was used to…
Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F.; Coolidge, Frederick L.
Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria…
Davidson, Megan A.
Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…
Dang, Michelle T.; Warrington, Dawn; Tung, Tan; Baker, Dian; Pan, Richard J.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most challenging chronic conditions for children, families, schools, and physicians. Because symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for other health conditions and misdiagnosis can occur, accurate diagnosis and treatment require comprehensive evaluation. This article introduces a school-based…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Rickels, Heather; Assouline, Susan G.; Richards, Allison
Intellectually gifted students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face unique academic and social challenges, yet little research has been conducted with this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-esteem and self-concept of intellectually gifted children with and without a coexisting diagnosis of ADHD.…
Conrad, Peter; Bergey, Meredith R
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been medicalized in the United States since the 1960s. Primarily used in North America until the 1990s, ADHD diagnosis and treatment have increasingly been applied internationally. After documenting the expansion of ADHD in a global context, this paper presents five brief international examples examining ADHD usage and expansion: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Brazil. We then identify and describe several vehicles that facilitate the migration of the ADHD diagnosis: the transnational pharmaceutical industry; the influence of western psychiatry; moving from ICD to DSM diagnostic criteria; the role of the Internet including the related advent of easily accessible online screening checklists; and advocacy groups. Finally, we discuss what this globalization of a diagnosis reflects about the potential global medicalization of other conditions. PMID:25441315
Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne
Objective: To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Method: Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. Results: The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Conclusion: It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24271945
Martin, Andrew J.
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…
Hjörne, Eva; Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
In this study, we explore what happens to young people labelled as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after they have been excluded from mainstream class and placed in a special class. More specifically, we focus on how a specific disability identity is locally accomplished and ascribed to a girl placed in an ADHD class…
Martin, Andrew J
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011
During the past 15 years, an impressive amount of genetic information has become available in the research field of psychiatry, particularly as it relates to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the classical clinical approach to ADHD has minimally affected and not significantly been improved by this genetic revolution. It is difficult to predict how long it will take for genetic findings to alter the way clinicians treat patients with ADHD. New medications or treatment protocols may take years to become routine clinical practice. However, when taken together, recent successes in genomics, pharmacogenomics, and genetic epidemiology have the potential (1) to prevent comorbid consequences of ADHD, (2) to individualize therapies for patients with ADHD, and (3) to define new epidemiological policies to aid with the impact of ADHD on society. Here, we present an overview of how genetic research may affect and improve the quality of life of patients with ADHD: as an example, we use the discovery of LPHN3, a new gene in which variants have recently been shown to be associated with ADHD. PMID:21432600
Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616
In this article, I present a study conducted with 10 Southeastern US early childhood teachers on their views concerning problem behaviour, in general, and the practice of diagnosis and pharmaceutical treatment for Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), in particular. Themes that emerged from the interview data included: (1) teachers'…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
This paper discusses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children under the age of five and how parents can cope with the disability. Topics include: (1) the presentation of the disability in children under five; (2) the diagnosis of the disability; (3) different approaches parents can adopt to deal with the disability; (4)…
Sørensen, L; Plessen, K J; Adolfsdottir, S; Lundervold, A J
The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time. PMID:24228780
Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin
Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044
... 2012) Detailed Information by State Top of Page Peer Relationships [ Read abstract ] Parents of children with a ... of ADHD report almost 3 times as many peer problems as those without a history of ADHD ( ...
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...
... news/fullstory_157662.html Most Teens Who Abuse ADHD Meds Get Them From Others Study finds 54 ... TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Abuse of ADHD stimulant drugs such Ritalin or Adderall is on ...
... fullstory_159266.html Sound Sleep Elusive for Many Kids With ADHD Those with the attention disorder sleep ... made about children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder -- kids with ADHD don't sleep as well as ...
... html Acetaminophen During Pregnancy May Up Risk of ADHD in Kids But only association found, and researchers ... their child will develop behavioral problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study suggests. Acetaminophen is generally ...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160405.html ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs ... misuse stimulant drugs are more likely to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other psychiatric problems, a new study ...
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158907.html ADHD Can First Appear in Young Adulthood for Some, ... British study suggests that attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may often develop in the young adult years. ...
... type of psychological services, which might have included parent training. The number of children with ADHD receiving psychological services has not changed over time, the agency said. "Parents aren't the cause of their child's ADHD, ...
Antshel, Kevin M; Zhang-James, Yanli; Wagner, Kayla E; Ledesma, Ana; Faraone, Stephen V
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly co-occur. With the DSM-5, clinicians are permitted to make an ASD diagnosis in the context of ADHD. In earlier versions of the DSM, this was not acceptable. Both ASD and ADHD are reported to have had substantial increases in prevalence within the past 10 years. As a function of both the increased prevalence of both disorders as well as the ability to make an ASD diagnosis in ADHD, there has been a significant amount of research focusing on the comorbidity between ADHD and ASD in the past few years. Here, we provide an update on the biological, cognitive and behavioral overlap/distinctiveness between the two neurodevelopmental disorders with a focus on data published in the last four years. Treatment strategies for the comorbid condition as well as future areas of research and clinical need are discussed. PMID:26807870
Frampton, James E
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting amfetamine prodrug with a convenient once-daily oral regimen that offers the potential for improved adherence and reduced abuse compared with short-acting preparations of amfetamines. Lisdexamfetamine (as Elvanse Adult(®); Tyvense Adult™) has been approved for use in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the EU decentralization procedure, with the first approvals in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. This approval reflects the results of three short-term trials in adults with ADHD in which fixed- or flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in ADHD symptoms, overall functioning, executive functioning (including in patients with significant pre-existing impairment) and quality of life. Of note, a post hoc analysis of one of these studies suggested that the response to lisdexamfetamine was generally similar in treatment-naïve patients and those who had already received-and not responded satisfactorily to-previous ADHD therapies, including methylphenidate (MPH). Two further studies demonstrated the longer-term effectiveness of flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine in reducing ADHD symptoms, albeit maintenance of efficacy required ongoing treatment with the drug. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with an adverse event profile typical of that reported for other long-acting stimulants. Head-to-head comparisons with other long-acting agents, notably MPH and atomoxetine, are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available data, lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH. PMID:27048350
Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784
Pajo, Bora; Cohen, David
An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents' decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed…
Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.
Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…
Miller, Jessica A.
Impulsivity is the cardinal symptom of ADHD. It is estimated that ADHD is present in eighteen percent of children and in four percent of adults. The present study repeats and extends a previous study (Gray, Breier, Foorman, & Fletcher, 2002) that measured impulsivity in adolescents with and without ADHD, which found higher false alarm rates…
Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.
This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…
Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt
Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…
Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…