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Sample records for adhesion molecule-1 sicam-1

  1. Polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene predict circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Bielinski, Suzette J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Nickerson, Deborah; Carlson, Chris; Bailey, Kent R.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Lange, Leslie A.; Boerwinkle, Eric A.; Jacobs, David R.; Gross, Myron D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Polymorphisms within the ICAM1 structural gene have been shown to influence circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule -1 (sICAM-1) but their relation to atherosclerosis has not been clearly established. We sought to determine whether ICAM1 SNPs are associated with circulating sICAM-1 concentration, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and common and internal carotid intima medial thickness (IMT). Methods and Results 3,550 black and white Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study subjects who participated in the year 15 and/or 20 examinations and were part of the Young Adult Longitudinal Study of Antioxidants (YALTA) ancillary study were included in this analysis. In whites, rs5498 was significantly associated with sICAM-1 (p < 0.001) and each G-allele of rs5498 was associated with 5% higher sICAM-1 concentration. In blacks, each C-allele of rs5490 was associated with 6 % higher sICAM-1 level; this SNP was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs5491, a functional variant. Subclinical measurements of atherosclerosis in either year 15 or year 20 were not significantly related to ICAM1 SNPs. Conclusions In CARDIA, ICAM1 DNA segment variants were associated with sICAM-1 protein level including the novel finding that levels differ by the functional variant rs5491. However, ICAM1 SNPs were not strongly related to either IMT or CAC. Our findings in CARDIA suggest that ICAM1 variants are not major early contributors to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:21392767

  2. Inhibition of cell adhesion by microspheres coated with recombinant soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Welder, C A; Lee, D H; Takei, F

    1993-03-15

    Murine recombinant soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) was produced and characterized. When immobilized on plastic microtiter wells, sICAM-1 efficiently mediated LFA-1-dependent cell adhesion, indicating that the purified protein retained the ability to bind to LFA-1. However, sICAM-1 in solution, at concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml, was incapable of inhibiting the phorbol ester-induced homotypic aggregation of lymphocytes, the adhesion of T cells to plastic immobilized sICAM-1, and CTL effector function, all of which are mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1:LFA-1 interaction. In contrast, uniform polystyrene microspheres coated with sICAM-1 bound specifically to LFA-1+ cells and efficiently inhibited the adhesion of T cells to immobilized sICAM-1. The sICAM-1-coated microspheres also inhibited CTL function, but the inhibition was only partial. These results suggest that although monomeric sICAM-1 cannot competitively inhibit cell adhesion mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and LFA-1, microspheres coated with sICAM-1 can inhibit such cell adhesion. PMID:8095510

  3. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble and endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S.; Flores, S.; Gerritsen, M. E.; Anderson, D. C.; Granger, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Although circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are frequently used as an indicator of the severity of different immune, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases, little is known about the factors that govern plasma sICAM-1 concentration and its relationship to the membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) expressed on vascular endothelial cells. Plasma sICAM-1 concentration (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and mICAM-1 expression (measured using the dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique) in different vascular beds (eg, lung, small intestine, and spleen) were monitored in wild-type (C57BL) and ICAM-1-deficient mice, before and after administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In wild-type mice, TNF-alpha elicited time-dependent increases in lung and intestine mICAM-1 (plateau achieved at 12 hours), with a corresponding increase in plasma sICAM-1 (peaked at 5 hours and then declined). The initial increases in mICAM-1 and pulmonary leukocyte sequestration (measured as lung myeloperoxidase activity) induced by TNF-alpha preceded any detectable elevation in sICAM-1. In ICAM-1-deficient mice, plasma sICAM-1 was reduced by approximately 70%, with > 95% reductions of mICAM-1 in lung and intestine, and > 75% reduction in splenic accumulation of anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Although TNF-alpha doubled plasma sICAM-1 in ICAM-1-deficient mice, mICAM-1 was unaffected in all tissues. Either splenectomy or pretreatment with cycloheximide resulted in an attenuated TNF-induced increase in sICAM-1, without affecting mICAM-1 expression. These findings indicate that plasma sICAM-1 concentration does not accurately reflect the level of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in different vascular beds. PMID:9212746

  4. A clinical evaluation of serum concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Zhong; Chen, Bin; She, Xi-Dian

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between the serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and the clinicopathologic features and to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of sICAM-1 concentration in gastric cancer. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer were prospectively included and evaluated. Venous blood samples were collected before the surgery. Sera were obtained by centrifugation, and store at -30 C until assay. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of ICAM-1 were measured with the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technic. Differences between the two groups were analyzed by Students t test. x- + 2s of normal control sICAM-1 was taken as upper limit to calculate the positive rates. RESULTS: The mean value of serum ICAM-1 in patients with gastric cancer was 367.7 ?g/L 104.7 ?g/L and that of control group was 236.9 ?g/L 74.3 ?g/L, and the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The patients with tumor size of ? 5 cm had significantly higher serum concentrations of sICAM-1 than those with smaller ones (406.7 ?g/L 90.2 ?g/L vs 319.9 ?g/L 105.3 ?g/L, P < 0.01). Compared with stages I-II gastric cancer patients, patients with more advanced clinical stage (III-IV) had higher levels of sICAM-1 (397.1 ?g/L 102.4 ?g/L vs 306.0 ?g/L 82.3 ?g/L, P < 0.05). Difference was significant statistically in sICAM-1 levels between patients with positive lymph node status and those without lymph node involvement (403.6 ?g/L 99.7 ?g/L vs 302.7 ?g/L 81.4 ?g/L, P < 0.01). No relation was observed between the level of sICAM-1 and grade of histological differentiation in the patients with gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Serum sICAM-1 concentration may be a valuable parameter for predicting the prognosis and degree of the gastric cancer. PMID:11819281

  5. Role of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 as biomarkers in early and late stages of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stefanovi?, Maja Pantovi?; Petronijevi?, Nataa; Dunji?-Kosti?, Bojana; Velimirovi?, Milica; Nikoli?, Tatjana; Jurii?, Vladimir; La?kovi?, Maja; Damjanovi?, Aleksandar; Toti?-Poznanovi?, Sanja; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar A; Ivkovi?, Maja

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neuroprogressive disorder presenting with biochemical, functional, and structural changes, which differ from early to late stages of the illness. We explored the differences in serum levels of soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) between early and late stages of SZ, in regard to clinical characteristics and treatment application. Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were measured in 80 patients with SZ (40 early stage; 40 late stage), and compared with 80 healthy controls, matched by age, gender, body mass index, and smoking habits with each SZ group. Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were measured using ELISA. The severity of psychopathology was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression Scale and five-factor Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Scale. After adjustment for confounders, we noticed normal levels of sICAM-1 in the early stage, and elevated levels of sICAM-1 in the late stage of SZ. sVCAM-1 levels were decreased in both stages of SZ. Higher sICAM-1 levels have been related to more pronounced cognitive deficit and excitement symptoms in the early stage of SZ and to favorable characteristics of treatment application in both stages. SZ is associated with changes in the levels of adhesion molecules that vary from early to late stages of the illness. This implies that the concept of biochemical staging is applicable in SZ, at least for markers of cellular adhesion. PMID:26679764

  6. A Comparative Study of Serum Level of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) and High Sensitive C - reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Normal and Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Farzadnia, Mehdi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Hasan-zade, Maliheh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased systemic inflammatory response and has been associated with an increased maternal risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in pre-eclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to determine the level of plasma serum level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pre-eclampsia and to compare hs-CRP levels between normal pregnant women, mild and severe pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1, ICAM-1 and hs-CRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant women (n=40), mild pre-eclampsia (n=37) and severe pre-eclampsia (n=38). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There were significant difference in the means serum hs-CRP between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women (P<0.05). Serum concentration of hs-CRP, sVCAM-1(ng.ml) and sICAM-1(ng.ml) were significantly higher in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hs-CRP, s ICAM- 1 and in sVCAM- 1 levels between mild and severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean plasma log sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women. Conclusion: We have determined the serum concentration of soluble adhesion molecule ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Adhesion molecule is elevated in severe pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, hsCRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy and may be useful in predicting the severity of pre-eclampsia. PMID:23826490

  7. Assessment of certain neutrophil receptors, opsonophagocytosis and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) following thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed S el-D; el-Shahat, A S; Saad, S O

    1999-08-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) play a key role in host defense, and phagocyte dysfunction has been associated with increased susceptibility to infections in patients with thermal injury. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a role in leukocyte accumulation and extravasation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the PMLs expression of opsonin receptors: Fc gamma RIII, CR1 and CR3; opsonophagocytosis of PMLs and plasma soluble ICAM-1. Flow cytometric analysis (FCM) was used to study PMLs expression of IgG Fc-receptor III (Fc gamma RIII) as well as the complement receptors CR1 (receptor for C3b) and CR3 (receptor for C3bi) in 23 patients with large burns. Analysis of PML complement- and immunoglobulin-mediated phagocytosis of Candida albicans were performed in parallel using the phagocytic index. Plasma sICAM-1 was determined using ELISA. This study revealed a significant increase, with variable degrees, in CR1 and CR3-dependent fluorescence, complement-mediated phagocytosis of C. albicans and plasma sIGAM-1 that started at day 2 and remained for about 20 days before normalization. In contrast, Fc gamma RIII-dependent fluorescence and Ig-mediated phagocytosis were significantly decreased versus the control values. These results demonstrate significant changes of PMLs opsonin receptors expression and opsonophagocytosis documenting systemic activator of PMLs after large burns. In addition, elevation of plasma sICAM-1 may enhance the harmful effect of neutrophil activation through leukocyte accumulation and extravasation through endothelial damage in skin and in lung. PMID:10439147

  8. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  9. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung.

  10. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPK?1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  11. Pathogenic Actions of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in Pulmonary Emphysema and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Fujita, Mitsugu; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion mediated by adhesion molecules is of central importance in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, altered expression of adhesion molecules leads to the development of various tissue disorders involving cell activation, degeneration, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear what initiates the altered expression of adhesion molecules and how the subsequent pathological cascades proceed. In this regard, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is one of the candidates that is involved in the development of pathological lesions; it is an intercellular adhesion molecule that is expressed in various types of cells such as pulmonary cells, neurons, and mast cells. Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expressions of CADM1 correlate with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and allergic diseases. In this review, we specifically focus on how CADM1 is involved in the development of pathological lesions in pulmonary emphysema and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26636084

  12. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in laryngeal carcinoma preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morawski, Piotr; Kopta, Renata; Mochocki, Marcin; Brzezi?ska-B?aszczyk, Ewa; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study Intercellular adhesion molecules present in immunocompetent cells as well as endothelium and tumour cells can regulate cell migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, and metastases in solid tumours. The aim of this study was to analyse the sICAM-1 (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and sVCAM-1 (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures, and to find their relationships with clinicomorphological characteristics in laryngeal cancer. Materials and methods The analysis included a group of 50 patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The control group constituted 30 healthy volunteers. The pathological assessment included pTNM, stage, histological grade, and type of invasion according to the tumour front grading. The expression of adhesion molecules was assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Increased expression of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 was an indicator of more aggressive laryngeal carcinomas. More advanced local changes evaluated on the pT feature were connected with a higher sVCAM-1 (p = 0.017), but not sICAM-1 level. The presence of lymph node metastases correlated with a higher expression of adhesion molecules (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, respectively). Tumours with more diffuse growth and infiltrating with small cell groups (< 15/hpf) was characterised by the highest level of adhesive proteins (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02 for sICAM and sVCAM, respectively). Moreover, lower levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed more frequently in patients who lived longer than five years after treatment. Conclusions The study indicates the importance of the sICAM and sVCAM expression as indicators of advanced changes and prognosis in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25784838

  13. Increased binding of synovial T lymphocytes from rheumatoid arthritis to endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed Central

    Postigo, A A; Garcia-Vicua, R; Diaz-Gonzalez, F; Arroyo, A G; De Landzuri, M O; Chi-Rosso, G; Lobb, R R; Laffon, A; Snchez-Madrid, F

    1992-01-01

    The infiltration of the synovial membrane (SM) by mononuclear cells, mostly T cells, is a typical histopathological feature associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The entry of T lymphocytes into the SM is believed to be mediated by a number of molecules in the endothelium that are induced in response to a series of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we have investigated the adhesion of synovial T cells from RA patients to two endothelial ligands: endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), the only selectin known to function as a vascular addressin for T cells, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the cellular ligand of VLA-4. Our results clearly demonstrate that synovial T cells isolated from both SM and synovial fluid (SF), bearing an activated and memory phenotype, displayed an enhanced capacity to interact with these two endothelial molecules as compared with T cells from peripheral blood (PB) either of the same RA patients or healthy donors. A further enhancement of VLA-4-mediated T cell binding to VCAM-1 and fibronectin could be observed when already in vivo-activated synovial T cells were stimulated in vitro with phorbol esters, suggesting the existence of several cellular affinity levels for both very late activation-4 (VLA-4) ligands. Moreover, both PB and synovial T cells from RA patients exhibited strong proliferative responses when they were cultured with either fibronectin or VCAM-1 in combination with submitogenic doses of anti-CD3 mAb. This increased endothelial binding ability of synovial T lymphocytes together with their proliferation in response to the interaction with VCAM-1 and fibronectin may represent important mechanisms in the regulation of T cell penetration and persistence in the chronically inflamed SM of RA. Images PMID:1373738

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesgner, Craig D.; Gundel, Robert H.; Reilly, Patricia; Haynes, Nancy; Letts, L. Gordon; Rothlein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Airway eosinophilia, epithelial desquamation, and hyperresponsiveness are characteristics of the airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma. The contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to eosinophil migration and airway responsiveness was studied. ICAM-1 partially mediated eosinophil adhesion to endothelium in vitro and was upregulated on inflamed bronchial endothelium in vivo. ICAM-1 expression was also upregulated on inflamed airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In a primate model of asthma, a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 attenuated airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Thus, antagonism of ICAM-1 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and asthma symptoms.

  15. Elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in AIDS encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W. A.; Lackner, A. A.; Smith, M. O.; Lausen, N. C.; Beall, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIDS encephalitis is a common sequela to HIV-1 infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) infection in macaques. Although lentiviral-infected macrophages comprise parenchymal inflammatory infiltrates in affected brain tissue, the mechanisms responsible for leukocyte trafficking to the central nervous system in AIDS are unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of various endothelial-derived leukocyte adhesion proteins in SIVmac-induced AIDS encephalitis. Encephalitic brains from SIVmac-infected macaques, but not uninflamed brains from other SIVmac-infected animals, were found to express abundant vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein on the majority of arteriolar, venular, and capillary endothelial cells. Soluble VCAM-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from encephalitic animals were increased approximately 20-fold above those from animals without AIDS encephalitis. Expression of other endothelial-related adhesion molecules, including E-selectin, P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), was not uniformly associated with AIDS encephalitis. Thus, the presence of VCAM-1 in both brain and CSF was uniformly associated with SIVmac-induced disease of the central nervous system, and this expression may, at least in part, influence monocyte and lymphocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Moreover, measurement of soluble VCAM-1 in CSF may assist in the clinical assessment of animals or people with AIDS. Images Figure 1 PMID:1279978

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cellular immune reactions in the human central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, R. A.; Mitchell, M. E.; Fondren, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cryostat sections of human central nervous system (CNS) tissue samples from 10 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 cases with inflammation and necrosis, and 24 normal controls were immunostained with antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its integrin ligand lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1). In 18 controls, small numbers of CNS microvessels were ICAM-1-positive. There were more numerous ICAM-1-positive vessels in active MS plaque edges, viral encephalitis lesions, infarcts, and in six controls. Within active MS plaques and in viral infections, mononuclear cells and some glia also were ICAM-1-positive. Mononuclear but not CNS resident cells were LFA-1-positive. Thus, CNS vessel ICAM-1 expression is variable in amount in postmortem samples of normal human CNS tissue, may increase early and focally in cellular immune reactions, and, via binding of LFA-1, may promote leukocyte influx into the CNS. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on parenchymal cells may indicate additional interactions with LFA-1 on inflammatory cells in diverse CNS lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1972610

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  18. Inflammatory and immune responses are impaired in mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Sligh, J E; Ballantyne, C M; Rich, S S; Hawkins, H K; Smith, C W; Bradley, A; Beaudet, A L

    1993-01-01

    Gene targeting was used to produce mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) or CD54, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule that binds beta 2 integrins. Homozygous deficient animals develop normally, are fertile, and have a moderate granulocytosis. The nature of the mutation, RNA analysis, and immunostaining are consistent with complete loss of surface expression of ICAM-1. Deficient mice exhibit prominent abnormalities of inflammatory responses including impaired neutrophil emigration in response to chemical peritonitis and decreased contact hypersensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Mutant cells provided negligible stimulation in the mixed lymphocyte reaction, although they proliferated normally as responder cells. These mutant animals will be extremely valuable for examining the role of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors in inflammatory disease processes and atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8104338

  19. Drug-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on lesional keratinocytes in fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed Central

    Teraki, Y.; Moriya, N.; Shiohara, T.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and the factor(s) that contribute to preferential localization of fixed drug eruption (FDE) lesions to certain skin sites remain speculative. Previous studies suggested that populations of T cells residing in the lesional epidermis may be involved in selective destruction of the epidermis in FDE. In this study, to define the earliest cellular and molecular events with potential relevance to activation of the epidermal T cells, expression of adhesion molecules on keratinocytes (KC) and vascular endothelium was examined sequentially in the lesional skin of FDE patients after challenge with the causative drug. Rapid and intense intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was induced on the vascular endothelium and KC as early as 1.5 hours after challenge, at which time E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were not up-regulated. In vitro studies using skin organ culture showed that the lesional KC and endothelium responded more rapidly and intensely to express ICAM-1 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma compared with those in the nonlesional skin. Surprisingly, such selective induction of KC ICAM-1 restricted to the lesional skin was also observed after exposure to the causative drug alone in skin organ culture. Pretreatment of the lesional skin with anti-tumor necrosis factor completely abrogated in vitro induction of KC ICAM-1 expression by the drug. Drug-induced, TNF-alpha-dependent KC ICAM-1 expression in the lesional skin suggests that induction of ICAM-1 expression by the lesional KC after ingestion of the drug would probably provide a localized initiating stimulus for activation of the disease-associated epidermal T cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7915886

  20. Molecular Architecture of a Complex between an Adhesion Protein from the Malaria Parasite and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A.; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G.; Higgins, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ?300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBL? domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  1. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression. PMID:26503469

  2. Endothelial selectins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 promote hematopoietic progenitor homing to bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Frenette, Paul S.; Subbarao, Sangeetha; Mazo, Irina B.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Wagner, Denisa D.

    1998-01-01

    The adhesive mechanisms allowing hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) homing to the bone marrow (BM) after BM transplantation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of endothelial selectins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this process. Lethally irradiated recipient mice deficient in both P-and E-selectins (P/E?/?), reconstituted with minimal numbers (?5 104) of wild-type BM cells, poorly survived the procedure compared with wild-type recipients. Excess mortality in P/E?/? mice, after a lethal dose of irradiation, was likely caused by a defect of HPC homing. Indeed, we observed that the recruitment of HPC to the BM was reduced in P/E?/? animals, either splenectomized or spleen-intact. Homing into the BM of P/E?/? recipient mice was further compromised when a function-blocking VCAM-1 antibody was administered. Circulating HPC, 14 hr after transplantation, were greatly increased in P/E?/? mice treated with anti-VCAM-1 compared with P/E?/? mice treated with just IgG or wild-type mice treated with either anti-VCAM-1 or IgG. Our results indicate that endothelial selectins play an important role in HPC homing to the BM. Optimal recruitment of HPC after lethal doses of irradiation requires the combined action of both selectins and VCAM-1 expressed on endothelium of the BM. PMID:9826716

  3. Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibit insulitis and onset of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Heidenthal, E; Schulte, B; Rothe, H; Kolb, H

    1998-11-01

    Increased concentration of circulating adhesion molecules in human serum have been described in different immune-mediated diseases. Recently, we proposed an immunomodulatory function of soluble forms of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) during the pathogenesis of human Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. To test this hypothesis in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a spontaneous animal model for human Type I diabetes, two recombinant forms of soluble murine ICAM-1 were generated, one monomeric soluble ICAM-1 containing all five extracellular Ig-like domains of ICAM-1 (rICAM-1) and one dimeric protein with the N-terminal extracellular domains fused to the constant regions of murine IgG2a (rICAM-1-Ig). Beginning at age 35 days prediabetic NOD mice received i. p. injections of 5 microg recombinant ICAM-1-proteins three times a week for 4.5 months. At day 170 diabetes development was reduced (p < 0.001) in NOD mice receiving rICAM-1 (8%) or rICAM-1-Ig (8%) treatment in comparison with sham treated animals (45%). After termination of therapy animals treated with multimeric rICAM-1-Ig were protected longer than animals treated with rICAM-1. Prevention of diabetes was associated with decreased infiltration of pancreatic islets by mononuclear cells. A selective downregulation of Th1-type cytokine expression was observed in a second set of experiments in which diabetes development was synchronised by cyclophosphamide. These data support the hypothesis that circulating forms of adhesion molecules have an immunomodulatory function and can intervene in islet inflammation. PMID:9833936

  4. Adulthood-onset celiac disease is associated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Abel, Michal; Cellier, Christophe; Kumar, Neeraj; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Schmitz, Jacques; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2006-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by gluten-triggered villous atrophy and malabsorption. Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes are strong susceptibility factors, non-HLA genes likely contribute to most of CD predisposition. The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene is a good candidate for CD predisposition because its encoded protein acts as an adhesion and costimulatory receptor. Two single-base polymorphisms (G/A in exon 4 encoding G241R, and A/G in exon 6 encoding K469E) were analyzed in 180 French Caucasian CD case patients (110 patients diagnosed before the age of 15 and 70 patients after the age of 18), and 212 French Caucasian healthy controls. The R241 allele frequency was increased in CD case patients compared with controls (14.2% vs. 5.4% respectively, p = 0.000015, odds ratio [OR] for the R241 allele = 2.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.7-4.8). After stratifying for age of disease onset, the R241 variant mainly conferred predisposition to CD occurring during adulthood (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.3-7.5, Pc = 0.000004 for adulthood-onset CD vs. R = 2.1, 95%, CI = 1.2-3.9, Pc = 0.0047 for childhood-onset CD). Position 241 of ICAM-1 maps to the binding site for the integrin Mac-1 and might modify the strength of interaction between endothelium and immune cells. If confirmed in independent datasets, these results may be of importance in at-risk individuals to distinguish rapid from delayed progression to clinical CD. PMID:16916657

  5. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  6. Association of serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 with migraine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengzhi; He, Qiu; Ren, Zhanxiu; Li, Fuyong; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xiang; Zhang, Hemin; Tai, Guofeng

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the associations of serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) with migraine and migraine subtypes, and to study their correlation with each other in this condition. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum levels of ICAM1 and IL-6 in 103 migraine patients with and without aura, in both attack and pain-free periods, and in 100 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of ICAM1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in migraine patients during attacks than in controls (p < 0.05). Serum ICAM1 levels were significantly higher in migraine with aura (MA) than in migraine without aura (MO), (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between serum levels of ICAM1 and IL-6 (p < 0.05) in migraine patients during attacks. Our results indicate that ICAM1 and IL-6 are involved in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks, possibly via an interactive mechanism. PMID:25417066

  7. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward ?-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of ?-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  8. Escherichia coli induces transuroepithelial neutrophil migration by an intercellular adhesion molecule-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Agace, W W; Patarroyo, M; Svensson, M; Carlemalm, E; Svanborg, C

    1995-01-01

    During bacterial infections at mucosal sites, neutrophils migrate to the mucosa and cross the epithelial barrier. We have examined neutrophil migration across Escherichia coli-stimulated uroepithelial cell layers in an attempt to more fully understand this process. Stimulation of uroepithelial cells with E. coli or interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) induced transepithelial neutrophil migration in a time- and stimulant dose-dependent manner. Uroepithelial cell lines and nontransformed uroepithelial cells expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not ICAM-2, E-selectin, or P-selectin. Epithelial ICAM-1 expression was enhanced after stimulation with E. coli or IL-1 alpha. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced transepithelial neutrophil migration by 61 to 85%, indicating that neutrophils bound ICAM-1 on the epithelial surface. Antibodies to CD18 and CD11b reduced migration by 70 to 79%, suggesting that CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) was acting as the neutrophil receptor for ICAM-1 in this process. Anti-CD11a antibodies had no effect on neutrophil migration. In conclusion, E. coli induced ICAM-1- and Mac-1-dependent transepithelial neutrophil migration. Previous studies have shown that urinary tract epithelial cells secrete IL-8 when exposed to E. coli or IL-1 alpha. These observations suggest that epithelial cells play an active role in neutrophil migration during urinary tract infections. PMID:7558319

  9. Increased Osteoclastogenesis in Mice Lacking the Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Anke; Seitz, Sebastian; Schulze, Jochen; Ito, Wulf D.; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten; Horst, Andrea Kristina; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in bone remodeling are a major public health issue, as therapeutic options for widespread bone disorders such as osteoporosis and tumor-induced osteolysis are still limited. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the regulatory mechanism governing bone cell differentiation in health and disease are of utmost clinical importance. Here we report a novel function of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in inflammation and tumorigenesis, in the physiologic regulation of bone remodeling. Assessing the expression of all members of the murine Ceacam family in bone tissue and marrow, we found CEACAM1 and CEACAM10 to be differentially expressed in both bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. While Ceacam10-deficient mice displayed no alteration in structural bone parameters, static histomorphometry demonstrated a reduced trabecular bone mass in mice lacking CEACAM1. Furthermore, cellular and dynamic histomorphometry revealed an increased osteoclast formation in Ceacam1-deficient mice, while osteoblast parameters and the bone formation rate remained unchanged. In line with these findings, we detected accelerated osteoclastogenesis in Ceacam1-deficient bone marrow cells, while osteoblast differentiation, as determined by mineralization and alkaline phosphatase assays, was not affected. Therefore, our results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a physiologic role of CEACAM1 in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25490771

  10. Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Torres, Rogil Jose; Luchini, Andrea; do Rocio de Almeida Torres, Regiane; de Oliveira, Luciano Rodrigo Silva; de Almeida Torres, Caroline Luzia; de Almeida Torres, Robson Antonio; Olandoski, Marcia; Nagashima, Seigo; de Noronha, Lucia; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. RESULTS: Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera and choroid morphometry showed a significant increase in thickness in comparison to GI and GIII. GIII presented a significant increase in thickness in relation to GI. Sclera and choroid immunohistochemical analysis for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in GII in relation to GI and GIII. GIII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in relation to GI. CONCLUSION: Candesartan reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and consequently macrophage accumulation in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:24519206

  11. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in rat heart with ischemia/reperfusion and limitation of infarct size by treatment with antibodies against cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, T.; Seko, Y.; Tamatani, T.; Miyasaka, M.; Yagita, H.; Okumura, K.; Nagai, R.; Yazaki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of myocardial reperfusion injury, we investigated the roles of cell adhesion molecules on both leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells in the reperfused myocardia. We found that within 2 hours after reperfusion leukocytes began to infiltrate into the rat myocardia subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and clarified, for the first time, that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was enhanced on the capillary and venous endothelial cells from 8 to 96 hours after the start of reperfusion. Furthermore, pretreatment with individual monoclonal antibodies against cell adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11bc, CD18, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) reduced not only the infiltration of leukocytes but also the area of infarction in the reperfused hearts. These observations suggest that cell adhesion molecules play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8102030

  12. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-directed immunotargeting to cardiopulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud; Rome, Jonathan J; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Watkins, Simon C; Harshaw, David Winslow; Alder, Sean; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Haut, Elliott; Murciano, Juan-Carlos; Nakada, Marian; Albelda, Steven M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2002-03-01

    Therapeutic molecules conjugated with antibodies to the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) accumulate in the pulmonary endothelium after i.v. injection in mice. In this study, we characterized PECAM-directed targeting to the lung and heart after local versus systemic intravascular administration in a large animal model, pigs. Radiolabel tracing showed that 1 h post-i.v. injection, 35% of anti-PECAM versus 2.5% of control IgG had accumulated in the lungs. Infusion of anti-PECAM via a catheter placed in the right pulmonary artery (RPA) resulted in a 3-fold elevation of the uptake in the right lower lobe and 2-fold reduction of uptake in the left lobes in the lung. Cardiac uptake of anti-PECAM was negligible after i.v. and RPA infusion. In contrast, delivery with a catheter placed in the right coronary artery (RCA) resulted in a 4-fold elevation of cardiac uptake of anti-PECAM, but not IgG, compared with i.v. injection. To estimate the targeting of an active reporter enzyme, streptavidin-conjugated beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) was coupled to anti-PECAM or IgG (anti-PECAM/beta-Gal and IgG/beta-Gal) and injected into the RCA. Beta-Gal activity was markedly elevated in the heart and lungs (5- and 25-fold increased, respectively) after injection of anti-PECAM/beta-Gal, but not IgG/beta-Gal. Image analysis confirmed endothelial targeting of anti-PECAM/beta-Gal in the heart and lung. In summary, anti-PECAM antibody conjugates deliver agents to the pulmonary endothelium regardless of injection route, whereas local arterial infusion permits targeting to the cardiac vasculature. This paradigm may be useful for drug targeting to endothelium in lungs, heart, and possibly other organs. PMID:11861781

  13. Expression of intercellular adhesive molecule-1 in liver cancer tissues andliver cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Xin-Da; Zhou, Ge; Liu, Yin-Kun

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between intercellular adhesive molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and liver cancer metastasis and to search for factors to predict metastasis of liver cancer. METHODS: ICAM-1 expression in fresh tissues of normal liver and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) was examined by immunoperoxidase staining. The expression of ICAM-1 in human hepatoma, tumor surrounding tissues and normal livers were semiquantitatively analyzed by Dot immuno blot. Tissue ICAM-1 expression at mRNA level was detected by Northern blot. RESULTS: All 6 cases of normal liver samples were negative in anti-ICAM-1 immunohistochemical staining, 80.0% (36/45) of HCC presented various ICAM-1 expression. The number of positive cells was a little higher in large tumors, tumors with intact capsule and metastasis, but there was no significant difference. Two cases with cancer embolus also had high ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 concentration in HCC (13.43 0.09) was higher than that in tumor surrounding tissues (5.89 0.17, P < 0.01) and normal livers (4.27 0.21, P < 0.01). It was also higher in metastasis group (20.24 0.30) than in nonmetastasis group (10.23 0.12, P < 0.05). Northern blot analysis revealed that ICAM-1 expression at mRNA level was also higher in HCC and cancer embolus than that in tumor surrounding tissues and normal livers. CONCLUSION: Tissue ICAM-1 could indicate the growth and metastasis of HCC, and may be an index that can predict liver cancer metastasis. PMID:11819275

  14. Impact of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Coronary Artery Disease Susceptibility in Taiwanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Hung; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Liu, Yu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The principal pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is coronary artery atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel walls of the coronary artery. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) displays an important role in the development of the inflammation reaction and atherosclerosis. Few studies report the association of ICAM-1 genetic polymorphisms with CAD in Taiwanese subjects. Therefore, we conducted a study to associate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM-1, rs5491, rs5498, rs281432 and rs3093030 with CAD. Five hundred and twenty-five male and female subjects, who received elective coronary angiography in Taiwan Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, were recruited to determine four ICAM-1 SNPs by real time-polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. The relationships among ICAM-1 SNPs, haplotypes, demographic and characteristics and CAD were analyzed. This study showed that rs281432 (C8823G) was the only ICAM-1 SNP which affect the development of CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 CC/CG [p=0.016; odds ratio (OR): 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.56], male gender (p=0.018; OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51), aspirin use in the past 7 days (p=0.001; OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33-3.14), hypertension (p<0.001; OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42-3.25), serum cardiac troponin I elevation (p<0.001; OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.47-3.24) and severe angina in recent 24 hours (p=0.001; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31- 2.95) increase the risk of CAD. In conclusion, ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 is an independent factor to predict the development of CAD. ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 homozygotic mutant GG can reduce the susceptibility to the CAD in Taiwanese subjects. PMID:26078712

  15. Role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LAIFANG; DING, YANJIE; GUO, XIAQING; ZHAO, QING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and twenty patients with RA who had been admitted to the Huaihe Hospital of Henan University between January and December 2013 were enrolled in the study as the observation group, while, in the corresponding period, 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. The serum levels of VCAM-1 and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using ELISA. The patients underwent conventional treatment and their serum VCAM-1 and RF levels were detected at different time-points to determine their correlation. The observation group exhibited significantly higher serum VCAM-1 and RF levels than the control group (P<0.01). Twenty-four hours after treatment, the serum VCAM-1 levels of the patients peaked (1,269.47±128.76 µg/l); 36 h after treatment, the serum RF levels peaked (34.42±8.45 U/ml); 1 month after treatment, the VCAM-1 and serum RF levels of the patients were lower than those prior to treatment (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant, positive correlation between the serum VCAM-1 and RF levels in the patients with RA (r=0.852, P<0.01). In conclusion, the serum VCAM-1 levels of patients with RA increased and subsequently decreased as the condition was relieved, which could possibly be associated with the autoimmune and inflammatory reactions found in RA. Serum VCAM-1 levels can therefore reflect the disease condition and curative effects of treatment. PMID:26622470

  16. Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Plays a Key Role in Acquired Immunity to Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Simon; Goldin, Robert; Hale, Christine; Aspinall, Richard; Simmons, Cameron; Mastroeni, Pietro; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of mice. We show that ICAM-1 is expressed in and around granulomas on day 4 of infection in wild-type mice. However, when naive ICAM-1?/? mice were challenged with a sublethal dose of serovar Typhimurium, there were no detectable differences in systemic bacterial burden over the first 9 days of infection compared to wild-type control mice. When mice were immunized with the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL2361 and then challenged with the virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain C5, 100% of the ICAM-1?/? mice succumbed to infection, compared to 30% of wild-type mice. T-cell responses, as measured by activation via interleukin-2 production, as well as antibody responses were comparable in the ICAM-1?/? and wild-type mice. Following challenge, counts in organs were significantly higher in the ICAM-1?/? mice, and histological examination of organs showed pathological differences. Strain SL3261-immunized wild-type mice had cellular infiltrate and normal granuloma formation in the liver and spleen on days 5 and 10 after challenge with strain C5. ICAM-1?/? mice had a similar infiltrate on day 5, whereas on day 10 the infiltrate was more widespread and there were fewer macrophages associated with the granulomas. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon, as well as a high burden of strain C5 in the blood, accompanied the differences in histopathology. In this study we show that ICAM-1 plays a critical role during rechallenge of immunized mice with virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:14500509

  17. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  18. High level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 affects prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Peng-Peng; Yuan, Sheng-Guang; Liao, Yan; Qin, Li-Ling; Liao, Wei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the cut-off value of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and assess the correlation of ICAM-1 with clinicopathological features and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent surgical resection. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinicopathological data from 236 HCC patients who had undergone successful hepatectomy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cut-off value of ICAM-1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the concentration of ICAM-1 in 236 serum samples isolated from HCC patients and the stratified analysis was used to compare the serum level of ICAM-1 in different HCC subgroups. Immunohistochemistry was performed to test the expression level of the ICAM-1 protein in 76 cases of HCC tissues and their adjacent normal liver tissues (ANLT). The survival probability of HCC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots and differences between the groups were obtained using the log-rank test. Furthermore, independent indicators of the prognosis were acquired using a stepwise Cox proportional hazard model to analyze a series of predictors that were associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in HCC patients. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that ICAM-1 promotes HCC metastasis and high serum ICAM-1 is significantly associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (P = 0.022), clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage (P < 0.001), portal vein tumor thrombus (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.016) and recurrence (P = 0.034). We further detected the ICAM-1 protein in HCC specimens and found that 56 of 76 (73.7%) HCC tissues had ICAM-1 positive staining while only 23 of 76 (30.3%) ANLT were positively stained (P < 0.0001). Survival analysis indicated that HCC patients with increased ICAM-1 concentrations had significantly shorter DFS and OS after resection. A multivariate analysis showed that ICAM-1 > 684 ng/mL was an independent factor for DFS (HR = 1.643; 95%CI: 1.125-2.401; P = 0.010) and OS (HR = 1.692; 95%CI: 1.152-2.486; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: ICAM-1 may be a promising serological biomarker for HCC diagnosis and an independent predictor of DFS and OS after surgical resection and may provide a useful reference for the prediction of intra- and extrahepatic metastasis. PMID:26109813

  19. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecules in human schistosomiasis: correlations with disease severity and decreased responsiveness to egg antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Secor, W E; dos Reis, M G; Ramos, E A; Matos, E P; Reis, E A; do Carmo, T M; Harn, D A

    1994-01-01

    Granuloma formation, the principal pathologic consequence of infection with Schistosoma mansoni, is a complex process involving intricate cell-cell interactions in which intercellular adhesion molecules are likely to participate. To examine this possibility, sera of schistosomiasis patients in various clinical groups were assayed for the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin). Comparisons were made between groups with different infection intensities (as predicted by fecal egg count) as well as between groups with severe (hepatosplenic) or milder (intestinal) pathology. All groups had elevated levels of sICAM-1 compared with controls. Also, patients in the high egg-excreting and hepatosplenic groups had significantly higher levels of serum sICAM-1 than patients in the low-egg-excreting and intestinal groups, respectively. The levels of sE-selectin were significantly elevated in the sera of all patients except those in the hepatosplenic group compared with controls. Patients in the intestinal group had significantly higher levels of sE-selectin in their sera than did hepatosplenic group patients, but serum sE-selectin levels of high- and low-egg-excreting patients were comparable. A striking finding of this study was the inverse correlation observed between sICAM-1 levels and peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to schistosome soluble egg antigens (SEA) but not with responses to other schistosome antigens, purified protein derivative, or mitogen. Because ICAM-1 can perform a costimulatory function in antigen-presenting cell-T cell interactions, it is possible that shedding of ICAM-1 in the granuloma microenvironment interrupts proper costimulation, leading to unresponsive SEA-specific T cells. In this way, sICAM-1 could be one factor contributing to the observed modulation of cellular responses to SEA in chronic human schistosomiasis. PMID:7516309

  1. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  2. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule and Endogenous NOS Inhibitor: Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Poniedziałek-Czajkowska, Elżbieta; Mierzyński, Radzisław; Szymula, Dariusz; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) and endogenous NOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), as markers of endothelium dysfunction in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and Methods. The levels of s-ICAM-1 and ADMA were analysed in the group of 56 patients with GDM and compared to 25 healthy pregnant women. The concentrations of s-ICAM-1 and ADMA were measured in serum using ELISA tests. Results. The groups did not differ by baseline descriptors: age (30.75 ± 6.32 versus 28.50 ± 4.95 years, NS) and gestational age (28.96 ± 2.85 versus 29.12 ± 2.96 hbd, NS). The patients with GDM were more obese (BMI 27.93 ± 7.02 versus 22.34 ± 4.21 kg/m2, p = 0.032) and had higher concentration of C-reactive protein (6.46 ± 6.03 versus 3.18 ± 3.83 mg/L, p = 0.029). In the GDM group the level of ADMA was lower (0.38 ± 0.17 versus 0.60 ± 0.28 μmol/L, p = 0.001) and the level of s-ICAM-1 was significantly higher (289.95 ± 118.12 versus 232.56 ± 43.31 ng/mL, p = 0.036) compared to controls. Conclusions. The pregnant women with GDM are characterized by higher concentration of s-ICAM-1 that reflects the activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The decreased ADMA level in GDM patients seems to be preventive in the limitation of NO synthesis caused by the impaired insulin action and the endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26981539

  3. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1: recent findings and new concepts involved in mammalian spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D.; Xiao, Xiang; Lydka, Marta; Li, Michelle W.M.; Bilinska, Barbara; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, the process of spermatozoa production, is regulated by several endocrine factors, including testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol 17?. For spermatogenesis to reach completion, developing germ cells must traverse the seminiferous epithelium while remaining transiently attached to Sertoli cells. If germ cell adhesion were to be compromised for a period of time longer than usual, germ cells would slough the seminiferous epithelium and infertility would result. Presently, Sertoli-germ cell adhesion is known to be mediated largely by classical and desmosomal cadherins. More recent studies, however, have begun to expand long-standing concepts and to examine the roles of other proteins such as intercellular adhesion molecules. In this review, we focus on the biology of intercellular adhesion molecules in the mammalian testis, hoping that this information is useful in the design of future studies. PMID:23942142

  4. Dual role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating cell adhesion mediated by the integrin lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Lub, M; van Kooyk, Y; van Vliet, S J; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular signals are required to activate the leukocyte-specific adhesion receptor lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) to bind its ligand, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In this study, we investigated the role of the cytoskeleton in LFA-1 activation and demonstrate that filamentous actin (F-actin) can both enhance and inhibit LFA-1-mediated adhesion, depending on the distribution of LFA-1 on the cell surface. We observed that LFA-1 is already clustered on the cell surface of interleukin-2/phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes. These cells bind strongly ICAM-1 and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton inhibits adhesion. In contrast to interleukin-2/phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, resting lymphocytes, which display a homogenous cell surface distribution of LFA-1, respond poorly to intracellular signals to bind ICAM-1, unless the actin cytoskeleton is disrupted. On resting peripheral blood lymphocytes, uncoupling of LFA-1 from the actin cytoskeleton induces clustering of LFA-1 and this, along with induction of a high-affinity form of LFA-1, via "inside-out" signaling, results in enhanced binding to ICAM-1, which is dependent on intact intermediate filaments, microtubules, and metabolic energy. We hypothesize that linkage of LFA-1 to cytoskeletal elements prevents movement of LFA-1 over the cell surface, thus inhibiting clustering and strong ligand binding. Release from these cytoskeletal elements allows lateral movement and activation of LFA-1, resulting in ligand binding and "outside-in" signaling, that subsequently stimulates actin polymerization and stabilizes cell adhesion. Images PMID:9190212

  5. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 16071638. PMID:21050132

  6. S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bind to primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells but do not induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, B; Placzek, M; Doehn, C; Hacker, J; Schmidt, G; Wasenauer, G; Daha, M R; van der Woude, F J; Sack, K

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported an increase of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by renal carcinoma cells in response to S fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Now we demonstrate that E. coli expressing S and P fimbriae strongly binds to human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, in primary and simian virus 40-transfected renal tubular epithelial cells S fimbriae do not enhance the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. PMID:7622256

  7. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  8. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in autoimmune liver disease and evidence for the production of ICAM-1 by cytokine-stimulated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A W; Satoh, S; Nssler, A K; Tamura, K; Woo, J; Gavaler, J; van Thiel, D H

    1994-01-01

    A circulating form of the membrane-bound ICAM-1 (CD54), a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), has recently been identified in normal human serum. In this study, serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) were determined by sandwich ELISA both in normal healthy individuals of both sexes and in subjects with autoimmune liver diseases. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis and chronic active hepatitis (autoimmune) showed significant elevations in sICAM-1 compared with normal healthy subjects. The median level in PBC was approximately seven-fold above normal. Significant elevations in sICAM-1 were also detected, however, in patients with inactive alcoholic cirrhosis, suggesting that impaired liver clearance might at least in part account for the increased serum levels seen in patients with autoimmune liver disease. In patients with PBC, sICAM-1 levels were related to summary assessment of disease severity (Child-Pugh classification) and correlated significantly with serum biochemical indices of liver function, including measures both of cholestasis and liver cell injury. In contrast, serum levels of E-selectin did not differ significantly from healthy controls. Although it has been suggested that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may be a source of sICAM-1, investigation of ICAM-1 gene expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed similar basal levels of ICAM-1 message in PBMC of normal individuals and those with active PBC. This suggests that PBMC may not be a significant source of sICAM-1 in this disease. Similar increases in ICAM-1 mRNA expression were found in cultured, concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes of both PBC patients and controls. Significantly, stimulation of cultured, normal human hepatocytes with proinflammatory cytokines and endotoxin induced cell surface expression of ICAM-1 and the secretion/shedding of sICAM-1 into the hepatocyte culture medium. This new finding suggests that hepatocytes may be an important source of sICAM-1 in autoimmune and other chronic liver diseases. The possible role of sICAM-1 in inflammatory disorders remains to be determined. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7904546

  9. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  10. Structural organization and function of mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses involve the immunoglobulin protein synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Adema; Liu, Xinran; Crair, Michael C; Biederer, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the CNS, which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We show here by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7) but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Furthermore, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice, and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses. PMID:23982969

  11. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Goring, Harald H.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Mahaney, Michael C.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Glahn, David C.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) with incident T2D. Methods Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indexes. Results Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment—insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. The results were similar in women in reproductive age group and the remainder of the cohort. Inclusion of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in predictive models significantly improved reclassification and discrimination. The majority of these results were seen even when the analyses were restricted to NGT individuals. Conclusion Serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 independently and additively predict future T2D and represent important candidate biomarkers of T2D. PMID:27007680

  12. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 is expressed and as a function histotype in ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yang, Jing-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Tao; Guan, Bing-Xin; Zhou, Cheng-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell-cell adhesion receptor and is implicated in several cellular functions. It is rarely reported in ovarian tumors. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of CEACAM1 in ovarian tumors, trying to see whether CEACAM1 has different expression patterns as a function of histotype. Antigen expression was examined by immunohistochemistry with mouse anti-human antibody for CEACAM1. Immunohistochemistry was performed using avidin-biotin-diaminobenzide staining. The results were expressed as average score SD (0, negative; 8, highest) for each histotype. In ovarian tumors, the benign serous and mucinous cystadenoma negatively or weakly expressed CEACAM1, the malignant epithelial tumors strongly expressed CEACAM1, and there was significant difference between benign epithelial tumor and adenocarcinoma (P < .05). The well-differentiated serous adenocarcinoma expressed CEACAM1 mainly with membrane pattern, and the intermediately and poorly differentiated serous adenocarcinomas expressed CEACAM1 mainly with cytoplasmic pattern (P < .05). In addition, CEACAM1 expression is elevated in solid tumors of ovary but variable as a function of histotype. Compared with membranous expression, the cytoplasmic expression was observed almost in metastatic carcinoma that might decrease the adhesive interactions of the carcinoma cells with the surrounding cells, especially with tumor cells, and this could facilitate the tumor cells to metastasize to distant regions. So, we thought that cytoplasmic CEACAM1 might play an important role in tumor progression, especially in tumor metastasis. PMID:26653024

  14. Constitutive expression of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells of hematopoietic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, K. M.; Drger, A. M.; van der Valk, P.; Thijsen, S. F.; Zevenbergen, A.; Theijsmeijer, A. P.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Langenhuijsen, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    The first step in the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from the peripheral blood to the bone marrow involves an adhesion molecule-dependent contact with human bone marrow endothelial cells (HBMECs). In the present study we describe the constitutive expression of two of these molecules, E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), on endothelial cells of hematopoietic tissues. Immunophenotypic analysis of tissue sections of hematopoietically active (human adult and fetal bone marrow, fetal spleen, fetal liver, and adult spleen with extramedullary hematopoiesis) and inactive tissues (human adult spleen, lymph node, appendix, and liver; and fetal lung and fetal intestine) revealed that E-selectin and VCAM-1 are selectively expressed on endothelial cells of adult and fetal hematopoietic organs. These results were validated by means of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Adhesion studies revealed that binding of normal mobilized peripheral blood HPCs to HBMECs was completely inhibited by preincubation of HBMECs with anti-E-selectin (ENA2), whereas no effect of anti-VCAM-1 (1G11B1) was detected. These results suggest that E-selectin plays a role in the homing of HPCs and that its constitutive expression on endothelial cells of hematopoietic organs may be essential in the initial step of the homing process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546203

  15. Optimal selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes during inflammation in vivo requires intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Steeber, Douglas A.; Campbell, Matthew A.; Basit, Abdul; Ley, Klaus; Tedder, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    Leukocyte interactions with vascular endothelium during inflammation occur through discrete steps involving selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling and subsequent firm adhesion mediated by members of the integrin and Ig families of adhesion molecules. To identify functional synergy between selectin and Ig family members, mice deficient in both L-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were generated. Leukocyte rolling velocities in cremaster muscle venules were increased significantly in ICAM-1-deficient mice during both trauma- and tumor necrosis factor ?-induced inflammation, but rolling leukocyte flux was not reduced. Elimination of ICAM-1 expression in L-selectin-deficient mice resulted in a sharp reduction in the flux of rolling leukocytes during tumor necrosis factor ?-induced inflammation. The observed differences in leukocyte rolling behavior demonstrated that ICAM-1 expression was required for optimal P- and L-selectin-mediated rolling. Increased leukocyte rolling velocities presumably translated into decreased tissue emigration because circulating neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte numbers were increased markedly in L-selectin/ICAM-1-deficient mice. Furthermore, neutrophil emigration during acute peritonitis was reduced by 80% in the double-deficient mice compared with either L-selectin or ICAM-1-deficient mice. Thus, members of the selectin and Ig families function synergistically to mediate optimal leukocyte rolling in vivo, which is essential for the generation of effective inflammatory responses. PMID:9636189

  16. Organization, regulatory sequences, and alternatively spliced transcripts of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, S.O.; Mei, C.; Butcher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is expressed selectively at venular sites of lymphocyte extravasation into mucosal lymphoid tissues and lamina propria, where it directs local lymphocyte trafficking. MAdCAM-1 is a multifunctional type I transmembrane adhesion molecule comprising two distal Ig domains involved in {alpha}4{beta}7 integrin binding, a mucin-like region able to display L-selectin-binding carbohydrates, and a membrane-proximal Ig domain homologous to IgA. We show in this work that the MAdCAM-1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and contains five exons. The signal peptide and each one of the three Ig domains are encoded by a distinct exon, whereas the transmembrane, cytoplasmic tail, and 3{prime}-untranslated region of MAdCAM-1 are combined on a single exon. The mucin-like region and the third Ig domain are encoded together on exon 4. An alternatively spliced MAdCAM-1 mRNA is identified that lacks the mucin/IgA-homologous exon 4-encoded sequences. This short variant of MAdCAM-1 may be specialized to support {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesion strengthening, independent of carbohydrate-presenting function. Sequences 5{prime} of the transcription start site include tandem nuclear factor-KB sites; AP-1, AP-2, and signal peptide-1 binding sites; and an estrogen response element. Our findings reinforce the correspondence between the multidomain structure and versatile functions of this vascular addressin, and suggest an additional level of regulation of carbohydrate-presenting capability, and thus of its importance in lectin-mediated vs. {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesive events in lymphocyte trafficking. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Emiko; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Nagai, Kei; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Shibuya, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation contributes considerably to immune responses, such as host protection and allergy. Cell surface immunoreceptors expressed on MCs play an important role in MC activation. Although various immunoreceptors on MCs have been identified, the regulatory mechanism of MC activation is not fully understood. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of MC activation, we used gene expression analyses of human and mouse MCs to identify a novel immunoreceptor expressed on MCs. We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice. However, Tie2 was not detected on the cell surface of the mouse MCs of the peritoneal cavity, ear skin, or colon lamina propria. In contrast, it was expressed on mouse bone marrow–derived MCs and bone marrow MC progenitors (BM-MCps). Stimulation of Tie2 by its ligand angiopoietin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 in MEDMC-BRC6, a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived mast cell line, and enhanced MEDMC-BRC6 and mouse BM-MCp adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 integrin. These results suggest that Tie2 signaling induces α4β1 integrin activation on BM-MCps for adhesion to VCAM-1. PMID:26659448

  18. SNPs in the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 gene (NCAM1) may be associated with human neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Kristen L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Etchevers, Heather C.; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Siegel, Deborah G.; Graham, Felicia L.; Slifer, Susan H.; Enterline, David S.; George, Timothy M.; Vekemans, Michel; McClay, David; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.; Linney, Elwood; Gilbert, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 births; both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. To date, no major genetic risk factors have been identified. Throughout development, cell adhesion molecules are strongly implicated in cellcell interactions, and may play a role in the formation and closure of the neural tube. To evaluate the role of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) in risk of human NTDs, we screened for novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene. Eleven SNPs across NCAM1 were genotyped using TaqMan. We utilized a family-based approach to evaluate evidence for association and/or linkage disequilibrium. We evaluated American Caucasian simplex lumbosacral myelomeningocele families (n=132 families) using the family based association test (FBAT) and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Association analysis revealed a significant association between risk for NTDs and intronic SNP rs2298526 using both the FBAT test (P=0.0018) and the PDT (P=0.0025). Using the HBAT version of the FBAT to look for haplotype association, all pairwise comparisons with SNP rs2298526 were also significant. A replication study set, consisting of 72 additional families showed no significant association; however, the overall trend for overtransmission of the less common allele of SNP rs2298526 remained significant in the combined sample set. In addition, we analyzed the expression pattern of the NCAM1 protein in human embryos, and while NCAM1 is not expressed within the neural tube at the time of closure, it is expressed in the surrounding and later in differentiated neurons of the CNS. These results suggest variations in NCAM1 may influence risk for human NTDs. PMID:15883837

  19. Association between the Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and the Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Case-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingjiang; Xin, Yu; Chen, Yanjun; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an important immune adhesion molecule, is related to the atherosclerosis. We explored the association between the polymorphisms of the ICAM-1 gene and coronary atherosclerotic stenosis to determine whether any risk factors correlate with genetic polymorphisms in Chinese patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Using the SNaPshot assay, we examined six SNPs of rs5491, rs281428, rs281432, rs5496, rs5498 and rs281437 in 604 patients diagnosed with coronary atherosclerotic stenosis by angiography and in 468 controls. We found that AG genotype of rs5498 had higher frequency in the coronary atherosclerotic stenosis patients (41.56% to 34.19%, P?=?0.017, OR?=?1.368,95%CI 1.0571.770) and that the haplotype Ars5491Crs281428Grs281432 had higher frequency in patients (13.8% to 12.1%, P?=?0.048). When analyzing the clinical risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, we found that the rs5498 locus was associated with the levels of apolipoprotein A (APOA) (P?=?0.0002) and triglycerides (TG) (P?=?0.002). Furthermore, the levels of triglycerides (TG) were also associated with rs281432 (P?=?0.040). Additionally, the TT genotype of rs281437 was associated with a higher level of apolipoprotein A (APOA) (P?=?0.039) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) (P?=?0.003). Finally, among those with coronary atherosclerosis, we found no differences in the haplotype analysis of polymorphisms of the ICAM-1 gene from individuals with hypertension or those who smoked. According to our results, the ICAM-1 polymorphisms were associated with risk of coronary atherosclerotic stenosis in Chinese individuals. PMID:25310099

  20. Involvement of interferon-gamma genetic variants and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in onset and progression of generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Laddha, Naresh C; Shah, Kriti; Shah, Bela J; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2013-11-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes and genetic variability due to intron 1 polymorphisms in IFNG has been reported to be associated with increased risk for several autoimmune diseases. The aim of present study was to determine whether intron 1 +874A/T (rs2430561) and CA microsatellite (rs3138557) polymorphisms in IFNG are associated with generalized vitiligo (GV) susceptibility and expression of IFNG and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) affects the disease onset and progression. Here we report that IFNG CA microsatellite but not +874A/T may be a genetic risk factor for GV; however, +874T allele plays a crucial role in increased expression of IFNG mRNA and protein levels which could affect the onset and progression of the disease. Active GV patients showed increased IFNG levels compared to stable GV patients. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that IFNG expression levels were higher in patients with +874 TT genotypes and 12 CA repeats. Patients with the early age of onset showed higher IFNG expression and female GV patients showed higher IFNG and ICAM1 expression implicating gender biasness and involvement of IFN-? in early onset of the disease. Moreover, the increased IFN-? levels in patients lead to increased ICAM1 expression, which could be a probable link between cytokines and T-cell involvement in pathogenesis of GV. PMID:23777204

  1. Involvement of Interferon-Gamma Genetic Variants and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Onset and Progression of Generalized Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Laddha, Naresh C.; Shah, Kriti; Shah, Bela J.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes and genetic variability due to intron 1 polymorphisms in IFNG has been reported to be associated with increased risk for several autoimmune diseases. The aim of present study was to determine whether intron 1 +874A/T (rs2430561) and CA microsatellite (rs3138557) polymorphisms in IFNG are associated with generalized vitiligo (GV) susceptibility and expression of IFNG and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) affects the disease onset and progression. Here we report that IFNG CA microsatellite but not +874A/T may be a genetic risk factor for GV; however, +874T allele plays a crucial role in increased expression of IFNG mRNA and protein levels which could affect the onset and progression of the disease. Active GV patients showed increased IFNG levels compared to stable GV patients. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that IFNG expression levels were higher in patients with +874 TT genotypes and 12 CA repeats. Patients with the early age of onset showed higher IFNG expression and female GV patients showed higher IFNG and ICAM1 expression implicating gender biasness and involvement of IFN-γ in early onset of the disease. Moreover, the increased IFN-γ levels in patients lead to increased ICAM1 expression, which could be a probable link between cytokines and T-cell involvement in pathogenesis of GV. PMID:23777204

  2. Downregulation of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 attenuates the metastatic ability in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Di, Dalin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Lina; Sun, Ping; Liu, Yanfei; Xu, Zhiwei; Ju, Jiyu

    2016-03-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in tumor cell expansion or metastasis. However, the detailed mechanisms of ICAM-1 in breast cancer remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression level of ICAM-1 in breast cancer using tissue microarray and clinical tissue specimens by immunohistochemical method, and the results revealed that ICAM-1 is highly expressed in the breast cancer tissues. To investigate whether ICAM-1 can affect the metastasis ability in breast cancer, we knocked down ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). As a result, we stably silenced ICAM-1 expression in MCF-7 cells by infection with lentivirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), the change of metastatic ability of MCF-7 cells was assessed by wound-healing assay, Transwell assay or clone formation assay. Our results showed that silencing of ICAM-1 can inhibit the metastatic ability of MCF-7 cell lines invitro significantly, and the decreased migration and invasion was accompanied by a reduction of MMP-14. These results implying that ICAM-1 might be involved in the progression of breast cancer metastasis and lentivirus-mediated silencing of ICAM-1 might be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26751847

  3. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Uterine Cervical Carcinogenesis in Taiwanese Women.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Liu, Yu-Fan; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Tzu-Fan; Wang, Po-Hui

    2016-03-01

    The association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) genetic polymorphisms with uterine cervical carcinogenesis has seldom been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of ICAM-1 with cervical tumorigenesis in Taiwanese women. Four hundred forty four women, including 91 with cervical invasive cancer, 63 with precancerous lesions, and 290 normal controls, were recruited. The genotypic distribution of 4 SNPs of ICAM-1, rs5498 (A1548G), rs5491 (K56M), rs281432 (C8823G), and rs3093030 (C-286T) was determined using real-time polymerase chain reactions and genotyping. Compared to homozygous wild CC, heterozygous CG, homozygous mutant GG, or genotypes with CG/GG display increased risks or a tendency of precancerous lesions or invasive cancer with strong power in rs281432. The homozygotic mutant alleles TT in rs3093030 and homozygotic mutant alleles GG in rs5498 were associated with a higher risk of invasive cancer and precancerous lesions, respectively, but with lower power. The CG/TA/TG haplotypes of ICAM-1 SNPs rs3093030 and rs5498 exhibited a tendency to increase susceptibility to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. In conclusion, Taiwanese women with ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 and haplotypes CG/TA/TG of rs3093030 and rs5498 are associated with uterine cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:26377999

  4. Accumulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in senile plaques in brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, M. M.; Otte-Höller, I.; Westphal, J. R.; Wesseling, P.; Ruiter, D. J.; de Waal, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The still unsolved pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of extensive speculation. Some years ago, a local acute phase reaction involving production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 was proposed as the triggering event in AD. Since it has been reported that these cytokines induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we analyzed AD brain tissue cryosections for the presence of ICAM-1 by immunostaining and for ICAM-2 expression as a control. In senile plaques a marked diffuse or granular staining for the ICAM-1 domains 1, 4, and 5 was observed, whereas ICAM-2 expression was observed in microglial cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the presence of a 85 kd ICAM-1 molecule in AD frontal cortex. Our findings indicate that ICAM-1 accumulates in senile plaques as a complete 5-domain molecule at a relatively early stage of senile plaque formation. Our results are in support of a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of senile plaque formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7904796

  5. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hnes, Felix M.; Messerer, David A. C.; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2?h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ? 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4?h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction. PMID:26556956

  6. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Soluble Cell Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Santella, Regina M.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Verret, Wendy J.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of cardiovascular disease risk factors and appropriate biomarkers in populations exposed to a wide range of arsenic levels are a public health research priority. Objective We investigated the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), both markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation, in an arsenic-exposed population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods The study participants included 115 individuals with arsenic-related skin lesions participating in a 2 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Arsenic exposure status and plasma levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Results Baseline well arsenic, a long-term measure of arsenic exposure, was positively associated with baseline levels of both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and with changes in the two markers over time. At baseline, for every 1-?g/L increase in well arsenic there was an increase of 0.10 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.000.20] and 0.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.150.51) in plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, respectively. Every 1-?g/L increase in well arsenic was associated with a rise of 0.11 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.010.22) and 0.17 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.000.35) in sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 from baseline to follow-up, respectively, in spite of recent changes in urinary arsenic as well as vitamin E and selenium supplementation during the study period. Conclusions The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation that persists over time and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:17938729

  7. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.45 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients. PMID:26796270

  8. Effects of a thrombomodulin-derived peptide on monocyte adhesion and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Xu, Xun; Yang, Xiaolu; Gu, Qing; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been documented that GC31, a 31-animo acid peptide from human thrombomodulin, has potent anti-inflammatory properties in endotoxin-induced uveitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, while the role of GC31 in the endothelial cells has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of GC31 on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in LPS-activated endothelial cells. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with LPS (1 ?g/ml) and peptide GC31 or control peptide VP30 simultaneously. ICAM-1 messenger RNA and protein levels were evaluated with real-time PCR and western blot. The adhesion of U937 cells labeled with CM-H2DCFDA to HUVECs was examined with ?uorescence microscope. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (I?B?) degradation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) nuclear translocation were detected with western blot. Results Upon LPS stimulation, GC31 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs and remarkably reduced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GC31 significantly inhibited the degradation of I?B? and nuclear translocation of NF-?B and moderately blocked the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in activated HUVECs. Conclusions Our results suggested that GC31 suppressed LPS-mediated ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B and partially by attenuating the activity of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in vascular endothelium, which may contribute to ameliorating vascular inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis. PMID:23401649

  9. Immunologic changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in pediatric patients treated for psoriasis with the Goeckerman regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.; Andrys, C.; Vokurkova, D.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Ettler, K.

    2007-11-15

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is often manifested during childhood. The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1 decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Keratinocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression precedes dermal T lymphocytic infiltration in allergic contact dermatitis (Rhus dermatitis).

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, C. E.; Nickoloff, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of small molecules such as urushiol, present as a wax on the poison ivy leaf surface, to cause allergic contact dermatitis (rhus dermatitis) has fascinated immunologists for decades. Current dogma suggests that these epicutaneously applied catechol-containing molecules serve as haptens to conjugate with larger proteins via reactive o-quinone intermediates. These complexes are then recognized as foreign antigens by the immune system and elicit a hypersensitivity reaction. Phorbol ester can directly induce cultured keratinocyte (KC) intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression via a protein kinase C (PK-C)-dependent mechanism. As urushiol is also a known PK-C agonist, we asked if topical application of a poison ivy/oak mixture could directly induce epidermal KC ICAM-1 expression. During the pre-erythematous phase of this reaction (4 to 20 hours), epidermal KCs expressed ICAM-1; this "initiation phase" preceded the appearance of activated memory T lymphocytes in the papillary dermis, and thus appeared to be nonlymphokine mediated. A near-contiguous cellular-adhesion molecular network was identified by ICAM-1 staining of basal KCs, dermal dendrocytes, and endothelial cells. During the second 24-hour period with the onset of erythema and edema, there was an "amplification phase" of more intense KC ICAM-1 expression coupled with relatively weak KC HLA-DR expression that coincided with dermal and epidermal T-cell infiltration. This suggests the presence of lymphokines, such as gamma interferon, during the amplification phase because of KC HLA-DR expression. On cultured KCs, urushiol directly induced ICAM-1 expression but not HLA-DR. Thus, in addition to functioning as an antigenic hapten, urushiol directly induces KC ICAM-1 expression. The KC ICAM-1 expression may then alter the dynamic trafficking of memory T cells in the epidermis, so as to initiate cutaneous inflammation in a nonantigen specific manner. This initiation phase is followed by T-cell infiltration and consequent lymphokine production that significantly amplifies the original stimulus. Thus much can still be learned about the molecular pathophysiology of this common type of cutaneous inflammation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2574536

  11. Keratinocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression precedes dermal T lymphocytic infiltration in allergic contact dermatitis (Rhus dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C E; Nickoloff, B J

    1989-12-01

    The ability of small molecules such as urushiol, present as a wax on the poison ivy leaf surface, to cause allergic contact dermatitis (rhus dermatitis) has fascinated immunologists for decades. Current dogma suggests that these epicutaneously applied catechol-containing molecules serve as haptens to conjugate with larger proteins via reactive o-quinone intermediates. These complexes are then recognized as foreign antigens by the immune system and elicit a hypersensitivity reaction. Phorbol ester can directly induce cultured keratinocyte (KC) intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression via a protein kinase C (PK-C)-dependent mechanism. As urushiol is also a known PK-C agonist, we asked if topical application of a poison ivy/oak mixture could directly induce epidermal KC ICAM-1 expression. During the pre-erythematous phase of this reaction (4 to 20 hours), epidermal KCs expressed ICAM-1; this "initiation phase" preceded the appearance of activated memory T lymphocytes in the papillary dermis, and thus appeared to be nonlymphokine mediated. A near-contiguous cellular-adhesion molecular network was identified by ICAM-1 staining of basal KCs, dermal dendrocytes, and endothelial cells. During the second 24-hour period with the onset of erythema and edema, there was an "amplification phase" of more intense KC ICAM-1 expression coupled with relatively weak KC HLA-DR expression that coincided with dermal and epidermal T-cell infiltration. This suggests the presence of lymphokines, such as gamma interferon, during the amplification phase because of KC HLA-DR expression. On cultured KCs, urushiol directly induced ICAM-1 expression but not HLA-DR. Thus, in addition to functioning as an antigenic hapten, urushiol directly induces KC ICAM-1 expression. The KC ICAM-1 expression may then alter the dynamic trafficking of memory T cells in the epidermis, so as to initiate cutaneous inflammation in a nonantigen specific manner. This initiation phase is followed by T-cell infiltration and consequent lymphokine production that significantly amplifies the original stimulus. Thus much can still be learned about the molecular pathophysiology of this common type of cutaneous inflammation. PMID:2574536

  12. Differential Associations between CDH13 Genotypes, Adiponectin Levels, and Circulating Levels of Cellular Adhesive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsu, Lung-An; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    CDH13 gene variants with lower adiponectin levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable metabolic profile. We investigated the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels by examining 12 circulating inflammation marker levels and adiposity status in 530 Han Chinese people in Taiwan. After adjustments for clinical covariates, adiponectin levels were positively associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1) levels and negatively associated with adiposity status and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1). In addition, minor alleles of the CDH13 rs12051272 polymorphism were found to have lower adiponectin levels and higher CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM1, and sVCAM1 levels as well as higher body mass indices and waist circumferences in participants (all P < 0.05). In a subgroup analysis stratified by sex, significant associations between CDH13 genotypes and sE-selectin levels occurred only in men (P = 3.9 10?4 and interaction P = 0.005). CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels are associated with circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules and adiposity status in a differential manner that interacts with sex. These results provide further evidence for the crucial role of adiponectin levels and CDH13 gene variants in immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26600672

  13. In vivo MR imaging of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blezer, Erwin L A; Deddens, Lisette H; Kooij, Gijs; Drexhage, Joost; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Reijerkerk, Arie; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; de Vries, Helga E

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an early event in lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Monitoring its expression may provide a biomarker for early disease activity and allow validation of anti-inflammatory interventions. Our objective was therefore to explore whether ICAM-1 expression can be visualized in vivo during EAE with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO), and to compare accumulation profiles of targeted and untargeted MPIO, and a gadolinium-containing agent. Targeted ?ICAM-1-MPIO/untargeted IgG-MPIO were injected at two model-characteristic phases of EAE (in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 -immunized C57BL/6?J mice), that is, at the peak of the acute phase (14??1?days post-immunization) and during the chronic phase (26??1?days post-immunization), followed by T2 *-weighted MRI. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was measured using gadobutrol-enhanced MRI. Cerebellar microvessels were analyzed for ICAM-1 mRNA expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR). ICAM-1 and iron oxide presence was examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC). During EAE, ICAM-1 was expressed by brain endothelial cells, macrophages and T-cells as shown with qPCR and (fluorescent) IHC. EAE animals injected with ?ICAM-1-MPIO showed MRI hypointensities, particularly in the subarachnoid space. ?ICAM-1-MPIO presence did not differ between the phases of EAE and was not associated with BBB dysfunction. ?ICAM-1-MPIO were associated with endothelial cells or cells located at the luminal side of blood vessels. In conclusion, ICAM-1 expression can be visualized with in vivo molecular MRI during EAE, and provides an early tracer of disease activity. PMID:24753465

  14. Up-regulation of intestinal nuclear factor kappa B and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Chun-Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Wei-Qin; Yin, Hong-Xia

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) regulates a large number of genes involved in the inflammatory response to critical illnesses, but it is not known if and how NF-?B is activated and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressed in the gut following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of current study was to investigate the temporal pattern of intestinal NF-?B activation and ICAM-1 expression following TBI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (6 rats in each group) including controls with sham operation and TBI groups at hours 3, 12, 24, and 72, and on d 7. Parietal brain contusion was adopted using weight-dropping method. All rats were decapitated at corresponding time point and mid-jejunum samples were taken. NF-?B binding activity in jejunal tissue was measured using EMSA. Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of ICAM-1 expression in jejunal samples. RESULTS: There was a very low NF-?B binding activity and little ICAM-1 expression in the gut of control rats after sham surgery. NF-?B binding activity in jejunum significantly increased by 160% at 3 h following TBI (P<0.05 vs control), peaked at 72 h (500% increase) and remained elevated on d 7 post-injury by 390% increase. Compared to controls, ICAM-1 was significantly up-regulated on the endothelia of microvessels in villous interstitium and lamina propria by 24 h following TBI and maximally expressed at 72 h post-injury (P<0.001). The endothelial ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in jejunal mucosa still remained strong on d 7 post-injury. The peak of NF-?B activation and endothelial ICAM-1 expression coincided in time with the period during which secondary mucosal injury of the gut was also at their culmination following TBI. CONCLUSION: TBI could induce an immediate and persistent up-regulation of NF-?B activity and subsequent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in the intestine. Inflammatory response mediated by increased NF-?B activation and ICAM-1 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute gut mucosal injury following TBI. PMID:15754395

  15. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-?. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10?g/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-?, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation. PMID:24728914

  16. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.10.5 ?M), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (15 ?M), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (150 ?M), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. PMID:26608360

  17. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-12-31

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10-100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1-0.5 ?M), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1-5 ?M), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1-50 ?M), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. PMID:26608360

  18. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  19. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of acute vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyte, Lisa C; Brooks, Keith J; Nagel, Simon; Akhtar, Asim; Chen, Ruoli; Mardiguian, Sylvie; McAteer, Martina A; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Buchan, Alastair M; Sibson, Nicola R

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of stroke is multifactorial, and inflammation is thought to have a critical function in lesion progression at early time points. Detection of inflammatory processes associated with cerebral ischemia would be greatly beneficial in both designing individual therapeutic strategies and monitoring outcome. We have recently developed a new approach to imaging components of the inflammatory response, namely endovascular adhesion molecule expression on the brain endothelium. In this study, we show specific imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and a reduction in this inflammatory response, associated with improved behavioral outcome, as a result of preconditioning. The spatial extent of VCAM-1 expression is considerably greater than the detectable lesion using diffusion-weighted imaging (25% versus 3% total brain volume), which is generally taken to reflect the core of the lesion at early time points. Thus, VCAM-1 imaging seems to reveal both core and penumbral regions, and our data implicate VCAM-1 upregulation and associated inflammatory processes in the progression of penumbral tissue to infarction. Our findings indicate that such molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches could be important clinical tools for patient evaluation, acute monitoring of therapy, and design of specific treatment strategies. PMID:20087364

  20. Interaction between integrin alpha9beta1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) inhibits neutrophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ewan A; Douglas, Mike R; Wong, See Heng; Ross, Emma J; Curnow, S John; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, Ed; Scheel-Toellner, Dagmar; Lord, Janet M; Salmon, Mike; Buckley, Christopher D

    2006-02-01

    According to the prevailing paradigm, neutrophils are short-lived cells that undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 24 hours of their release from the bone marrow. However, neutrophil survival can be significantly prolonged within inflamed tissue by cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and hypoxia. During screening experiments aimed at identifying the effect of the adhesive microenvironment on neutrophil survival, we found that VCAM-1 (CD106) was able to delay both spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis. VCAM-1-mediated survival was as efficient as that induced by the cytokine IFN-beta and provided an additive, increased delay in apoptosis when given in combination with IFN-beta. VCAM-1 delivered its antiapoptotic effect through binding the integrin alpha9beta1. The alpha9beta1 signaling pathway shares significant features with the IFN-beta survival signaling pathway, requiring PI3 kinase, NF-kappaB activation, as well as de novo protein synthesis, but the kinetics of NF-kappaB activation by VCAM-1 were slower and more sustained compared with IFN-beta. This study demonstrates a novel functional role for alpha9beta1 in neutrophil biology and suggests that adhesive signaling pathways provide an important extrinsic checkpoint for the resolution of inflammatory responses in tissues. PMID:16223772

  1. Gene expression profiling of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1+ high endothelial venule cells (HEV) and identification of a leucine-rich HEV glycoprotein as a HEV marker.

    PubMed

    Saito, Koichi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kanda, Hidenobu; Ebisuno, Yukihiko; Izawa, Dai; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kosaku; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2002-02-01

    High endothelial venule (HEV) cells support lymphocyte migration from the peripheral blood into secondary lymphoid tissues. Using gene expression profiling of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1(+) mesenteric lymph node HEV cells by quantitative 3'-cDNA collection, we have identified a leucine-rich protein, named leucine-rich HEV glycoprotein (LRHG) that is selectively expressed in these cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that LRHG mRNA is approximately 1.3 kb and is expressed in lymph nodes, liver, and heart. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the mRNA expression in lymph nodes is strictly restricted to the HEV cells, and immunofluorescence analysis with polyclonal Abs against LRHG indicated that the LRHG protein is localized mainly to HEV cells and possibly to some lymphoid cells surrounding the HEVs. LRHG cDNA encodes a 342-aa protein containing 8 tandem leucine-rich repeats of 24 aa each and has high homology to human leucine-rich alpha(2)-glycoprotein. Similar to some other leucine-rich repeat protein family members, LRHG can bind extracellular matrix proteins that are expressed on the basal lamina of HEVs, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin. In addition, LRHG binds TGF-beta. These results suggest that LRHG is likely to be multifunctional in that it may capture TGF-beta and/or other related humoral factors to modulate cell adhesion locally and may also be involved in the adhesion of HEV cells to the surrounding basal lamina. PMID:11801638

  2. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble adhesion molecules as possible prognostic markers of the efficacy of antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Panasiuk, Anatol; Prokopowicz, Danuta; Panasiuk, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explain the role of Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and soluble adhesion molecules in chronic hepatitis C during the treatment of interferon alpha (IFN? ) 2 b and ribavirin (RBV). METHODS: Concentrations of MCP-1, soluble adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sP-selectin, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL10 in serum were estimated in the group of 40 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with IFNalpha2 b and RBV in 0, 16, 32, 48 wk of the therapy. RESULTS: In chronic hepatitis C, before and during the treatment, the serum levels of MCP-1 and sP-selectin in responders were similar to those of healthy subjects. In non-responders (NR), MCP-1 increased in the course of IFN? + RBV treatment, differences were statistically significant as compared to responders. MCP-1 correlated statistically with the activity of periportal inflammation (r = 0.35, P < 0.05) but not with staging of liver fibrosis. sICAM-1 positively correlated with inflammatory activity and fibrosis in NR. sP-selectin did not correlate with histological findings in the liver. The MCP-1 correlated with the soluble form of sP-selectin concentrations (r = 6, P < 0.001) and with IL-10 level in NR (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). There was no correlation observed between the concentration of MCP-1 and sICAM-1, IL-6 during the treatment. CONCLUSION: MCP-1 concentration may be a prognostic marker of the efficacy of IFN + RBV therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:15534921

  3. Dileucine and PDZ-binding Motifs Mediate Synaptic Adhesion-like Molecule 1 (SALM1) Trafficking in Hippocampal Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Seabold, Gail K.; Wang, Philip Y.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Chang, Kai; Zhou, Arthur; McDermott, Mark I.; Wang, Ya-Xian; Milgram, Sharon L.; Wenthold, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALMs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules involved in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Of the five family members, only SALM1, -2, and -3 contain a cytoplasmic C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We have found that SALM1 is unique among the SALMs because deletion of its PDZ-binding motif (SALM1?PDZ) blocks its surface expression in heterologous cells. When expressed in hippocampal neurons, SALM1?PDZ had decreased surface expression in dendrites and the cell soma but not in axons, suggesting that the PDZ-binding domain may influence cellular trafficking of SALMs to specific neuronal locations. Endoglycosidase H digestion assays indicated that SALM1?PDZ is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in heterologous cells. However, when the entire C-terminal tail of SALM1 was deleted, SALM1 was detected on the cell surface. Using serial deletions, we identified a region of SALM1 that contains a putative dileucine ER retention motif, which is not present in the other SALMs. Mutation of this DXXXLL motif allowed SALM1 to leave the ER and enhanced its surface expression in heterologous cells and neurons. An increase in the number of protrusions at the dendrites and cell body was observed when this SALM1 mutant was expressed in hippocampal neurons. With electron microscopy, these protrusions appeared to be irregular, enlarged spines and filopodia. Thus, enrichment of SALM1 on the cell surface affects dendritic arborization, and intracellular motifs regulate its dendritic versus axonal localization. PMID:22174418

  4. Dileucine and PDZ-binding motifs mediate synaptic adhesion-like molecule 1 (SALM1) trafficking in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Seabold, Gail K; Wang, Philip Y; Petralia, Ronald S; Chang, Kai; Zhou, Arthur; McDermott, Mark I; Wang, Ya-Xian; Milgram, Sharon L; Wenthold, Robert J

    2012-02-10

    Synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALMs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules involved in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Of the five family members, only SALM1, -2, and -3 contain a cytoplasmic C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We have found that SALM1 is unique among the SALMs because deletion of its PDZ-binding motif (SALM1?PDZ) blocks its surface expression in heterologous cells. When expressed in hippocampal neurons, SALM1?PDZ had decreased surface expression in dendrites and the cell soma but not in axons, suggesting that the PDZ-binding domain may influence cellular trafficking of SALMs to specific neuronal locations. Endoglycosidase H digestion assays indicated that SALM1?PDZ is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in heterologous cells. However, when the entire C-terminal tail of SALM1 was deleted, SALM1 was detected on the cell surface. Using serial deletions, we identified a region of SALM1 that contains a putative dileucine ER retention motif, which is not present in the other SALMs. Mutation of this DXXXLL motif allowed SALM1 to leave the ER and enhanced its surface expression in heterologous cells and neurons. An increase in the number of protrusions at the dendrites and cell body was observed when this SALM1 mutant was expressed in hippocampal neurons. With electron microscopy, these protrusions appeared to be irregular, enlarged spines and filopodia. Thus, enrichment of SALM1 on the cell surface affects dendritic arborization, and intracellular motifs regulate its dendritic versus axonal localization. PMID:22174418

  5. Emergent roles for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the restructuring of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis in the mammal.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is comprised of a series of molecular, cellular, and morphological events that underscore the movement of developing germ cells across the blood-testis barrier. These events involve the restructuring of tight junctions, basal ectoplasmic specializations, gap junctions, and desmosomes, which constitute blood-testis barrier function. Previous studies show that preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier while transiently trapped within an intermediate compartment, which sequesters primary spermatocytes away from basal and adluminal compartments of the seminiferous epithelium. Preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes enter the adluminal compartment when stable junctions ahead of spermatocytes disassemble, while new junctions assemble behind them. While there is enormous restructuring of the seminiferous epithelium, the mechanism of germ cell movement is incompletely understood. In this perspective, the significance of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the restructuring of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis in the mammal is discussed. PMID:26419651

  6. Induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) on human hepatoma cell line HepG2: influence of cytokines and hepatitis B virus-DNA transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Volpes, R; van den Oord, J J; Desmet, V J; Yap, S H

    1992-01-01

    Human hepatocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (CD54) was studied in vitro by exposing the well differentiated human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 to various cytokines. In addition, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA transfected HepG2 cells were also analysed. Expression of ICAM-1 on HepG2 cells was then revealed with an immunohistochemical procedure. Untreated HepG2 cells were unreactive, but showed strong cytoplasmic ICAM-1 immunoreactivity after treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This induction was completely inhibited by addition of a neutralizing antibody directed to IFN-gamma. IL-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IFN-alpha, used alone or in combination, did not induce ICAM-1 expression, neither did they inhibit the IFN-gamma-induced expression of this adhesion molecule on HepG2 cells. Untreated hepatitis B virus-DNA transfected HepG2 cells expressed membranous ICAM-1. These results indicate that IFN-gamma is the main cytokine trigger for ICAM-1 expression on HepG2 cells, suggesting that in areas of liver inflammation this adhesion molecule is up-regulated on hepatocytes by locally released IFN-gamma. In addition, expression of ICAM-1 by hepatitis B virus-DNA transfected HepG2 cells suggests other, still unknown, triggering mechanisms in the induction of such adhesion molecules, for instance gene activation by viral genome, or autocrine virus-induced hepatocellular cytokine production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1346374

  7. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates TNF-?-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thichanpiang, Peeradech; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrates anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG has been shown to protect retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) against oxidative stress-induced cell death. The pathogenesis of diseases in the retina is usually initiated by local inflammation at the RPE cell layer, and inflammation is mostly associated with leukocyte migration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether EGCG can modulate the cytokine-induced inflammatory response of RPE, particularly leukocyte migration, has not been clearly elucidated, and was therefore the objective of this study. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with different concentrations of TNF-? in the presence or absence of EGCG to different time points. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and phosphor-NF-?B and I?B expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Phosphor-NF-?B nuclear translocation and monocyte-RPE adhesion were investigated using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to further determine the ultrastructure of monocyte-RPE adhesion. The results demonstrated that TNF-? modulated inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 by induction of ROS and up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, TNF-?-induced phosphor-NF-?B nuclear translocation, increased phosphor-NF-?B expression and I?B degradation, and increased the degree of monocyte-RPE adhesion. Pretreating the cells with EGCG ameliorated the inflammatory effects of TNF-?. The results indicated that EGCG significantly exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 cells, partly as a suppressor of TNF-? signaling and that the inhibition was mediated via the NF-?B pathway. PMID:25644976

  8. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNF?-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-?B activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-?-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-?B transcription factor activation in TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-?B activation in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:21213354

  9. Change in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus in gerbils fed a folate-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Won, Moo Ho

    2008-02-01

    Folate deficiency increases stroke risk. We examined whether folate deficiency affects platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), which is an immunoglobulin-associated cell adhesion molecule and mediates the final common pathway of neutrophil transendothelial migration, in blood vessels in the gerbil dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia. Gerbils were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to common carotid artery occlusion for 5 min. In the control diet (CD)- and FAD-treated sham-operated groups, weak PECAM-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the blood vessels located in the dentate gyrus. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in both groups was increased by 4 days after ischemic insult. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in the FAD-treated group was twice as high that in the CD-treated-sham-operated group 4 days after ischemic insult. Western blot analyses showed that the change patterns in PECAM-1 protein levels in the dentate gyrus in both groups after ischemic insult were similar to changes in PECAM-1 immunohistochemistry in the ischemic dentate gyrus. Our results suggest that folate deficiency enhances PECAM-1 in the dentate gyrus induced by transient ischemia. PMID:18850227

  10. FRET Based Quantification and Screening Technology Platform for the Interactions of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) with InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, Mara Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple in solution steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.931.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  11. Characterization and functional analysis of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human papillomavirus-related disease of cervical keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, N.; Greenfield, I. M.; Hare, J.; Kruger-Gray, H.; Chain, B. M.; Stanley, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in squamous neoplasia of the cervix and have noted a significant induction of the molecule in high-grade intra-epithelial lesions. Using monolayer and organotypic in vitro tissue culture systems, we have shown that there is no constitutive ICAM-1 expression on cervical keratinocytes immortalized but not transformed by human papillomavirus type 16, whereas two human papillomaviruses type 16 containing and fully transformed cervical keratinocyte lines do constitutively express the molecule. All cell types, including human papillomavirus-negative normal cervical keratinocytes, can be induced to up-regulate their expression of ICAM-1 by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. In addition, we have used an in vitro adhesion assay to show that ICAM-1:lymphocyte function antigen-1 interaction is functionally important in lymphocyte binding to cervical keratinocytes, suggesting a role for ICAM-1 in retaining and enabling functional activity of lymphocytes in the cervix in intraepithelial neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:8102029

  12. Calcium mobilization and Rac1 activation are required for VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Mills, Joan M; Johnson, Jacob D; Deem, Tracy L; Ochi, Atsuo; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yi

    2004-01-01

    VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation in atherosclerosis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and transplantation. VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, and this oxidase activity is required for VCAM-1-dependent lymphocyte migration. We reported previously that a mouse microvascular endothelial cell line promotes lymphocyte migration that is dependent on VCAM-1, but not on other known adhesion molecules. Here we have investigated the signalling mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 function. Lymphocyte binding to VCAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface activated an endothelial cell calcium flux that could be inhibited with anti-alpha4-integrin and mimicked by anti-VCAM-1-coated beads. VCAM-1 stimulation of calcium responses could be blocked by an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, a calcium channel inhibitor or a calcium chelator, resulting in the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Addition of ionomycin overcame the calcium channel blocker suppression of VCAM-1-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity, but could not reverse the inhibitory effect imposed by intracellular calcium blockage, indicating that both intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization are required for VCAM-1-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, VCAM-1 specifically activated the Rho-family GTPase Rac1, and VCAM-1 activation of NADPH oxidase was blocked by a dominant negative Rac1. Thus VCAM-1 stimulates the mobilization of intracellular and extracellular calcium and Rac1 activity that are required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:14594451

  13. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  14. Allergen-stimulated T lymphocytes from allergic patients induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and IL-6 production by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Delneste, Y; Jeannin, P; Gosset, P; Lassalle, P; Cardot, E; Tillie-Leblond, I; Joseph, M; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelium is a critical step for their transvascular migration to inflammatory sites. To evaluate the relationship between T lymphocytes (TL) and vascular endothelium, supernatants from allergen-stimulated TL obtained from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) versus healthy subjects were added to endothelial cell (EC) cultures. TL were stimulated by autologous-activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) previously fixed in paraformaldehyde to prevent monokine secretion. Two parameters were measured: the expression of adhesion molecule and the production of IL-6. Related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic patients induced an increase of VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression when supernatants of the control groups (TL exposed to an unrelated allergen or not stimulated or TL obtained from healthy subjects) did not. E-selectin expression was not modulated whatever the supernatant added to EC culture. IL-6 production by EC was significantly enhanced after activation with related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergics compared with control supernatants. Induction of VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by adding neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, whereas IL-6 production and ICAM-1 expression were inhibited by anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) antibodies. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma was detected in related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic subjects compared with the different supernatants. These data suggest that allergen-specific TL present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients are of Th1 and Th2 subtypes. Their stimulation in allergic patients may lead to the activation of endothelial cells and thereby participate in leucocyte recruitment towards the inflammatory site. PMID:7542574

  15. Effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on levels of adhesion molecules in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Ruprecht, Zofia; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Gadomska, Grażyna; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled diabetes has become a major cause of mortality and morbidity by reason of vascular angiopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble forms of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), E-selectin, and thrombomodulin in patients with well-controlled and uncontrolled diabetes type 2. Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 35 patients with well-controlled diabetes. The second group included 27 patients with uncontrolled diabetes with micro-albuminuria. A control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and soluble thrombomodulin were assayed in plasma. Serum concentration of creatinine was measured and the plasma concentrations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) determined. Results: Lower concentrations of ICAM-1 were found in the group of uncontrolled diabetes patients compared with those with well-controlled disease. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher compared with the group with well-controlled diabetes. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes a positive correlation was obtained between glomerular filtration rate and sE-selectin and a negative correlation between the levels of creatinine and ICAM-1, although there was a positive correlation between (HbA1c) and ICAM-1. Conclusions: The study confirmed the participation of the inflammatory process associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The opposite effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on adhesion molecules suggests different functions of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in complications of diabetes. PMID:25990052

  16. Modulation of human leukocyte antigen and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression in malignant and nonmalignant human thyroid cells by cytokines in the context of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Kraiem, Z; Sobel, E; Lider, O; Lahat, N

    2000-11-01

    Interactions between malignant cells and their environment are achieved via cell-surface receptors and adhesion molecules. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-bound cytokines modulate the expression of cell-surface molecules on target malignant cells, which may lead to changes in their susceptibility to cytolysis, in their ability to present antigens, and in the induction of local immune-cell activation and patrol. Eventually, these alterations may culminate in either the destruction, or escape and proliferation, of the tumor. We studied the effects of the ECM and its components in a "naive" form or following binding of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I, HLA class-II (HLA-DR), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on nonmalignant and malignant thyroid cells. The basal expression of HLA class-I molecules was not significantly changed either by naive ECM and its components or by ECM-bound cytokines. ECM synergized with IFNgamma and TNFalpha in inducing HLA-DR molecules on nonmalignant and malignant thyrocytes, with higher HLA-DR levels on the malignant cells. The laminin component, in particular, synergized with IFNgamma. Basal ICAM-1 expression on nonneoplastic cells was not significantly affected by the cytokines when grown in the absence of ECM, but was significantly upregulated when cells were cultured on ECM. In contrast, in malignant thyrocyte cultures, ECM significantly attenuated IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-mediated enhancement of ICAM-1 expression. We concluded that signals derived from ECM-embedded cytokines participate in the regulation of key thyroid cell surface molecules and, thus, may affect the final outcome of human thyroid malignancies. PMID:11128721

  17. A comparative study of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Farzadnia, Mehdi; Hasan-Zade, Maliheh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the level of serum level of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in preeclampsia and to compare normal pregnant, mild preeclamptic, and severe preeclamptic women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and hsCRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant (n = 40), mild preeclamptic (n = 37), and severe preeclamptic women (n = 38). A concentration of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hsCRP was measured with immunoturbidometric. Results There was significant difference in the means serum hsCRP between normal pregnant women and mild preeclamptic women (P < 0.05). Serum concentration of hsCRP and sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia (P < 0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hsCRP and sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean sVCAM-1 between normal pregnant and mild preeclamptic women. Conclusion We have determined the serum concentration of VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. sVCAM-1 is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, and hsCRP is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. PMID:24265885

  18. The Interaction Affinity between Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) Analyzed by Quantitative FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Han; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), a member of integrin superfamily, interacts with its major counter ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and immunological synapse formation. However, irregular expressions of these proteins may also lead to several autoimmune diseases and metastasis cancer. Thus, quantifying the interaction affinity of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction is of fundamental importance in further understanding the nature of this interaction and drug discovery. In this study, we report an in solution steady state organic fluorophore based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to quantify this interaction in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd). We have used, in our FRET assay, the Alexa Fluor 488-VLA-4 conjugate as the donor, and Alexa Fluor 546-VCAM-1 as the acceptor. From the FRET signal analysis, Kd of this interaction was determined to be 41.82 2.36 nM. To further confirm our estimation, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to obtain Kd = 39.60 1.78 nM, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by FRET. This is the first reported work which applies organic fluorophore based in solution simple quantitative FRET assay to obtain the dissociation constant of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction, and is also the first quantification of this interaction. Moreover, the value of Kd can serve as an indicator of abnormal protein-protein interactions; hence, this assay can potentially be further developed into a drug screening platform of VLA-4/VCAM-1 as well as other protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25793408

  19. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Implications for the mode of progression of advanced coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, K D; Allen, M D; McDonald, T O; Chait, A; Harlan, J M; Fishbein, D; McCarty, J; Ferguson, M; Hudkins, K; Benjamin, C D

    1993-01-01

    Endothelial attachment is the initial step in leukocyte recruitment into developing atherosclerotic lesions. To determine whether vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression may play a role in inflammatory cell recruitment into human atherosclerotic lesions, immunohistochemistry was performed with a polyclonal rabbit antisera, raised against recombinant human VCAM-1, on 24 atherosclerotic coronary plaques and 11 control coronary segments with nonatherosclerotic diffuse intimal thickening from 10 patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on adjacent sections to identify smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. To confirm VCAM-1-expressing cell types, double immunostaining with VCAM-1 antisera and each of the cell-specific markers and in situ hybridization were performed. All atherosclerotic plaques contained some VCAM-1, compared to 45% of control segments. VCAM-1 was found infrequently on endothelial cells at the arterial lumen din both plaques (21%) and in control segments (27%), but was prevalent in areas of neovascularization and inflammatory infiltrate in the base of plaques. Double immunostaining and in situ hybridization confirmed that most VCAM-1 was expressed by subsets of plaque smooth muscle cells and macrophages. The results document the presence of VCAM-1 in human atherosclerosis, demonstrate VCAM-1 expression by human smooth muscle cells in vivo, and suggest that intimal neovasculature may be an important site of inflammatory cell recruitment into advanced coronary lesions. Images PMID:7688768

  20. EOLA1 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Association with MT2A in ECV304 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weiling; Lei, Xiaotian; Meng, Hao; Ouyang, Xinshou; Liang, Ziwen

    2015-01-01

    Our research group firstly discovered endothelial-overexpressed lipopolysaccharide-associated factor 1 (EOLA1, GenBank number AY074889) as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsive gene in ECV304 cells. The previous studies have further demonstrated the association of EOLA1 with metallothionein 2A (MT2A), while the role of EOLA1 during LPS-induced inflammatory response in ECV304 cells is unknown. In this report, we determined the subcellular localization of EOLA1 and the regulatory capacity of EOLA1 on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in response to LPS in ECV304 cells. Our results show that EOLA1 is broadly diffuse in the cells, and EOLA1 expression is dramatically induced by LPS. EOLA1 knockdown results in significant enhancement of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Consistent with this, overexpression of EOLA1 leads to the reduction of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Furthermore, MT2A knockdown reduces LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Collectively, our results demonstrate a negative regulatory role of EOLA1 on LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involving its association with MT2A in ECV304 cells. PMID:26881174

  1. Molecular cloning of a cell-surface glycoprotein that can potentially discriminate mesothelium from epithelium: its identification as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T.; Jiping, J.; Endo, R.; Gotoh, M.; Shimosato, Y.; Hirohashi, S.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been a practical problem for surgical pathologists to distinguish mesothelium from epithelium in order to make a positive diagnosis of mesothelioma. In this study, we developed a new monoclonal antibody, designated MS-2761 (IgG1, k), against cultured non-neoplastic mesothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry and slot-blot analysis revealed that this monoclonal antibody reacted with 100% (12/12) of benign and malignant mesothelioma tissues and a mesothelioma cell line, but not with 99% (77/78) of epithelial tumour tissues and 97% (33/34) of epithelial tumour cell lines. A gene encoding the cell-surface antigen defined by this monoclonal antibody was isolated from a mesothelial cell cDNA library constructed with a mammalian cell expression vector through transfection of Cos-7 cells and immunoselection by panning. DNA sequencing and a database search revealed that the gene was identical to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1, also referred to as INCAM110). The prominent VCAM1 transcript in mesothelium was 3.2 kb in size with seven Ig-like domains, in addition to a minor transcripts with six Ig-like domains. This monoclonal antibody potentially discriminates mesothelium from epithelium and may become a tool for differential diagnosis of mesothelioma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7533516

  2. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  3. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia. PMID:18335523

  4. Regulatory T-cell development and function are impaired in mice lacking membrane expression of full length intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Gottrand, Gaëlle; Courau, Tristan; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Prevel, Nicolas; Vazquez, Thomas; Ruocco, Maria Grazia; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Bellier, Bertrand; Colombo, Bruno M; Klatzmann, David

    2015-12-01

    To further investigate the contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to adaptive immune responses, we analysed T-cell development and function in mice lacking full-length ICAM-1 (ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) ). Compared with wild-type (ICAM-1(WT) ) mice, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have impaired thymocyte development. Proportions and numbers of double negative, double positive, mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes, as well as of regulatory T (Treg) cells were also significantly decreased. In the periphery, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice had significantly decreased proportions and numbers of naive and activated/memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, as well as of Treg cells, in lymph nodes but not in the spleen. In vitro activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice with anti-CD3 antibodies and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) resulted in a significantly weaker proliferation, whereas proliferation induced with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody-coated beads was normal. In vivo immunization of ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice resulted in normal generation of specific effector and memory immune responses that protect against a viral challenge. However, contrary to ICAM-1(WT) mice, immunization-induced specific effectors could not eradicate immunogen-expressing tumours. Treg cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have abnormal activation and proliferation induced by anti-CD3 antibody and APCs, and have markedly decreased suppressive activity in vitro. In contrast to ICAM-1(WT) mice, they were unable to control experimentally induced colitis in vivo. Hence, our results further highlight the pleiotropic role of ICAM-1 in T-cell-dependent immune responses, with a major role in Treg cell development and suppressive function. PMID:26370005

  5. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and impairs bio-scaffold-mediated bone regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Heng; Li, Xi-Mei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Ji-De; Tang, Bo; Sun, Hong-Guang; Chu, Ya-Nan; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor ?, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-?B pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-?B pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments. PMID:24702024

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and of PTC-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, KE; GE, SHU-JIAN; LIN, XIAO-YAN; LV, BEI-BEI; CAO, ZHI-XIN; LI, JIA-MEI; XU, JIA-WEN; WANG, QIANG-XIU

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is important in the progression of inflammatory responses. Recently, increased levels of ICAM-1 have been reported in a number of types of malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate ICAM-1 expression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with PTC-like nuclear alterations, and to assess the predictive value of ICAM-1 in thyroid lesions. ICAM-1 expression was retrospectively investigated in 132 consecutive cases of PTC, 72 cases of HT, 10 of follicular cancer, 15 of follicular adenoma, 16 of nodular goiter and 8 samples of normal thyroid tissue using immunohistochemical analyses, and in 42 PTC patients using western blotting. ICAM-1 expression was not detected in normal follicular cells, follicular lesions (adenoma and cancer) and benign nodular hyperplasia, but was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells. ICAM-1 overexpression was associated with extra-thyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis; no association was found with age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, pathological stage, recurrence or distant metastasis. ICAM-1 expression in HT patients with PTC-like nuclear alterations was significantly higher than that in HT cases with non-PTC-like features. Compared with antibodies against cytokeratin 19, galectin-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, ICAM-1 was the most sensitive marker for the detection of PTC-like features in HT. These findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in PTC and in HT with PTC-like nuclear alterations. This feature may be an important factor in the progression of cancer of the thyroid gland. PMID:26998068

  7. Induction of the proapoptotic tumor suppressor gene Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 by chemotherapeutic agents is repressed in therapy resistant acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fisser, Muriel C; Rommer, Anna; Steinleitner, Katarina; Heller, Gerwin; Herbst, Friederike; Wiese, Meike; Glimm, Hanno; Sill, Heinz; Wieser, Rotraud

    2015-12-01

    Even though a large proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve a complete remission upon initial therapy, the majority of them eventually relapse with resistant disease. Overexpression of the gene coding for the transcription factor Ecotropic Virus Integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with rapid disease recurrence and shortened survival. We therefore sought to identify EVI1 target genes that may play a role in chemotherapy resistance using a previously established in vitro model system for EVI1 positive myeloid malignancies. Gene expression microarray analyses uncovered the Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1) gene as a candidate whose deregulation by EVI1 may contribute to drug refractoriness. CADM1 is an apoptosis inducing tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated by methylation in a variety of tumor types. In the present study we provide evidence that it may play a role in chemotherapy induced cell death in AML: CADM1 was induced by drugs used in the treatment of AML in a human myeloid cell line and in primary diagnostic AML samples, and its experimental expression in a cell line model increased the proportion of apoptotic cells. CADM1 up-regulation was abolished by ectopic expression of EVI1, and EVI1 expression correlated with increased CADM1 promoter methylation both in a cell line model and in primary AML cells. Finally, CADM1 induction was repressed in primary samples from AML patients at relapse. In summary, these data suggest that failure to up-regulate CADM1 in response to chemotherapeutic drugs may contribute to therapy resistance in AML. 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25491945

  8. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Bio-Scaffold-Mediated Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen-Fen; Li, Xi-Mei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Ji-De; Tang, Bo; Sun, Hong-Guang; Chu, Ya-Nan; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Liu, Yuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor ?, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-?B pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-?B pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments. PMID:24702024

  9. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on synovial cells attenuated interleukin-6-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Hashizume, M; Yoshida, H; Shiina, M; Mihara, M

    2011-01-01

    In a co-culture of osteoclast precursor cells and synovial cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces osteoclast formation. In contrast, in a monoculture of osteoclast precursor cells, IL-6 directly suppresses receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells into osteoclasts. In the present study, we explored why the effect of IL-6 differed between the monoculture and the co-culture systems. In the monoculture, mouse osteoclast precursor cell line, RAW 264·7 (RAW) cells were cultured with soluble RANKL (sRANKL) for 24 h or 3 days. sRANKL increased both expression of osteoclastogenesis marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), whereas the co-addition of IL-6 decreased them both in a dose-dependent manner. In the co-culture, RAW cells and human synovial cell line, SW982 cells were cultured with IL-6 + soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) for 3 days. TRAP5b and NFATc1 expression reduced by IL-6 was increased by the addition of SW982 cells in a manner dependent upon the number of added cells. IL-6 + sIL-6R treatment significantly induced RANKL production in SW982 cells, and anti-RANKL antibody inhibited IL-6 + sIL-6R-induced osteoclastogenesis. SW982 cells expressed high levels of ICAM-1 originally, and ICAM-1 expression was increased significantly by IL-6 + sIL-6R. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody suppressed IL-6-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, in the monoculture system, addition of sICAM-1 dose-dependently restored the expression of TRAP5b reduced by IL-6. Similar results were obtained when the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nuclear cells were examined using mouse bone marrow cells. In conclusion, IL-6 gave different results in the co-culture and monoculture systems because in the co-culture, ICAM-1 from the synovial cells restored osteoclastogenesis suppressed by IL-6. PMID:21039424

  10. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) Is Elevated in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Kristina; Schnapp, Lynn M.; Liles, W. Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary vascular endothelial activation has been implicated in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), yet little is known about the presence and role of endothelial activation markers in the alveolar space in ARDS. We hypothesized that endothelial activation biomarkers would be differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with ARDS compared with healthy volunteers, and that biomarker concentrations would be associated with ARDS severity. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 26 intubated patients with ARDS undergoing evaluation for clinically suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia and five healthy volunteers. Patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage a median of five days after intubation. Healthy volunteers also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Endothelial activation biomarkers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1], soluble endothelial selectin [sESEL], angiopoietin-1 [Ang-1] and angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2]) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Clinically suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia was confirmed with microbiologic culture data. Results Patients with ARDS had significantly higher median sVCAM-1 concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with healthy volunteers (985 vs 119 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Additionally, there was a trend toward greater bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sVCAM-1 concentrations among patients with moderate/severe compared to mild ARDS (1395 vs 209 pg/mL, p = 0.06). We did not detect significant differences in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of sESEL, Ang-1 or Ang-2 between patients with ARDS and healthy volunteers. Median bronchoalveolar lavage fluid biomarker levels did not differ between patients with and without microbiologically-confirmed ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusions sVCAM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with ARDS compared to healthy controls, and tended to be higher in moderate/severe ARDS compared to mild ARDS. Our findings add to the growing evidence supporting the concept that endothelial activation plays an important mechanistic role in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Further studies are necessary to characterize the role and/or clinical significance of sVCAM-1 and other endothelial activation markers present in the alveolar space in ARDS. PMID:26919714

  11. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  12. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 mAb. Similarly, freshly isolated epithelial cells from inflamed human intestine bound to CD11b/CD18 in an ICAM-1-independent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ICAM-1 is strictly polarized in intestinal epithelia and does not represent a counterreceptor for neutrophil CD11b/CD18 during physiologically directed transmigration, but may facilitate apical membrane-PMN interactions after the arrival of PMN in the intestinal lumen. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8827719

  13. Arrangement of domains, and amino acid residues required for binding of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to its counter-receptor VLA-4 (alpha 4 beta 1)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) with its counter-receptor very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) (integrin alpha 4 beta 1) is important for a number of developmental pathways and inflammatory functions. We are investigating the molecular mechanism of this binding, in the interest of developing new anti-inflammatory drugs that block it. In a previous report, we showed that the predominant form of VCAM-1 on stimulated endothelial cells, seven-domain VCAM (VCAM-7D), is a functionally bivalent molecule. One binding site requires the first and the other requires the homologous immunoglobulin-like domain. Rotary shadowing and electron microscopy of recombinant soluble VCAM-7D molecules suggests that the seven Ig-like domains are extended in a slightly bent linear array, rather than compactly folded together. We have systematically mutagenized the first domain of VCAM-6D (a monovalent, alternately spliced version mission domain 4) by replacing 3-4 amino acids of the VCAM sequence with corresponding portions of the related ICAM-1 molecule. Specific amino acids, important for binding VLA-4 include aspartate 40 (D40), which corresponds to the acidic ICAM- 1 residue glutamate 34 (E34) previously reported to be essential for binding of ICAM-1 to its integrin counter-receptor LFA-1. A small region of VCAM including D40, QIDS, can be replaced by the similar ICAM- 1 sequence, GIET, without affecting function or epitopes, indicating that this region is part of a general integrin-binding structure rather than a determinant of binding specificity for a particular integrin. The VCAM-1 sequence G65NEH also appears to be involved in binding VLA-4. PMID:7508942

  14. Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV: A Predictor of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aldmiz-Echevarra, Teresa; Berenguer, Juan; Miralles, Pilar; Jimnez-Sousa, Mara A.; Carrero, Ana; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Dez, Cristina; Tejerina, Francisco; Prez-Latorre, Leire; Belln, Jos M.; Resino, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher serum levels of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) are associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. We assessed the relationship between serum levels of adhesion molecules and liver-related events (LRE) or death, in coinfected patients. Methods We studied clinical characteristics and outcomes of 182 coinfected patients with a baseline liver biopsy (58 with advanced fibrosis) and simultaneous plasma samples who were followed for median of 9 years. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimized cutoff values (OCV) of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, defined as the values with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for LRE. We used multivariate regression analysis to test the association between OCVs of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and outcomes. The variables for adjustment were age, HIV transmission category, liver fibrosis, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts, antiretroviral therapy, and sustained virologic response (SVR). Results During the study period 51 patients had SVR, 19 had LRE, and 16 died. The OCVs for LRE were 5.68 Log pg/mL for sICAM-1 and 6.25 Log pg/mL for sVCAM-1, respectively. The adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of death or LRE, whichever occurred first, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 > OCV were 3.98 ([1.14; 13.89], P = 0.030) and 2.81 ([1.10; 7.19], respectively (P = 0.030). Conclusions Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can serve as markers of outcome in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Therapies targeting necroinflammatory damage and fibrogenesis may have a role in the management chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26849641

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) attenuation of subchronic cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary neutrophilia is associated with retention of nuclear RelB and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Angela Rico; Zago, Michela; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoke is associated with chronic and enhanced pulmonary inflammation characterized by increased cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known to mediate toxic effects of manmade environmental contaminants, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of acute cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia by a mechanism involving the NF-?B protein RelB. Yet individuals who smoke often smoke for many years and vary in their cigarette consumption. As there is currently no information on the AhR prevention of lung inflammation, including neutrophilia, due to varied and prolonged exposure regimes, we exposed control and AhR(-/-) mice to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks (subchronic exposure) utilizing low and high exposure protocols and evaluated pulmonary inflammation. Subchronic cigarette smoke exposure significantly increased pulmonary neutrophilia dose-dependently in AhR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference between smoke-exposed AhR(+/-) and AhR(-/-) mice in the expression of cytokines associated with neutrophil recruitment. Expression of pulmonary intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an adhesion molecule involved in neutrophil migration and retention, was higher in pulmonary endothelial cells from AhR(-/-) mice. Although total lung RelB expression was increased by cigarette smoke, nuclear RelB was significantly lower in subchronically exposed AhR(-/-) mice. Inhibition of AhR activity by CH-223191 in endothelial cells potentiated ICAM-1 expression and prevented RelB nuclear translocation but had no effect on neutrophil adhesion. These data support that genetic absence of the AhR contributes to heightened pulmonary neutrophilia in response to ongoing cigarette smoke exposure. Interindividual variations in AhR expression may enhance the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced diseases. PMID:24752502

  16. Betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, natural pentacyclic triterpenoids, interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Reiko; Fukuhara, Sayuri; Mitsuda, Satoshi; Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Kataoka, Takao

    2015-11-15

    Betulinic acid (3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-oic acid), oleanolic acid (3?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid), and ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are close structural isomers of natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acids. We recently identified a unique biological effect of ursolic acid, its inhibition of the intracellular trafficking of glycoproteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid did not inhibit the interleukin-1?-induced expression of cell-surface intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Nevertheless, betulinic acid and, to a lesser extent, oleanolic acid interfered with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1 in a similar manner to castanospermine (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum ?-glucosidases I and II), but not swainsonine (an inhibitor of Golgi ?-mannosidase II). Consistent with these results, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid inhibited yeast ?-glucosidase activity, but not Jack bean ?-mannosidase activity. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface. PMID:26460147

  17. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  18. Ursolic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces accumulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Satoshi; Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Yokoigawa, Junpei; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid that is present in many plants, including medicinal herbs, and foods. Ursolic acid was initially identified as an inhibitor of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in response to interleukin-1? (IL-1?). We report here a novel biological activity: ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins. Ursolic acid markedly inhibited the IL-1?-induced cell-surface ICAM-1 expression in human cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. By contrast, ursolic acid exerted weak inhibitory effects on the IL-1?-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Surprisingly, we found that ursolic acid decreased the apparent molecular weight of ICAM-1 and altered the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides bound to ICAM-1. Ursolic acid induced the accumulation of ICAM-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was linked mainly to high-mannose-type glycans. Moreover, in ursolic-acid-treated cells, the Golgi apparatus was fragmented into pieces and distributed over the cells. Thus, our results reveal that ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces the accumulation of ICAM-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:24649404

  19. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction induces a novel genetic signature resulting in T-cells refractory to transforming growth factor-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Verma, Navin K; Dempsey, Eugene; Long, Aideen; Davies, Anthony; Barry, Sean P; Fallon, Padraic G; Volkov, Yuri; Kelleher, Dermot

    2012-08-01

    The immunesuppressive cytokine TGF-β plays crucial regulatory roles in the induction and maintenance of immunologic tolerance and prevention of immunopathologies. However, it remains unclear how circulating T-cells can escape from the quiescent state maintained by TGF-β. Here, we report that the T-cell integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) interaction with its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induces a genetic signature associated with reduced TGF-β responsiveness via up-regulation of SKI, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2, and SMAD7 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7) genes and proteins. We confirmed that the expression of these TGF-β inhibitory molecules was dependent on STAT3 and/or JNK activation. Increased expression of SMAD7 and SMURF2 in LFA-1/ICAM-1 cross-linked T-cells resulted in impaired TGF-β-mediated phosphorylation of SMAD2 and suppression of IL-2 secretion. Expression of SKI caused resistance to TGF-β-mediated suppression of IL-2, but SMAD2 phosphorylation was unaffected. Blocking LFA-1 by neutralizing antibody or specific knockdown of TGF-β inhibitory molecules by siRNA substantially restored LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated alteration in TGF-β signaling. LFA-1/ICAM-1-stimulated human and mouse T-cells were refractory to TGF-β-mediated induction of FOXP3(+) (forkhead box P3) and RORγt(+) (retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt) Th17 differentiation. These mechanistic data suggest an important role for LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions in immunoregulation concurrent with lymphocyte migration that may have implications at the level of local inflammatory response and for anti-LFA-1-based therapies. PMID:22707713

  20. Zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression requires Rac1/Cdc42, mixed lineage kinase 3, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Liu, Chen-Wei; Kao, Chen-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2012-03-01

    The explosive development of nanotechnology has caused an increase in unintended biohazards in humans and in the ecosystem. Similar to particulate matter, nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases, yet the mechanisms behind this correlation remain unclear. Within the testing concentrations of 0.1-10 ?g/ml, which did not cause a marked drop in cell viability, zinc oxide NPs (ZnO-NPs) induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) messenger RNA, and protein expression in both concentration- and time-dependent manner in treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ZnO-NPs treatment cause the activation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) and protein accumulation of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), followed by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and transcription factor c-Jun activation. Induction of ICAM-1 and phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun could be inhibited by either JNK inhibitor SP600125 or Rac guanosine triphosphatase inhibitor NSC23766 pretreatment. In addition, pretreatment with NSC23766 significantly reduced MLK3 accumulation, suggesting the involvement of Rac1/Cdc42-MLK3-JNK-c-Jun signaling in the regulation of ZnO-NPs-induced ICAM-1 expression, whereas these signaling factors were not activated in zinc oxide microparticles (ZnO-MPs)-treated HUVECs. The increase of ICAM-1 expression on ZnO-NPs-treated HUVECs enables leukocytes to adhere and has been identified as an indicator of vascular inflammation. Our data are essential for safety evaluation of the clinical usage of ZnO-NPs in daily supplements, cosmetics, and biomedicines. PMID:22166487

  1. Pentoxifylline-induced modulation of melanoma cell growth, adhesion and lymphokine activated killer cell-mediated lysis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C L; Edward, M; MacKie, R M

    1999-02-01

    Pentoxifylline (PX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor which effectively increases overall cAMP levels within the cell. This study analyses the ability of PX to alter growth, adhesion and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell-mediated lysis of the C8161 and Hs294T human melanoma cell lines, and investigates the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the tumour/LAK cell interaction. We have demonstrated that 4 days' pretreatment with PX (100-250 microg/ml) significantly reduces cell numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with cell numbers decreasing by 67.5% in the C8161 cell line and by 65.4% in the Hs294T cell line with 250 microg/ml PX. Adherence of both cell lines to a range of extracellular matrix components is not affected by PX, with the exception of the C8161 cells, where 4 days' pretreatment with 250 microg/ml PX causes a 24.2% reduction in adherence to fibronectin. Four days' pretreatment of the tumour cells with 250 microg/ml PX leads to increased lysis of the C8161 cells and decreased lysis of the Hs294T cells. The addition of blocking ICAM-1 antibody (10 microg/ml) to the C8161 cells at an effector:tumour cell ratio of 40:1 causes a 2.3-fold reduction in lysis of both control and PX-treated cells. Addition of blocking ICAM-1 antibody (5 microg/ml) to Hs294T cells reduces lysis of control cells 1.8-fold. In PX-treated Hs294T cells, 10 microg/ml of blocking ICAM-1 antibody significantly reduces lysis 1.5-fold. The more aggressive C8161 cells produce 5-fold greater levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) than the poorly metastatic Hs294T cells. PX (10-250 microg/ml) causes a dose-dependent increase in sICAM-1 expression in both cell lines, with maximum increases of 4.7-fold and 4.3-fold in the Hs294T and C8161 cell lines, respectively, following 4 days' pretreatment with 250 microg/ml PX. Collectively, these data demonstrate the ability of PX to alter tumour cell growth, adhesion and LAK cell-mediated lysis and also support a role for the involvement of ICAM-1 in the tumour/LAK cell interaction. PMID:10338332

  2. Soluble adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin in children with Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Panasiuk, Anatol; Kondej-Muszynska, Katarzyna; Kemonai, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sP-selectin levels in children with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and to evaluate their significance for the morphological changes found in gastric mucosa. METHODS: The study included 106 children: 59 children (55.7%) with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H pylori, 29 children (27.3%) after previous H pylori infection without the bacterium colonization but with positive IgG against H pylori, and 18 children (17%) with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal system but with normal IgG against H pylori. Endoscopic and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosa was performed based on the Sydney System classification. The evaluation of sP-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 levels in the sera of children was carried out using ELISA test. RESULTS: The assessment of gastritis activity degrees indicated statistically significant values in the antrum and corpus (P<0.001) of children examined. Serum sVCAM-1 levels were higher in group with gastritis due to H pylori infection than in group without infection and differed statistically (P<0.05). Serum sVCAM-1 levels proved to be the highest among other adhesive molecules in infected children and decreased after eradication of H pylori. Serum sICAM-1 levels were similar in all examined groups. Serum sP-selectin levels were similar in children with and without H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Assessment of adhesive molecules (sP-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) in the sera of children with active H pylori infection can show the participation of sVCAM-1 in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal inflammation. sP-selectin and sICAM-1 concentrations in the sera of children with H pylori infection after eradication cannot reveal any significant differences as compared to healthy children. PMID:16425378

  3. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human thyroid cells from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease: study of thyroid xenografts in nude and severe combined immunodeficient mice and treatment with FK-506.

    PubMed

    Arreaza, G; Yoshikawa, N; Mukuta, T; Resetkova, E; Barsuk, A; Nishikawa, M; Muallim, C; Miller, N; Jamieson, C; Volp, R

    1995-12-01

    It has been suggested that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) may play an important role in the initiation, localization, and perpetuation of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). In an effort to clarify its role, we have investigated the expression of ICAM-1 on thyroid epithelial cells (TEC) of patients with AITD, patients with nontoxic goiter (NTG), and normal subjects (PN) by flow cytometric analysis under basal conditions and after modulation with cytokines, before and after 8 weeks of thyroid tissue xenotransplantation in nude athymic mice (which lyses all passenger lymphocytes), and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice where these cells survive. Before xenografting, ICAM-1 was expressed on 56% of TEC from Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 5), 54% of Graves' disease (n = 6), 15% of NTG (n = 5), and 12% of PN TEC. After the xenografts had been 8 weeks in nude mice, ICAM-1 expression decreased markedly in AITD TEC [from 56% to 10% in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P < 0.001) and from 54% to 8% in Graves' disease (P < 0.01)], but did not change significantly in NTG or PN. After the xenografts had been 8 weeks in SCID mice, the expression of ICAM-1 was significantly higher on TEC of AITD compared with the same tissue in nude mice. When the SCID mice engrafted with AITD tissue were treated with the anti-CD4+ T (helper) cell agent FK-506, the expression of ICAM-1 was reduced significantly compared with that in the original tissue or that in nontreated mice engrafted with the same tissue. The proportion of TEC that were ICAM-1 positive was up-regulated in all cases by certain cytokines (e.g. interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha applied alone or in combination). We also detected the presence of ICAM-1 in AITD frozen tissues using an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest a role for ICAM-1 in human AITD. However, the expression of ICAM-1 appears to be a secondary phenomenon in response to the immune assault, rather than a primary event. Our results support the idea that TEC may act as passive captives to immunological events in human AITD. PMID:8530625

  4. Immunocompetence of human microvascular brain endothelial cells: cytokine regulation of IL-1beta, MCP-1, IL-10, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, S; Gelati, M; Ciusani, E; Corsini, E; Dufour, A; Massa, G; Salmaggi, A

    1998-11-01

    Endothelia from the brains of four patients undergoing neurosurgery, including one multiple sclerosis (MS) patient, were studied in vitro to determine cytokine and chemokine production; the release of soluble adhesion molecules was also investigated. The same procedure was repeated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in order to detect possible district-specific differences. After isolation, the endothelium was cultured and stimulated with gamma-interferon (IFN), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and LPS. The results showed that brain endothelium, in our experimental conditions, does not produce interleukin (IL)-10 and produces lower amounts of IL-1beta and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-(sICAM-1) than HUVECs do; no differences were detected in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-(sVCAM-1) production. MCP-1 mRNA was detected both without and after stimulation with TNF-alpha and gamma-IFN in HUVECs and MS human brain endothelial cells (HBECs), while in non-MS-HBECs it was found only after gamma-IFN stimulation. PMID:9808241

  5. Resistance to cerebral malaria in tumor necrosis factor-alpha/beta-deficient mice is associated with a reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 up-regulation and T helper type 1 response.

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, W.; Eugster, H. P.; Bordmann, G.; Bonato, J.; Mller, M.; Yamage, M.; Ryffel, B.

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection was suggested to play an important role in the development of cerebral malaria (CM). We asked whether TNF-alpha/beta double-deficient mice, which have a complete disruption of the TNF-signaling pathways, are protected from CM and what might be the possible mechanisms of protection. PbA infection induces fatal CM in wild-type mice, which die within 5 to 8 days with severe neurological signs. In contrast, TNF-alpha/beta-deficient mice are completely resistant to PbA-induced CM. As PbA-induced up-regulation of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression as well as the systemic release of nitric oxide is found only in wild-type mice, TNF is apparently central for the recruitment of mononuclear cells and microvascular damage. Mononuclear cell adhesion to the endothelium, vascular leak and, perivascular hemorrhage are found only in the brain of wild-type mice. By contrast, the development of parasitemia and anemia is independent of TNF. Resistance to CM in TNF-alpha/beta-deficient mice is associated with reduced interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 expression in the brain, in the absence of increased T helper type 2 cytokines. In conclusion, TNF apparently is required for PbA-induced endothelial ICAM-1 up-regulation and subsequent microvascular pathology resulting in fatal CM. In the absence of TNF, ICAM-1 and nitric oxide up-regulation are reduced, and PbA infection fails to cause fatal CM. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9006341

  6. Reduced antigen-presenting function of human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-B cells and monocytes after UVB radiation is accompanied by decreased expression of B7, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and LFA-3.

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, I B; Bos, J D; Teunissen, B M

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on antigen-presenting function was studied, to investigate whether antigen-presenting cells (APC) are inhibited by UVB through a common mechanism. Two types of human APC were used: EBV-B cells and monocytes, and these were irradiated in vitro with single low doses of UVB (range 0-200 J/m2). Irradiation of EBV-B cells or monocytes resulted in similar dose-dependent reduction in APC function, when determined by the allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) or Candida albicans- or tetanus toxoid-specific T cell response. Our study shows that the reduced APC function was not likely to be caused by alterations in antigen processing or cytokine production. However, UVB-irradiated APC displayed marked changes in adhesion molecule expression. Irradiated EBV-B cells showed reduced expression of ICAM-1 (30%), LFA-3 (25%) and B7-1 (35%), while expression of HLA-DR, CD19 and LFA-1 was not affected. UVB irradiation of monocytes did result in reduction in the expression of HLA-DR (30%), LFA-3 (40%), ICAM-1 (65%) AND B7-1 and B7-3 (90%), but had no effect on CD14, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 expression. Addition of non-irradiated cells (but not the supernatant of these cells) or CD28 antibodies partly restored T cell activation, indicating that UVB-induced reduction in APC function is at least partly mediated via impairment of co-stimulatory molecule expression. PMID:7545094

  7. Luteolin protects against vascular inflammation in mice and TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via suppressing I?B?/NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenquan; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Liu, Dongmin; Shah, Halley; Li, Jason Z; Chitrakar, Rojin; Si, Hongwei; McCormick, John; Zhu, Hong; Zhen, Wei; Li, Yunbo

    2015-03-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid present in many medicinal plants and some commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of luteolin at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that luteolin as low as 0.5 ?M significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced adhesion of monocytes to human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells, a key event in triggering vascular inflammation. Luteolin potently suppressed TNF-?-induced expression of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), key mediators involved in enhancing endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited TNF-?-induced nuclear factor (NF)-?B transcriptional activity, I?B? degradation, expression of I?B kinase ? and subsequent NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that luteolin can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-?B signaling. In an animal study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0% or 0.6% luteolin for 3 weeks, and luteolin supplementation greatly suppressed TNF-?-induced increase in circulating levels of MCP-1/JE, CXCL1/KC and sICAM-1 in C57BL/6 mice. Consistently, dietary intake of luteolin significantly reduced TNF-?-stimulated adhesion of monocytes to aortic endothelial cells ex vivo. Histology shows that luteolin treatment prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers' delicate organization as shown by Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies further show that luteolin treatment also reduced VCAM-1 and monocyte-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-?-treated mice. In conclusion, luteolin protects against TNF-?-induced vascular inflammation in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin may be mediated via inhibition of the NF-?B-mediated pathway. PMID:25577468

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the SertoliSertoli and Sertoligerm cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move up and down the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the bloodtestis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)BTBbasement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial regulatory molecules of spermatogenesis. The proposed hypothetical model serves as a framework in designing functional experiments for future studies. PMID:23287428

  9. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels (β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 (β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 (β = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  10. Circulating soluble ICAM-1 and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Myron D.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Bailey, Kent; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Duprez, Daniel A.; Jacobs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and clinical cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship of subclinical atherosclerosis with sICAM-1 concentration. Methods sICAM-1 concentration was assayed at year 15 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (black and white men and women, average age 40 years). We assessed progression of coronary artery calcification through year 20 (CAC, n=2378), and both carotid artery stenosis (n=2432) and intima media thickness at year 20 (IMT, n = 2240). Results Median sICAM-1 was 145.9 ng/ml. Among a subgroup with advanced atherosclerotic plaque (either CAC or stenosis), IMT was 0.010 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0030.017 mm) higher per standard deviation of sICAM-1 (44 ng/ml) in a model adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic, smoking, exercise, body size, education, blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, plasma lipids, and cholesterol lowering medication. With the same adjustment, the odds ratios (OR) for the presence of year 20 carotid artery stenosis per SD of sICAM-1 was 1.12 (CI 1.011.25, p<0.04), while for occurrence of CAC progression the OR was 1.16 (CI 1.041.31, p<0.01). The associations with CAC and carotid stenosis were strongest in the top 20th of the sICAM-1 distribution. Conclusion sICAM-1 concentration may be an early biomarker that indicates changes in the artery wall that accompany atherosclerosis, as well as the presence of advanced plaque in the coronary and carotid arteries. This finding holds in people with low total burden of atherosclerosis, decades prior to the development of clinical CVD. PMID:22179741

  11. Maternal Serum Levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Young; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon-Young; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Lim, Ha-Jung; Shin, Joong-Sik; Woo, Hyuk-Jun; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Jin-Woo; Cho, Eun Hee

    2004-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in preeclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) in sera of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. We studied the serum levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in normal pregnant women (n=63), mild preeclampsia (n=33) and severe preeclampsia (n=82). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules were determined with enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Serum concentrations of sVCAM-1 were significantly higher in both mild (p=0.004) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.002). sICAM-1 levels of severe preeclampsia were statistically different from those of normal pregnancy (p=0.038). Levels of sE-selectin were elevated in both mild (p=0.011) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) compared to normal pregnancy, but no statistical difference between the mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.345). These results suggest that all three soluble adhesion molecules are increased in severe preeclampsia, and sVCAM-1 among them may be useful in predicting the severity of preeclampsia. PMID:15483345

  12. Circulating adhesion molecules after short-term exposure to particulate matter among welders

    PubMed Central

    Fang, S C; Eisen, E A; Cavallari, J M; Mittleman, M A; Christiani, D C

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies from several countries indicate that welders experience increased risk of mortality and morbidity from ischaemic heart disease. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, vascular responses to particulate matter contained in welding fumes may play a role. To investigate this, we studied the acute effects of welding fume exposure on the endothelial component of vascular function, as measured by circulating adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte adhesion (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) and coagulation (vWF). Methods A panel of 26 male welders was studied repeatedly across a 6 h work-shift on a high exposure welding day and/or a low exposure non-welding day. Personal PM2.5 exposure was measured throughout the work-shift. Blood samples were collected in the morning (baseline) prior to the exposure period, immediately after the exposure period, and the following morning. To account for the repeated measurements, we used linear mixed models to evaluate the effects of welding (binary) and PM2.5 (continuous) exposure on each blood marker, adjusting for baseline blood marker concentration, smoking, age and time of day. Results Welding and PM2.5 exposure were significantly associated with a decrease in sVCAM-1 in the afternoon and the following morning and an increase in vWF in the afternoon. Conclusions The data suggest that welding and short-term occupational exposure to PM2.5 may acutely affect the endothelial component of vascular function. PMID:19736177

  13. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation. PMID:24302679

  14. Adhesion molecules and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, U W; Tullius, S G; Azuma, H; Kupiec-Weglinsky, J; Tilney, N L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accessory adhesion molecules are thought to influence the first interaction between host leukocytes and graft vascular endothelial cells. Their role in transplantation is reviewed. SUMMARY: Adhesion molecules have been divided into three major families: the selectins, the integrins, and the immunoglobulin superfamily. Selectins are small proteins that mediate the first contact between stimulated endothelial cells and leukocytes. Integrins interact with cytoskeletal components of cells, presumably coordinating extracellular stimuli with cytoskeleton dependent actions, such as motility, shape change, and phagocytic responses. Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are structurally homologous, although they do not necessarily share similar functions. They are involved in T-cell proliferation and intracellular events. METHODS: Various groups of investigators have studied the influence and expression of adhesion molecules following transplantation. The authors of this article have reviewed and summarized the available literature. RESULTS: Many different adhesion molecules are up-regulated during the rejection event. Treatment of transplant recipients with monoclonal antibodies against accessory molecules, such as leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), has resulted in either a prolongation of transplant survival or the induction of tolerance in some models. Other interventions are under study. CONCLUSION: By mediating the initial leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions, adhesion molecules may play an important role in graft rejection, mediation of infiltration into the graft, and dissemination of the antigenic message to the lymphoid tissues of the host. Future studies will have to deal not only with conceptualizing their function and mechanisms of action, but also with manipulating their interrelationships to the benefit of the graft recipient. PMID:8297174

  15. Vasostatin-2 inhibits cell proliferation and adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells, which are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianghong; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Junnong

    2016-01-22

    Recently, the serum expression level of vasostatin-2 was found to be reduced and is being studied as an important indicator to assess the presence and severity of coronary artery disease; the functional properties of vasostatin-2 and its relationship with the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to detect the expression of vasostatin-2 and its impact on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to assess the expression level of vasostatin-2 in VSMCs between those from atherosclerosis and disease-free donors; we found that vasostatin-2 was significantly down-regulated in atherosclerosis patient tissues and cell lines. In addition, the over-expression of vasostatin-2 apparently inhibits cell proliferation and migration in VSMCs. Gain-of-function invitro experiments further show that vasostatin-2 over-expression significantly inhibits inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. In addition, cell adhesion experimental analysis showed that soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) had decreased expression when vasostatin-2 was over-expressed in VSMCs. Therefore, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 is an atherosclerosis-related factor that can inhibit cell proliferation, inflammatory response and cell adhesion in VSMCs. Taken together, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human atherosclerosis in the near future. PMID:26721428

  16. Temporal Patterns of Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with the Acute Brain Infraction

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Vesna; Raicevic, Ranko; Radenovic, Lidija

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define concentration changes of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-Selectin) in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, as well as, number of peripheral blood leukocytes and the albumin coefficient in the patients with the acute brain infarction. We also, analyzed the correlation between the measured levels, the infarct volume and the degree of neurological and the functional deficit. The study included 50 patients with the acute cerebral infarction and the control group consisted of 16 patients, age and sex matched. Obtained results showed significant increase in number of leukocytes, the albumin coefficient and the level of soluble adhesion molecules within the first seven days in patients. The highest values of measured parameters were noted within the third and the fourth day after the insult, which is the suggested period of maximal intensity of inflammatory reactions. Significant correlation was found between measured parameters and the infarct volume, the degree of neurological and the functional deficit. The results suggest that investigated parameters in CSF and blood represent a dynamic index of inflammatory events as one of the fundametal mechanisms responsible for neuron damage during acute phase of brain infarction. PMID:19407361

  17. Adhesive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Adhesive dynamics (AD) is a method for simulating the dynamic response of biological systems in response to force. Biological bonds are mechanical entities that exert force under strain, and applying forces to biological bonds modulates their rate of dissociation. Since small numbers of events usually control biological interactions, we developed a simple method for sampling probability distributions for the formation or failure of individual bonds. This method allows a simple coupling between force and strain and kinetics, while capturing the stochastic response of biological systems. Biological bonds are dynamically reconfigured in response to applied mechanical stresses, and a detailed spatio-temporal map of molecules and the forces they exert emerges from AD. The shape or motion of materials bearing the molecules is easily calculated from a mechanical energy balance provided the rheology of the material is known. AD was originally used to simulate the dynamics of adhesion of leukocytes under flow, but new advances have allowed the method to be extended to many other applications, including but not limited to the binding of viruses to surface, the clustering of adhesion molecules driven by stiff substrates, and the effect of cell-cell interaction on cell capture and rolling dynamics. The technique has also been applied to applications outside of biology. A particular exciting recent development is the combination of signaling with AD (so-called integrated signaling adhesive dynamics, or ISAD), which allows facile integration of signaling networks with mechanical models of cell adhesion and motility. Potential opportunities in applying AD are summarized. PMID:24384944

  18. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Saintclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of preparing aromatic polyamide-acids for use as adhesives is described. An equimolar quantity of an aromatic dianhydride is added to a stirred solution of an aromatic diamine in a water or alcohol-miscible ether solvent to obtain a viscous polymer solution. The polymeric-acid intermediate polymer does not become insoluble but directly forms a smooth viscous polymer solution. These polyamic-acid polymers are converted, by heating in the range of 200-300 C and with pressure, to form polyimides with excellent adhesive properties.

  19. Evidence of Endothelial Activation in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia and Effect of Blood Group on Levels of von Willebrand Factor in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gregory S.; Ireland, Kathleen F.; Opoka, Robert O.; John, Chandy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Endothelial activation may contribute to development of severe disease from Plasmodium falciparum infection, but optimal markers of endothelial activation in severe malaria, the extent of endothelial activation in asymptomatic infection, and the effect of blood group O on endothelial activation have not been defined. Methods. Serum levels of 3 markers of endothelial activationvon Willebrand factor (VWF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) (n=86), children with uncomplicated malaria (UM) (n=81), and community children (CC) (n=90). Results. Serum VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels were all elevated in asymptomatic community children with microscopy-confirmed parasitemia when compared with children without parasitemia by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (all, P?.05). Levels of VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were higher in children with UM than in CC (all, P<0.001), but only VWF levels effectively distinguished CM from UM (P<0.001), a finding confirmed by receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve=0.67; 95% confidence interval, .58.75). Von Willebrand factor levels were lower in children with blood group O versus non-O blood groups across the disease spectrum, but VWF levels remained higher in CM versus UM, even after controlling for blood group. Conclusions. Endothelial activation, as assessed by serum levels of VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1, occurs even in subclinical P. falciparum parasitemia. Von Willebrand factor levels increase with greater malaria disease severity. Blood group O is associated with lower VWF levels, but presence of blood group O alone does not explain the higher VWF levels seen in children with CM. PMID:23687570

  20. Systemic endothelial activation occurs in both mild and severe malaria. Correlating dermal microvascular endothelial cell phenotype and soluble cell adhesion molecules with disease severity.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. D.; Ly, V. C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Tran, T. H.; Nguyen, H. P.; Bethell, D.; Wyllie, S.; Louwrier, K.; Fox, S. B.; Gatter, K. C.; Day, N. P.; Tran, T. H.; White, N. J.; Berendt, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria is accompanied by systemic endothelial activation. To study endothelial activation directly during malaria and sepsis in vivo, the expression of cell adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelium was examined in skin biopsies and correlated with plasma levels of soluble (circulating) ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Skin biopsies were obtained from 61 cases of severe malaria, 42 cases of uncomplicated malaria, 10 cases of severe systemic sepsis, and 17 uninfected controls. Systemic endothelial activation, represented by the up-regulation of inducible cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on endothelium and increased levels of soluble CAMs (sCAMs), were seen in both severe and uncomplicated malaria and sepsis when compared with uninfected controls. Plasma levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin correlated positively with the severity of malaria whereas TNF-alpha was raised nonspecifically in malaria and sepsis. Immunohistochemical evidence of endothelial activation in skin biopsies did not correlate with sCAM levels or disease severity. This indicates a background of systemic endothelial activation, which occurs in both mild and severe malaria and sepsis. The levels of sCAMs in malaria are thus not an accurate reflection of endothelial cell expression of CAMs in a particular vascular bed, and other factors must influence their levels during disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626052

  1. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing abdominal adhesions. A person with a partial intestinal obstruction may relieve symptoms with a liquid or low-fiber diet, which is more easily broken down into smaller ...

  2. Adhesive capsulitis.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Stephen J; Modi, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, commonly known as "frozen shoulder" or "frozen shoulder syndrome," is a self-limited painful condition that is quite common. In 1984, the prevalence of frozen shoulder was demonstrated at slightly greater than 2% in the general population. In the authors' practice, consisting primarily of orthopedic magnetic resonance imaging, this diagnosis is frequently seen in patients referred for evaluation of rotator cuff tear because the presenting symptoms are similar. PMID:24875344

  3. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Stclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process was developed for preparing aromatic polyamide acids for use as adhesives by reacting an aromatic dianhydride to an approximately equimolar amount of an aromatic diamine in a water or lower alkanol miscible ether solvent. The polyamide acids are converted to polyimides by heating to the temperature range of 200 - 300 C. The polyimides are thermally stable and insoluble in ethers and other organic solvents.

  4. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  5. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System.

    PubMed

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J; Kamps, Jan A A M

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNF?-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNF?-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNF?-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  6. Serological tests for diagnosis and staging of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).

    PubMed

    Kao, Dennis S; Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Kaplan, Rachel E; Riley, Danny A; Matloub, Hani S

    2008-06-01

    The current gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is the Stockholm workshop scale, which is subjective and relies on the patient's recalling ability and honesty. Therefore, great potentials exist for diagnostic and staging errors. The purpose of this study is to determine if objective serum tests, such as levels of soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), may be used in the diagnosis and staging of HAVS. Twenty two nonsmokers were divided into a control group (n = 11) and a vibration group (n = 11). The control group included subjects without history of frequent vibrating tool use. The vibration group included construction workers with average vibrating tool use of 12.2 years. All were classified according to the Stockholm workshop scale (SN, sensorineural symptoms; V, vascular symptoms. SN0, no numbness; SN1, intermittent numbness; SN2, reduced sensory perception; SN3, reduced tactile discrimination; V0, no vasospasmic attacks; V1, intermittent vasospasm involving distal phalanges; V2, intermittent vasospasm extending to middle phalanges; V3, intermittent vasospasm extending to proximal phalanges; V4, skin atrophy/necrosis). All control subjects were SN0 V0. Seven out of 11 vibration subjects were SN1 V1, and 4 out of 11 were SN1 V2. A 10-cm(3) sample of venous blood was collected from each subject. The sTM and sICAM-1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean plasma sTM levels were as follows: control group = 2.93 +/- 0.47 ng/ml, and vibration group = 3.61 +/- 0.24 ng/ml. The mean plasma sICAM-1 levels were as follows: control group = 218.8 +/- 54.1 ng/ml, and vibration group = 300.3 +/- 53.2 ng/ml. The sTM and sICAM-1 differences between control and vibration groups were statistically significant (p < 0.0002 and p < 0.001, respectively). When reference ranges provided by Hemostasis Reference Lab were used as cut-off values, all sTM and sICAM-1 levels were within range, except three vibration individuals (27%) who had sICAM-1 levels greater than the reference range. This was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). When subjects were compared based on the Stockholm workshop scale, mean plasma sTM levels were SN0 V0 group = 2.93 +/- 0.47 ng/ml, SN1 V1 group = 3.59 +/- 0.25 ng/ml, and SN1 V2 group = 3.65 +/- 0.27 ng/ml, and mean plasma sICAM-1 levels were SN0 V0 = 219 +/- 54.1 ng/ml, SN1 V1 = 275 +/- 33.5 ng/ml, and SN1 V2 = 345 +/- 54.6 ng/ml. The difference in sTM level among the three groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The difference in sICAM-1 level among the three groups was also statistically significant (p < 0.002). The sTM and sICAM-1 levels are statistically higher in subjects with HAVS, with levels proportional to the disease severity. However, large population studies are needed to determine the "real-life" standard reference ranges for sTM and sICAM-1. PMID:18780088

  7. Adhesion and Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    von Fraunhofer, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed. PMID:22505913

  8. Heterogeneous Vascular Responses to Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Justin R.; Vega-López, Sonia; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Buman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstarct Background/Objectives: Among adolescents, obesity may increase the risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle interventions may prevent or delay the onset of CVD through improvements in vascular health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week lifestyle intervention on markers of vascular health in obese Latino youth. Subjects/Methods: Fifteen obese Latino adolescents [body mass index (BMI) percentile=96.3±1.1%, 15.0±1.0 year, 8 females and 7 males] participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention consisting of nutrition education and physical activity. Markers of vascular health included oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (sE-Selectin). Results: Relative to baseline data, the intervention resulted in lower oxLDL (−21.8%, P=0.001) and sE-Selectin (−13.3%, P=0.008) concentrations; sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 did not change significantly. When examining overall responsiveness to change for each marker, oxLDL was reduced in 93.3%, sE-Selectin was reduced in 78.6%, and sICAM-1 was reduced in 71.4% of participants, respectively, whereas sVCAM-1 was reduced in only 42.9% of participants following lifestyle. Using a composite change score (summed change in four markers) for each participant there was an improvement in at least three of four markers among 64% of participants; this was confirmed by principal component analysis. Conclusions: Therefore, although improvements in the vascular health of obese youth were observed, the vascular response to lifestyle intervention may be heterogeneous. Further investigation into the mechanisms mediating the heterogeneity in vascular response to lifestyle intervention is warranted. PMID:25162989

  9. Nanofibrous adhesion: the twin of gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guangming; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Juntao; Jin, Xu; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by dusty spider dragline silk, we studied the adhesive interaction between artificial nanofibers and their aerosol surroundings. The nanofibers are found to be able to actively capture particulate matters from the environment, exactly as the spider dragline silk does. Examinations prove that such nanofibrous adhesion is insensitive to the chemical nature of the fibers and the physical states of the particulate matter and depends only on the fiber diameters. Such facts indicate that nanofibrous adhesion is a case of dry adhesion, mainly governed by van der Waals force, sharing the same mechanism to gecko adhesion. Nanofibrous adhesion is of great importance and has promising potential. For instance, in this work, nanofibers are fabricated into a thin and translucent filter, which has a filtration performance, as high as 95%, that easily outperformed ordinary ones. We believe that this adhesive property of nanofibers will open up broader applications in both scientific and industrial fields. PMID:25602975

  10. Temperature Modulation of Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Félix; Chu, Calvin; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Qin, Yujing; Moy, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells modulate their adhesive state by regulating the number and intrinsic affinity of receptor/ligand bonds. A number of studies have shown that cell adhesion is dramatically reduced at room or lower temperatures as compared with physiological temperature. However, the underlying mechanism that modulates adhesion is still unclear. Here, we investigated the adhesion of the monocytic cell line THP-1 to a surface coated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a function of temperature. THP-1 cells express the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a receptor for ICAM-1. Direct force measurements of cell adhesion and cell elasticity were carried out by atomic force microscopy. Force measurements revealed an increase of the work of de-adhesion with temperature that was coupled to a gradual decrease in cellular stiffness. Of interest, single-molecule measurements revealed that the rupture force of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex decreased with temperature. A detailed analysis of the force curves indicated that temperature-modulated cell adhesion was mainly due to the enhanced ability of cells to deform and to form a greater number of longer membrane tethers at physiological temperatures. Together, these results emphasize the importance of cell mechanics and membrane-cytoskeleton interaction on the modulation of cell adhesion. PMID:20816050

  11. Adhesive Properties of Model, Filled Elastomeric Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzal, Peter; Cheang, Elizabeth; Shull, Kenneth

    2000-03-01

    Adhesive properties of a model, filled elastomeric adhesive are measured using an axisymmetic adhesion test with a rigid glass indenter. Experiments with poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymer films are conducted with two types of complementary experiments to resolve the surface and bulk contribution to the adhesive behavior. In the first set of experiments, thermally evaporated gold particles are deposited onto the triblock copolymer to yield gold coatings with equivalent thicknesses of 100 nm or less. The axisymmetric adhesion test is used to measure the force required to separate the glass indenter from the gold coated triblock copolymer substrates. The work of adhesion decreases with increasing thickness of the gold coating. This result is attributed to a reduction in the true area of contact between the indenter and the adhesive upon the addition of the metal particle layer. In the second set of experiments, effects of rigid particles on the bulk mechanical properties and adhesive response are probed by adding spherical aluminum oxide particles to the adhesive. In both sets of experiments, approaches based on linear elastic fracture mechanics are used to quantify the adhesive response.

  12. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Up-Regulates ICAM-1 Expression and Release in Intestinal Myofibroblasts by Redox-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fontani, Filippo; Domazetovic, Vladana; Marcucci, Tommaso; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa; Iantomasi, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNF? stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNF?, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNF?-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNF? stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNF? may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 370-381, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26177712

  14. Relationships of Circulating Carotenoid Concentrations with Several Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hozawa, Atsushi; Jacobs, David R.; Steffes, Michael W.; Gross, Myron D.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum carotenoid concentrations relate inversely to cardiovascular disease incidence. To clarify the effect of carotenoids on atherosclerotic risk factors, we examined the association of circulating carotenoids with inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and smoking. Methods Black and white men and women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, ages 18 to 30 years at recruitment (19851986) from 4 US cities, were investigated over 15 years. We included 2048 to 4580 participants in analyses of the sum of serum ?-carotene, ?-carotene, zeaxanthin/lutein, and ?-cryptoxanthin concentrations and of lycopene at year 0 and at year 7. Results The year 0 sum of 4 carotenoids was inversely associated (all P <0.05) with year 0 leukocyte count (slope per sum carotenoid SD, ?0.17); year 7 fibrinogen (slope, ?0.10); year 7 and year 15 C-reactive protein (slope, ?0.12 and ?0.09); and year 15 F2-isoprostanes (slope, ?13.0), soluble P-selectin (slope, ?0.48), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1; slope, ?5.1). Leukocyte counts and sICAM1 and F2-isoprostane concentrations had stronger associations in smokers than in nonsmokers, and sICAM1 concentrations were higher in the highest carotenoid quartile in smokers than in the lowest carotenoid quartile in nonsmokers. Superoxide dismutase was positively associated with the sum of 4 carotenoids (slope, 0.12; P <0.01). Lycopene was inversely associated only with sICAM1. The year 7 carotenoid associations with these markers were mostly similar to those at year 0. Conclusions Circulating serum carotenoids were associated, some interactively with smoking, in apparently beneficial directions with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:17234732

  15. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  16. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  17. Adhesion prevention in myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions are abnormal fibrous connections, joining tissue surfaces in abnormal locations. Adhesions form after any trauma involving the peritoneum and the injured tissue surface or directly between the injured tissue surfaces. The ideal anti-adhesion agent should be safe, efficacious, easy to use in all types of surgery, and economical. It should prevent adhesions at the site of surgery as well as throughout the peritoneal cavity. Needless to say, the ideal agent is still elusive. PMID:22442530

  18. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  19. Effect of Linomide on adhesion molecules, TNF-alpha, nitrogen oxide, and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hai, A; Hershkoviz, R; Weiss, L; Lider, O; Slavin, S

    2005-02-01

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is an immunomodulator with anti-inflammatory effects in rodents with autoimmune diseases. Its mode of action still remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that an investigation of T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), composed of glycoproteins such as fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), might provide better understanding of their in vivo mode of action in extravascular inflammatory sites. We examined the effect of Linomide on T cell adhesion to intact ECM, and separately to LN, and FN, and on the release and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and nitrogen oxide (NO) in relation to adhesive molecules in non-obese diabetic (NOD) female spleen cells, focusing on intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44. NOD female mice that developed spontaneous autoimmune insulitis, which destroys pancreatic islets and subsequently leads to insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus, were studied. Linomide, given in the drinking water or added to tissue cultures in vitro, inhibited the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of T cells to ECM, FN and LN, as well as the production and release of TNFalpha and NO, which play a major role in the induction and propagation of T cell-mediated insulitis. In addition, exposure of T cells to Linomide resulted in increased expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 molecules on spleen cells of Linomide-treated mice; such an increase in adhesion molecule expression may lead to more effective arrest of T cell migration in vivo. The regulation of T-cell adhesion, adhesion receptor expression, and inhibition of TNFalpha and NO secretion by Linomide may explain its beneficial role and provide a new tool for suppressing self-reactive T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases. PMID:15652754

  20. Changes in serum asymmetric dimethylarginine and endothelial markers levels with varying periods of hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Alper; Karabag, Funda; Demir, Serap; Koken, Tulay

    2014-08-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as a uremia toxin is accumulated in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Elevated ADMA level has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and all-cause mortality in ESRD. Therefore, we investigated the effect of prolonged hemodialysis (HD) treatment on the levels of serum ADMA, arginine, nitric oxide (NO), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). Seventy-five patients (M/F?=?40/35) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and who were on HD were divided into five groups with differing treatment periods of HD; from 6 to 24 months to 97-120 months. Fifteen apparently healthy subjects acted as controls. The serum levels of ADMA, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were increased in all patient groups compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed when the patient groups were compared in terms of HD treatment periods. Nitric oxide levels were lower in the three groups who were treated for periods of 49-72, 73-96, 97-120 months compared to the control group. The L-arginine to ADMA ratio was decreased in all patient groups compared to controls. Consequently, our investigations have shown that in HD continued for more than 4 years NO levels began to decrease significantly and the levels of serum ADMA, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels increased although this increase was not affected by the period in which hemodialysis treatment was applied. PMID:25117882

  1. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 0.3 (means SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 1 vs. 51 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:24477543

  2. Reduction in cellular and vascular rejection by blocking leukocyte adhesion molecule receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sadahiro, M.; McDonald, T. O.; Allen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    Whether antibody blockage of leukocyte receptors for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 would prevent cardiac graft rejection was studied in a rabbit heterotopic transplant model. Monoclonal antibody 60.3, anti-CD18 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 receptor, Group 1, n = 10) and monoclonal antibody HP1/2, anti-VLA-alpha 4 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 receptor, Group 2, n = 10) were administered to transplanted unimmunosuppressed animals. At 7 days, donor heart histology was compared to transplanted untreated controls (Group 3, n = 11). Peripheral white blood cell counts on postoperative day 2 were significantly higher in both treatment groups than controls. Significant increases in circulating neutrophils occurred in Group 1 (P < or = 0.05); lymphocytes predominated in Group 2 (P < or = 0.05). A significant reduction in cellular rejection was seen in Group 1 (P < or = 0.05) but not Group 2 hearts. Group 1 hearts demonstrated localization of lymphocytes to perivenular collections, whereas Group 2 hearts evidenced diffuse interstitial infiltration. Both treatment groups demonstrated a reduction in transplant arteritis compared to controls. Results suggest that monoclonal antibody 60.3 (anti-CD18) may hold promise as a therapeutic agent for both cellular and vascular rejection. Monoclonal antibody HP1/2 (anti-VLA-alpha 4) may reduce vascular rejection disproportionate to cellular rejection. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8096120

  3. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  4. Rolling cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Rolling adhesion on vascular surfaces is the first step in recruiting circulating leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, or platelets to specific organs or to sites of infection or injury. Rolling requires the rapid yet balanced formation and dissociation of adhesive bonds in the challenging environment of blood flow. This review explores how structurally distinct adhesion receptors interact through mechanically regulated kinetics with their ligands to meet these challenges. Remarkably, increasing force applied to adhesive bonds first prolongs their lifetimes (catch bonds) and then shortens their lifetimes (slip bonds). Catch bonds mediate the counterintuitive phenomenon of flow-enhanced rolling adhesion. Force-regulated disruptions of receptor interdomain or intradomain interactions remote from the ligand-binding surface generate catch bonds. Adhesion receptor dimerization, clustering in membrane domains, and interactions with the cytoskeleton modulate the forces applied to bonds. Both inside-out and outside-in cell signals regulate these processes. PMID:19575676

  5. Diet quality and markers of endothelial function: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Sijtsma, Femke PC; Meyer, Katie A; Steffen, Lyn M; Horn, Linda Van; Shikany, James M; Odegaard, Andrew O; Gross, Myron D; Kromhout, Daan; Jacobs, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary patterns are associated cross-sectionally with cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs). Objective: We studied prospective associations of three dietary patterns with CAMs. Design: In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, diet was assessed at years 0 (1985-86) and 7 (1992-93) examinations. Four circulating CAMs (E-selectin, P-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)) were assayed at years 7 and 15 (2000-01). We created one index score A Priori Diet Quality Score and derived dietary patterns using principal components analysis (PCA). Multivariable linear regression models predicted year 15 CAMs from averaged (year 0/7) dietary patterns. Results: The A Priori Diet Quality Score rated 46 food groups beneficial, neutral or adverse based on hypothesized health effects. We derived two PCA dietary patterns: fruit and vegetables (FV) (high intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains) and meat (high intakes of red meat, refined grain, and butter). All dietary patterns were related to E-selectin and sICAM-1. P-selectin was not related to the FV dietary pattern. VCAM was only related to the A Priori Diet Quality Score. Strongest associations were for the meat dietary pattern with E-selectin (effect size 28% of an SD (+3.9/13.7 ng/mL) and P-selectin (effect size 37% of an SD (+4.1/11.2 ng/mL) and the A Priori Diet Quality Score with sICAM-1 (effect size 34% of an SD (?15.1/44.7 ng/mL) and VCAM (effect size of 26% of an SD (?45.1/170.3 ng/mL). Conclusion: This prospective analysis suggests that dietary patterns are associated with CAMs. PMID:24534074

  6. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  7. The adhesion molecule and cytokine profile of multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Cannella, B; Raine, C S

    1995-04-01

    The expression of the adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and their respective receptors on leukocytes, very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), together with a selection of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta], and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma] was examined by immunocytochemistry in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions of different ages and compared with central nervous system (CNS) tissue from other neurological diseases, both inflammatory and noninflammatory, and normal CNS tissue. These molecules play key roles in lymphocytic infiltration and interactions during tissue inflammation and are in large part normally not expressed by CNS cells. High levels of expression of all the molecules tested were found in MS, particularly in chronic active lesions. Positivity for all molecules was also seen in other neurological diseases, even in noninflammatory conditions. There was some suggestion that the VCAM-1/VLA-4 adhesion pathway was expressed at higher levels in chronic MS lesions, while ICAM-1/LEA-1 was used more uniformly in lesions of all ages. Of the cytokines examined, there was increased expression of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in MS; this was found to be statistically significant when compared with noninflammatory neurological diseases. The expression of most adhesion molecules and some cytokines was negligible in normal CNS tissue although low-level reactivity for ICAM-1 TGF-beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 was detected, perhaps indicative of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Microglial cells and astrocytes were the major CNS cell types expressing cytokines. The results indicate a potential in the CNS for widespread induced expression of molecules involved in the inflammatory cascade. No adhesion or cytokine molecule or pattern of expression unusual for MS was apparent. PMID:7536402

  8. Proinflammatory Adhesion Molecules Facilitate Polychlorinated BiphenylMediated Enhancement of Brain Metastasis Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Eszter; Chen, Lei; Andrs, Ibolya E.; Wrobel, Jagoda; Zhang, Bei; Pu, Hong; Park, Minseon; Eum, Sung Yong; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that cause vascular inflammation and facilitate the development of brain metastases. The crucial event in metastasis formation is adhesion of blood-borne tumor cells to the vascular endothelium, followed by their transcapillary migration. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of PCB118-induced brain metastasis formation at the blood-brain barrier level with the focus on tumor cell adhesion to the brain endothelium. PCB118 was administered orally to wild-type or intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)deficient mice, followed by an injection of Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the carotid artery. Treatment with PCB118 resulted in enhanced development of brain metastases. Injection of tumor cells induced overexpression of ICAM-1 and vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in brain endothelium that was further potentiated in mice exposed to PCB118. PCB118 did not affect the number of adhered and extravasated tumor cells in ICAM-1deficient mice. Additional in vitro studies indicated that VCAM-1neutralizing antibody protected against PCB118-induced adhesion of tumor cells to cultured brain endothelial cells. These results indicate that exposure to selected PCB congeners, such as PCB118, induces adhesion and transcapillary migration of tumor cells. This process is facilitated by proinflammatory adhesion molecules and results in potentiation of brain metastasis formation. PMID:22240979

  9. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-?B and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-?B activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  10. Role of inflammation in previously untreated macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association of inflammatory factors and the aqueous flare value with macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) patients remains unclear. The relationship between the aqueous flare value and the vitreous fluid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2) was evaluated to investigate the role of inflammation in BRVO associated with macular edema. Aqueous flare values and the vitreous levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were compared between previously untreated patients with BRVO and patients with macular hole (MH). Methods Vitreous samples were obtained from 45 patients during vitreoretinal surgery (28 patients with BRVO and 17 with MH), and the levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the Scion Image program. Aqueous flare values were measured with a laser flare meter and macular edema was examined by optical coherence tomography. Results The median aqueous flare value was significantly higher in the BRVO group (12.1 photon counts/ms) than in the MH group (4.5 photon counts/ms, P?

  11. Neuron adhesion and strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Aracely; Jian, Kuihuan; Ko, Gladys; Liang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the neuron/material adhesion is important for neuron stimulation and growth. The current challenges remain in the lack of precision of measuring techniques and understanding the behavior of neuron. Here, we report a fluid shear method to investigate adhesion at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface. In this study, the adhesion of 12-day-old chick embryo-retina neurons cultured on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips was measured via parallel disk rotational flow. The shear stress experienced by the cells increases with the disk radius. There is a critical point along the radius (Rc) where the stress experienced by the neurons equals their adhesion. The measured Rc can be used to calculate the neuron adhesion. Our results demonstrate that neurons adhered to the poly-D-lysine had a strain hardening effect. The adhesive shear stress of the neuron-material increased with applied shear (τa). When the τa reached or exceeded the value of 40 dyn/cm2, the adhesion remained constant at approximately 30 dyn/cm2. The present work allowed us not only to quantify the adhesive strength and force but also to evaluate the value of strain hardening at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface.

  12. Instant acting adhesive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Haines, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Adhesive developes 80 percent of minimum bond strength of 250 psi less than 30 sec after activation is required. Adhesive is stable, handles easily, is a low toxic hazard, and is useful in industrial and domestic prototype bonding and clamping operations.

  13. LARC-13 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.; Sheppard, C. H.; Johnson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A LARC-13 type adhesive system was developed and property data obtained that demonstrated improved thermomechanical properties superior to base LARC-13 adhesive. An improved adhesive for 589 K (600 F) use was developed by physical or chemical modification of LARC-13. The adhesive was optimized for titanium and composite bonding, and a compatible surface preparation for titanium and composite substrates was identified. The data obtained with the improved adhesive system indicated it would meet the 589 K (600 F) properties desired for application on space shuttle components. Average titanium lap shear data were: (1) 21.1 MPa (3355 psi) at RT, (2) 13.0 MPa (1881 psi) at 600 F, and (3) 16.4 MPa (2335) after aging 125 hours at 600 F and tested at 600 F.

  14. Adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, E.W.; Shannon, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The topics concerned with the European chromic acid anodize process, the sealed chromic acid anodize, the phosphoric acid anodize, surface analysis, and adhesive selection are discussed. Consideration is given to epoxy adhesives, elevated-temperature-resistant adhesives, the mechanical properties of adhesives, environmental/durability testing, and coatings. Data on the use of chemical analysis for control, the structural analysis of adhesive-bonded joints, tooling design and inspection, nondestructive inspection, and adhesive-bonded aluminum structure repair are presented.

  15. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor-ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  16. Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.

    PubMed

    Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

    2011-04-01

    Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

  17. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

  18. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  19. Cell adhesion force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G.; Giaever, I.; Pettersen, E. O.; Feder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion forces of cervical carcinoma cells in tissue culture were measured by using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope. The forces were studied as a function of time and temperature for cells cultured on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene substrates with preadsorbed proteins. The cells attached faster and stronger at 37C than at 23C and better on hydrophilic than on hydrophobic substrates, even though proteins adsorb much better to the hydrophobic substrates. Because cell adhesion serves to control several stages in the cell cycle, we anticipate that the manipulation force microscope can help clarify some cell-adhesion related issues. PMID:9892657

  20. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  1. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  2. Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a surgery. People 40 years of age and older are at higher risk for adhesive capsulitis, especially women. Certain health conditions, including diabetes, can also put you at higher risk. Diagnosis & ...

  3. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  4. Targeting C-type lectin-like molecule-1 for antibody-mediated immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoxian; Singh, Shweta; Pardoux, Cecile; Zhao, Jingsong; Hsi, Eric D.; Abo, Arie; Korver, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    Background C-type lectin-like molecule-1 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on myeloid cells, acute myeloid leukemia blasts and leukemic stem cells. To validate the potential of this receptor as a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia, we generated a series of monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of C-type lectin-like molecule-1 and used them to extend the expression profile analysis of acute myeloid leukemia cells and to select cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies against acute myeloid leukemia cells in preclinical models. Design and Methods C-type lectin-like molecule-1 expression was analyzed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, and in myeloid derived cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and healthy donors. Anti-C-type lectin-like molecule-1 antibody-mediated in vitro cytotoxic activity against acute myeloid leukemia blasts/cell lines and in vivo anti-cancer activity in a mouse xenograft model were assessed. Internalization of C-type lectin-like molecule-1 monoclonal antibodies upon receptor ligation was also investigated. Results C-type lectin-like molecule-1 was expressed in 86.5% (45/52) of cases of acute myeloid leukemia, in 54.5% (12/22) of acute myeloid leukemia CD34+/CD38? stem cells, but not in acute lymphoblastic leukemia blasts (n=5). Selected anti-C-type lectin-like molecule-1 monoclonal antibodies mediated dose-dependent complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity specifically against acute myeloid leukemia-derived cell lines. Exogenous expression of the transmembrane receptor in HEK293 cells rendered the cells susceptible to antibody-mediated killing by monoclonal antibodies to the receptor. Furthermore, these monoclonal antibodies demonstrated strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity against freshly isolated acute myeloid leukemia blasts (15/16 cases; 94%). The monoclonal antibodies were efficiently internalized upon binding to C-type lectin-like molecule-1 in HL-60 cells. Moreover, a lead chimeric C-type lectin-like molecule-1 monoclonal antibody reduced the tumor size in xenograft mice implanted with HL-60 cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that targeting C-type lectin-like molecule-1 with specific cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies is an attractive approach which could lead to novel therapies for acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:19648166

  5. Adhesions: preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Risberg, B

    1997-01-01

    Adhesions, which occur after 67% to 93% of abdominal operations, represent a major clinical problem, resulting in intestinal obstruction, infertility, and pain and incurring considerable economic costs. The magnitude and seriousness of the problem of adhesions have been underappreciated. Moreover, efforts to prevent or reduce adhesions largely have been unsuccessful, hindered by their empirical basis, the lack of good predictive animal models, and the biochemical complexities of adhesiogenesis. The two major strategies for adhesion prevention or reduction are adjusting surgical technique and applying adjuvants. Modifications in technique that all surgeons should implement include minimizing the invasiveness of surgery, minimizing surgical trauma, such as ischemia from peritoneal suturing, and avoiding the introduction of foreign material, e.g., starch glove powder, into the body. Given the adhesiogenic nature of peritoneal repair, however, improvements in surgical technique alone will help decrease but not prevent adhesion formation. Adjuvant therapy is necessary. Adjuvants fall into two main categories, drugs and barriers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have shown questionable clinical efficacy, possibly because of difficulties in drug delivery. Corticosteroids, alone or with antihistamines, also have had equivocal clinical results and may be immunosuppressive and delay wound healing. Experimentally, fibrinolytics such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), administered systemically or intraperitoneally (i.p.), have demonstrated conflicting results and hemorrhagic complications. However, recently, tPA, administered topically in a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) gel, has been effective in reducing and preventing adhesions in rabbits. Phosphatidylcholine, given i.p. or orally, also has shown promise in animal studies. Barriers, by separating traumatized surfaces for the critical first five to seven days of peritoneal re-epithelialization, are useful adjuvants, and include macromolecular solutions and mechanical devices. Dextran, a macromolecular solution, has been studied widely, but has not demonstrated consistent clinical efficacy and has been largely abandoned as an anti-adhesion barrier. A newly developed hyaluronic acid-phosphate-buffered saline solution applied intraoperatively to protect peritoneal surfaces from indirect surgical trauma effectively and safely reduced adhesions in a large multicenter study of women undergoing gynecological laparotomy. Three recently developed mechanical barriers also have demonstrated clinical progress in adhesion prevention. A bioresorbable membrane consisting of hyaluronic acid and CMC has gained regulatory approval for clinical use in both general and gynecological surgery following demonstration of efficacy and safety in reducing adhesions. A barrier made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and another developed from oxidized regenerated cellulose are currently available for gynecological surgery. With continued research, new and improved approaches hopefully will become available to prevent adhesion formation. PMID:9076450

  6. High temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace and electronics industries have an ever increasing need for higher performance materials. In recent years, linear aromatic polyimides have been proven to be a superior class of materials for various applications in these industries. The use of this class of polymers as adhesives is continuing to increase. Several NASA Langley developed polyimides show considerable promise as adhesives because of their high glass transition temperatures, thermal stability, resistance to solvents/water, and their potential for cost effective manufacture.

  7. Adhesion at ceramic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.; Houston, J.E.; Joyce, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the properties associated with ceramic materials such as high hardness, high dielectric constant, refractoriness, and good optical properties will play a critical role in the development of devices for new and emerging technologies. In many cases, the combination of properties that is required demands that a composite material be designed to fulfill these complex materials needs. The increasing emphasis upon composite materials design and performance necessarily focuses greater attention upon the structure and properties of interfaces in ceramic materials. One on the most important aspects of interfacial behavior is the adhesive stability. As an example, high hardness ceramic coatings for tribological applications require a high degree of interfacial adhesion with the underlying substate material. Alternatively it has been shown that fiber reinforced ceramic composites that are designed for high fracture toughness must contain weak interfaces that allow for fiber pull-out to toughen the instrinsically brittle ceramic matrix. Our ability to design ceramic interfaces for specific interfacial adhesive behavior dictates that we develop a full understanding of the factors that control the adhesive bond in these systems. We report on the use of continuum fracture mechanics techniques to identify the molecular source of adhesion between oxide surfaces and introduce a new approach to measuring interfacial adhesive forces using an Interfacial Force Microscope.

  8. Iron Sucrose Accelerates Early Atherogenesis by Increasing Superoxide Production and Upregulating Adhesion Molecules in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte–endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-κB signaling. We then measured mononuclear–endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE−/− mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear–endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-κB/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear–endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  9. LUTEOLIN PROTECTS AGAINST VASCULAR INFLAMMATION IN MICE AND TNF-ALPHA-INDUCED MONOCYTE ADHESION TO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS VIA SUPPRESSING IΚBα/NF-κB SIGNALING PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenquan; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Liu, Dongmin; Shah, Halley; Li, Jason Z.; Chitrakar, Rojin; Si, Hongwei; McCormick, John; Zhu, Hong; Zhen, Wei; Li, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Luteolin, a naturally-occurring flavanoid, present in many medicinal plants as well as in some commonly consumed fruits and vegetables has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of luteolin at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that luteolin as low as 0.5 μM significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells, a key event in triggering vascular inflammation. Luteolin potently suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, key mediators involved in enhancing endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity, IκBα degradation, expression of IκB kinase ß (IKKß), and subsequent NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that luteolin can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling. In an animal study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0% or 0.6% luteolin for three weeks and luteolin supplementation greatly suppressed TNF-α-induced increases in circulating levels of MCP-1/JE, CXCL1/KC, and sICAM-1 in C57BL/6 mice. Consistently, dietary intake of luteolin significantly reduced TNF-α-stimulated adhesion of monocytes to aortic endothelial cells ex vivo. Histology shows that luteolin treatment prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers’ delicate organization as shown by Verhoeff-van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies further show that luteolin treatment also reduced VCAM-1 and monocyte-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice. In conclusion, luteolin protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation, in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin may be mediated via inhibition of the NF-κB-mediated pathway. PMID:25577468

  10. Cytokine production and expression of adhesion molecules and integrins in tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Vitolo, D.; Palmieri, M. B.; Ruco, L. P.; Rendina, E.; Bonsignore, G.; Baroni, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and of their ligands, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and very late activation antigen-4, was determined in non-small cell lung carcinomas and tumor-free lung. Messenger RNA expression for interleukins (IL) IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor, and human perforin-1 was assessed by in situ hybridization on the same tissues. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was expressed in all blood vessels, whereas only a low number of vessels displayed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity. Tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells consisted of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-positive cells and of a lower number of very late activation antigen-4-positive cells. All squamous cell carcinomas consisted of intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive neoplastic cells infiltrated by lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-positive tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear and CD-la-positive Langerhans cells, whereas only a minor number of adenocarcinomas displayed a consistent number of intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive neoplastic cells. Tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells showed a wider production of cytokines when compared to bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue of tumor-free lung. Moreover, cells producing interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 were more numerous in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas. These findings indicate that the lung squamous cell carcinoma might represent a neoplastic microenvironment able to induce activation of tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells more efficiently than the adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 1 PMID:7519825

  11. Chronic epithelial kidney injury molecule-1 expression causes murine kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Xu, Fengfeng; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Grgic, Ivica; Naini, Said Movahedi; Wang, Ningning; Chen, Guochun; Xiao, Sheng; Patel, Dhruti; Henderson, Joel M.; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mou, Shan; Soeung, Savuth; McMahon, Andrew P.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury predisposes patients to the development of both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure, but the molecular details underlying this important clinical association remain obscure. We report that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an epithelial phosphatidylserine receptor expressed transiently after acute injury and chronically in fibrotic renal disease, promotes kidney fibrosis. Conditional expression of KIM-1 in renal epithelial cells (Kim1RECtg) in the absence of an injury stimulus resulted in focal epithelial vacuolization at birth, but otherwise normal tubule histology and kidney function. By 4 weeks of age, Kim1RECtg mice developed spontaneous and progressive interstitial kidney inflammation with fibrosis, leading to renal failure with anemia, proteinuria, hyperphosphatemia, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and death, analogous to progressive kidney disease in humans. Kim1RECtg kidneys had elevated expression of proinflammatory monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) at early time points. Heterologous expression of KIM-1 in an immortalized proximal tubule cell line triggered MCP-1 secretion and increased MCP-1dependent macrophage chemotaxis. In mice expressing a mutant, truncated KIM-1 polypeptide, experimental kidney fibrosis was ameliorated with reduced levels of MCP-1, consistent with a profibrotic role for native KIM-1. Thus, sustained KIM-1 expression promotes kidney fibrosis and provides a link between acute and recurrent injury with progressive chronic kidney disease. PMID:23979159

  12. Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, WC; Vaidya, VS; Liu, J; Waalkes, MP; Edwards, JR; Lamar, PC; Bernard, AM; Dumont, X; Bonventre, JV

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in injury to the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein not normally detected in the mature kidney, but is upregulated and shed into the urine following nephrotoxic injury. In this study, we determine if Kim-1 might be a useful early biomarker of Cd nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily injections of Cd for up to 12 weeks. Weekly urine samples were analyzed for Kim-1, protein, creatinine, metallothionein, and Clara cell protein CC-16. Significant levels of Kim-1 were detected in the urine by 6 weeks and continued to increase throughout the treatment period. This appearance of Kim-1 occurred 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria, and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of metallothionein and CC-16. Higher doses of Cd gave rise to higher Kim-1 excretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis showed that Kim-1 transcript levels were increased after 6 weeks at the low dose of Cd. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Kim-1 was present in proximal tubule cells of the Cd-treated rats. Our results suggest that Kim-1 may be a useful biomarker of early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. PMID:17687258

  13. POST, partner of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), targets STIM1 to multiple transporters

    PubMed Central

    Krapivinsky, Grigory; Krapivinsky, Luba; Stotz, Stephanie C.; Manasian, Yunona; Clapham, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Specialized proteins in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria tightly regulate intracellular calcium. A unique mechanism called store-operated calcium entry is activated when ER calcium is depleted, serving to restore intra-ER calcium levels. An ER calcium sensor, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), translocates within the ER membrane upon store depletion to the juxtaplasma membrane domain, where it interacts with intracellular domains of a highly calcium-selective plasma membrane ion channel, Orai1. STIM1 gates Orai1, allowing calcium to enter the cytoplasm, where it repletes the ER store via calcium-ATPases pumps. Here, we performed affinity purification of Orai1 from Jurkat cells to identify partner of STIM1 (POST), a 10-transmembranespanning segment protein of unknown function. The protein is located in the plasma membrane and ER. POST-Orai1 binding is store depletion-independent. On store depletion, the protein binds STIM1 and moves within the ER to localize near the cell membrane. This protein, TMEM20 (POST), does not affect store-operated calcium entry but does reduce plasma membrane Ca2+ pump activity. Store depletion promotes STIM1POST complex binding to smooth ER and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs and PMCAs, respectively), Na/K-ATPase, as well as to the nuclear transporters, importins-? and exportins. PMID:22084111

  14. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  15. Clinicopathological role of kidney injury molecule-1 in immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Ho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Lee, Sang-Ho; Moon, Ju-Young; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae-Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is an early and sensitive biomarker of acute kidney injury, but it is unclear if it is a biomarker of chronic glomerulonephritis. We evaluated whether urinary KIM-1 levels in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy can be a marker to reflect clinicopathological severity and predict the prognosis. Methods We measured urinary KIM-1 levels in 40 patients (15 males; mean age 36.612.9 years) with IgA nephropathy and 10 healthy people (5 males; mean age 37.39.6 years) as controls. The correlation of urinary KIM-1 levels with patients clinical parameters, histological grades, and follow-up data were analyzed using the modified H. S. Lee grading system and tubulointerstitial change scores. Results Urinary KIM-1 levels were higher in patients with IgA nephropathy than healthy controls (P=0.001). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses showed that urinary KIM-1 levels had a direct correlation with H. S. Lee grade and tubulointerstitial inflammation (P=0.004 and P=0.011, respectively). Conclusion In patients with IgA nephropathy, urinary KIM-1 has a significant correlation with histopathologic severity.

  16. 17?-Estradiol Inhibits Phosphorylation of Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, John T.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Watson, Michael J.; Archer, Christopher B.; Tarran, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Sex plays a significant role in the development of lung diseases including asthma, cancer, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. In cystic fibrosis, 17?-estradiol (E2) may inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) to impinge upon airway secretions, leaving females at greater risk of contracting lung infections. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)-mediated SOCE is essential for cell homeostasis and regulates numerous processes including cell proliferation, smooth muscle contraction, and secretion. E2 can signal nongenomically to modulate Ca2+ signaling, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms. We found that E2 exposure inhibited STIM1 translocation in airway epithelia, preventing SOCE. This correlated with a decrease in STIM1-STIM1 FRET and STIM1 mobility in E2-exposed HEK293T cells co-expressing estrogen receptor ?. We also examined the role of STIM1 phosphorylation in E2-mediated inhibition of STIM1 mobility. STIM1 is basally phosphorylated at serine 575, which is required for SOCE. Exposure to E2 significantly decreased STIM1 serine phosphorylation. Mutating serine 575 to an alanine blocked STIM1 phosphorylation, reduced basal STIM1 mobility, and rendered STIM1 insensitive to E2. These data indicate that E2 can signal nongenomically by inhibiting basal phosphorylation of STIM1, leading to a reduction in SOCE. PMID:24114840

  17. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is associated with a naïve B-cell phenotype in human tonsils.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D E; Gully, L M; Henshall, T L; Mardell, C E; Macardle, P J

    2000-08-01

    In B cells, signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is negatively modulated by the co-ligation of immunoglobulin (Ig)-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing molecules such as FcgammaRIIB1, B-cell transmembrane protein CD72, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor PIR-B, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), Ig-like transcript ILT2, biliary glycoprotein BGP-1 and B-cell co-receptor CD22. The co-expression of multiple Ig-ITIM receptors may provide B cells with different mechanisms of regulating inhibitory pathways at different stages of differentiation. In this study, we have examined the expression of a newly defined Ig-ITIM receptor, PECAM-1 (CD31) on human B-cells. Human tonsillar B cells were purified using negative selection by depleting T cells with a combination of monoclonal antibodies and magnetic bead separation. Following purification, the pattern of PECAM-1 expression was analyzed in B-cell subpopulations using two- and three-colour fluorescence. To complement this work, PECAM-1 localization in the context of distinct areas of human tonsil was defined by immunohistochemical analysis of tonsil sections. Finally to investigate somatic mutation, Ig variable (V) region genes belonging to the nonpolymorphic VH6 family were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), subcloned and sequenced from sort-purified CD19+ PECAM-1+ and CD19+ PECAM-1- B cells. Our results demonstrate that PECAM-1 is associated with an unstimulated resting B-cell phenotype, localization to the follicular mantle and marginal zones of human tonsil and expression of unmutated Ig V region genes. These studies suggest that PECAM-1 appears on the cell surface at the naive B-cell stage and is lost as B cells differentiate into memory cells, indicating that PECAM-1 is primarily involved in naive or immature B-cell function. PMID:11019910

  18. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288–2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398–2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373–2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234–2.421, p=0.787). Conclusions Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  19. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. RESULTS We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288-2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398-2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373-2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234-2.421, p=0.787). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  20. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Lalemarzi, Hamed; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31) is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH-3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 ?g of recombinant construct and 6 ?l of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins. PMID:26236664

  1. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1?/? mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1?/? mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1?/? mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(IC) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1?/? macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  2. BLOOD LEUKOCYTE EXPRESSION OF LFA-1 AND INTRACELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 (ICAM-1) AFTER INHALATION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Genetic variants in Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1): a validation study of a novel endothelial cell venous thrombosis risk factor

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Hugoline G.; Bezemer, Irene D.; Vossen, Carla Y.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Behringer, Stefan; Hasstedt, Sandra J.; Levy, Samuel; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Bovill, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a protein C deficient family, we recently identified a candidate gene, CADM1, which interacted with protein C deficiency in increasing the risk of venous thrombosis (VT). This study aimed to determine whether CADM1 variants also interact with protein C pathway abnormalities in increasing VT risk outside this family. Materials and methods We genotyped over 300 CADM1 variants in the population-based MEGA case-control study. We compared VT risks between cases with low protein C activity (n=194), low protein S levels (n=23), high factor VIII activity (n=165) or factor V Leiden carriers (n=580), and all 4004 controls. Positive associations were repeated in all 3496 cases and 4004 controls. Results We found 22 variants which were associated with VT in one of the protein C pathway risk groups. After mutual adjustment, six variants remained associated with VT. The strongest evidence was found for rs220842 and rs11608105. For rs220842, the odds ratio (OR) for VT was 3.2 (95% CI 1.29.0) for cases with high factor VIII activity compared with controls. In addition, this variant was associated with an increased risk of VT in the overall study population (OR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.02.2). The other variant, rs11608105, was not associated with VT in the overall study population (OR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.81.1), but showed a strong effect on VT risk (OR: 21, 95% CI 5.188) when combined with low protein C or S levels. Conclusions In a population-based association study, we confirm a role for CADM1 variants in increasing the risk of VT by interaction with protein C pathway abnormalities. PMID:25306186

  4. Detection of Bidirectional Signaling During Integrin Activation and Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Stuart M.; Dixit, Neha; Simon, Scott I.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil arrest and migration on inflamed endothelium is dependent upon a conformational shift in CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) from a low to high affinity and clustered state which determines the strength and lifetime of bond formation with intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Cytoskeletal adaptor proteins kindlin-3 and talin-1 anchor clustered LFA-1 to the cytoskeleton and support the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. We employ microfluidic flow channels and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to evaluate the spatiotemporal regulation of LFA-1 affinity and bond formation that facilitate the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. Methodology is presented to correlate the relationship between integrin conformation, bond formation with ICAM-1, and cytoskeletal engagement and adhesion strengthening necessary to achieve a migratory phenotype. PMID:24504956

  5. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J.; de Leij, Lou M.F.H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of ?40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally lower level than carcinoma cells. In early studies, EpCAM was proposed to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule. However, recent insights revealed a more versatile role for EpCAM that is not limited only to cell adhesion but includes diverse processes such as signaling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Cell surface expression of EpCAM may actually prevent cell-cell adhesion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on EpCAM biology in relation to other cell adhesion molecules. We discuss the implications of the newly identified functions of EpCAM in view of its prognostic relevance in carcinoma, inflammatory pathophysiology, and tissue development and regeneration as well as its role in normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17600130

  6. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  7. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  8. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 for Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijia; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Chunlin; Qi, Chaojun; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a proximal tubular injury biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), with variable performance characteristics depending on clinical and population settings. Methods Meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of urinary KIM-1 in AKI. Relevant studies were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Results A total of 2979 patients from 11 eligible studies were enrolled in the analysis. Five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and four case-control studies were identified for meta-analysis. The estimated sensitivity of urinary KIM-1 for the diagnosis of AKI was 74.0% (95% CI, 61.0%–84.0%), and specificity was 86.0% (95% CI, 74.0%–93.0%). The SROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.86(0.83–0.89). Subgroup analysis suggested that population settings and detection time were the key factors affecting the efficiency of KIM-1 for AKI diagnosis. Limitation Various population settings, different definition of AKI and Serum creatinine level used as the standard might have influence on AKI diagnosis. The relatively small number of studies and heterogeneity between them also affected the evaluation. Conclusion Urinary KIM-1 may be a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI with considerable predictive value, especially for cardiac surgery patients, and its potential value needs to be validated in large studies and across a broader scope of clinical settings. PMID:24404151

  10. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

  11. Adhesion of Surfactant Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, P.; Bibette, J.; Roux, D.

    1997-03-01

    By contrast to the predictions of the electrostatic double layer theory we report that ionic surfactant layers can be strongly attractive. By comparing the behaviors and the structures of different systems going from soap films to lamellar phases through emulsion droplets we show that this phenomena is general and closely linked to the intrinsic nature of the surfactant. This kind of adhesion has important consequences on the colloidal stability of emulsion droplets or multilamellar spherulites. Moreover , it is shown to be useful to induce and to control the adhesion of particles onto substrates leading to new routes for the numerous applications based on colloidal deposit.

  12. Metallic Adhesion and Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Although metallic adhesion has played a central part in much tribological speculation, few quantitative theoretical calculations are available. This is in part because of the difficulties involved in such calculations and in part because the theoretical physics community is not particularly involved with tribology. The calculations currently involved in metallic adhesion are summarized and shown that these can be generalized into a scaled universal relationship. Relationships exist to other types of covalent bonding, such as cohesive, chemisorptive, and molecular bonding. A simple relationship between surface energy and cohesive energy is offered.

  13. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  14. Adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte trafficking following immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Miles, D W; Happerfield, L C; Bobrow, L G; Rubens, R D

    1996-04-01

    The relevant anti-tumour mechanisms of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in vivo are unclear but an influx of T-lymphocytes and macrophages has been noted in regressing lesions. One of the dose limiting toxicities of rIL-2 is the development of a capillary leak syndrome attributed to widespread endothelial activation. Changes in expression of endothelial and leucocyte-associated adhesion molecules were assessed in tumour and uninvolved skin in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving rIL-2. Increased expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, its leucocyte-associated ligand, leucocyte function associated molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule and its ligand, very late after activation antigen-4 as well as members of the selectin family of adhesion molecules, were noted in uninvolved skin following rIL-2. Expression of these adhesion molecules was noted in tumour stroma before rIL-2 but little change was observed following rIL-2 infusion. An influx of monocytes and T-lymphocytes (expressing the IL-2 receptor and of the memory subtype) and a lower number of neutrophils was noted in uninvolved skin following rIL-2. Although monocytes and T-lymphocytes were present in tumour stroma before rIL-2 no changes were observed following infusion. The changes noted in the dermis contrast with those seen at tumour sites and may partly explain the low therapeutic index of rIL-2. PMID:8732338

  15. Dietary patterns are associated with biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)2

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Jenny, Nancy S; Jiang, Rui; Herrington, David M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns may influence cardiovascular disease risk through effects on inflammation and endothelial activation. Objective We examined relations between dietary patterns and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Design At baseline, diet (food-frequency questionnaire) and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), homocysteine, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin were assessed in 5089 nondiabetic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results Four dietary patterns were derived by using factor analysis. The fats and processed meats pattern (fats, oils, processed meats, fried potatoes, salty snacks, and desserts) was positively associated with CRP (P for trend < 0.001), IL-6 (P for trend < 0.001), and homocysteine (P for trend = 0.002). The beans, tomatoes, and refined grains pattern (beans, tomatoes, refined grains, and high-fat dairy products) was positively related to sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.007). In contrast, the whole grains and fruit pattern (whole grains, fruit, nuts, and green leafy vegetables) was inversely associated with CRP, IL-6, homocysteine (P for trend ≤ 0.001), and sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.034), and the vegetables and fish pattern (fish and dark-yellow, cruciferous, and other vegetables) was inversely related to IL-6 (P for trend = 0.009). CRP, IL-6, and homocysteine relations across the fats and processed meats and whole grains and fruit patterns were independent of demographics and lifestyle factors and were not modified by race-ethnicity. CRP and homocysteine relations were independent of waist circumference. Conclusions These results corroborate previous findings that empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with inflammation and show that these relations in an ethnically diverse population with unique dietary habits are similar to findings in more homogeneous populations. PMID:16762949

  16. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  17. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  18. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  19. Adept Adhesion Reduction Solution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icodextrin. The fluid is used during or after laparoscopic gynecological surgery to separate and protect tissues and decrease the number of new adhesions after surgery. Adept® is supplied sterile, in a single-use bag. How does it work? During surgery, ...

  20. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  1. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  2. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  3. Adhesive for cryogenic temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Adhesive, which bonds a metal liner to a filament wound composite structure used for cryogenic pressure vessels, prevents the metal liner from buckling under depressurization. The adhesive consists of adducts of urethane and epoxy resins.

  4. Natural course of postsurgical adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, E A; Trimbos-Kemper, T C

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the natural course of postsurgical adhesion formation, a descriptive animal study was performed in a standardized rat adhesion model, involving the uterine horn and peritoneal side wall. Extent and type of postsurgical adhesion formation was evaluated at increasing postoperative time intervals up to 1 year, both through inter- and intra-animal observations (laparotomy and repeated-laparotomy group). The extent of the adhesions was found to be similar while the type of the adhesions changed markedly, especially during the early observation periods. From day 1 until 1 month post- operatively, the adhesions became increasingly more organized and vascular and were separable with sharp dissection only. From the present study it was concluded that spontaneous lysis of postsurgical adhesions, once they are established, does not seem to occur. The most optimum time for surgical intervention when scheduled to lyse newly formed adhesions will be between 8 days and 1 month after the initial procedure. PMID:8747290

  5. Resistance heating releases structural adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glemser, N. N.

    1967-01-01

    Composite adhesive package bonds components together for testing and enables separation when testing is completed. The composite of adhesives, insulation and a heating element separate easily when an electrical current is applied.

  6. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  7. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  8. Ceramic Adhesive for High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Everett G.

    1987-01-01

    Fused-silica/magnesium-phosphate adhesive resists high temperatures and vibrations. New adhesive unaffected by extreme temperatures and vibrations. Assuring direct bonding of gap filters to tile sidewalls, adhesive obviates expensive and time-consuming task of removal, treatment, and replacement of tiles.

  9. Aluminum ions enhance polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.; Taylor, L. T.

    1981-01-01

    Adding complexed aluminum ions raises useful temperature of polyimide adhesive without embrittling it or reducing long term stability. Adhesives may be applied to prepared substrate surface without supports. Possible substrates are metal, composite, or polymeric film. Adhesive is excellent where bond flexibility is required.

  10. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  11. Adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2014-04-18

    The adhesion behaviors of superhydrophobic surfaces have become an emerging topic to researchers in various fields as a vital step in the interactions between materials and organisms/materials. Controlling the chemical compositions and topological structures via various methods or technologies is essential to fabricate and modulate different adhesion properties, such as low-adhesion, high-adhesion and anisotropic adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces. We summarize the recent developments in both natural superhydrophobic surfaces and artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with various adhesions and also pay attention to superhydrophobic surfaces switching between low- and high-adhesion. The methods to regulate or translate the adhesion of superhydrophobic surfaces can be considered from two perspectives. One is to control the chemical composition and change the surface geometric structure on the surfaces, respectively or simultaneously. The other is to provide external stimulations to induce transitions, which is the most common method for obtaining switchable adhesions. Additionally, adhesion behaviors on solid-solid interfaces, such as the behaviors of cells, bacteria, biomolecules and icing on superhydrophobic surfaces are also noticeable and controversial. This review is aimed at giving a brief and crucial overview of adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24575424

  12. Clinical Recommendation: Labial Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Janice L; Romano, Mary E; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Labial adhesions, also known as labial agglutination, are a common finding in prepubertal adolescents. They are defined as fusion of the labia minora in the midline or are termed vulvar adhesions when they occur below the labia minora (inner labia). Patients are often asymptomatic but might present with genitourinary complaints. The decision for treatment is based on symptoms. The mainstay of treatment in asymptomatic patients is conservative, with careful attention to vulvar hygiene and reassurance to parents. In symptomatic patients, topical treatment with estrogen and/or steroid cream is often curative. Less often, corrective surgery is necessary. Recurrence is common until a patient goes through puberty. These recommendations are intended for pediatric and gynecologic health care providers who care for pediatric and adolescent girls to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26162697

  13. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  14. The autonomic phenotype of rumination.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Shapiro, David; Davydov, Dmitry M; Goldstein, Iris B; Mills, Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that ruminative thoughts may be mediators of the prolonged physiological effects of stress. We hypothesized that autonomic dysregulation plays a role in the relation between rumination and health. Rumination was induced by an anger-recall task in 45 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) change scores were evaluated to obtain the autonomic phenotype of rumination. Personality traits and endothelial activation were examined for their relation to autonomic responses during rumination. Degree of endothelial activation was assessed by circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Vagal withdrawal during rumination was greater for women than men. Larger decreases in the high frequency component of HRV were associated with higher levels of anger-in, depression, and sICAM-1 levels. BRS reactivity was negatively related to trait anxiety. BEI reactivity was positively related to anger-in, hostility, anxiety, and depression. Lower BEI and BRS recovery were associated with lower social desirability and higher anger-out, anxiety, and depression. Findings suggest that the autonomic dysregulation that characterizes rumination plays a role in the relationships between personality and cardiovascular health. PMID:19272312

  15. Association between Endothelial Biomarkers and Arterial Elasticity in Young Adults – The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Valappil, Narayanan I.; Jacobs, David R.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Gross, Myron D.; Arnett, Donna K.; Glasser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background Reduced arterial elasticity and endothelial dysfunction both may indicate early cardiovascular (CV) disease in young adults. Pulse waveform analysis estimates large (LAE) and small (SAE) artery elasticity noninvasively. We assessed the associations between LAE and SAE and markers of endothelial dysfunction and CV risk factors. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) assessed arterial elasticity and other characteristics cross-sectionally in 389 men and 381 women aged 27–42 years in 1995 (CARDIA year 10) and circulating levels of P-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) in 2000. We adjusted for variables included in the estimation of arterial elasticity (year 10 height, body mass index, age, heart rate, and blood pressure) and other year 10 characteristics. Results Mean adjusted SAE was 8.5 vs. 7.6 ml/mmHg ×100 in those with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≤4 vs. microalbuminuria (ratio > 25; ptrend =0.008). Mean LAE was 25.6 vs. 24.2 ml/mmHg ×10 in the lowest vs. highest quintile of P-selectin (ptrend =0.004). sICAM-1 was unrelated to either LAE or SAE. Plasma triglycerides were inversely related to LAE (ptrend =0.029). Cigarette smokers had lower SAE than nonsmokers (ptrend = 0.009). Conclusion In addition to smoking and triglycerides, biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction were associated with impaired LAE and SAE in young adults. PMID:19343081

  16. Genetic variants in ABO blood group region, plasma soluble E-selectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Kraft, Peter; Jensen, Majken; van Dam, Rob M.; Sun, Qi; Girman, Cynthia J.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Hunter, David J.; Rimm, Eric; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) levels have been related to various conditions such as type 2 diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study among women of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study, and identified genome-wide significant associations between a cluster of markers at the ABO locus (9q34) and plasma sE-selectin concentration. The strongest association was with rs651007, which explained ?9.71% of the variation in sE-selectin concentrations. SNP rs651007 was also nominally associated with soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) (P = 0.026) and TNF-R2 levels (P = 0.018), independent of sE-selectin. In addition, the genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes were associated with sE-selectin concentrations (P = 3.55 10?47). Moreover, we found that the genetic-inferred blood group B was associated with a decreased risk (OR = 0.44, 0.270.70) of type 2 diabetes compared with blood group O, adjusting for sE-selectin, sICAM-1, TNF-R2 and other covariates. Our findings indicate that the genetic variants at ABO locus affect plasma sE-selectin levels and diabetes risk. The genetic associations with diabetes risk were independent of sE-selectin levels. PMID:20147318

  17. Increased plasma levels of BDNF and inflammatory markers in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mayara Chaves; Gonalves, Gisele Santos; Rocha, Natlia Pessoa; Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida; Gualberto Cintra, Marco Tlio; Jardim de Paula, Jonas; Jos Ravic de Miranda, Lus Felipe; Clayton de Souza Ferreira, Alessandro; Teixeira, Antnio Lcio; Gomes, Karina Braga; Carvalho, Maria das Graas; Sousa, Lirlndia P

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may play considerable roles in AD. In this study we measured, through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neuronal growth factor (NGF), as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptors, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), in 50 AD patients, 37 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 56 healthy elderly controls. BDNF levels, expressed as median and interquartile range, were higher for AD patients (2545.3, 1497.4-4153.4pg/ml) compared to controls (1503.8, 802.3-2378.4pg/ml), P<0.001. sICAM-1 was also higher in AD patients. sTNFR1 levels were increased in AD when compared to controls and also to MCI. GDNF, NGF and sTNFR2 levels showed no significant differences among the studied groups. The increase in BDNF might reflect a compensatory mechanism against early neurodegeneration and seems to be related to inflammation. sTNFR1 appears to mark not only the inflammatory state but also differentiates between MCI and AD, which may be an additional tool for differentiating degrees of cognitive impairment. PMID:24576746

  18. Adhesion between cerebroside bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, K; Snyder, D S; McIntosh, T J

    1999-11-16

    The structure, hydration properties, and adhesion energy of the membrane glycolipid galactosylceramide (GalCer) were studied by osmotic stress/X-ray diffraction analysis.(1) Fully hydrated GalCer gave a repeat period of 67 A, which decreased less than 2 A with application of applied osmotic pressures as large as 1.6 x 10(9) dyn/cm(2). These results, along with the invariance of GalCer structure obtained by a Fourier analysis of the X-ray data, indicated that there was an extremely narrow fluid space (less than the diameter of a single water molecule) between fully hydrated cerebroside bilayers. Electron density profiles showed that the hydrocarbon chains from apposing GalCer monolayers partially interdigitated in the center of the bilayer. To obtain information on the adhesive properties of GalCer bilayers, we incorporated into the bilayer various mole ratios of the negatively charged lipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) to provide known electrostatic repulsion between the bilayers. Although 17 and 20 mol % DPPG swelled (disjoined) the GalCer bilayers by an amount predictable from electrostatic double-layer theory, 5, 10, 13, and 15 mol % DPPG did not disjoin the bilayers. By calculating the magnitude of the electrostatic pressure necessary to disjoin the bilayers, we estimated the adhesion energy for GalCer bilayers to be about -1.5 erg/cm(2), a much larger value than that previously measured for phosphatidylcholine bilayers. The observed discontinuous disjoining with increased electrostatic pressure and this relatively large value for adhesion energy indicated the presence of an attractive interaction, in addition to van der Waals attraction, between cerebroside bilayers. Possible attractive interactions are hydrogen bond formation and hydrophobic interactions between the galactose headgroups of apposing GalCer bilayers. PMID:10563811

  19. [Fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis].

    PubMed

    Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; St?pie?, Adam; Staszewski, Jacek; Sadowska, Marta; Bogus?awska-Walecka, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare disease with insidious course. It causes damage of the spinal cord and nerve roots. The causes of adhesive arachnoiditis include earlier traumatic injury of the spinal cord, surgery, intrathecal administration of therapeutic substances (e.g. anaesthetics, chemotherapy) or contrast media, bleeding, and inflammation. It can also be idiopathic or iatrogenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old patient with fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis which was provoked by spinal surgery and caused severe neurological disability with profound, progressive, flaccid paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. The electromyography (EMG) showed serious damage of nerves of both lower limbs at the level of motor roots L2-S2 and damage of the motor neuron at the level of Th11-Th12 on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral and thoracic part of the spinal cord demonstrated cystic liquid spaces in the lumen of the dural sac in the bottom part of the cervical spine and at the Th2-Th10 level, modelling the lateral and anterior surface of the cord. Because of the vast lesions, surgery could not be performed. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation brought only a small clinical improvement. PMID:23023442

  20. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  1. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  2. Grape polyphenols reduce blood pressure and increase flow-mediated vasodilation in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Aristizabal, Juan C; Blesso, Christopher N; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of grape polyphenols in individuals classified with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men (n = 24) aged 30-70 y were randomly assigned to consume either a freeze-dried grape polyphenol powder (GRAPE) or a placebo for 30 d in a double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 3-wk washout period. Participants were asked to maintain their usual diet and physical activity during the study and abstain from consuming polyphenol-rich foods. MetS criteria including blood pressure (BP) and markers of vascular endothelial function including brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), plasma total nitrite + nitrate (NOx) to estimate NO production, plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured at the end of each dietary period. Systolic BP (P < 0.0025) and plasma sICAM-1 concentrations (P < 0.025) were lower, whereas the FMD response was higher (P < 0.0001), during the GRAPE compared with the placebo period. In addition, changes in sVCAM-1 concentrations between periods were positively correlated with changes in systolic BP (r = 0.45; P < 0.05). Although NOx concentrations did not differ between periods, changes in systolic BP were negatively correlated with changes in NOx concentrations (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), indicating the vasodilating properties of NO. Other MetS variables did not differ between the GRAPE and placebo periods. These results suggest that GRAPE polyphenols may potentiate vasorelaxation and reduce BP and circulating cell adhesion molecules, resulting in improvements in vascular function. PMID:22810991

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers may diminish human macrophages adhesion to endothelial surface.

    PubMed

    Stachowska, Ewa; Siennicka, Aldona; Baśkiewcz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Bober, Joanna; Machalinski, Boguslaw; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-02-01

    Dysfunction of endothelial cells and activation of monocytes in the vascular wall are important pathogenetic factors of atherosclerosis. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) can modulate the function of immune system in humans: reduce the concentration of atherogenic lipoproteins, and the intensity of inflammatory processes in the plasma. In this paper, we focus on macrophage's surface integrins (β1 integrin CD49d/CD29-(VLA4); Mac-1 as well as endothelial human vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) surface adhesins: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) expression in relation to CLA isomer used during cell culture. Both CLA isomers decreased expression of VLA-4 and Mac-1 on macrophages compared with control cells (cultured with bovine serum albumine (BSA) or oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins). cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the endothelium surface. Strong tendency to reduce of adhesion of macrophages to HUVEC in the cells cultured with CLA isomers was observed. The potential role of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the reduction of adhesion of macrophages to the HUVEC--one of the important steps in the inflammatory process, can be considerate. These mechanisms may contribute to the potent anti-atherosclerotic effects of CLA in vivo. PMID:21721848

  4. Electrostatics of membrane adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Marcelja, S

    1992-01-01

    We consider electrical double layer interaction under the conditions typically encountered during membrane fusion. Within the physiological concentration range of monovalent electrolytes the interaction is repulsive and the Poisson-Boltzmann calculation may be used to evaluate the force. When divalent counterions are added, strong ion-ion correlations make the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation inapplicable. We use the anisotropic hypernetted chain method to show that in the presence of small amounts of divalent counterions in adsorption equilibrium with the surfaces, the double layer interaction turns into attraction. This attractive electrostatic force may be the balancing contribution controlling membrane adhesion. PMID:1600076

  5. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has been shown to be unreliable. The safest, most effective, and successful therapy is surgical intervention to remove the GI foreign body. If performed early enough, complete recovery of the animal can be expected. Differential diagnoses for polyurethane adhesive ingestion include any potential cause of GI obstruction. The public is largely unaware of the hazards that ingestion of this product may produce. Public education efforts are needed to inform pet owners about the hazards of these glues and the overall importance of providing our companion animals with safe, poison-free environments. PMID:23796486

  6. Adhesion properties of gecko setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ginel; Peattie, Anne; Daniels, Roxanne; Full, Robert; Kenny, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Millions of keratin hairs on gecko feet, called setae, act as a spectacular dry adhesive. Each seta branches into hundreds of smaller fibers that terminate in spatula-shaped ends. Morphological differences between the setae from different gecko species are suspected to affect both single-seta and whole-animal adhesion properties. Single-seta adhesive force measurements made using a MEMS piezoresistive cantilever capable of two-axis measurements are presented.

  7. Elastomer-toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the effects of added elastomers on the Tg, thermal stability, adhesive strength, and fracture toughness of LARC-13, a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive. Various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicone elastomers were incorporated into the polyimide resin (1) as physical polyblends, and (2) by chemically reacting the elastomers with the polyimide backbone. Adhesive single lap-shear and T-peel strengths were measured before and after aging at elevated temperature. A tapered double-cantilever beam specimen was used to determine the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified polyimide adhesives.

  8. Strain gage adhesives -- Operating characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, R. L.; Reese, R. T.

    1994-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the adhesives which are used to bond the strain gages to substrates. Strain gage installations include four basic parts: the gage, the adhesive used to attach the gage to the stressed surface, the coatings used to protect the gage over its service life, and the electrical circuitry and data acquisition system used to record the strains. This paper describes the operating characteristics of the adhesives. The figures developed in this paper summarize the information available on adhesives from excellent manufacturer's catalogs, texts and references, and from experiences from the SEM Western Regional Strain Gage Committee.

  9. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 g/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-?-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-?-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. PMID:23422838

  10. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Won Hee; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Because we hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis, the present study focused on the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin consumption on high-cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. During our study, New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a normal diet, a normal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HCD), or an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin. At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to determine the levels of serum lipids, cytokines, and soluble adhesion molecule levels. Gene expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortas were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Compared with the HCD group, rabbits fed an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin had significantly less aortic lesion areas and neointima thickening. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression. PMID:25282128

  11. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate. PMID:26167951

  12. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  13. Effects of monoclonal antibodies to adhesion molecules on eosinophilic myocarditis in Toxocara canis-infected CBA/J mice.

    PubMed

    Hokibara, S; Takamoto, M; Isobe, M; Sugane, K

    1998-11-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis followed by fibrosis of the cardiac muscle was observed in addition to peripheral blood eosinophilia in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis. The infected mice were used as an experimental model of eosinophilic endomyocarditis associated with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Effects of in vivo treatment with MoAbs to adhesion molecules on eosinophilic myocarditis were examined using this experimental model. Expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells of capillaries in myocardium were increased 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Infiltration of very late antigen (VLA)-4+ and/or CD11a+ cells into the cardiac muscles was also observed 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Infiltration of eosinophils into the heart was significantly suppressed by anti-CD18 MoAb and anti-VLA-4 MoAb, and focal fibrosis of the cardiac muscle was also significantly suppressed by combined administration of anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 MoAbs. These results indicate that adhesion molecules may play important roles in eosinophilic myocarditis, and that blockade of interaction between adhesion molecules and their ligands may help to control it. PMID:9822282

  14. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  15. Elastomer-Toughened Polyimide Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    T-Peel strengths of adhesive/Titanium bonds are compared for LARC-13 with and without elastomer additives. Elastomer toughening (incorporation of small amounts of rubber into polymer matrix) has been one of the most successful methods for modifying polymer toughness. Addition polyimides are currently under consideration as high-temperature adhesives for bonding composite materials such as titanium.

  16. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  20. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis. PMID:21885699

  1. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  2. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  3. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  4. Epidural Lysis of Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  5. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, No; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (?-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  6. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P < .001) before but not after delivery. Expression of the integrin counter receptors on leukocytes was similarly increased in preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i. The effect on cultured endothelial cells and the rapid decrease after delivery suggests the presence of a circulating serum factor which increases endothelial cell [Ca2+]i and enhances adhesion molecule expression. PMID:9039117

  7. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications. PMID:25841348

  8. Universal adhesives: the next evolution in adhesive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Alex, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Every so often a new material, technique, or technological breakthrough spurs a paradigm shift in the way dentistry is practiced. The development and evolution of reliable enamel and dentin bonding agents is one such example. Indeed, the so-called "cosmetic revolution" in dentistry blossomed in large part due to dramatic advances in adhesive technology. It is the ability to bond various materials in a reasonably predictable fashion to both enamel and dentin substrates that enables dentists to routinely place porcelain veneers, direct and indirect composites, and a plethora of other restorative and esthetic materials. In fact, the longevity and predictability of many (if not most) current restorative procedures is wholly predicated on the dentist's ability to bond various materials to tooth tissues. Adhesive systems have progressed from the largely ineffective systems of the 1970s and early 1980s to the relatively successful total- and self-etching systems of today. The latest players in the adhesive marketplace are the so-called "universal adhesives." In theory, these systems have the potential to significantly simplify and expedite adhesive protocols and may indeed represent the next evolution in adhesive dentistry. But what defines a universal system, and are all these new systems truly "universal" and everything they are claimed to be? This article will examine the origin, chemistry, strengths, weaknesses, and clinical relevance of this new genre of dental adhesives. PMID:25822403

  9. A randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effects of a nutraceutical combination of red yeast rice, silybum marianum and octasonol on lipid profile, endothelial and inflammatory parameters.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; D'Angelo, A; Fogari, E; Maffioli, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of red yeast rice, Silybum marianum and octasonol compared to placebo on lipid profile, endothelial, and inflammatory parameters in low risk dislipidemic patients. One hundred and thirty-four dislipidemic patients were randomised to take placebo or a patented nutraceutical association in tablet form (Zeta ColestRT), 1 tablet /day (immediately after the dinner), for three months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. At baseline and after 3 months the following were evaluated: body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), metalloprotineases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The nutraceutical combination decreased total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to baseline (p = 0.042, and p = 0.041, respectively) and to placebo (p = 0.039, and p = 0.037, respectively). Triglycerides were reduced by the active treatment (p = 0.039), but not by placebo, even if, in group to group comparison, no differences were recorded (p = 0.061). All adipocytokines were reduced by the nutraceutical combination, in particular p = 0.044 for sICAM-1, p = 0.045 for sVCAM-1, p = 0.040 for sE-selectin, p = 0.035 for MMP-2, p = 0.039 for MMP-9, p = 0.038 for Hs-CRP, p = 0.036 for TNF-α, and p = 0.036 for IL-6 compared to baseline, and p = 0.042 for sICAM-1, p = 0.043 for sVCAM-1, p = 0.042 for sE-selectin, p = 0.031 for MMP-2, p = 0.038 for MMP-9, p =0.038 for Hs-CRP, and p = 0.043 for TNF-alpha, espectively, compared to placebo. We can conclude that a combination of red yeast rice, Silybum marianum and octasonol was effective in improving lipid profile, endothelial, and inflammatory parameters in low risk dislipidemic patients. PMID:25001663

  10. A Potential Role for Plasma Uric Acid in the Endothelial Pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; van de Hoef, Diana L.; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P.; Diakite, Mahamadou; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory cytokinemia and systemic activation of the microvascular endothelium are central to the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recently, parasite-derived uric acid (UA) was shown to activate human immune cells in vitro, and plasma UA levels were associated with inflammatory cytokine levels and disease severity in Malian children with malaria. Since UA is associated with endothelial inflammation in non-malaria diseases, we hypothesized that elevated UA levels contribute to the endothelial pathology of P. falciparum malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured levels of UA and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-Selectin), thrombomodulin (sTM), tissue factor (sTF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the plasma of Malian children aged 0.517 years with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n?=?487) and non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM, n?=?68). In 69 of these children, we measured these same factors once when they experienced a malaria episode and twice when they were healthy (i.e., before and after the malaria transmission season). We found that levels of UA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin and sTM increase during a malaria episode and return to basal levels at the end of the transmission season (p<0.0001). Plasma levels of UA and these four endothelial biomarkers correlate with parasite density and disease severity. In children with UM, UA levels correlate with parasite density (r?=?0.092, p?=?0.043), sICAM-1 (r ?=?0.255, p<0.0001) and sTM (r?=?0.175, p?=?0.0001) levels. After adjusting for parasite density, UA levels predict sTM levels. Conclusions/Significance Elevated UA levels may contribute to malaria pathogenesis by damaging endothelium and promoting a procoagulant state. The correlation between UA levels and parasite densities suggests that parasitized erythrocytes are one possible source of excess UA. UA-induced shedding of endothelial TM may represent a novel mechanism of malaria pathogenesis, in which activated thrombin induces fibrin deposition and platelet aggregation in microvessels. This protocol is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00669084). PMID:23349902

  11. Adhesion dynamics: mechanisms and measurements.

    PubMed

    Worth, Daniel C; Parsons, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental requirement for survival, differentiation and migration of numerous cell types during both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Different types of adhesion structures have been classified in different cell types or tissue environments. The best studied of these are focal adhesions which are found on a wide variety of cell types and will be the main focus of this review. Many years of research into the control of adhesion has yielded a wealth of information regarding the complexity of protein composition of these critical points of cell:ECM contact. Moreover, it has emerged that adhesions are not only highly ordered, but also dynamic structures under tight spatial control at the subcellular level to enable localised responses to extracellular cues. However, it is only in the last decade that the relative dynamics of these adhesion proteins have been closely studied. Here we provide an overview of the imaging strategies that have been developed and implemented to study the intricacies and hierarchy of protein turnover within focal adhesions. The caveats of employing these imaging techniques, as well as future directions will also be discussed. PMID:18485788

  12. Changes in endogenous cytokines, adhesion molecules and platelets during cytokine-induced tumour necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    de Kossodo, S.; Moore, R.; Gschmeissner, S.; East, N.; Upton, C.; Balkwill, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms of anti-tumour activity and necrosis induced by combinations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). In a breast cancer xenograft model, locally injected recombinant human TNF-alpha arrested growth of established tumours in the absence of overt necrosis. Macroscopic necrosis occurred when rat IFN-gamma, which had no anti-tumour activity as a single agent, was given systemically. Treatment with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma caused focal engorgement of tumour capillaries with erythrocytes, intravascular recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells and platelet adherence to the tumour vascular endothelium 4 h after the combined treatment. This was followed by destruction of tumour vascular endothelium and both necrosis and apoptosis of tumour cells. Concomitant with these changes, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the increase of stromal (murine) mRNA levels for TNF-alpha, TNF receptor 55 kDa, TNF receptor 75 kDa, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, P-selectin and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Thus, the effect of the combined TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma therapy involved the selective destruction of the tumour vasculature, death of tumour cells and increased expression of a series of stromal cytokines, cytokine receptors and adhesion molecules, which could be implicated in the observed events. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7577463

  13. Serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Velikova, G.; Banks, R. E.; Gearing, A.; Hemingway, I.; Forbes, M. A.; Preston, S. R.; Hall, N. R.; Jones, M.; Wyatt, J.; Miller, K.; Ward, U.; Al-Maskatti, J.; Singh, S. M.; Finan, P. J.; Ambrose, N. S.; Primrose, J. N.; Selby, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of the soluble adhesion molecules E-cadherin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were investigated in 48 patients with colorectal cancer before treatment, and their relation to clinical, histological and routine laboratory parameters was examined. Data were collected on tumour stage at presentation, presence and sites of metastatic disease, tumour pathology and results of routine laboratory tests. Serum concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly elevated in the patients with colorectal cancer in comparison with a group of healthy subjects (P < 0.00001). Levels of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were increased both in patients with local and those with metastatic disease. Although elevated in some patients soluble E-cadherin and E-selectin concentrations were not significantly elevated compared with the control group (P = 0.71 and P = 0.052 respectively). The levels of circulating ICAM-1 were significantly correlated with those of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. A correlation was also found between the serum concentrations of E-selectin and ICAM-1 and alkaline phosphatase, total white cell count and platelet count. VCAM-1 was positively correlated with age and negatively with degree of tumour differentiation and haemoglobin concentration. The biological implications and possible clinical relevance of these findings are discussed. PMID:9667659

  14. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Bashkarev, A. Ya.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. A.; Sytov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    The time dependence of the potential difference that appears between two VT6 titanium alloy plates separated by a mixture of epoxy resin with an epoxy hardener is studied. One of the plates is placed in epoxy resin until equilibrium is established, and the second plate is coated with an as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Ti2+ ions through epoxy resin. Photoluminescence and infrared absorption spectra of epoxy adhesive on the VT6 alloy surface are recorded. Their analysis shows that the Ti2+ ions having penetrated into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener interact with CN groups in adhesive molecules to form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated with coordination compounds forms at the alloy/adhesive interface, which leads to an increase in the strength of the adhesive.

  15. Chlorophyll-Related Compounds Inhibit Cell Adhesion and Inflammation in Human Aortic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Huang, Ya-Ping; Lai, Jun-You; Hsieh, Wen-Bin; Huang, Meng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of chlorophyll-related compounds (CRCs) and chlorophyll (Chl) a+b on inflammation in human aortic endothelial cells. Adhesion molecule expression and interleukin (IL)-8, nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 protein, and NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding were assessed. The effects of CRCs on inflammatory signaling pathways of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, respectively induced by IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, in human aortic smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro were also investigated. HAECs were pretreated with 10 ?M of CRCs, Chl a+b, and aspirin (Asp) for 18?h followed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (2?ng/mL) for 6?h, and U937 cell adhesion was determined. TNF-?induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly inhibited by CRCs. Moreover, CRCs and Chl a+b significantly attenuated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and IL-8 expressions. Treatments also significantly decreased in NF-?B expression, DNA binding, and AP-1 DNA binding by CRCs and Asp. Thus, CRCs exert anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-?B and AP-1 signaling. Ten micromoles of CRCs and Asp upregulated the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Drosophila) (SMAD4) in the TGF-? receptor signaling pathway, and SMAD3/4 transcription activity was also increased. Ten micromoles of CRCs were able to potently inhibit STAT3-binding activity by repressing IL-6induced STAT3 expression. Our results provide a potential mechanism that explains the anti-inflammatory activities of these CRCs. PMID:24066944

  16. Hydrogen sulfide reduces cell adhesion and relevant inflammatory triggering by preventing ADAM17-dependent TNF-? activation.

    PubMed

    Perna, Alessandra F; Sepe, Immacolata; Lanza, Diana; Capasso, Rosanna; Zappavigna, Silvia; Capasso, Giovambattista; Caraglia, Michele; Ingrosso, Diego

    2013-07-01

    H2S is the third endogenous gaseous mediator, after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, possessing pleiotropic effects, including cytoprotection and anti-inflammatory action. We analyzed, in an in vitro model entailing monocyte adhesion to an endothelial monolayer, the changes induced by H2S on various potential targets, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, playing a crucial role in inflammation and cell adhesion. Results show that H2S prevents the increase in monocyte adhesion induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Under these conditions, downregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chemokine C-C motif receptor 2, and increase of cluster of differentiation 36 could be detected in monocytes. In endothelial cells, H2 S treatment reduces the increase in MCP-1, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), both at the gene expression and protein levels. Cystathionine ?-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, the major H2S forming enzymes, are downregulated in endothelial cells. In addition, H2S significantly reduces activation of ADAM17 by PMA in endothelial cells, with consequent reduction of both ADAM17-dependent TNF-? ectodomain shedding and MCP-1 release. In conclusion, H2S is able to prevent endothelial activation by hampering endothelial activation, triggered by TNF-?. The mechanism of this protective effect is mainly mediated by down-modulation of ADAM17-dependent TNF-converting enzyme (TACE) activity with consequent inhibition of soluble TNF-? shedding and its relevant MCP-1 release in the medium. These results are discussed in the light of the potential protective role of H2S in pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic processes, such as chronic renal failure. PMID:23297114

  17. Choice of anesthetic technique on plasma concentrations of interleukins and cell adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether inflammatory responses to surgery are comparably activated during total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and during volatile anesthesia remains unclear. We thus compared the perioperative effects of TIVA and isoflurane anesthesia on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory interleukins and cell adhesion molecules. Methods Patients having laparoscopic cholecystectomies were randomly allocated to two groups: 44 were assigned to TIVA and 44 to isoflurane anesthesia. IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and the cellular adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were determined preoperatively, before incision, and at 2 and 24 hours postoperatively. Our primary outcomes were area-under-the-curve cytokine and adhesion molecule concentrations over 24 postoperative hours. Results The only statistically significant difference in area-under-the-curve concentrations was for IL-6, which was greater in patients given isoflurane:78 (95% confidence interval (CI): 52 to 109) pg/ml versus 33 (22 to 50) pg/ml, P= 0.006. Two hours after surgery, IL-6 was significantly greater than baseline in patients assigned to isoflurane: 47 (95% CI: 4 to 216, P<0.001) pg/ml versus 18 (95%CI: 4 to 374, P<0.001) pg/ml in the TIVA group. In contrast, IL-10 was significantly greater in patients assigned to TIVA: 20 (95% CI: 2 to 140, P<0.001) pg/ml versus 12 (95% CI: 3 to 126, P<0.001) pg/ml. By 24 hours after surgery, concentrations were generally similar between study groups and similar to baseline values. Conclusion The only biomarker whose postoperative area-under-the-curve concentrations differed significantly as a function of anesthetic management was IL-6. Two hours after surgery, IL-6 concentrations were significantly greater in patients given isoflurane than TIVA. However, the differences were modest and seem unlikely to prove clinically important. Further studies are needed. PMID:24472144

  18. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  19. 3. Adhesion molecules and receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, C Wayne

    2008-02-01

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules activating pathways critical to cell functions, and they can act as accessory molecules maintaining cellular contacts necessary for signaling through other receptors. Given their critical role in the emigration of leukocytes into sites of inflammation, genetic mutations that thwart adhesion molecule expression or function can produce profound disruptions in host defense. Adhesion molecules might serve as therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases. PMID:18241685

  20. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan (Manhattan, KS); Wang, Donghai (Manhattan, KS); Zhong, Zhikai (Manhattan, KS); Yang, Guang (Shanghai, CN)

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  1. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  2. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  3. Anti-CD31 delays platelet adhesion/aggregation at sites of endothelial injury in mouse cerebral arterioles.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, W. I.; Murata, S.; Nelson, G. H.; Werner, P. K.; Ranken, R.; Harmon, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The arterioles on the surface of the mouse brain (pial arterioles) were observed by in vivo microscopy. A focus of minor endothelial damage was produced in a single pial arteriole in each mouse by briefly exposing the site to a helium neon laser after an intravenous injection of Evans blue. Mice were injected 10 minutes before injury with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to mouse CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. This treatment doubled (P < .01) the time required for the laser to produce a recognizable platelet aggregate. In additional experiments, an MAb to mouse CD61 and an MAb to mouse intercellular adhesion molecule 1 had no effect. The data support previous observations indicating that platelet adhesion/aggregation in this model is induced by endothelial injury without exposure of basal lamina. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the endothelial injury exposes or activates a platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule on the endothelium which is blocked by the MAb directed against CD31. This may be the first demonstration of an effect of an anti-platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule on platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule on platelet adhesion/aggregation in vivo. PMID:8030753

  4. Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced cellular adhesion by competitive binding of NF-kappa B in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eck, S L; Perkins, N D; Carr, D P; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive interactions between cells are essential for the organization and function of differentiated tissues and organs and are mediated by inducible cell surface glycoproteins. In normal tissues, cell adhesion molecules contribute to immune regulation, inflammation, and embryogenesis. Additionally, they play an important role in a variety of pathogenic processes. Cell adhesion molecule expression can be induced by stimuli known to activate NF-kappa B, a ubiquitous transcription factor found in a variety of cell types. To investigate the role of NF-kappa B in cell adhesion molecule expression, we treated HL-60 cells with a double-stranded oligonucleotide which specifically inhibits NF-kappa B-mediated transcription. This treatment resulted in the inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced cellular adhesion, morphological changes, and the expression of leukocyte integrin CD11b. In a similar fashion, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human endothelial cells induced by PMA was specifically inhibited by the NF-kappa B antagonist. We suggest that NF-kappa B activation is a necessary event for the PMA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells and the expression of certain activation is a necessary event for the PMA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells and the expression of certain adhesion molecules. Furthermore, the inhibition of transcription factor functions by this generally applicable mechanism can be used to define their role in cellular differentiation and function. Images PMID:8105372

  5. Cutting edge: DNAX accessory molecule 1-deficient CD8+ T cells display immunological synapse defects that impair antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shimoni, Raz; McGrath, Mairi; Chan, Christopher J; Russell, Sarah M; Smyth, Mark J; Oliaro, Jane

    2014-01-15

    DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) is expressed on all CD8(+) T cells and promotes their activation and effector function. DNAM-1 interacts with LFA-1, a critical molecule for immunological synapse formation between T cells and APCs, and for cytotoxic killing of target cells. Mice that lack DNAM-1 display abnormal T cell responses and antitumor activity; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. In this article, we show that DNAM-1 deficiency results in reduced proliferation of CD8(+) T cells after Ag presentation and impaired cytotoxic activity. We also demonstrate that DNAM-1-deficient T cells show reduced conjugations with tumor cells and decreased recruitment of both LFA-1 and lipid rafts to the immunological synapse, which correlates with reduced tumor cell killing in vitro. This synapse defect may explain why DNAM-1-deficient mice cannot clear tumors in vivo, and highlights the importance of DNAM-1 and the immunological synapse in T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. PMID:24337740

  6. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  7. Structural specializations of ?4?7, an integrin that mediates rolling adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yamei; Zhu, Jianghai; Mi, Li-Zhi; Walz, Thomas; Sun, Hao; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    The lymphocyte homing receptor integrin ?4?7 is unusual for its ability to mediate both rolling and firm adhesion. ?4?1 and ?4?7 are targeted by therapeutics approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohns disease. Here, we show by electron microscopy and crystallography how two therapeutic Fabs, a small molecule (RO0505376), and mucosal adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) bind ?4?7. A long binding groove at the ?4?7 interface for immunoglobulin superfamily domains differs in shape from integrin pockets that bind Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. RO0505376 mimics an Ile/Leu-Asp motif in ?4 ligands, and orients differently from Arg-Gly-Asp mimics. A novel auxiliary residue at the metal iondependent adhesion site in ?4?7 is essential for binding to MAdCAM-1 in Mg2+ yet swings away when RO0505376 binds. A novel intermediate conformation of the ?4?7 headpiece binds MAdCAM-1 and supports rolling adhesion. Lack of induction of the open headpiece conformation by ligand binding enables rolling adhesion to persist until integrin activation is signaled. PMID:22232704

  8. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  9. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  10. Silorane adhesive system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro Jnior, Sylvio; Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira de

    2014-01-01

    Silorane-based composite resin requires a specific adhesive system: a 2-step self-etching adhesive. Clinical protocols are well established and are based on the principles of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. In this paper, we present a clinical application of the silorane adhesive system in a class-II restoration using silorane-based composite resin. PMID:25055233

  11. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  12. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  13. Stressing the limits of focal adhesion mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Patrick W; Gardel, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion assembly and maturation often occurs concomitantly with changes in force generated within the cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix. To coordinate focal adhesion dynamics with force, it has been suggested that focal adhesion dynamics are mechanosensitive. This review discusses current understanding of the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and force transmission, and the limits to which we can consider focal adhesion plaques as mechanosensitive entities. PMID:24998185

  14. Urokinase receptor surface expression regulates monocyte adhesion in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    May, Andreas E; Schmidt, Roland; Kanse, Sandip M; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Stephens, Ross W; Schmig, Albert; Preissner, Klaus T; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2002-11-15

    The urokinase receptor (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor; uPAR) regulates monocyte adhesion by direct binding to vitronectin and by forming complexes with integrins. Therefore, possible up-regulation of uPAR in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may affect monocyte adhesion. In 20 patients with AMI, uPAR surface expression (measured by flow cytometry) was increased compared with that in patients with chronic stable angina (mean +/- SD fluorescence, 179 +/- 96 vs 80 +/- 53; P =.002). Expression of uPAR correlated with activation of beta(2)-integrins lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and macrophage antigen 1 (Mac-1), measured by using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 24 and CBRM1/5. Isolated mononuclear cells (MNCs) from patients with AMI showed enhanced adhesiveness to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), to fibrinogen (Mac-1 ligand), and to vitronectin (uPAR ligand). Excessive adhesion of MNCs to HUVECs was inhibited by mAbs anti-CD18 (84%), anti-CD11a (51%), and anti-CD11b (57%), indicating a major contribution of LFA-1 and Mac-1. The mAb anti-uPAR R3 blocked adhesion of cells from patients with AMI to vitronectin (95%) but also beta(2)-integrin-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen (79%) and HUVECs (66%). Incubation of monocytic MonoMac6 cells with plasma from patients with AMI enhanced uPAR messenger RNA expression and cell adhesion to HUVECs. Thus, released soluble factors may contribute to enhanced monocyte adhesion in AMI. Mouse pre-B lymphocytes (BAF3 cells) transfected with various amounts of uPAR complementary DNA showed a strong correlation of uPAR expression with beta(2)-integrin-dependent adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, thus providing evidence for the functional relevance of uPAR up-regulation in an isolated in vitro system. In conclusion, we found that uPAR expression is elevated on monocytes in AMI and contributes to enhanced cell adhesion. Thus, uPAR may be a novel target for prevention of unwanted monocyte recruitment as part of inflammatory cardiovascular processes. PMID:12393744

  15. A cytokine-controlled mechanism for integrated regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and activation

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrm, Sten-Erik; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gsta

    2013-01-01

    The co-ordination of T-cell motility, adhesion and activation remains poorly understood. It is also unclear how these functions are co-ordinated with external stimuli. Here we unveil a series of molecular interactions in cis at the surface of T lymphocytes with potent effects on motility and adhesion in these cells, and communicating with proliferative responses. These interactions were controlled by the signature cytokines of T helper subsets interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was found to play a key role for T-cell motility by promoting development of polarized cell shape and cell movement. Endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1 through CD47. Cell surface expressed LRP1 induced motility and processing of TSP-1 while inhibiting adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and fibronectin. Interleukin-2, but not IL-4, stimulated synthesis of TSP-1 and motility through TSP-1 and LRP1. Stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex inhibited TSP-1 expression. Inhibitor studies indicated that LRP1 regulated TSP-1 expression and promoted motility through JAK signalling. This LRP1-mediated motogenic signalling was connected to CD47/Gi protein signalling and IL-2-induced signalling through TSP-1. The motogenic TSP-1/LRP1 mechanism antagonized TCR/CD3-induced T-cell proliferation. These results indicate that LRP1 in collaboration with TSP-1 directs a counter-adhesive and counter-proliferative motogenic cascade. T cells seem programmed to prioritize movement before adhesion through this cascade. In conclusion, vital decision-making in T lymphocytes regulating motility, adhesive interactions and proliferation, are integrated through a molecular mechanism connecting different cell surface receptors and their signalling pathways. PMID:23866045

  16. Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-12-23

    Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings. PMID:26618537

  17. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  18. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  19. RAPL, a Rap1-binding molecule that mediates Rap1-induced adhesion through spatial regulation of LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Koko; Maeda, Akito; Shimonaka, Mika; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2003-08-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 is a potent activator of leukocyte integrin. However, the regulatory mechanism involved is unknown. Here, we identify the Rap1 effector, RAPL, as an essential regulator in this activation. RAPL was enriched in mouse lymphoid tissues and associated with Rap1 after stimulation by the T cell receptor and with chemokine CXCL12. Human RAPL stimulated lymphocyte polarization and the patch-like redistribution of lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to the leading edge, resulting in enhanced adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Triggered by activated Rap1, RAPL associated with LFA-1 and rapidly relocated to the leading edge and accumulated at immunological synapses. Thus, RAPL regulates lymphocyte adhesion through the spatial distribution of LFA-1. PMID:12845325

  20. The Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule, SynCAM1, Mediates Astrocyte-to-Astrocyte and Astrocyte-to-GnRH Neuron Adhesiveness in the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Sandau, Ursula S.; Mungenast, Alison E.; McCarthy, Jack; Biederer, Thomas; Corfas, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM1) as a component of a genetic network involved in the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Although it is well established that SynCAM1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule, its contribution to hypothalamic function is unknown. Here we show that, in addition to the expected neuronal localization illustrated by its presence in GnRH neurons, SynCAM1 is expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicated that SynCAM is recognized by both GnRH neurons and astrocytes as an adhesive partner and promotes cell-cell adhesiveness via homophilic, extracellular domain-mediated interactions. Alternative splicing of the SynCAM1 primary mRNA transcript yields four mRNAs encoding membrane-spanning SynCAM1 isoforms. Variants 1 and 4 are predicted to be both N and O glycosylated. Hypothalamic astrocytes and GnRH-producing GT1-7 cells express mainly isoform 4 mRNA, and sequential N- and O-deglycosylation of proteins extracted from these cells yields progressively smaller SynCAM1 species, indicating that isoform 4 is the predominant SynCAM1 variant expressed in astrocytes and GT1-7 cells. Neither cell type expresses the products of two other SynCAM genes (SynCAM2 and SynCAM3), suggesting that SynCAM-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness is mostly mediated by SynCAM1 homophilic interactions. When erbB4 receptor function is disrupted in astrocytes, via transgenic expression of a dominant-negative erbB4 receptor form, SynCAM1-mediated adhesiveness is severely compromised. Conversely, SynCAM1 adhesive behavior is rapidly, but transiently, enhanced in astrocytes by ligand-dependent activation of erbB4 receptors, suggesting that erbB4-mediated events affecting SynCAM1 function contribute to regulate astrocyte adhesive communication. PMID:21486931

  1. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  2. Capillarity-based switchable adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the adhesion abilities of a leaf beetle found in nature, we have engineered a switchable adhesion device. The device combines two concepts: The surface tension force from a large number of small liquid bridges can be significant (capillarity-based adhesion) and these contacts can be quickly made or broken with electronic control (switchable). The device grabs or releases a substrate in a fraction of a second via a low-voltage pulse that drives electroosmotic flow. Energy consumption is minimal because both the grabbed and released states are stable equilibria that persist with no energy added to the system. Notably, the device maintains the integrity of an array of hundreds to thousands of distinct interfaces during active reconfiguration from droplets to bridges and back, despite the natural tendency of the liquid toward coalescence. We demonstrate the scaling of adhesion strength with the inverse of liquid contact size. This suggests that strengths approaching those of permanent bonding adhesives are possible as feature size is scaled down. In addition, controllability is fast and efficient because the attachment time and required voltage also scale down favorably. The device features compact size, no solid moving parts, and is made of common materials. PMID:20133725

  3. Transglutaminase-2 in cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Png, Evelyn; Tong, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Cell-matrix adhesion is a fundamental biological process that governs survival, migration, and proliferation of living eukaryotic cells. Paxillin is an important central player in a network of adhesome proteins that form focal adhesion complexes. Phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine residues in paxillin is critical for the coordinated sequential recruitment of other adaptor and kinase proteins to adhesion complexes. Recently, the phosphorylation of serine178 in paxillin has been shown to be vital for epithelial cell adhesion and migration. In vivo and in vitro evidence have shown that transglutaminase (TG)-2 positively regulates this phosphorylation. Here, we propose three possible mechanisms that may explain these observations. First, TG-2 itself may be an adhesome member directly interacting with paxillin in a non-covalent way. Second, TG-2 may cross link a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which eventually activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the latter phosphorylates paxillin. Lastly, TG-2 may have intrinsic kinase activity that phosphorylates paxillin. Future studies investigating these hypotheses on TG-2-paxillin relationships are necessary in order to address this fundamental process in cell matrix adhesion signaling. PMID:24193434

  4. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  5. The direction of migration of T-lymphocytes under flow depends upon which adhesion receptors are engaged

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, George A.; Anderson, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    T-lymphocyte migration is important for homing, cell trafficking, and immune surveillance. T-lymphocytes express lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; ?L?2) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; ?4?1), which bind to their cognate ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). These adhesive interactions provide T-lymphocytes with the ability to withstand hemodynamic shear forces to facilitate adhesion and migration along the blood endothelium. Recently, it has been shown that T-lymphocytes will crawl upstream against the direction of flow on surfaces functionalized with ICAM-1. Here, we have investigated whether the identity of the receptor and the magnitude of its engagement affects the direction of T-lymphocyte migration under flow. We used microcontact printed ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 PDMS surfaces on which density and type of adhesion molecule can be tightly controlled and non-specific adhesion adequately blocked. Using a laminar flow chamber, we demonstrate that T-lymphocytes migrate either upstream or downstream dependent upon ligand type, ligand concentration and shear rate. T-lymphocytes were found to migrate upstream on ICAM-1 but downstream on VCAM-1 surfaces a behavior unique to T-lymphocytes. By varying concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, directed migration under flow was observed to be dependent upon the type and concentration of ligand. As shear rates increase, T-lymphocytes favor upstream migration when any ICAM-1 is present, even in the presence of substantial amounts of VCAM-1. Furthermore, a loss of cytoskeletal polarity was observed upon introduction of fluid flow with reorganization that is dependent upon ligand presentation. These results indicate that T-lymphocytes exhibit two different modes of motility upstream or downstream under fluid flow that depends on ligand composition and the shear rate. PMID:25674729

  6. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  7. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S; Siu, Ronald K; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2016-02-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple invivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but invivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. Invitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  8. MicroRNA-185 inhibits angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells through targeting stromal interaction molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiayin; Liu, Liang; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Yingbiao; Tian, Bei; Cui, Li; Liu, Ying; Li, Xinming

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a vital biological mechanism representing the adaptive response to a variety of pathological stimuli such as hypoxia. It is regulated by several pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic microRNAs. Studies have demonstrated an altered microRNA-185 (miR-185) expression in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions; however, its role in angiogenesis has not been elucidated. We investigated the role of miR-185 in angiogenesis and found that miR-185 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) appeared to be a direct target of miR-185 by computational prediction; this was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Silencing of the STIM1 gene was found to mimic miR-185-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis. STIM1 overexpression eliminated the anti-angiogenic effect of miR-185. Our study results suggest a direct interaction between miR-185 and STIM1 mRNA in microvascular endothelial cells. MicroRNA-185 acted as a negative regulator of angiogenesis in microvascular endothelial cells through downregulation of the STIM1 protein. PMID:26694763

  9. Correlation of clinical features and genetic profiles of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-01-01

    STIM1 overexpression has been observed in a portion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and associated with cancer cell invasion and migration. To characterize the distinctive expression profiles associated with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) overexpression/low-expression between CRC subtypes, and further assess the divergence transcription regulation impact of STIM1 between colon (COADs) and rectum (READs) adenocarcinomas in order to depict the role of SOCE pathway in CRCs, we have conducted a comprehensive phenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis to clarify underlying molecular differences of COADs/READs contributed by STIM1. Results demonstrated that a number of novel STIM1-associated signatures have been identified in COADs but not READs. Specifically, the presence of STIM1 overexpression in COADs, which represented a disturbance of the SOCE pathway, was associated with cell migration and cell motility properties. We identified 11 prognostic mRNA/miRNA predictors associated with the overall survival of COAD patients, suggesting the correlation of STIM1-associated features to clinicopathological outcomes. These findings enhance our understanding on differences between CRC subtypes in panoramic view, and suggested STIM1 as a promising therapeutic biomarker in COADs. PMID:26543234

  10. A stromal interaction molecule 1 variant up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by strengthening nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengrong; Zhu, Liping; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Jiwei; Zeng, Xianqin; Li, Jiansha; Su, Yuan; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Very recent studies hold promise to reveal the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in non-store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Here we showed that in contrast to cytoplasmic membrane redistribution as previously noted, human umbilical vein endothelial STIM1 with a T-to-C nucleotide transition resulting in an amino acid substitution of leucine by proline in the signal peptide sequence translocated to perinuclear membrane upon intracellular Ca(2+) depletion, amplified nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) signaling through ryanodine receptor-dependent pathway, and enhanced the subsequent cAMP responsive element binding protein activity, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene expression, and endothelial tube forming. The abundance of mutated STIM1 and the MMP-2 expression were higher in native human umbilical vein endothelial cells of patients with gestational hypertension than controls and were significantly correlated with blood pressure. These findings broaden our understanding about structure-function bias of STIM1 and offer unique insights into its application in nucleoplasmic Ca(2+), MMP-2 expression, endothelial dysfunction, and pathophysiological mechanism(s) of gestational hypertension. PMID:26775216

  11. Adhesion Molecule Increases in Sleep Apnea: Beneficial Effect of Positive Airway Pressure and Moderation by Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Grandner, Michael A.; Maislin, Greg; Teff, Karen; Schwab, Richard J.; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Jlusson, Sigurur; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Gislason, Thorarinn; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) may contribute to cardiovascular disease and are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity. The relationship between OSA and obesity in determining ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels, and the effect of treatment, is unclear. Objective Our aim was to study whether positive airway pressure (PAP) usage resulted in changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 after 2 years within 309 OSA patients from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort, and determine how obesity affected such changes. Subjects/Methods The mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.45.1 kg/m2; subjects had moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 45.020.2) and 79% were male. There were 177 full PAP users (?4 hours/night and ?20 of last 28 nights), 44 partial (<4 hours/night or <20 nights), and 88 non-users. Results ICAM-1 (p<0.001) and VCAM-1 (p=0.012) change was significantly different among the PAP groups. The largest ICAM-1 differences were among the most obese subjects (p<0.001). At follow-up, non-users had increased ICAM-1 compared to decreased levels in full users. All groups had increased VCAM-1, but non-users had a significantly larger increase than full users. Conclusion Within moderate-to-severe OSA patients, PAP usage prevents increases in adhesion molecules observed in non-users after two years. For ICAM-1, the largest effect is in the most obese subjects. As OSA and obesity commonly coexist, the usage of PAP to limit increases in adhesion molecules may decrease the rate of progression of OSA-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:25042863

  12. Modulation of Sickle Red Blood Cell Adhesion and its Associated Changes in Biomarkers by Sulfated Nonanticoagulant Heparin Derivative.

    PubMed

    Alshaiban, Abdulelah; Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Nepo, Anne; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal cellular adhesion is one of the primary causes of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD). Levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin are upregulated, resulting in increased adhesion of leukocytes and sickle red blood cells (RBCs) to endothelium. This study compares the inhibitory effect of a sulfated nonanticoagulant heparin (S-NACH) derivative with a low-molecular-weight heparin, tinzaparin, on the adhesion of sickle RBCs to endothelium. The S-NACH exhibits minimum effects on hemostasis and bleeding and interferes with the binding of pancreatic cancer cells to endothelial cells via P-selectin. We show by static binding assay that pretreatment of both erythrocytes and endothelial cells with S-NACH significantly inhibits the increased adhesion of sickle RBCs to endothelial cells. The S-NACH treatment also decreases the higher plasma levels of (adhesion biomarkers) ICAM-1 and P-selectin in SCD mice. This investigation signals further research into the potential use of S-NACH in treating vaso-occlusions with minimal bleeding events in patients with SCD. PMID:25601897

  13. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by arsenite inhibits cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xi; Pi Jingbo; Liu Wenlan; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian; Feng Changjian

    2009-04-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. Arsenite, as an oxidative stressor, is a potent inducer of HO-1 in human and rodent cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of arsenite-induced HO-1 in modulating tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Arsenite pretreatment, which upregulated HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 protein expression by 50% and 40%, respectively. Importantly, knockdown of HO-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the arsenite-induced inhibitory effects. These results indicate that induction of HO-1 by arsenite inhibits the cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC by suppressing adhesion molecule expression. These findings established an important mechanistic link between the functional monocyte adhesion properties of HUVEC and the induction of HO-1 by arsenite.

  14. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Huiwen; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee; Wang, Lei; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Velzquez-Martnez, Carlos A.; Wu, Shiyong; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 2030% and fibronectin by 2544% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (? 56%) the activity of ?1 integrin, which binds to ?4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ? NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ? NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ? NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of ?1 integrin.

  15. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections. Manipulation under anesthesia is advocated when the conservative treatment fails. A case of secondary adhesive capsulitis in a forty-seven-year-old female recreational squash player is presented to illustrate clinical presentation, diagnosis, radiographic assessment and conservative chiropractic management. The patients shoulder range of motion was full and pain free with four months of conservative chiropractic care. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  16. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  17. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  18. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  19. Adhesion between highly stretchable materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingda; Li, Jianyu; Vlassak, Joost J; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-01-20

    Recently developed high-speed ionic devices require adherent laminates of stretchable and dissimilar materials, such as gels and elastomers. Adhesion between stretchable and dissimilar materials also plays important roles in medicine, stretchable electronics, and soft robots. Here we develop a method to characterize adhesion between materials capable of large, elastic deformation. We apply the method to measure the debond energy of elastomer-hydrogel bilayers. The debond energy between an acrylic elastomer and a polyacrylamide hydrogel is found to be about 0.5 J m(-2), independent of the thickness and the crosslink density of the hydrogel. This low debond energy, however, allows the bilayer to be adherent and highly stretchable, provided that the hydrogel is thin and compliant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nanoparticles applied at the interface can improve adhesion between the elastomer and the hydrogel. PMID:26573427

  20. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphal; Joanny, Jean-Franois; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Ccile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  1. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  2. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  3. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals.

    PubMed

    Dodou, D; Breedveld, P; de Winter, J C F; Dankelman, J; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compared to the biochemical content of the adhesives. We address temporary adhesion of benthic animals from the following three structural levels: (a) the biochemical content of the adhesive secretions, (b) the micro- and mesoscopic surface geometry and material properties of the adhesive organs, and (c) the macroscopic external morphology of the adhesive organs. We show that temporary adhesion of benthic animals is affected by three structural levels: the adhesive secretions provide binding to the substratum at a molecular scale, whereas surface geometry and external morphology increase the contact area with the irregular and unpredictable profile of the substratum from micro- to macroscales. The biochemical content of the adhesive secretions differs between abiotic and biotic substrata. The biochemistry of the adhesives suitable for biotic substrata differentiates further according to whether adhesion must be activated quickly (e.g. as a defensive mechanism) or more slowly (e.g. during adhesion of parasites). De-adhesion is controlled by additional secretions, enzymes, or mechanically. Due to deformability, the adhesive organs achieve intimate contact by adapting their surface profile to the roughness of the substratum. Surface projections, namely cilia, cuticular villi, papillae, and papulae increase the contact area or penetrate through the secreted adhesive to provide direct contact with the substratum. We expect that the same three structural levels investigated here will also affect the performance of artificial adhesive systems. PMID:20233167

  4. Inhibition of Monocyte Adhesion to Brain-Derived Endothelial Cells by Dual Functional RNA Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Hao, Xin; Bai, Shuhua; Hao, Jiukuan

    2014-01-01

    Because adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is the first step of vascular-neuronal inflammation, inhibition of adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells will have a beneficial effect on neuroinflammatory diseases. In this study, we used the pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor to construct a novel RNA nanoparticle for specific targeting to transferrin receptor (TfR) on the murine brain-derived endothelial cells (bEND5) to deliver ICAM-1 siRNA. This RNA nanoparticle (FRS-NPs) contained a FB4 aptamer targeting to TfR and a siRNA moiety for silencing the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our data indicated that this RNA nanoparticle was delivered into murine brain-derived endothelial cells. Furthermore, the siRNA was released from the FRS-NPs in the cells and knocked down ICAM-1 expression in the TNF-α–stimulated cells and in the cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition. The functional end points of the study indicated that FRS-NPs significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion to the bEND5 cells induced by TNF-α and OGD/R. In conclusion, our approach using RNA nanotechnology for siRNA delivery could be potentially applied for inhibition of inflammation in ischemic stroke and other neuroinflammatory diseases, or diseases affecting endothelium of vasculature. PMID:25368913

  5. Circulating Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Predicts Prognosis and Poor Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Daniel J; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Francis, Ben; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Craig, Darren GN; Simpson, Kenneth J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury in the context of acetaminophen (APAP; paracetamol)-induced liver injury is an important predictor of the requirement for urgent liver transplantation (LT) to avoid death. However, the prognostic biomarker used to report kidney dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration) has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) can be quantified in plasma as a sensitive and specific biomarker of kidney injury in both clinical and preclinical studies. Therefore, plasma KIM-1 has potential as a sensitive prognostic biomarker of patient outcome post-APAP overdose. In a cohort of APAP overdose patients (N?=?74) with and without established liver injury, we quantified plasma KIM-1 by immunoassay on the first day of admission to a LT unit and assessed its diagnostic performance to predict outcome compared with serum creatinine concentration. Day 1 plasma KIM-1 was significantly elevated in patients that died or required LT, compared to spontaneous survivors (1,182??251 vs. 214??45 pg/mL; P?

  6. Impairment of lymphocyte adhesion to cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells by [gamma]-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Piela-Smith, T.H.; Aneiro, L.; Nuveen, E.; Korn, J.H. ); Aune, T. )

    1992-01-01

    A critical component of immune responsiveness is the localization of effector cells at sites of inflammatory lesions. Adhesive molecules that may play a role in this process have been described on the surfaces of both lymphocytes and connective tissue cells. Adhesive interactions of T lymphocytes with fibroblasts or endothelial cells can be inhibited by preincubation of the fibroblasts or endothelial cells with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) or by preincubation of the T cells with antibody to lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 (CD11a/CD18), molecules shown to be important in several other cell-cell adhesion interactions. Here the authors show that [gamma]-irradiation of human T lymphocytes impaired their ability to adhere to both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This impairment was not associated with a loss of cell viability or of cell surface lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 expression. [gamma]-Irradiation of T cells is known to result in the activation of ADP-ribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in DNA strand-break repair, causing subsequent depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pools by increasing NAD consumption for poly(ADP-ribose) formation. Preincubation of T cells with either nicotinamide or 3-aminobenzamide, both known inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferase, completely reversed the suppressive effects of [gamma]-irradiation on T cell adhesion. The maintenance of adhesion was accompanied by inhibition of irradiation-induced depletion of cellular NAD. These experiments suggest that the impairment of cellular immune function after irradiation in vivo may be caused, in part, by defective T cell emigration and localization at inflammatory sites. 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Dietary fish oil diminishes lymphocyte adhesion to macrophage and endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, P; Calder, P C

    1998-01-01

    To further investigate the immunomodulatory effects of dietary lipids, rats were fed on a low-fat diet or on high-fat diets that contained hydrogenated coconut, olive, safflower, evening primrose or fish oil as the principal fat source. The fish oil diet decreased the level of expression of CD2, CD11a, CD18 and CD44 on the surface of freshly prepared lymphocytes and of CD2, CD11a, CD18, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1) and CD62L (L-selectin) on the surface of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes. The olive oil diet also resulted in decreased expression of some adhesion molecules. The fish or olive oil diets, and to a lesser extent the safflower or evening primrose oil diets, decreased the adhesion of both freshly prepared and Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to macrophage monolayers. The fish oil diet, and to a lesser extent the olive or evening primrose oil diets, reduced the ability of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to adhere to untreated endothelial cells. Furthermore, the fish oil diet resulted in a 50% reduction in Con A-stimulated lymphocyte adhesion to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated endothelial cells. This study demonstrates that dietary lipids affect the expression of functionally important adhesion molecules on the surface of lymphocytes. Furthermore, this study suggests that such diet-induced effects on adhesion molecule expression might alter the ability of lymphocytes to bind to macrophages and to endothelial cells. Of the diets studied fish oil causes the most significant effects. The results of this study suggest that a reduction in cellular infiltration may partly explain the protective effect of a fish-oil-rich diet against the development of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9708190

  8. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  9. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA)

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  10. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  11. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  12. Nucleation and Growth of Integrin Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Erdin; Ovryn, Ben

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that govern the formation of the earliest integrin adhesions ex novo from an approximately planar plasma membrane. Using an analytic analysis of the free energy of a dynamically deformable membrane containing freely diffusing receptors molecules and long repeller molecules that inhibit integrins from binding with ligands on the extracellular matrix, we predict that a coalescence of polymerizing actin filaments can deform the membrane toward the extracellular matrix and facilitate integrin binding. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show that thermally induced membrane fluctuations can either zip-up and increase the radius of a nucleated adhesion orunzip and shrink an adhesion, but the fluctuations cannot bend the ventral membrane to nucleate an adhesion. To distinguish this integrin adhesion from more mature adhesions, we refer to this early adhesion as a nouveau adhesion. PMID:19413961

  13. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  14. Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang-Polagruto, Janice F; Villablanca, Amparo C; Polagruto, John A; Lee, Luke; Holt, Roberta R; Schrader, Heather R; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Steinberg, Francene M; Schmitz, Harold H; Keen, Carl L

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction characterizes many disease states including subclinical atherosclerosis. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and cocoa-based products has been shown to improve endothelial function in both compromised and otherwise normal, healthy individuals when administered either acutely or over a period of several days, or weeks. Women experience increased risk for cardiovascular disease after menopause, which can be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Whether a flavanol-rich cocoa-based product can improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women is not known. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic dietary administration of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular health in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Thirty-two postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women were randomly assigned to consume a high-flavanol cocoa beverage (high cocoa flavanols (CF)--446 mg of total flavanols), or a low-flavanol cocoa beverage (low CF--43 mg of total flavanols) for 6 weeks in a double-blind study (n=16 per group). Endothelial function was determined by brachial artery-reactive hyperemia. Plasma was analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone), total nitrate/nitrite, activation of cellular adhesion markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin), and platelet function and reactivity. Changes in these plasma markers were then correlated to brachial reactivity. Brachial artery hyperemic blood flow increased significantly by 76% (P<0.05 vs. baseline) after the 6-week cocoa intervention in the high CF group, compared with 32% in the low CF cocoa group (P=ns vs. baseline). The 2.4-fold increase in hyperemic blood flow with high CF cocoa closely correlated (r2=0.8) with a significant decrease (11%) in plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Similar responses were not observed after chronic use of low CF. There were no significant differences between high and low CF in other biochemical markers and parameters measured. This study is the first to identify beneficial vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa consumption in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. In addition, our results suggest that reductions in plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 after chronic consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa may be mechanistically linked to improved vascular reactivity. PMID:16794456

  15. [AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism].

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and underlying molecular mechanism. Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with different concentrations of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) or AMPK inhibitor compound C. And other HAECs were overexpressed with constitutive active or dominant negative AMPK protein and then treated with TNF?. The rates of monocytes adhering to endothelial cells were detected by fluorescent staining. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA levels and protein secretions were detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Acetylation of NF-?B p65 at lysine 221 site was assessed by Western blot. NF-?B p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by an ELISA-based method. By using small interfering RNA based strategy, p300 expression in HAECs was down-regulated and then cells were incubated with TNF?. NF-?B p65 DNA binding activity, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions and adhesion rates were detected, respectively. The activity of p300 was also detected by ELISA. The results showed that AICAR treatment significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion rate, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels and protein secretions, in TNF?-activated HAECs. Moreover, transfection of constitutive active AMPK? but not dominant negative AMPK? strongly diminished TNF?-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions and secretions, as well as monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Furthermore, AMPK activation decreased TNF?-mediated acetylation of NF-?B p65 at Lys221 site and reduced NF-?B p65 DNA binding activity. Silencing p300 by siRNA significantly abolished the effect of TNF?- induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Blocking AMPK activation by compound C almost completely reversed the effect of AICAR exerted on HAECs. These results suggest AMPK activation suppresses monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and the underlying mechanism is relevant to the inhibition of p300 activity and NF-?B p65 transcriptional activity. PMID:26915321

  16. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  20. Experimental studies on intra-abdominal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Noboru; Inoue, Kichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Gomi, Fujiko

    1970-01-01

    Various intra-abdominal adhesions have been produced in rats and mice. Those animals given an intra-peritoneal injection of protoporphyrin showed a reduction of adhesion formation. Its mechanism has been discussed in view of Ellis's concept. It seems to be appropriate to use PPN for patients who may develop post-operative adhesions. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5448376

  1. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-01

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction. PMID:26459267

  2. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  3. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adhesives. 175.105 Section 175.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives §...

  4. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  5. Molecular Determinants Mediating Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) Channels by Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1)*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Seok; Hong, Jeong Hee; Ahuja, Malini; Graham, Sarabeth; Ma, Rong; So, Insuk; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel; Yuan, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate a critical part of the receptor-evoked Ca2+ influx. TRPCs are gated open by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Here we asked which stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and TRPC domains mediate the interaction between them and how this interaction is used to open the channels. We report that the STIM1 Orai1-activating region domain of STIM1 interacts with the TRPC channel coiled coil domains (CCDs) and that this interaction is essential for opening the channels by STIM1. Thus, disruption of the N-terminal (NT) CCDs by triple mutations eliminated TRPC surface localization and reduced binding of STIM1 to TRPC1 and TRPC5 while increasing binding to TRPC3 and TRPC6. Single mutations in TRPC1 NT or C-terminal (CT) CCDs reduced interaction and activation of TRPC1 by STIM1. Remarkably, single mutations in the TRPC3 NT CCD enhanced interaction and regulation by STIM1. Disruption in the TRPC3 CT CCD eliminated regulation by STIM1 and the enhanced interaction caused by NT CCD mutations. The NT CCD mutations converted TRPC3 from a TRPC1-dependent to a TRPC1-independent, STIM1-regulated channel. TRPC1 reduced the FRET between BFP-TRPC3 and TRPC3-YFP and between CFP-TRPC3-YFP upon stimulation. Accordingly, knockdown of TRPC1 made TRPC3 STIM1-independent. STIM1 dependence of TRPC3 was reconstituted by the TRPC1 CT CCD alone. Knockout of Trpc1 and Trpc3 similarly inhibited Ca2+ influx, and inhibition of Trpc3 had no further effect on Ca2+ influx in Trpc1?/? cells. Cell stimulation enhanced the formation of Trpc1-Stim1-Trpc3 complexes. These findings support a model in which the TRPC3 NT and CT CCDs interact to shield the CT CCD from interaction with STIM1. The TRPC1 CT CCD dissociates this interaction to allow the STIM1 Orai1-activating region within STIM1 access to the TRPC3 CT CCD and regulation of TRPC3 by STIM1. These studies provide evidence that the TRPC channel CCDs participate in channel gating. PMID:24464579

  6. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hlne; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  7. Bio-inspired adhesion: local chemical environments impact adhesive stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Rapp, Michael V.; Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2014-03-01

    3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized by marine mussels and exhibits the unique ability to strongly bind to surfaces in aqueous environments. However, the Dopa functional group undergoes auto-oxidation to a non-adhesive quinone form in neutral to basic pH conditions, limiting the utilization of Dopa in biomedical applications. In this work, we performed direct surface force measurements with in situ electrochemical control across a Dopa-rich native mussel foot protein (mfp-5), as well as three simplified model peptide sequences. We find that the neighboring peptide residues can significantly impact the redox stability of Dopa functional groups, with lysine residues imparting a substantial degree of Dopa redox stabilization. Surprisingly, the local chemical environments only minimally impact the magnitude of the adhesion forces measured between molecularly-smooth mica and gold surfaces. Our results provide molecular level insight into approaches that can be used to mitigate the detrimental impact of Dopa auto-oxidation, thus suggesting new molecular design strategies for improving the performance of Dopa-based underwater adhesives.

  8. A Novel Bioinspired Switchable Adhesive with Three Distinct Adhesive States

    PubMed Central

    Isla, Paula Yage; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    A novel switchable adhesive, inspired by the gecko's fibrillar dry attachment system, is introduced. It consists of a patterned surface with an array of mushroom-shaped pillars having two distinct heights. The different pillar heights allow control of the pull-off force in two steps by application of a low and a high preload. For low preload, only the long pillars form contact, resulting in a low pull-off force. At higher preload, all pillars form contact, resulting in high pull-off force. Even further loading leads to buckling induced detachment of the pillars which corresponds to extremely low pull-off force. To achieve the respective samples a new fabrication method called double inking is developed, to achieve multiple-height pillar structures. The adhesion performance of the two-step switchable adhesive is analysed at varying preload and for different pillar aspect ratios and height relations. Finally, the deformation behavior of the samples is investigated by in situ monitoring. PMID:26366145

  9. Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-02-01

    Independent association between legume intake and systemic inflammation is not well documented. The traditional Iranian diet provides an opportunity to assess the association between legume intake and health outcomes. This study was carried out to examine legume consumption in relation to serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 486 Tehrani female teachers were investigated. A trained dietitian administered a validated semiquantitative FFQ for assessment of usual dietary intakes. Legume intake was calculated by summing up the consumption of lentils, peas, chickpeas, different kinds of beans including broad beans, and chickling vetch. To measure serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers, a fasting blood sample was taken. After statistically controlling for potential confounders, individuals in the highest tertile of legume intake had lower serum concentrations of E-selectin (percent difference between the lowest and highest tertile: -14.1%; P = 0.04), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (-20.3%; P < 0.01), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (-15.6%; P = 0.01) compared with those in the lowest tertile. Legume intake was inversely associated with serum concentrations of high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), TNFα, and IL-6, even after controlling for potential confounders and dietary variables (percent difference between the lowest and highest tertile for hs-CRP: -39.2%, P < 0.001; for TNFα: -15.9%, P = 0.04; and for IL-6: -39.5%, P < 0.01). Legume intake and concentrations of serum amyloid A were not correlated. Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women. PMID:22190025

  10. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  11. A review of high-temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  12. Cell surface distribution of high-avidity LFA-1 detected by soluble ICAM-1-coated microspheres.

    PubMed

    Pyszniak, A M; Welder, C A; Takei, F

    1994-06-01

    Murine recombinant soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) was immobilized on polystyrene microspheres. The binding of sICAM-1-coated microspheres to splenic T cells required previous activation of the cells and was inhibited by antibody to LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), indicating that sICAM-1-coated microspheres bind exclusively to high-avidity LFA-1. The cytoskeleton inhibitor cytochalasin B did not inhibit the binding of sICAM-1-coated microspheres to PMA-activated splenic T cells, whereas their adhesion to sICAM-1 immobilized on microtiter wells was almost completely inhibited. The murine T hybridoma T28 cells on activation with PMA also bound sICAM-1-coated microspheres, and the binding sites on the cell surface seemed localized on some of the cells, whereas fluorescence staining showed an even distribution of LFA-1 on the cell surface. In contrast, the murine B cell line A20A8 and monocytic line P388 showed a more even distribution of sICAM-1 binding sites. To further investigate the distribution of high-avidity LFA-1, murine fibroblast L cells expressing LFA-1 were generated by gene transfer. The transfected L cells constitutively expressed high-avidity LFA-1 and bound sICAM-1-coated microspheres without previous activation. Interestingly, the binding sites seemed highly localized on most cells. In contrast, the binding sites for anti-LFA-1 Ab-coated microspheres were randomly distributed on the transfected L cells. Furthermore, fluorescence staining also revealed a uniform punctate distribution of LFA-1 on the surfaces of these cells. These results show that 1) sICAM-1-coated microspheres represent a useful tool in identifying high-avidity LFA-1, 2) the binding of sICAM-1-coated microspheres to high-avidity LFA-1 does not require an intact cytoskeleton, and 3) the cell surface distribution of high-avidity LFA-1 can be different from that of LFA-1 in general, and the former seems highly localized on some cells. PMID:7910620

  13. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  14. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (λ = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8) kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase. PMID:20825632

  15. Conformal adhesion enhancement on biomimetic microstructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhao, Boxin

    2011-06-21

    Inspired by the superior adhesive ability of the gecko foot pad, we report an experimental study of conformal adhesion of a soft elastomer thin film on biomimetic micropatterned surfaces (micropillars), showing a remarkable adhesion enhancement due to the surface patterning. The adhesion of a low-surface-energy poly(dimethylsiloxane) tape to a SU-8 micropatterned surface was found be able to increase by 550-fold as the aspect ratio increases from 0 to 6. The dependency of the adhesion enhancement on the aspect ratio is highly nonlinear. A series of peeling experiment coupled with optical interference imaging were performed to investigate the adhesion enhancement as a function of the height of the micropillars and the associated delamination mechanisms. Local elastic energy dissipation, side-wall friction, and plastic deformations were analyzed and discussed in terms of their contributions to the adhesion enhancement. We conclude that the local adhesion and friction events of pulling micropillars out of the embedded polymer film play a primary role in the observed adhesion enhancement. The technical implications of this local friction-based adhesion enhancement mechanism were discussed for the effective assembly of similar or dissimilar material components at small scales. The combined use of the micro/nanostructured surfaces with the van der Waals interactions seem to be a potentially more universal solution than the conventional adhesive bonding technology, which depends on the chemical and viscoelastic properties of the materials. PMID:21612252

  16. Fatal attraction: adhesion molecules and disease.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, J A; Bergijk, E C; Kootstra, C J; de Heer, E

    1997-08-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion has increased rapidly in the past decade. Adhesion mechanisms are of prime importance in both physiology and pathology. With respect to the kidney, expression of adhesion molecules has been studied in a variety of diseases, including various forms of glomerulonephritis. Hitherto, these descriptive studies have merely launched extensive speculation regarding the role of adhesion mechanisms in renal pathology. A logical next step is to correlate adhesion molecule expression to alterations in structures which may possibly be affected by altered adhesion, for example gap junctions. Current studies linking structural to functional adhesion expand our understanding of cell biology in health and disease. PMID:9306955

  17. Theory of adhesion: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Scaraggi, M

    2014-09-28

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ? u(-n), n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results. PMID:25273455

  18. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  19. Induction of T cell adhesion to extracellular matrix or endothelial cell ligands by soluble or matrix-bound interleukin-7.

    PubMed

    Ariel, A; Hershkoviz, R; Cahalon, L; Williams, D E; Akiyama, S K; Yamada, K M; Chen, C; Alon, R; Lapidot, T; Lider, O

    1997-10-01

    The putative effects of interleukin (IL)-7, operating in the context of extracellular matrix (ECM), on the adhesion of human T cells were examined. Recombinant human, IL-7 was found to bind ECM or fibronectin (FN) with IC50 values of 10-100 nM. Nanogram amounts of both soluble and, especially, FN- or ECM-bound IL-7, which differentially affected the morphologies of FN-adherent T cells, induced the adhesion of resting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in dose-dependent and beta 1 integrin-dependent manners. Under static and flow conditions, soluble IL-7 also induced the binding of unstimulated T cells to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, suggesting that this cytokine can also modulate integrin binding to endothelial cell ligands. The effects of affinity modulation by IL-7 of FN-specific beta 1 integrins depend on the presence of soluble FN, which inhibited T cell adhesion to FN induced by FN-bound IL-7 or by an integrin-specific affinity-modulating monoclonal antibody, but not by soluble IL-7 or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These findings provide an example of a major ECM integrin ligand, FN, which is capable of modulating its adhesive interactions with specific immune cells by associating with and presenting a cytokine in a bio-active state. PMID:9368611

  20. Effects of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on Melanoma Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huiwen; Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shinhee; Wang, Lei; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-01-01

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen, to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20-30% and fibronectin by 25-44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (~56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. PMID:22889880

  1. Polymer Nanocarriers for Dentin Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, R.; Osorio, E.; Medina-Castillo, A.L.; Toledano, M.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP-nActive nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be incorporated into dental adhesive systems to provide the appropriate environment in which dentin MMP collagen degradation is inhibited and mineral growth can occur. PMID:25227634

  2. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be incorporated into dental adhesive systems to provide the appropriate environment in which dentin MMP collagen degradation is inhibited and mineral growth can occur. PMID:25227634

  3. Adhesive evaluation of new polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, Terry L.; Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years, the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several novel high temperature polyimide adhesives for anticipated needs of the aerospace industry. These developments have resulted from fundamental studies of structure-property relationships in polyimides. Recent research at LaRC has involved the synthesis and evaluation of copolyimides which incorporate both flexibilizing bridging groups and meta-linked benzene rings. The purpose was to develop systems based on low cost, readily available monomers. Two of these copolyimides evaluated as adhesives for bonding titanium alloy, Ti(6Al-4V), are identified as LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2. Lap shear strength (LSS) measurements were used to determine the strength and durability of the adhesive materials. LSS results are presented for LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI lap shear specimens thermally exposed in air at 232 C for up to 5000 hrs. LARC-TPI was shown to perform better than the copolymer LARC-STPI which exhibited poor thermooxidative performance possibly due to the amines used which would tend to oxidize easier than the benzophenone system in LARC-TPI.

  4. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF MOUSE PHOTORECEPTOR RIBBON SYNAPSES INVOLVE THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN ADHESION PROTEIN SYNCAM 1

    PubMed Central

    Ribic, Adema; Liu, Xinran; Crair, Michael C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the central nervous system (CNS), which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/Nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We now show by immuno-electron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers (ONL and OPL) in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7), but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Further, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses. PMID:23982969

  5. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  6. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing 0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence 110 J/cm2, spot size 5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (152 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.50.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 C to 32 C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  7. Handbook of Adhesion, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, D. E.

    2005-06-01

    This second edition of the successful Handbook of Adhesion provides concise and authoritative articles covering many aspects of the science and technology associated with adhesion and adhesives. It is intended to fill a gap between the necessarily simplified treatment of the student textbook and the full and thorough treatment of the research monograph and review article. The articles are structured in such a way, with internal cross-referencing and external literature references, that the reader can build up a broader and deeper understanding, as their needs require. This second edition includes many new articles covering developments which have risen in prominence in the intervening years, such as scanning probe techniques, the surface forces apparatus and the relation between adhesion and fractal surfaces. Advances in understanding polymer - polymer interdiffusion are reflected in articles drawing out the implications for adhesive bonding. In addition, articles derived from the earlier edition have been revised and updated where needed. Throughout the book there is a renewed emphasis on environmental implications of the use of adhesives and sealants. The scope of the Handbook, which features nearly 250 articles from over 60 authors, includes the background science - physics, chemistry and material science - and engineering, and also aspects of adhesion relevant to the use of adhesives, including topics such as: Sealants and mastics Paints and coatings Printing and composite materials Welding and autohesion Engineering design The Handbook of Adhesion is intended for scientists and engineers in both academia and industry, requiring an understanding of the various facets of adhesion.

  8. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of mammal cells, evidence is sufficient to propose that sundew adhesive is a promising nanomaterial worth further exploitation in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25948615

  9. Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daz Tllez, J. P.; Harirchian-Saei, S.; Li, Y.; Menon, C.

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved.

  10. Topographic Mapping of the Synaptic Cleft into Adhesive Nanodomains.

    PubMed

    Perez de Arce, Karen; Schrod, Nikolas; Metzbower, Sarah W R; Allgeyer, Edward; Kong, Geoffrey K-W; Tang, Ai-Hui; Krupp, Alexander J; Stein, Valentin; Liu, Xinran; Bewersdorf, Jrg; Blanpied, Thomas A; Luci?, Vladan; Biederer, Thomas

    2015-12-16

    The cleft is an integral part of synapses, yet its macromolecular organization remains unclear. We show here that the cleft of excitatory synapses exhibits a distinct density profile as measured by cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET). Aiming for molecular insights, we analyzed the synapse-organizing proteins Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM1) and EphB2. Cryo-ET of SynCAM 1 knockout and overexpressor synapses showed that this immunoglobulin protein shapes the cleft's edge. SynCAM 1 delineates the postsynaptic perimeter as determined by immunoelectron microscopy and super-resolution imaging. In contrast, the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is enriched deeper within the postsynaptic area. Unexpectedly, SynCAM 1 can form ensembles proximal to postsynaptic densities, and synapses containing these ensembles were larger. Postsynaptic SynCAM 1 surface puncta were not static but became enlarged after a long-term depression paradigm. These results support that the synaptic cleft is organized on a nanoscale into sub-compartments marked by distinct trans-synaptic complexes. PMID:26687224

  11. Effects of tongxinluo on the neointima formation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats after carotid artery balloon injury

    PubMed Central

    Yao, En-Hui; Wang, Hua-Jun; Xu, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tongxinluo (TXL) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is used to treat coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of TXL on the neointima formation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats after carotid artery balloon injury. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (Sham, n = 15), balloon injury group treated with vehicle (Control, n = 15), TXL low-dose group treated with TXL of 0.5 g/kg/d (TXL-L, n = 15), and TXL high-dose group treated with TXL of 1.0 g/kg/d (TXL-H, n = 15). TXL was given by gavage daily. 14 days after injury, the levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were evaluated. The morphology of carotid artery tissue was observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expressions of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 in the artery were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Results: 14 days after injury, a significant increase in concentrations of serum ET-1, MCP-1, and sICAM-1 (P < 0.05), as well as a significant decrease in NO serum level were observed in rats subjected to artery injury compared to the sham rats (P < 0.05). TXL significantly decreased ET-1, MCP-1 and sICAM-1 serum levels (P < 0.05), whereas significantly increased NO serum level compared with the control (P < 0.05). TXL significantly reduced the neointimal thickening at day14 after injury (P < 0.05). In addition, TXL significantly reduced mRNA and protein expressions of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in injured artery (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TXL is effective in improving endothelial function, attenuating neointimal formation of artery after balloon injury, and reducing expression of inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 and ICAM-1. It may be a useful agent for protecting the artery against injury. PMID:25298580

  12. Adhesion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and therapeutic modalities: a language of exercise and rehabilitation. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009: ...

  13. Association of Endothelial and Oxidative Stress with Metabolic Syndrome and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Szklo, Moyses; Cushman, Mary; Holvoet, Paul; Polak, Joseph; Bahrami, Hossein; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Ouyang, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A cluster of metabolic abnormalities termed metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative internal milieu. We examined whether the association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis is explained by biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Methods MESA is a population based study of 45-84 year old individuals of four US ethnicities without clinical cardiovascular disease. A random sample of 997 MESA participants had data on the following biomarkers: von Willebrand Factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1), CD40 ligand, soluble thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL). We examined whether the associations of MetS with B-mode ultrasound-defined common and internal carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) measured using computerized tomography were explained by the biomarkers using multiple regression methods. Results MetS was associated with higher levels of each of the biomarkers (p<0.001, CD40L suggestive association p=0.004), with greater IMT (p<0.001), and with greater extent of CAC in those in whom CAC was detectable (p=0.01). The association of MetS with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis remained unchanged after adjustment for the biomarkers. After adjusting for MetS, oxLDL was suggestively associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.005) and thicker internal carotid IMT (p=0.002), while sICAM-1was significantly associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.001). Conclusions The association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis was independent of its association with biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities and oxidative endothelial damage may lead to atherosclerotic disease through distinct mechanisms. PMID:21505504

  14. Effect of Diet or Diet Plus Physical Activity Versus Usual Care on Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: The Early ACTivity In Diabetes (ACTID) Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Dylan; Walhin, Jean?Philippe; Batterham, Alan M.; Stokes, Keith A.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Andrews, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a major role in diabetes?associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is uncertainty whether diet and physical activity interventions can be successfully integrated into healthcare settings and reduce markers of inflammation and risk of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and Results Systemic markers of inflammation were determined in a 12?month, real?world, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of diet, diet plus physical activity, and usual care in 593 individuals with newly diagnosed T2D. During the first 6 months, serum C?reactive protein (CRP) improved by ?21 (?36 to ?1.4)% and ?22 (?38 to ?3.1)% in diet and diet plus physical activity arms versus usual care. There were also improvements in adiponectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (sICAM?1). Though medication?adjusted CRP was improved between 6 and 12 months for usual care, both interventions were more successful in reducing the relative risk of a high?risk CRP level of >3 mg/L (risk ratios of 0.72 [0.55 to 0.95] for diet versus usual care and 0.67 [0.50 to 0.90] for diet plus activity versus usual care). Furthermore, sICAM?1 (a marker of vascular risk), remained substantially lower than usual care in both intervention arms at 12 months. Conclusions Motivational, unsupervised diet and/or diet plus physical activity interventions given soon after diagnosis in real?world healthcare settings improve markers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk in patients with T2D, even after accounting for the effect of adjustments to medication to try and control blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and lipids. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/. Unique identifier: ISRCTN92162869. PMID:24811615

  15. Glycemic index of dietary formula may not be predictive of postprandial endothelial inflammation: a double-blinded, randomized, crossover study in non-diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Ram; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The emerging role of endothelial inflammation in diabetes has stimulated research interest in the effects of nutrition on related indices. In the current study we investigated whether the nutrient composition of dietary formula as reflected in glycemic index (GI) may be predictive of postprandial endothelial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects. A double-blinded, randomized, crossover study was conducted in non-diabetic subjects (n = 8/group). Each subject consumed three types of diabetes-specific dietary formulas (high-fiber formula [FF], high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) formula [MF] and control formula [CF]) standardized to 50 g of available carbohydrates with a 1-week interval between each. The mean glycemic index (GI) was calculated and 3-hour postprandial responses of insulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), nitrotyrosine (NT) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured. The MF showed the lowest mean GI and significantly low area under the curve (AUC) for insulin (P = 0.038), but significantly high AUCs for sICAM-1 (P < 0.001) and FFA (P < 0.001) as compared to the CF and FF. The FF showed intermediate mean GI, but significantly low AUC for NT (P < 0.001) as compared to the CF and MF. The mean GI was not positively correlated to any of the inflammatory markers evaluated, and in fact negatively correlated to changes in FFA (r = -0.473, P = 0.006). While the MF with the lowest GI showed the highest values in most of the inflammatory markers measured, the FF with intermediate GI had a modest beneficial effect on endothelial inflammation. These results suggest that nutrient composition of dietary formula as reflected in the GI may differently influence acute postprandial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects. PMID:23964318

  16. Identification of inflammatory mediators in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying; Sheng, Huiming; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Mengxi; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression profile of intravitreous cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD) in comparison with patients with only rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods Twenty RRDCD patients and 30 RRD patients were included in this case-control study. A multiplex bead-based immunoassay was performed to determine the expression of a wide range of 29 inflammatory mediators in undiluted vitreous from the patients. Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U-test for nonparametric values and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared with the patients with RRD, intravitreous inflammatory mediators, including migration inhibitor factor (MIF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCL4, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL22, CXCL9, CXCL8, soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3), and platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), were upregulated in patients with RRDCD. After calibrating the factors duration of detachment, preoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade, and presence or absence of macular hole, the PDGF-AA concentrations were not significantly different according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. MIF and sICAM-1 markers were significantly different between the two groups and represented a forward stepwise logistic regression trend. Conclusions This is the first report to use multiplex bead analysis to investigate inflammatory mediators related to RRDCD. We proposed that the upregulated expression of these mediators may be involved in the inflammation process of RRDCD and that regulation of their expression may be potentially therapeutic by altering local inflammation. PMID:26015767

  17. Predictors of Inflammation in Response to Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Paul J.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Parker, Barbara; Natarajan, Loki; Hong, Suzi; Jain, Shamini; Sadler, Georgia R.; von Känel, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Although chemotherapy for breast cancer can increase inflammation, few studies have examined predictors of this phenomenon. This study examined potential contributions of demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment regimens to markers of inflammation in response to chemotherapy for breast cancer. Thirty-five women with stage I - III-A breast cancer (mean age 50 years) were studied prior to cycle 1 and prior to cycle 4 of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers with high relevance to breast cancer were examined, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-RA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), Interleukin- (IL-6), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), and von Willebrand factor (vWf). Chemotherapy was associated with elevations in VEGF (p≤0.01), sICAM-1 (p≤0.01), sP-selectin (p≤0.02) and vWf (p≤0.05). Multiple regression analysis controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) showed that higher post-chemotherapy levels of inflammation were consistently related to higher pre-chemotherapy levels of inflammation (p’s ≤0.05) as well as to certain disease characteristics. Post-chemotherapy IL-6 levels were higher in patients who had larger tumors (p≤0.05) while post-chemotherapy VEGF levels were higher in patients who had smaller tumors (p≤0.05). Post-chemotherapy sP-selectin levels were highest in women who had received epirubicin, cytoxan, 5fluorouracil chemotherapy (p≤0.01). These findings indicate that chemotherapy treatment can be associated with elevations in certain markers of inflammation, particularly markers of endothelial and platelet activation. Inflammation in response to chemotherapy is most significantly related to inflammation that existed prior to chemotherapy but also potentially to treatment regimen and to certain disease characteristics. PMID:17706918

  18. Experimental Investigation of Optimal Adhesion of Mushroomlike Elastomer Microfibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Song, Sukho; Sitti, Metin

    2015-09-22

    Optimal fiber designs for the maximal pull-off force have been indispensable for increasing the attachment performance of recently introduced gecko-inspired reversible micro/nanofibrillar adhesives. There are several theoretical studies on such optimal designs; however, due to the lack of three-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques that can fabricate such optimal designs in 3D, there have not been many experimental investigations on this challenge. In this study, we benefitted from recent advances in two-photon lithography techniques to fabricate mushroomlike polyurethane elastomer fibers with different aspect ratios of tip to stalk diameter (?) and tip wedge angles (?) to investigate the effect of these two parameters on the pull-off force. We found similar trends to those predicted theoretically. We found that ? has an impact on the slope of the force-displacement curve while both ? and ? play a role in the stress distribution and crack propagation. We found that these effects are coupled and the optimal set of parameters also depends on the fiber material. This is the first experimental verification of such optimal designs proposed for mushroomlike microfibers. This experimental approach could be used to evaluate a wide range of complex microstructured adhesive designs suggested in the literature and optimize them. PMID:26322396

  19. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-08-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at -2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives.

  20. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  1. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  2. Adhesive bonding of carbon and ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kravetskii, G.A.; Anikin, L.T.; Demin, A.V.; Butyrin, G.M.

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of phenol resins and high-melting powder fillers, adhesives for bonding carbon and ceramic materials have been developed at NIIGRAFIT that allow adhesively bonded parts to be used at temperatures as high as 1500 to 1800{degrees}C, Some properties of those adhesives are covered in. The present paper describes results of recent investigations of the heat- and corrosion-resistance of the NIIGRAFIT`s adhesives. As the subjects of investigations were taken adhesives differing in the powder filler composition. Moreover, one adhesive (SVK) was subjected to a preliminary heat treatment (1200{degrees}C, 1 h, Ar) to fully complete the interaction processes between powder components and a binder coke.

  3. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  4. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  5. NR-150B2 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatz, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive based polyimide solutions which are more easily processed than conventional aromatic polyimide systems and show potential for use for extended times at 589K are discussed. The adhesive system is based on a solution containing diglyme as the solvent and 2,2 bis(3',4'-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane, paraphenylenediamine, and oxydianiline. The replacement of N-methylpyrrolidone with diglyme as the solvent was found to improve the adhesive strengths of lap shear samples and simplify the processing conditions for bonding both titanium and graphite fiber/polyimide matrix resin composites. Information was obtained on the effects of various environments including high humidity, immersion in jet fuel and methylethylketone on aluminum filled adhesive bonds. The adhesive was also evaluated in wide area bonds and flatwise tensile specimens using titanium honeycomb and composite face sheets. It was indicated that the developed adhesive system has the potential for use in applications requiring long term exposure to at least 589K (600 F).

  6. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at −2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives. PMID:26282730

  7. Innate Non-Specific Cell Substratum Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, William F.; Fuller, Danny; Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of motile cells to solid surfaces is necessary to transmit forces required for propulsion. Unlike mammalian cells, Dictyostelium cells do not make integrin mediated focal adhesions. Nevertheless, they can move rapidly on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. We have found that adhesion to such surfaces can be inhibited by addition of sugars or amino acids to the buffer. Treating whole cells with ?lpha-mannosidase to cleave surface oligosaccharides also reduces adhesion. The results indicate that adhesion of these cells is mediated by van der Waals attraction of their surface glycoproteins to the underlying substratum. Since glycoproteins are prevalent components of the surface of most cells, innate adhesion may be a common cellular property that has been overlooked. PMID:22952588

  8. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibits monocytes adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Lu, Na; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation and its subsequent endothelial dysfunction have been reported to play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of chronic vascular diseases. Inhibiting the attachment of monocytes to endothelium is a potential therapeutic strategy for vascular diseases treatment. ?-Melanocyte stimulating hormone is generated from a precursor hormone called proopiomelanocortin by post-translational processing. However, whether ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone plays a role in regulating endothelial inflammation is still unknown. In this study, the effects of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone on endothelial inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines were investigated. And the result indicated that ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibits the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, thereby attenuating the adhesion of THP-1 cells to the surface of endothelial cells. Mechanistically, ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone was found to inhibit NF-?B transcriptional activity. Finally, we found that the effect of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone on endothelial inflammation is dependent on its receptor melanocortin receptor 1. PMID:25898835

  9. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate modulates endothelial cell function and suppresses leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-?-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation. PMID:23760613

  10. Adhesive for solar control film

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, H.J.

    1984-01-31

    A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

  11. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  12. Influence of composition on the adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maeda, Takeshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of composition on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength between denture adhesives and the denture base. Two types of water-soluble polymers (methoxy ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer [PVM-MA] and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]) were used. Samples were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained only PVM-MA; Group 2 contained only CMC; and Group 3 contained PVM-MA and CMC. The initial viscosity and adhesive strength were measured. For Group 1, the initial viscosity increased significantly as PVM-MA content increased. The adhesive strength of Group 1 lasted longer than Group 2. The adhesive strength of Group 3 varied greatly. The ratio of CMC and PVM-MA has a significant effect on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of denture adhesives. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve the durability of a denture adhesive by combining different water-soluble polymers. PMID:24492119

  13. Compatibility between silorane adhesive and simplified methacrylate-based adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; de Farias, Natlia Coelho; Silva, Marlia Santos; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Gonzlez, Alejandra Hortencia Miranda; Di Hiplito, Vinicius

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of replacing P90 primer with simplified adhesive systems (with a conventional, two-step adhesive or a self-etching, one-step adhesive) on bond strength to dentin in Class I restorations. The interfaces were also analyzed using confocal microscopy by adding a fluorophore to the adhesive components and SEM using silver nitrate for nanoleakage investigation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterized the chemical interaction of the adhesives. Failure mode and nanoleakage varied among groups. Characteristic micromorphology and higher nanoleakage were noted for silorane combinations. On the other hand, no signs of phase crystallization in the silorane adhesive combinations were noted. Replacing the silorane primer with simplified adhesives proved successful as the modified systems provided bonding to dentin comparable to that of the unmodified silorane systems. However, the dedicated adhesive exhibited signs of degradation immediately after application, which may impact the longevity of restorations in short periods. PMID:23538762

  14. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D; Bassler, Bonnie L; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement face being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  15. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D; Bassler, Bonnie L; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement face being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  16. Anisotropic adhesion of micropillars with spatula pads.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seungwan; Lee, Jehong; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Ko, Kwang Hee; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jongho

    2014-02-12

    Natural gecko adhesive structures consisting of angled setae, branched into thin spatulas, have remarkable properties including easily attachable and releasable anisotropic adhesion. The geometrically asymmetric structures lead to anisotropic adhesive properties. Inspired by the gecko, we fabricated an array of micropillars with asymmetric spatula pads from elastomeric materials. This paper describes the anisotropic properties of the micropillars with spatula pads as established by experimental measurements and observation together with finite element analysis. The results indicate that the structural difference of the spatula pad at one edge of the micropillar provides the anisotropic adhesive properties. PMID:24446878

  17. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  18. Chlorinated polyolefins as adhesion promoters for plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak, J.; Sass, C.; Stoffer, J.O.; Dechent, W.L.

    1993-12-31

    A new procedure which tests the peel strength of a topcoat applied to a substrate was used to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of a chlorinated pololefin as an adhesion promoter for coatings on plastics. A 4 to 5-fold increase in adhesion resulted for a latex vinyl acrylic topcoat that was applied to polypropylene. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis studies showed a topcoat/chlorinated polyolefin adhesive failure for both melamine crosslinked and urethane crosslinked polyester systems on polypropylene. Topcoat/chlorinated polyolefin adhesive failure also occured for both melamine crosslinked and urethane crosslinked polyester systems on thermal plastic olefins. All failure tests were performed at ambient conditions.

  19. Computational Contact Formulations for Soft Body Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    This article gives an overview of adhesive contact for soft bodies and focuses on a general computational framework that is suitable for treating a large class of adhesion problems. The contact formulation is based on a non-linear continuum approach that is capable of describing bodies down to length scales of several nanometers. Several finite element formulations are presented, that introduce various approximations in order to increase the computational efficiency. The approaches are illustrated by several examples throughout the text. These include carbon nanotube interaction, adhesion of spheres, nanoindentation, thin film peeling, gecko adhesion and self-cleaning surface mechanisms.

  20. Comparison of three work of adhesion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, J.A.; O`Toole, E.; Zamora, D.; Poon, B.

    1998-02-01

    Practical work of adhesion measurements are being studied for several types of polymer/metal combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. The primary question is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. The authors report on their first attempts to obtain the work of adhesion between a PDMS polymer and stainless steel. The work of adhesion measurements were made using three techniques -- contact angle, adhesive fracture energy at low deformation rates and JKR. Previous work by Whitesides` group show a good correlation between JKR and contact angle measurements for PDMS. Their initial work focused on duplicating the PDMS measurements of Chaudury. In addition, in this paper the authors extend the work of adhesion measurement to third technique -- interfacial failure energy. The ability to determine the reversible work of adhesion for practical adhesive joints allows understanding of several issues that control adhesion: surface preparation, nature of the interphase region, and bond durability.

  1. Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Ranjith; Shajahan, P A; Mathew, Jyothis; Koruthu, Anil; Aravind, Prasad; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    The use of denture adhesives is common among denture wearers, and it is also prescribed by many dentists. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for any defects in the fabrication procedures. Denture adhesives add to the retention and thereby improve chewing ability, reduce any instability, provide comfort and eliminate the accumulation of food debris beneath the dentures. Consequently, they increase the patients sense of security and satisfaction. However, obtaining the advice of the dental practitioner prior to the use of adhesives is a must. PMID:26225115

  2. Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Ranjith; Shajahan, P A; Mathew, Jyothis; Koruthu, Anil; Aravind, Prasad; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    The use of denture adhesives is common among denture wearers, and it is also prescribed by many dentists. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for any defects in the fabrication procedures. Denture adhesives add to the retention and thereby improve chewing ability, reduce any instability, provide comfort and eliminate the accumulation of food debris beneath the dentures. Consequently, they increase the patient's sense of security and satisfaction. However, obtaining the advice of the dental practitioner prior to the use of adhesives is a must. PMID:26225115

  3. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernn A

    2015-08-28

    We explore adhesive loose packings of small dry spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics and statistical ensemble theory. A dimensionless adhesion parameter (Ad) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for Ad > 1. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes the correlation between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) an equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appear as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram and (ii) the existence of an asymptotic adhesive loose packing point at a coordination number Z = 2 and a packing fraction ? = 1/2(3). Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing (RLP), which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP. PMID:26186271

  4. Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Mireille; Thoumine, Olivier; Brevier, Julien; Choquet, Daniel; Riveline, Daniel; Mege, Rene-Marc

    2007-11-15

    Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions.

  5. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  6. C1q/TNF-related protein-9 inhibits cytokine-induced vascular inflammation and leukocyte adhesiveness via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Yu Mi; Lee, Yoo La; Seol, So Mi; Yoon, Hae Kyeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Although recent studies have reported cardioprotective effects of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), the closet adiponectin paralog, its role on cytokine-induced endothelial inflammation is unknown. We investigated whether CTRP9 prevented inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation and inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules and a chemokine in the vascular endothelial cell. We used human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to examine the effects of CTRP9 on NF-?B activation and the expression of NF-?B-mediated genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, CTRP9 reduced TNF?-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECs. Treatment with CTRP9 significantly decreased TNF?-induced activation of NF-?B, as well as the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1. In addition, treatment with CTRP9 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the downstream target of AMPK. The inhibitory effect of CTRP9 on the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 and monocyte adhesion to HAECs was abolished after transfection with an AMPK?1-specific siRNA. Our study is the first to demonstrate that CTRP9 attenuates cytokine-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells mediated by AMPK activation. PMID:26523509

  7. Tumor cell surface alpha 4 beta 1 integrin mediates adhesion to vascular endothelium: demonstration of an interaction with the N-terminal domains of INCAM-110/VCAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, D B; Cybulsky, M I; Djaffar, I; Longenecker, B M; Teixid, J; Rice, G E; Aruffo, A; Bevilacqua, M P

    1991-01-01

    Hematogenous metastasis involves adhesive interactions between blood-borne tumor cells and the vessel wall. By the use of in vitro assays, the adhesion of human melanoma, osteosarcoma, and kidney carcinoma (but not colon carcinoma) cell lines was shown to involve the cytokine-inducible endothelial cell surface protein inducible cell adhesion molecule 110 (INCAM-110) and the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, molecules normally involved in endothelial-leukocyte interactions. Tumor adhesion to human endothelial cell monolayers was increased 1.9- to 8.2-fold by endothelial activation with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and inhibited by the anti-INCAM-110 monoclonal antibody (mAb) E1/6. Each of these tumor cells expressed members of the beta 1 integrin family of adhesion molecules, and antibodies to the alpha 4 and beta 1 integrin subunits inhibited tumor-endothelial adhesion (48-87% inhibition). A cDNA encompassing the three N-terminal Ig-like domains of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) encoded a protein recognized by the anti-INCAM-110 mAb E1/6 and, when captured onto plastic, supported melanoma cell adhesion by an alpha 4 integrin-dependent mechanism. In contrast to mAb E1/6, a second anti-INCAM-110 mAb Hu8/4 neither inhibited adhesion to activated endothelium nor bound the first three Ig-like domains of INCAM-110/VCAM-1. These data indicate that the adherence of several human tumors to activated endothelium is mediated by an interaction of alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and the N-terminal Ig-like domains of endothelial INCAM-110/VCAM-1. Tumor acquisition of the alpha 4 integrin subunit and endothelial expression of INCAM-110 may affect the frequency and distribution of metastasis. Images PMID:1716464

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and promotes transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sellati, T J; Burns, M J; Ficazzola, M A; Furie, M B

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of leukocytic infiltrates in perivascular tissues is a key step in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. During an inflammatory response, endothelial cell adhesion molecules mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to the blood vessel wall and their subsequent extravasation into perivascular tissues. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi activated endothelium in a dose- and time-dependent fashion as measured by upregulation of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). As few as one spirochete per endothelial cell stimulated increased expression of these molecules. Expression of E-selectin peaked after spirochetes and HUVEC were coincubated for 4 h and returned to near-basal levels by 24 h. In contrast, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 peaked at 12 h and remained elevated at 24 h. HUVEC monolayers cultured on acellular amniotic tissue were used to investigate the consequences of endothelial cell activation by spirochetes. After incubation of HUVEC-amnion cultures with B. burgdorferi, subsequently added neutrophils migrated across the endothelial monolayers. This process was mediated by E-selectin and by CD11/CD18 leukocytic integrins. The extent of migration depended on both the number of spirochetes used to stimulate the HUVEC and the length of the coincubation period. These results raise the possibility that B. burgdorferi induces a host inflammatory response and accompanying perivascular damage through activation of vascular endothelium. PMID:7591083

  9. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175... Adhesives 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive adhesives may be safely used as the... prescribed conditions: (a) Pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from one or a mixture of two or more of...

  10. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattranctant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, & soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men/women consuming fructose-or glucose-sweetened beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. The objective of this study was ...

  11. Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kejia

    There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. The results in this study may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness. The novel designs of our dry adhesives open the way for new gecko-like adhesive surfaces and articulation mechanisms that do not rely on intensive nanofabrication.

  12. Factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Lambrechts, P; Inokoshi, S; Braem, M; Vanherle, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues. Factors related to the physicochemical structure of the adherents and to the inherent properties of composite restorative materials, along with the postulated bonding mechanisms of current adhesive systems, are discussed. PMID:1470540

  13. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  15. Sticky fingers: Adhesive properties of human fingertips.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Wiechert, Anke B; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-02-29

    Fingertip friction is a rather well studied subject. Although the phenomenon of finger stickiness is known as well, the pull-off force and the adhesive strength of human finger tips have never been previously quantified. For the first time, we provided here characterization of adhesive properties of human fingers under natural conditions. Human fingers can generate a maximum adhesive force of 15mN on a smooth surface of epoxy resin. A weak correlation of the adhesive force and the normal force was found on all test surfaces. Up to 300mN load, an increase of the normal force leads to an increase of the adhesive force. On rough surfaces, the adhesive strength is significantly reduced. Our data collected from untreated hands give also an impression of an enormous scattering of digital adhesion depending on a large set of inter-subject variability and time-dependent individual factors (skin texture, moisture level, perspiration). The wide inter- and intra-individual range of digital adhesion should be considered in developing of technical and medical products. PMID:26892897

  16. Pathophysiology and prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions represent an important clinical challenge in gastrointestinal surgery. Peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of peritoneal irritation by infection or surgical trauma, and may be considered as the pathological part of healing following any peritoneal injury, particularly due to abdominal surgery. The balance between fibrin deposition and degradation is critical in determining normal peritoneal healing or adhesion formation. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are a major cause of morbidity resulting in multiple complications, many of which may manifest several years after the initial surgical procedure. In addition to acute small bowel obstruction, peritoneal adhesions may cause pelvic or abdominal pain, and infertility. In this paper, the authors reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis and various prevention strategies of adhesion formation, using Medline and PubMed search. Several preventive agents against postoperative peritoneal adhesions have been investigated. Their role aims in activating fibrinolysis, hampering coagulation, diminishing the inflammatory response, inhibiting collagen synthesis or creating a barrier between adjacent wound surfaces. Their results are encouraging but most of them are contradictory and achieved mostly in animal model. Until additional findings from future clinical researches, only a meticulous surgery can be recommended to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality rates from these untoward effects of surgery. In the current state of knowledge, pre-clinical or clinical studies are still necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the several proposed prevention strategies of postoperative peritoneal adhesions. PMID:22147959

  17. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  1. The effects of plasticity in adhesive fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, M. D.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An energy-balance analysis is presented for adhesive failure in end loaded cantilever beams. The analysis includes the effects of input work, stored strain energy, dissipated plastic energy, and specific adhesive surface energy. Experimental results obtained with 6061-T6 aluminum are presented as evidence for the validity of the approach.-

  2. Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.

  3. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  4. Effects of the Tumor-Leukocyte Microenvironment on MelanomaNeutrophil Adhesion to the Endothelium in a Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shile; Hoskins, Meghan; Khanna, Payal; Kunz, Robert F.; Dong, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of cancer mortality is not attributed to primary tumor formation, but rather to the growth of metastases at distant organ sites. Tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel endothelium (EC) and subsequent transendothelial migration within the circulation are critical components of the metastasis cascade. Previous studies have shown polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation under flow conditions. The melanoma cellPMN interactions are found to be mediated by the binding between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and ?2 integrin on PMNs and by endogenously secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) within the tumor-leukocyte microenvironment. In this study, the effects of fluid convection on the IL-8-mediated activation of PMNs and the binding kinetics between PMNs and melanoma cells were investigated. Results indicate that the shear rate dependence of PMNmelanoma cell adhesion and melanoma cell extravasation is due, at least partly, to the convection of tumor-secreted proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. PMID:19865613

  5. Adhesion, friction and micromechanical properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics, both in monolithic and coating form, are reviewed. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials, and metals. For the simplicity of discussion, the tribological properties of concern in the processes are separated into two parts. The first part discusses the pull-off force (adhesion) and the shear force required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces. The role of chemical bonding in adhesion and friction, and the effects of surface contaminant films and temperature on tribological response with respect to adhesion and friction are discussed. The second part deals with abrasion of ceramics. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The scratch technique of determining the critical load needed to fracture interfacial adhesive bonds of ceramic deposited on substrates is also addressed.

  6. Adhesion hysteresis of silane coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    2000-04-17

    The authors have developed a new experimental approach for measuring hysteresis in the adhesion between micromachined surfaces. By accurately modeling the deformations in cantilever beams that are subject to combined interfacial adhesion and applied electrostatic forces, they determine adhesion energies for advancing and receding contacts. They draw on this new method to examine adhesion hysteresis for silane coated micromachined structures and found significant hysteresis for surfaces that were exposed to high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Atomic force microscopy studies of these surfaces showed spontaneous formation of agglomerates that they interpreted as silages that have irreversibly transformed from uniform surface layers at low RH to isolated vesicles at high RH. They used contact deformation models to show that the compliance of these vesicles could reasonably account for the adhesion hysteresis that develops at high RH as the surfaces are forced into contact by an externally applied load.

  7. Adhesion through single peptide aptamers.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve; Appleyard, David C; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Fadiran, Oluwatimilehin O; Kunkel, Jacquelyn; Lang, Matthew J

    2011-04-28

    Aptamer and antibody mediated adhesion is central to biological function and is valuable in the engineering of "lab on a chip" devices. Single molecule force spectroscopy using optical tweezers enables direct nonequilibrium measurement of these noncovalent interactions for three peptide aptamers selected for glass, polystyrene, and carbon nanotubes. A comprehensive examination of the strong attachment between antifluorescein 4-4-20 and fluorescein was also carried out using the same assay. Bond lifetime, barrier width, and free energy of activation are extracted from unbinding histogram data using three single molecule pulling models. The evaluated aptamers appear to adhere stronger than the fluorescein antibody under no- and low-load conditions, yet weaker than antibodies at loads above ?25 pN. Comparison to force spectroscopy data of other biological linkages shows the diversity of load dependent binding and provides insight into linkages used in biological processes and those designed for engineered systems. PMID:20795685

  8. MRI of placental adhesive disorder.

    PubMed

    Srisajjakul, S; Prapaisilp, P; Bangchokdee, S

    2014-10-01

    Placental adhesive disorder (PAD) is a serious pregnancy complication that occurs when the chorionic villi invade the myometrium. Placenta praevia and prior caesarean section are the two important risk factors. PAD is classified on the basis of the depth of myometrial invasion (placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta). MRI is the preferred image modality for pre-natal diagnosis of PAD and as complementary technique when ultrasonography is inconclusive. Imaging findings that are helpful for the diagnosis include dark intraplacental bands, direct invasion of adjacent structures by placental tissue, interruption of normal trilayered myometrium and uterine bulging. Clinicians should be aware of imaging features of PAD to facilitate optimal patient management. PMID:25060799

  9. MRI of placental adhesive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Prapaisilp, P; Bangchokdee, S

    2014-01-01

    Placental adhesive disorder (PAD) is a serious pregnancy complication that occurs when the chorionic villi invade the myometrium. Placenta praevia and prior caesarean section are the two important risk factors. PAD is classified on the basis of the depth of myometrial invasion (placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta). MRI is the preferred image modality for pre-natal diagnosis of PAD and as complementary technique when ultrasonography is inconclusive. Imaging findings that are helpful for the diagnosis include dark intraplacental bands, direct invasion of adjacent structures by placental tissue, interruption of normal trilayered myometrium and uterine bulging. Clinicians should be aware of imaging features of PAD to facilitate optimal patient management. PMID:25060799

  10. Adhesion strength and inversely-determined nonlinear Young's moduli for die-attach adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, Devin E.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    1993-09-01

    The use of loaded epoxy adhesives in the microelectronics industry is widespread. Integrated circuit (IC) chips are often adhesively bonded to die-pads, substrates, leadframes, and/or heatspreaders. In addition to silicon, a variety of adherends including IC passivation coatings (such as polyimide), copper and copper alloys (plated with precious metals and non-plated), aluminum, and ceramics (such as alumina (Al2O3)) are encountered in situations such as these. The adhesion strength as well as the mechanical properties of the adhesives used in these configurations are unfortunately not well known. In order to obtain an estimate of the values of the parameters that are of interest it is necessary to experimentally investigate the adhesives in the configuration under consideration. This was done for a number of commercially available loaded epoxy adhesives. A full factorial experimental study was conducted, using double lap shear test specimens (DLSTSs), in order to determine the effect of moisture and temperature on the adhesion strength of these adhesives. An Instron mechanical test system was used to generate force-displacement (F-d) curves for each of the adhesives that were studied. The adhesives that were examined consisted of both 'low stress' and high strength materials and they were obtained from four different vendors. The experimental results were also used in conjunction with a Finite Element (FE) model of the DLSTS in order to determine the non-linear Young's moduli of the adhesives as a function of strain, moisture, and temperature.

  11. Dentin adhesives create a positive bond to dental hard tissue.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, R; Kern, M

    2003-04-01

    The development of adhesive systems is briefly presented. The advantages of adhesively bonded ceramic restorations are discussed, as are the steps involved in creating an adhesive bond to ceramic. PMID:14552154

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2014 What is leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1? Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type ...

  13. INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORK (IPN) ADHESIVES FOR ELECTRON BEAM CURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron beam (e-beam)-processed polymer adhesives have historically performed poorly compared to traditional adhesive technologies due to a lack of toughness engineered into these new types of adhesive materials. Consequently, sequential- and simultaneous-interpenetrating polyme...

  14. Viscosity and adhesion strength of cream-type denture adhesives and mouth moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroshi; Kurogi, Tadafumi; Shimizu, Takaharu; Nishimura, Masahiro; Murata, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated adhesion strength to acrylic resins under various experimental conditions and viscosity of 4 cream-type denture adhesives and 2 mouth moisturizers. The viscosity was determined by a sine-wave vibro viscometer. The adhesion strength tests were performed with 2 resin plates at a universal tester. In Method A, various constant thicknesses of material layer were tested and tensile strength was measured, while in Method B a constant load was applied before measurement. Five tests were carried out for each measurement. With Method A, adhesion strength increased exponentially as the layer got thin. Effect of the material thicknesses (contribution ratio ?=79.0%) was much larger than that of material type (?=15.3%). Materials with higher viscosity had greater levels of adhesion strength in Method A, whereas those with the higher viscosity had lower levels of adhesion strength in Method B. Adhesion strength was significantly affected by the experimental condition prior to applying tension. PMID:23207201

  15. Viscoelastic effects in the adhesion of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Wei Jing

    Viscoelastic effects in the tear strength and adhesion of elastomers were investigated by: (1) using a viscoelastic data analysis tool, the Williams, Landel, and Ferry (WLF) equation, to understand the tear strength and adhesion of butyl rubber as a function of dwell time and contact temperature; (2) conducting a simple peel test to measure the adhesion of elastomers to filler particles; and (3) using an equation derived from the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory to calculate the energy required to peel an elastomer strip from a layer of filler particles. The WLF equation was used to form mastercurves of fracture energy of butyl rubber versus effective rate of crack propagation. The peel strength was found to increase continuously over long periods of contact until failure became cohesive within the elastomer layer. At higher temperatures the peel strength increased more rapidly, consistent with the WLF relation governing molecular motion. It is postulated that slow molecular rearrangements occur at the interface, increasing bond strength. Secondly, a simple peel test was used to study the adhesion of three elastomers to filler particles. An interlayer of carbon black particles increased peel strength by up to 300% compared with self-adhesion. Silica particles also increased adhesion, but by a smaller factor. There were significant differences between the different elastomers. Also, the strength of adhesion depended on the degree of crosslinking of the elastomer layers; at higher levels of crosslinking, both self-adhesion and adhesion to particles were reduced. This simple experiment gives an indication of the relative strength of adhesion for different combinations of elastomer and reinforcing filler. Strengths calculated from the hypothesized equation agreed approximately with experimental values.

  16. Analysis of thermal conductivity in composite adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Kathleen Louise

    Thermally conductive composite adhesives are desirable in many industrial applications, including computers, microelectronics, machinery and appliances. These composite adhesives are formed when a filler particle of high conductivity is added to a base adhesive. Typically, adhesives are poor thermal conductors. Experimentally only small improvements in the thermal properties of the composite adhesives over the base adhesives have been observed. A thorough understanding of heat transfer through a composite adhesive would aid in the design of a thermally conductive composite adhesive that has the desired thermal properties. In this work, we study design methodologies for thermally conductive composite adhesives. We present a three dimensional model for heat transfer through a composite adhesive based on its composition and on the experimental method for measuring its thermal properties. For proof of concept, we reduce our model to a two dimensional model. We present numerical solutions to our two dimensional model based on a composite silicone and investigate the effect of the particle geometry on the heat flow through this composite. We also present homogenization theory as a tool for computing the "effective thermal conductivity" of a composite material. We prove existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence theorems for our two dimensional model. We formulate a parameter estimation problem for the two dimensional model and present numerical results. We first estimate the thermal conductivity parameters as constants, and then use a probability based approach to estimate the parameters as realizations of random variables. A theoretical framework for the probability based approach is outlined. Based on the results of the parameter estimation problem, we are led to formally derive sensitivity equations for our system. We investigate the sensitivity of our composite silicone with respect to the thermal conductivity of both the base silicone polymer and the filler particles. Numerical results of this investigation are also presented.

  17. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Mexican Children Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Hernndez-Castellanos, Erika; Barrera-Hernndez, Angel; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults, but there is little information on arsenic and early risk biomarkers for atherosclerosis in children. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an indicator of subclinical atherosclerotic burden that has been associated with plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of arsenic exposure with cIMT, ADMA, and endothelial adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1); soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)] in children who had been exposed to environmental inorganic arsenic (iAs). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 199 children 314 years of age who were residents of Zimapan, Mxico. We evaluated cIMT using ultrasonography, and plasma lipid profiles by standard methods. We analyzed ADMA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 by ELISA, and measured the concentrations of total speciated arsenic (tAs) in urine using hydride generation cryotrapping atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In the multiple linear regression model for cIMT, tAs categories were positively associated with cIMT increase. The estimated cIMT diameter was greater in 35- to 70-ng/mL and > 70-ng/mL groups (0.035 mm and 0.058 mm per 1-ng/mL increase in urinary tAs, respectively), compared with the < 35-ng/mL group. In addition to tAs level, plasma ADMA was a significant predictor of cIMT. In the adjusted regression model, cIMT, percent iAs, and plasma sVCAM-1 were significant predictors of ADMA levels (e.g., 0.419-?mol/L increase in ADMA per 1-mm increase in cIMT). Conclusions: Arsenic exposure and plasma ADMA levels were positively associated with cIMT in a population of Mexican children with environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water. Citation: Osorio-Yez C, Ayllon-Vergara JC, Aguilar-Madrid G, Arreola-Mendoza L, Hernndez-Castellanos E, Barrera-Hernndez A, De Vizcaya-Ruz A, Del Razo LM. 2013. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in Mexican children exposed to inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 121:10901096;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205994 PMID:23757599

  18. Adhesion in ceramics and magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a metal or a polymeric material such as a magnetic medium, strong bonds form between the materials. For ceramic-to-metal contacts, adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. Hardness of metals plays a much more important role in adhesion and friction than does the surface energy of metals. Adhesion, friction, surface energy, and hardness of a metal are all related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. An increase in shear modulus results in a decrease in area of contact that is greater than the corresponding increase in surface energy (the fond energy) with shear modulus. Consequently, the adhesion and friction decrease with increasing shear modulus. For ceramics in contact with polymeric magnetic tapes, environment is extremely important. For example, a nitrogen environment reduces adhesion and friction when ferrite contacts polymeric tape, whereas a vacuum environment strengthens the ferrite-to-tape adhesion and increases friction. Adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the particle loading of the tape. An increase in magnetic particle concentration increases the complex modulus of the tape, and a lower real area of contact and lower friction result.

  19. Morphology and genesis of asymmetric adhesion wartsa new adhesion surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Henrik; Due, Poul H.; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    1989-02-01

    Adhesion surface structures have been studied during their formation on a fluvial bar in East Greenland. Two main types occurred: adhesion ripples and asymmetric adhesion warts. Adhesion ripples formed on moist surfaces; their crests lay transverse to the wind direction and they migrated by trapping dry wind-blown sand on their steep fronts. Asymmetric adhesion warts (new structure) formed because of falling moisture content by preferred upwind migration of small protuberances on the adhesion ripples. The protuberances were apparently inherited from an initial rain sculpturing of the bar surface. The asymmetric adhesion warts, here described for the first time, were elongate parallel to the wind, associated with steep upwind-facing fronts and commonly displayed sand-shadow tails tapering in a downwind direction. A study of Devonian flood-basin deposits (Hornelen Basin, Norway) revealed the existence of adhesion surface structures very similar to their modern analogues. The Devonian examples were associated with rain-sculptured surfaces which are believed to have controlled the morphology of the adhesion surface structures as in the modern example. The orientation of the ancient adhesion surface structures is here used for determination of the palaeowind, which blew from the ENE.

  20. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  1. Improving controllable adhesion on both rough and smooth surfaces with a hybrid electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Ruffatto, Donald; Parness, Aaron; Spenko, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, controllable adhesive that combines the benefits of electrostatic adhesives with gecko-like directional dry adhesives. When working in combination, the two technologies create a positive feedback cycle whose adhesion, depending on the surface type, is often greater than the sum of its parts. The directional dry adhesive brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, increasing its effect. Similarly, the electrostatic adhesion helps engage more of the directional dry adhesive fibrillar structures, particularly on rough surfaces. This paper presents the new hybrid adhesive's manufacturing process and compares its performance to three other adhesive technologies manufactured using a similar process: reinforced PDMS, electrostatic and directional dry adhesion. Tests were performed on a set of ceramic tiles with varying roughness to quantify its effect on shear adhesive force. The relative effectiveness of the hybrid adhesive increases as the surface roughness is increased. Experimental data are also presented for different substrate materials to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved with the hybrid adhesive. Results show that the hybrid adhesive provides up to 5.1 greater adhesion than the electrostatic adhesive or directional dry adhesive technologies alone. PMID:24451392

  2. Adhesion of biologically inspired vertical and angled polymer microfiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Aksak, Burak; Murphy, Michael P; Sitti, Metin

    2007-03-13

    This paper proposes an approximate adhesion model for fibrillar adhesives for developing a fibrillar adhesive design methodology and compares numerical simulation adhesion results with macroscale adhesion data from polymer microfiber array experiments. A technique for fabricating microfibers with a controlled angle is described for the first time. Polyurethane microfibers with different hardnesses, angles, and aspect ratios are fabricated using optical lithography and polymer micromolding techniques and tested with a custom tensile adhesion measurement setup. Macroscale adhesion and overall work of adhesion of the microfiber arrays are measured and compared with the models to observe the effect of fiber geometry and preload. The adhesion strength and work of adhesion behavior of short and long vertical and long angled fiber arrays have similar trends with the numerical simulations. A scheme is also proposed to aid in optimized fiber adhesive design. PMID:17284057

  3. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands

    PubMed Central

    El-Masry, Nabil S.; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  4. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  5. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  6. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  7. Ice adhesion on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, S. A.; Farzaneh, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, ice adhesion strength on flat hydrophobic and rough super-hydrophobic coatings with similar surface chemistry (based on same fluoropolymer) is compared. Glaze ice, similar to naturally accreted, was prepared on the surfaces by spraying super-cooled water microdroplets at subzero temperature. Ice adhesion was evaluated by spinning the samples at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with different contact angle hysteresis were tested, clearly showing that the latter, along with the contact angle, also influences the ice-solid adhesion strength.

  8. The development of low temperature curing adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Sutherland, J. D.; Hom, J. M.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for the development of a practical low temperature (293 K-311 K/68 F-100 F) curing adhesive system based on a family of amide/ester resins was studied and demonstrated. The work was conducted on resin optimization and adhesive compounding studies. An improved preparative method was demonstrated which involved the reaction of an amine-alcohol precursor, in a DMF solution with acid chloride. Experimental studies indicated that an adhesive formulation containing aluminum powder provided the best performance when used in conjunction with a commercial primer.

  9. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  10. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  11. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  12. Adhesion patterns in early cell spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, Pavel; Prass, Marcus; Gummich, Meike; Khn, Jac-Simon; Oettmeier, Christina; Dbereiner, Hans-Gnther

    2010-05-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts explore the chemical suitability before spreading on a given substrate. We find this early phase of cell spreading to be characterized by transient adhesion patches with a typical mean size of (1.0 0.4) m and a lifetime of (33 12) s. Eventually, these patches fuse to initiate extensive spreading of the cell. We monitor cell adhesion using reflection interference contrast and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Digital time lapse movies are analysed employing spatio-temporal correlation functions of adhesion patterns. Correlation length and time can be scaled to obtain a master curve at the fusion point.

  13. Photochemical adhesion of fused silica optical elements with no adhesive strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Funatsu, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An adhesive method that creates properties of heatproof, waterproof, and transparent to ultraviolet ray of 200 nm and under in the wavelength without adhesive strain was developed by putting one silica glass to another with the silicone oil that had been photo-oxidized by Xe2 excimer lamp. The measurement by the ZYGO interferometer showed that there was neither adhesive strain nor bubbles, and the bonding strength of 18MPa was achieved. To compare the heat resistance of the photo-oxidized silicone oil with that of general-purpose adhesives such as silicone rubber, water glass, and epoxy resin, the shearing tensile strength test was conducted after exposing at high temperatures from 25 to 500 C. As a result, the silicone rubber adhesive exfoliated at 110 C, and the epoxy resin adhesive, at 150 C however, the photo-oxidized silicone oil had the bonding strength of 6.5MPa at 500 C.

  14. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. PMID:26477544

  15. Drug exposure in a metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line gives rise to cells with differing adhesion, proliferation, and gene expression: Implications for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUILING; HE, JIANXING; ZHONG, NANSHAN; HOFFMAN, ROBERT M

    2015-01-01

    The Am1010 cell line was previously established from a metastatic deposit in an arm muscle from a patient with lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone four cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and taxol. Am1010 cells were labeled with red fluorescent protein or green fluorescent protein. A total of eight sublines were isolated following in vitro exposure to cisplatin or taxol. The sublines differed with regard to their adhesion and proliferation properties, with certain sublines exhibiting an increased proliferation rate and/or decreased surface adhesion. Gene expression assays demonstrated that tenascin C; cyclin D1; collagen, type 1, ?2; integrin ?1; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2; platelet-derived growth factor C; and Src homolog 2 domain containing in the focal adhesion pathway, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, F11 receptor, claudin 7 and cadherin 1 in the cell adhesion pathway, varied in expression among the sublines. The results of the present study suggested that drug exposure may alter the aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells, which has important implications for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26004767

  16. VLA-4 blockade promotes differential routes into human CNS involving PSGL-1 rolling of T cells and MCAM-adhesion of TH17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Rossaint, Jan; Mohan, Hema; Bning, Daniel; Breuer, Johanna; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Gross, Catharina C.; Flanagan, Ken; Sorokin, Lydia; Vestweber, Dietmar; Zarbock, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is the characterization of human T cell bloodbrain barrier migration and corresponding molecular trafficking signatures. We examined peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid immune cells from patients under long-term antivery late antigen-4 (VLA-4)/natalizumab therapy (LTNT) and from CNS specimens. LTNT patients cerebrospinal fluid T cells exhibited healthy central-/effector-memory ratios, but lacked CD49d and showed enhanced myeloma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) expression. LTNT led to an increase of PSGL-1 expression on peripheral T cells. Although vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VLA-4 receptor) was expressed at all CNS barriers, P-selectin (PSGL-1-receptor) was mainly detected at the choroid plexus. Accordingly, in vitro experiments under physiological flow conditions using primary human endothelial cells and LTNT patients T cells showed increased PSGL-1mediated rolling and residual adhesion, even under VLA-4 blockade. Adhesion of MCAM+/TH17 cells was not affected by VLA-4 blocking alone, but was abrogated when both VLA-4 and MCAM were inhibited. Consistent with these data, MCAM+ cells were detected in white matter lesions, and in gray matter of multiple sclerosis patients. Our data indicate that lymphocyte trafficking into the CNS under VLA-4 blockade can occur by using the alternative adhesion molecules, PSGL-1 and MCAM, the latter representing an exclusive pathway for TH17 cells to migrate over the bloodbrain barrier. PMID:25135296

  17. Biologically inspired crack trapping for enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Glassmaker, Nicholas J; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Noderer, William L; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2007-06-26

    We present a synthetic adaptation of the fibrillar adhesion surfaces found in nature. The structure consists of protruding fibrils topped by a thin plate and shows an experimentally measured enhancement in adhesion energy of up to a factor of 9 over a flat control. Additionally, this structure solves the robustness problems of previous mimic structures and has preferred contact properties (i.e., a large surface area and a highly compliant structure). We show that this geometry enhances adhesion because of its ability to trap interfacial cracks in highly compliant contact regimes between successive fibril detachments. This results in the requirement that the externally supplied energy release rate for interfacial separation be greater than the intrinsic work of adhesion, in a manner analogous to lattice trapping of cracks in crystalline solids. PMID:17581870

  18. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  19. Chemistry technology: Adhesives and plastics: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technical information on chemical formulations for improving and/or producing adhesives is presented. Data are also reported on polymeric plastics with special characteristics or those plastics that were produced by innovative means.

  20. Advances in the Pathogenesis of Adhesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Belotte, Jimmy; Abuanzeh, Suleiman; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been increasing recognition that pathogenesis of adhesion development includes significant contributions of hypoxia induced at the site of surgery, the resulting oxidative stress, and the subsequent free radical production. Mitochondrial dysfunction generated by surgically induced tissue hypoxia and inflammation can lead to the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase which when optimal have the potential to abrogate mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, preventing the cascade of events leading to the development of adhesions in injured peritoneum. There is a significant cross talk between the several processes leading to whether or not adhesions would eventually develop. Several of these processes present avenues for the development of measures that can help in abrogating adhesion formation or reformation after intraabdominal surgery. PMID:24520085

  1. Micropatterning cell adhesion on polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wei-Hui; Rape, Andrew; Wang, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Cell shape and substrate rigidity play critical roles in regulating cell behaviors and fate. Controlling cell shape on elastic adhesive materials holds great promise for creating a physiologically relevant culture environment for basic and translational research and clinical applications. However, it has been technically challenging to create high-quality adhesive patterns on compliant substrates. We have developed an efficient and economical method to create precise micron-scaled adhesive patterns on the surface of a hydrogel (Rape et al., Biomaterials 32:2043-2051, 2011). This method will facilitate the research on traction force generation, cellular mechanotransduction, and tissue engineering, where precise controls of both materials rigidity and adhesive patterns are important. PMID:23955741

  2. NREL Turning Biomass into Adhesives and Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and it's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing technology to make wood adhesives from sawdust, bark, or other biomass (plant materials or wastes derived from them).

  3. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  4. Regulation of integrin-mediated adhesions.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Daniel V; Calderwood, David A

    2015-10-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment and bidirectionally relay signals across the cell membrane. These processes are critical for cell attachment, migration, differentiation, and survival, and therefore play essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and pathology. Integrin-mediated adhesions are regulated by diverse factors, including the conformation-specific affinities of integrin receptors for their extracellular ligands, the clustering of integrins and their intracellular binding partners into discrete adhesive structures, mechanical forces exerted on the adhesion, and the intracellular trafficking of integrins themselves. Recent advances shed light onto how the interaction of specific intracellular proteins with the short cytoplasmic tails of integrins controls each of these activities. PMID:26189062

  5. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.

  7. TOWARD MINIMALLY ADHESIVE SURFACES UTILIZING SILOXANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of siloxane-based network polymers have been investigated for their surface properties towards potential applications as minimally adhesive coatings. A filled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer, RTV it, has been studied to determine surface weldability and stabil...

  8. Modulation of Cellular Adhesion by Glycoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Dafik, Laila; dAlarcao, Marc; Kumar, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of lipid and protein molecules on cellular surfaces is responsible for many of the pathophysiological events in tumor progression and metastasis. Sialic acids in particular, are overexpressed on the glycocalyx of malignant tumor cells and sialic acid-mediated cell adhesion is required for metastasis. We report here that replacement of sialic acids on cell surfaces with fluorinated congeners dramatically decreases cell adhesion to E and Pselectin-coated surfaces. Comparison of adhesion of fluorinated cells with those modified with non-fluorinated analogues suggests that both reduce binding of the modified sialosides to their cognate lectins to a similar extent on a per molecule basis. The overall reduction in cell adhesion results from greater cell surface presentation of the fluorinated congeners. This work suggests an avenue for inhibition of metastasis by administration of small molecules, and concomitant non-invasive imaging of tumor cells by 19F MRI before they are visible by other means. PMID:20438083

  9. Labial Adhesions: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinicians About Us Donate General Health Sexual Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Labial Adhesions: ... permission from Emans, Laufer, Goldstein. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 5th Ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005. What ...

  10. Viscoelastic study of an adhesively bonded joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The plane strain problem of two dissimilar orthotropic plates bonded with an isotropic, linearly viscoelastic adhesive is considered. Both the shear and the normal stresses in the adhesive are calculated for various geometries and loading conditions. Transverse shear deformations of the adherends are taken into account, and their effect on the solution is shown in the results. All three inplane strains of the adhesive are included. Attention is given to the effect of temperature, both in the adhesive joint problem and to the heat generation in a viscoelastic material under cyclic loading. This separate study is included because heat generation and or spatially varying temperature are at present too difficult to account for in the analytical solution of the bonded joint, but whose effect can not be ignored in design.

  11. Ins and Outs of Microbial Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virji, Mumtaz

    Microbial adhesion is generally a complex process, involving multiple adhesins on a single microbe and their respective target receptors on host cells. In some situations, various adhesins of a microbe may co-operate in an apparently hierarchical and sequential manner whereby the first adhesive event triggers the target cell to express receptors for additional microbial adhesins. In other instances, adhesins may act in concert leading to high avidity interactions, often a prelude to cellular invasion and tissue penetration. Mechanisms used to target the host include both lectin-like interactions and protein-protein interactions; the latter are often highly specific for the host or a tissue within the host. This reflective chapter aims to offer a point of view on microbial adhesion by presenting some experiences and thoughts especially related to respiratory pathogens and explore if there can be any future hope of controlling bacterial infections via preventing adhesion or invasion stages of microbial pathogenesis.

  12. Sticky microbes: forces in microbial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Dufrne, Yves F

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the fundamental forces involved in the adhesion of microbial cells is important not only in microbiology, to elucidate cellular functions (such as ligand-binding or biofilm formation), but also in medicine (biofilm infections) and biotechnology (cell aggregation). Rapid progress in atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has made it possible to measure the forces driving cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions on a single cell basis. A living cell is attached to the AFM probe, thereby enabling researchers to measure the interaction forces between the cell and a target surface. Recent advances in our understanding of the forces driving cell adhesion and biofilm formation are discussed, with a focus on pathogens. These studies provide compelling evidence that, upon contact with a surface, cell adhesion components display a variety of mechanical responses that are important for cell adhesion. PMID:25684261

  13. New pressure-sensitive silicone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiffer, J. L.; Stoops, W. E., Jr.; St. Clair, T. L.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.; Kelly, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Adhesive for high or low temperatures does not stretch severely under load. It is produced by combining intermediate-molecular-weight pressure sensitive adhesive which does not cure with silicone resin that cures with catalyst to rubbery tack-free state. Blend of silicone tackifier and cured rubbery silicone requires no solvents in either atmospheric or vacuum environments. Ratio of ingredients varies for different degrees of tack, creep resistance, and tensile strength.

  14. Adhesion of composites to dentin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Bowen, R L; Marjenhoff, W A

    1993-06-01

    Extrapolations based on the history of the development of composites and an adhesion system for bonding dental resins and composites to hard tooth tissues can rightfully be the basis for strong optimism regarding future improvements in esthetic and conservative treatment modalities. Improved understanding of mechanisms of action and the clinical application steps common to current adhesion systems will certainly lead to improved oral healthcare. PMID:7692003

  15. Mechanisms of criticality in environmental adhesion loss.

    PubMed

    White, Christopher; Tan, Kar Tean; Hunston, Donald; Steffens, Kristen; Stanley, Deborah L; Satija, Sushil K; Akgun, Bulent; Vogt, Bryan D

    2015-05-28

    Moisture attack on adhesive joints is a long-standing scientific and engineering problem. A particularly interesting observation is that when the moisture level in certain systems exceeds a critical concentration, the bonded joint shows a dramatic loss of strength. The joint interface plays a dominant role in this phenomenon; however, why a critical concentration of moisture exists and what role is played by the properties of the bulk adhesive have not been adequately addressed. Moreover if the interface is crucial, the local water content near the interface will help elucidate the mechanisms of criticality more than the more commonly examined bulk water concentration in the adhesive. To gain a detailed picture of this criticality, we have combined a fracture mechanics approach to determine joint strength with neutron reflectivity, which provides the moisture distribution near the interface. A well-defined model system, silica glass substrates bonded to a series of polymers based on poly(n-alkyl methacrylate), was utilized to probe the role of the adhesive in a systematic manner. By altering the alkyl chain length, the molecular structure of the polymer can be systematically changed to vary the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive over a relatively wide range. Our findings suggest that the loss of adhesion is dependent on a combination of the build-up of the local water concentration near the interface, interfacial swelling stresses resulting from water absorption, and water-induced weakening of the interfacial bonds. This complexity explains the source of criticality in environmental adhesion failure and could enable design of adhesives to minimize environmental failure. PMID:25893710

  16. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  17. Modulation of leucocyte adhesion molecules, a T-cell chemotaxin (IL-8) and a regulatory cytokine (TNF-alpha) in allergic contact dermatitis (rhus dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C E; Barker, J N; Kunkel, S; Nickoloff, B J

    1991-06-01

    To understand the molecular events which are important in leucocyte trafficking in cutaneous inflammation, poison ivy/oak extract was applied topically to the skin, and the simultaneous assessment of a variety of clinical and immunopathological parameters performed. The clinical response of subjects was divided into three main groups: I, 2-24h after application, before the onset of erythema; II, 48 h-1 week after application during maximal clinical changes; III, 2-3 weeks after application when the inflammation had subsided. Six different biopsies per subject were evaluated over the study period and the density of dermal cellular infiltrate, and the distribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, (ICAM-1), endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1, (ELAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, (VCAM-1), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), determined. Eight hours after exposure, before lymphocytes and monocytes had entered the dermal interstitium or epidermis, the keratinocytes expressed TNF-alpha and ICAM-1, whilst the endothelial cells expressed ELAM-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Group II biopsies revealed increasing keratinocyte expression of TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 with the appearance of IL-8, which correlated with the onset of epidermal T-cell trafficking. The endothelium was strongly positive for ELAM-1 and VCAM-1, but there was no influx of neutrophils. Group III biopsies showed a decrease in the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 by both keratinocytes and endothelium with a reduction in epidermal/dermal inflammation, although the endothelial cell staining of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 did not completely disappear. These results suggest that on exposure to poison ivy/oak, keratinocytes rapidly produce TNF-alpha which leads to an early autoinduction of ICAM-1, and later IL-8. There is also a paracrinemediated induction and augmentation of underlying endothelial cell ELAM-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. PMID:1712219

  18. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175... Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from one or...

  19. Yielding elastic tethers stabilize robust cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Matt J; Luo, Jonathon P; Thomas, Wendy E

    2014-12-01

    Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

  20. Adhesion and its application with restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Duke, E S

    1993-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in the area of adhesion and esthetic restorative materials. Each generation of product development aims to address many of the previous inadequacies. Current resin-based dentin bonding agents are miles ahead of agents introduced only 10 years ago. The glass ionomer cement has undergone considerable evolution and barely resembles the original formulation. Whether these modified cement-resins will become established in the restorative practice remains to be seen. Or possibly, the glass ionomer cement will evolve itself out of existence into a new "class" of restorative. Numerous questions still remain unanswered in the area of adhesive materials. In particular, the confirmation of preliminary laboratory results with controlled clinical research often never surfaces, or is delayed beyond the commercial life of proprietary adhesive systems. Without such data, little confidence in adhesive behavior can be gained. More importantly, without a thorough understanding of the performance of adhesives in vivo, knowledge will never be gained relative to adhesive mechanisms that are necessary to further technology in this area. PMID:8348989

  1. Calreticulin and focal-contact-dependent adhesion.

    PubMed

    Villagomez, Maria; Szabo, Eva; Podcheko, Alexey; Feng, Tianshu; Papp, Sylvia; Opas, Michal

    2009-08-01

    Cell adhesion is regulated by a variety of Ca2+-regulated pathways that depend on Ca2+-binding proteins. One such protein is calreticulin, an ER-resident protein. Calreticulin signalling from within the ER can affect processes outside the ER, such as expression of several adhesion-related genes, most notably vinculin and fibronectin. In addition, changes in the expression level of calreticulin strongly affect tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is known to affect many adhesion-related functions. While calreticulin has been localized to cellular compartments other than the ER, it appears that only the ER-resident calreticulin affects focal-contact-dependent adhesion. In contrast, calreticulin residing outside the ER may be involved in contact disassembly and other adhesion phenomena. Here, we review the role of calreticulin in focal contact initiation, stabilization, and turnover. We propose that calreticulin may regulate cell-substratum adhesion by participating in an "ER-to-nucleus" signalling and in parallel "ER-to-cell surface" signalling based on posttranslational events. PMID:19767819

  2. Anaerobic saccharolytic bacterial adhesion to raw starch granules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.W.; Chiou, T.W.; Hsu, J.P.

    1987-06-01

    The experiment of bacteria adhesion onto starch granules is conducted. It is found that anaerobic saccharolytic bacteria have the highest adhesion ability in their growth and initial stage of stationary phase. Starch granules with a low crystallinity, low bulk density, and high water-holding capacity have a high adhesion capacity. The optimum temperature for both bacterial growth and their adhesion is 30 degrees C. The optimum pH for the bacterial adhesion range from 5.0 to 6.5. Anaerobic conditions cause an appreciable decrease in percentage of adhesion. The percentage of adhesion is not sensitive to the type of soluble saccharide on which bacteria were grown. (Refs. 19).

  3. Broad Regulation of Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in THP-1 Human Macrophages by Nitroglycerin

    PubMed Central

    Krishnatry, Anu Shilpa; Brazeau, Daniel A.; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2009-01-01

    Although nitroglycerin (NTG) is effective for the acute relief in coronary ischemic diseases, its long-term benefits in mortality and morbidity have been questioned. The possibility has been raised that NTG may increase the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which could lead to disruption and dislodging of atherosclerotic plaques. This study examined the broad effects of acute NTG exposure on the expression and activity of genes encoding MMP-9, as well as an array of ECM and adhesion molecules in THP-1 human macrophages. Gene array studies identified that while NTG exposure (100 M, 48 hours) did not significantly increase MMP-9 gene expression, genes encoding testican-1, integrin ?-1, thrombospondin-3, fibronectin-1 and MMP-26 were significantly down-regulated. On the other hand, genes encoding catenin ?-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were up-regulated. Real-time PCR studies confirmed significant down-regulation of testican-1 gene expression, but its protein expression was not significantly altered. NTG exposure, caused a significant increase in total MMP-9 protein expression (1.96-fold) and active MMP-9 (3.7-fold) concentrations. Recombinant MMP-9 was significantly activated by NTG and its dinitrate metabolites, indicating post-translation modification of this protein by organic nitrates. These results indicate that NTG exposure could broadly affect the gene expression and activity of proteases that govern the ECM cascade, thereby potentially altering atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:19836459

  4. Design guidelines for hybrid microcircuits; organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were studied to acquire an adequate information base to generate a guideline document for the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specific areas covered include: (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives; (2) effects of long term aging at 150C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives; (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics; (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive; (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters; (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives; and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  5. Circulating Biomarkers of Inflammation, Antioxidant Activity, and Platelet Activation Are Associated with Primary Combustion Aerosols in Subjects with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Polidori, Andrea; Arhami, Mohammad; Gillen, Daniel L.; Kleinman, Micheal T.; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Longhurst, John; Zaldivar, Frank; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of systemic inflammation have been associated with risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives We aimed to clarify associations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution with systemic inflammation using models based on size-fractionated PM mass and markers of primary and secondary aerosols. Methods We followed a panel of 29 nonsmoking elderly subjects with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) living in retirement communities in the Los Angeles, California, air basin. Blood plasma biomarkers were measured weekly over 12 weeks and included C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and its soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor (IL-6sR), fibrin D-dimer, soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). To assess changes in antioxidant capacity, we assayed erythrocyte lysates for glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) activities. We measured indoor and outdoor home daily size-fractionated PM mass, and hourly pollutant gases, total particle number (PN), fine PM elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), estimated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary OC (OCpri) from total OC, and black carbon (BC). We analyzed data with mixed models controlling for temperature and excluding weeks with infections. Results We found significant positive associations for CRP, IL-6, sTNF-RII, and sP-selectin with outdoor and/or indoor concentrations of quasi-ultrafine PM ? 0.25 ?m in diameter, EC, OCpri, BC, PN, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide from the current-day and multiday averages. We found consistent positive but largely nonsignificant coefficients for TNF-?, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1, but not fibrinogen, IL-6sR, or D-dimer. We found inverse associations for erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD with these pollutants and other PM size fractions (0.252.5 and 2.510 ?m). Inverse associations of GPx-1 and MPO with pollutants were largely nonsignificant. Indoor associations were often stronger for estimated indoor EC, OCpri, and PN of outdoor origin than for uncharacterized indoor measurements. There was no evidence for positive associations with SOA. Conclusions Results suggest that traffic emission sources of OCpri and quasi-ultrafine particles lead to increased systemic inflammation and platelet activation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in elderly people with CAD. PMID:18629312

  6. Interrelationship of Multiple Endothelial Dysfunction Biomarkers with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L. Lee; Mohler, Emile R.; Hudaihed, Alhakam; Arora, Robin; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Browne, Grace; Mills, Katherine T.; Kleinpeter, Myra A.; Simon, Eric E.; Rifai, Nader; Klag, Michael J.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The interrelationship of multiple endothelial biomarkers and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been well studied. We measured asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), L-arginine, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), von Willebrand factor (vWF), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID) in 201 patients with CKD and 201 community-based controls without CKD. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the interrelationship of endothelial biomarkers with CKD. The multivariable-adjusted medians (interquartile ranges) were 0.54 (0.40, 0.75) in patients with CKD vs. 0.25 (0.22, 0.27) ?mol /L in controls without CKD (p<0.0001 for group difference) for ADMA; 67.0 (49.6, 86.7) vs. 31.0 (27.7, 34.2) ?mol/L (p<0.0001) for L-arginine; 230.0 (171.6, 278.6) vs. 223.9 (178.0, 270.6) ng/mL (p=0.55) for sICAM-1; 981.7 (782.6, 1216.8) vs. 633.2 (507.8, 764.3) ng/mL (p<0.0001) for sVCAM-1; 47.9 (35.0, 62.5) vs. 37.0 (28.9, 48.0) ng/mL (p=0.01) for sE-selectin; 1320 (1044, 1664) vs. 1083 (756, 1359) mU/mL (p=0.008) for vWF; 5.74 (3.29, 8.72) vs. 8.80 (6.50, 11.39)% (p=0.01) for FMD; and 15.2 (13.5, 16.9) vs. 19.1 (17.2, 21.0)% (p=0.0002) for NID, respectively. In addition, the severity of CKD was positively associated with ADMA, L-arginine, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and vWF and inversely associated with FMD and NID. Furthermore, FMD and NID were significantly and inversely correlated with ADMA, L-arginine, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and vWF. In conclusion, these data indicate that multiple dysfunctions of the endothelium were present among patients with CKD. Interventional studies are warranted to test the effects of treatment of endothelial dysfunction on CKD. PMID:26132137

  7. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-?B signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue infiltration by immune cells. PMID:25944880

  8. Antibiotic-Induced Cell Wall Fragments of Staphylococcus aureus Increase Endothelial Chemokine Secretion and Adhesiveness for Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    van Langevelde, P.; Ravensbergen, E.; Grashoff, P.; Beekhuizen, H.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; van Dissel, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    Antibiotics release inflammatory fragments, such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PG), from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we exposed S. aureus cultures to a number of ?-lactam antibiotics (imipenem, flucloxacillin, and cefamandole) and protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin) and investigated whether supernatants of these cultures differ in their capacity to stimulate endothelial cells (EC). After 24 h of incubation, endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes, surface expression of various adhesion molecules, and secretion of the chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Supernatants of ?-lactam-exposed cultures (designated ?-lactam supernatants) enhanced the adhesiveness of EC for granulocytes, whereas those of protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotic-exposed cultures (designated protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants) did not. This hyperadhesiveness coincided with a higher intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on the surface of the stimulated EC. In addition, EC stimulated with ?-lactam supernatants secreted significantly higher concentrations of the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 than those stimulated with protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants. The finding that the concentrations of LTA and PG in ?-lactam supernatants were much higher than those in protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants suggests that the observed differences in stimulatory effect between these supernatants are a result of differences in the release of cell wall fragments, although the presence of other stimulatory factors in the supernatants cannot be excluded. In conclusion, our results argue for a release of LTA and PG from S. aureus after exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics that enhances the development of a systemic inflammatory response by stimulating EC such that adhesiveness for granulocytes is increased and large amounts of IL-8 and MCP-1 are secreted. PMID:10582893

  9. Drug-induced, photosensitive, erythema multiforme-like eruption: possible role for cell adhesion molecules in a flare induced by Rhus dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, T; Chiba, M; Tanaka, Y; Nagashima, M

    1990-04-01

    Drug-induced, photosensitive erythema multiforme has not been reported, although drugs and sunlight are listed among precipitating factors in erythema multiforme. We describe a case of a drug-induced erythema multiforme-like eruption in a photodistribution that was reproduced by clinical challenge with the drug and sunlight. On contact with Rhus verniciflua, the Japanese lacquer tree, the patient had a flare of the eruption, which was limited to the areas previously exposed to sun. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that the keratinocytes in the skin that retain teh photoactivated substances may facilitate epidermal invasion of lymphocytes by persistent expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. PMID:1969427

  10. Adhesive characterization in prestressed piezoelectric laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Charles A.; Mossi, Karla M.; Scott, Lisa A.

    2003-08-01

    Pre-stressed piezoelectric laminates, consisting of one or more metal layers and a piezoelectric material bonded together with an adhesive, have been widely studied over the past few years, both numerically and experimentally. Most of the current research has concentrated on the effect of the metal layers, types and geometry, along with variations in the active layer of the laminate. Historically, the adhesive layer has been neglected as a contributing factor in the overall performance of the final device. This paper attempts to address the effect of the adhesive line thickness and its influence on the performance of pre-stressed piezoelectric laminates under specific boundary conditions. All laminates tested were constructed with the following lay-up: 0.354 mm thick stainless steel, adhesive, 0.381 mm PZT ceramic, adhesive, and a 0.0254 mm aluminum layer. The devices having an adhesive line thickness of 0.169 mm were classified as group A, and group B were the devices with an adhesive line thickness of 0.036 mm. The adhesive line thickness for group A was approximately 21% more than the line thickness of group B. The devices were tested in a simply supported, free-free condition under a series of loads at a constant frequency of 5 Hz over a voltage range from 400 to 800 Volts peak-to-peak. Displacement was measured using loads of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 grams for each actuator. The data from each group was averaged and compared. The results showed group B generated more displacement at the same "arm weight" applied as compared to group A. However, only three samples for group B were measured since the rest of the samples failed during testing. Failure of the devices of group B may be due to the ultimate stress of the devices and their ability to lift a load under those conditions. The study demonstrated that adhesive layer thickness, along with the manufacturing process, has to be taken into account when developing an application that requires load-bearing capabilities. Even though no direct mechanical property measurements were taken to verify