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Sample records for adhesion molecule-1 sicam-1

  1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 for stable and acute phases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ryo; Matsushima, Hidekazu; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Oba, Tomohiro; Kawabe, Rie; Honda, Koujiro; Amano, Masako

    2015-01-01

    The levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) have been reported to increase in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the utility of sICAM-1 has not been reported in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sICAM-1 was a useful biomarker for stable idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF. The patients who were diagnosed with IPF between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. The levels of sICAM-1 and other interstitial pneumonia markers were measured. In this study, 30 patients with stable IPF and 11 patients with acute exacerbation of IPF were collected. Mean sICAM-1 levels were 434 ± 139 ng/mL for the stable phase of IPF, 645 ± 247 ng/mL for early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF, 534 ± 223 ng/mL for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia, 221 ± 42 for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 150 ± 32 ng/mL in healthy volunteers. For the stable phase of IPF, sICAM-1 levels correlated with Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) (r value: 0.41; p value: 0.036). Mean sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF than with stable phase of IPF (p = 0.0199). Multiple logistic analyses indicated that the predictors for early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF were only sICAM-1 and C-reactive protein (odds ratio: 1.0093; 1.6069). In patients with stable IPF, sICAM-1 levels correlated with KL-6; sICAM-1 might be a predictive indicator for prognosis. In the early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF, sICAM-1 might be more useful for diagnosis than other interstitial pneumonia markers. PMID:26543791

  2. Serum level of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in patients with chronic liver disease related to hepatitis C virus: A prognostic marker for responses to interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Capra, F; De Maria, E; Lunardi, C; Marchiori, L; Mezzelani, P; Beri, R; Gabrielli, G B

    2000-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a marker of inflammation and tissue damage. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) were measured in 71 patients with chronic C hepatitis treated with interferon (IFN)-alpha-2a, at baseline and at every 3 months of therapy, and in 42 normal control subjects. The levels of sICAM-1 were significantly higher in the patient than in the control subject group, particularly among cirrhotics. Baseline sICAM-1 levels were similar in responders and nonresponders. By contrast, the concentration of sICAM-1 decreased significantly only in responders during the first 3 months of therapy. The probability of response to treatment, analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, was much higher in the group showing a decrease of sICAM-1 than in the patients who did not show such a decrease. In conclusion, a "longitudinal" evaluation of serum levels of sICAM-1 in the first period of treatment is particularly useful in the identification of patients with high significant probability of response to treatment. PMID:10669322

  3. The effects of aerobic training and age on plasma sICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Many, G M; Jenkins, N T; Witkowski, S; Damsker, J M; Hagberg, J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation plays a role in the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Habitual endurance exercise training reduces the risk of CV disease in part through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, endurance training status, and their interaction on pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of CV disease. Subjects were BMI-matched young (25±3 years; endurance trained: n=9, sedentary: n=11) and older (62±5 years; endurance-trained: n=12, sedentary: n=11) men. Plasma cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex cytometric bead assay. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels were 40% higher in sedentary older men compared to young sedentary subjects (P=0.048), but they were not different between the young and older trained men. Furthermore, sICAM-1 levels were negatively correlated with maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max; r= - 0.38, P=0.01) across all subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble tumor necrosis-? receptor (sTNFR), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), or resistin. We conclude that habitual endurance training is associated with an attenuated age-related increase in plasma sICAM-1. PMID:22972240

  4. Increased circulating PEDF and low sICAM-1 are associated with sickle cell retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cruz, P R S; Lira, R P C; Pereira Filho, S A C; Souza, B B; Mitsuushi, F N; Menaa, F; Fertrin, K Y; Vasconcellos, J P C; Conran, N; Costa, F F; Melo, M B

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) develops in up to 30% of sickle cell disease patients (SCD) during the second decade of life. Treatment for this affection remains palliative, so studies on its pathophysiology may contribute to the future development of novel therapies. SCR is more frequently observed in hemoglobin SC disease and derives from vaso-occlusion in the microvasculature of the retina leading to neovascularization and, eventually, to blindness. Circulating inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors, and their interaction may contribute to the pathophysiology of this complication. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, IL1-?, TNF-?, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) and vascular endothelial growth factor plasmatic levels were determined in 37 SCD patients with retinopathy, 34 without retinopathy, and healthy controls. We observed that sICAM-1 is significantly decreased, whereas PEDF is elevated in HbSC patients with retinopathy (P=0.012 and P=0.031, respectively). Ang-1, Ang-2 and IL1-? levels were elevated in SCD patients (P=0.001, P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively), compared to controls, and HbSS patients presented higher levels of Ang-2 compared to HbSC (P<0.001). Our study supports the possible influence of sICAM-1 and PEDF on the pathophysiology of retinal neovascularization in SCD patients. PMID:25172543

  5. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung.

  6. Antidiabetic Rosiglitazone Reduces Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Fuchun; He, Liyun; Wei, Jinru; Mao, Jieming; Wang, Xian

    2008-01-01

    Background. We investigated the level of soluble adhesion molecules in diabetic patients and the effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist rosiglitazone on plasma levels of adhesion molecules and an inflammation marker in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods. A total of 116 diabetic patients with CAD who had undergone PCI were randomized to receive rosiglitazone (4 mg/d) or not for 6 months. Plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) and P-selectin (sP-selectin) were measured on ELISA. Results. After 6-month rosiglitazone treatment, plasma levels of sICAM-1 were lower than baseline and control group levels (370.4 (332.4–421.9) pg/mL versus 423.5 (327.4–500.3) pg/mL and 404.6 (345.2–483.4) pg/mL, P < .001). In addition, plasma levels of C-reactive protein were significantly reduced from baseline levels. However, plasma level of sP-selectin was not significantly lowered with rosiglitazone treatment than with control treatment after 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. Rosiglitazone reduces chronic inflammatory responses and improves levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with diabetes and CAD. PPAR-? agonist may have a beneficial effect on the vascular endothelium through its anti-inflammatory mechanism and may be useful as therapy in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:19107216

  7. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in laryngeal carcinoma – preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morawski, Piotr; Kopta, Renata; Mochocki, Marcin; Brzezi?ska-B?aszczyk, Ewa; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study Intercellular adhesion molecules present in immunocompetent cells as well as endothelium and tumour cells can regulate cell migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, and metastases in solid tumours. The aim of this study was to analyse the sICAM-1 (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and sVCAM-1 (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures, and to find their relationships with clinicomorphological characteristics in laryngeal cancer. Materials and methods The analysis included a group of 50 patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The control group constituted 30 healthy volunteers. The pathological assessment included pTNM, stage, histological grade, and type of invasion according to the tumour front grading. The expression of adhesion molecules was assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Increased expression of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 was an indicator of more aggressive laryngeal carcinomas. More advanced local changes evaluated on the pT feature were connected with a higher sVCAM-1 (p = 0.017), but not sICAM-1 level. The presence of lymph node metastases correlated with a higher expression of adhesion molecules (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, respectively). Tumours with more diffuse growth and infiltrating with small cell groups (< 15/hpf) was characterised by the highest level of adhesive proteins (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02 for sICAM and sVCAM, respectively). Moreover, lower levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed more frequently in patients who lived longer than five years after treatment. Conclusions The study indicates the importance of the sICAM and sVCAM expression as indicators of advanced changes and prognosis in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25784838

  8. Mast cells induce T-cell adhesion to human fibroblasts by regulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Meng, H; Marchese, M J; Garlick, J A; Jelaska, A; Korn, J H; Gailit, J; Clark, R A; Gruber, B L

    1995-12-01

    The capacity of mast cell products to mediate T-cell adhesion to fibroblasts was explored using heterotypic coculture systems or by exposing fibroblasts to mast-cell-conditioned media (MCCM), prepared by degranulating mast cells with calcium ionophore. Experimental results indicated that fibroblasts exposed to MCCM for 24 h bound fivefold more T cells than control fibroblasts. Binding was inhibited with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) or vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) neutralizing antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that fibroblasts exposed to MCCM markedly increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 surface expression by 4 h, with levels maximal at 16 h and returning toward baseline by 48 h. A dose-dependent response of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression was noted using serial dilutions of MCCM or by altering the ratio of degranulated mast cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained using human fibroblasts derived from the dermis, synovium, and lung, although lung fibroblasts were generally less responsive. Northern analysis confirmed that MCCM regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression at the mRNA level. In summary, mast cell products stimulated fibroblast surface expression, steady-state mRNA levels, and functional expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Experimental data suggest that mast-cell-derived tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be in large part responsible for these observations, although further studies using human mast cells will be required. Using a skin-equivalent organotypic coculture model with fibroblasts admixed with mast cells, we observed increased ICAM-1 expression in both keratinocytes and fibroblasts after activation of the mast cells. PMID:7490473

  9. Motorcycle exhaust particles up-regulate expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Li, Ching-Hao; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between atherosclerosis and ambient air pollution. In this study, we found that motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP) induced adhesion between cells of the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time-and dose-dependent manner. In addition, MEP treatment induced both mRNA and protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs. The I?B degradation and p65 nuclear translocation was found in MEP-treated HUVECs, suggested the involvement of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). MEP-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression was inhibited by NF-?B inhibitor BAY 11-7085. Oxidative stress was also involved in the signaling of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. MEP treatment caused hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation. Pretreatment with ?-tocopherol could inhibit MEP-induced reactive oxygen intermediates generation and suppressed MEP-induced I?B degradation and adhesion molecules expression. Furthermore, the carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with different diameters could induce VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression; however, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only increased the expression of ICAM-1 but not that of VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In this study, we found that MEPs could induce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression through oxidative stress and NF-?B activation in HUVECs. PMID:22313677

  10. Pathogenic Actions of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in Pulmonary Emphysema and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Fujita, Mitsugu; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion mediated by adhesion molecules is of central importance in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, altered expression of adhesion molecules leads to the development of various tissue disorders involving cell activation, degeneration, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear what initiates the altered expression of adhesion molecules and how the subsequent pathological cascades proceed. In this regard, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is one of the candidates that is involved in the development of pathological lesions; it is an intercellular adhesion molecule that is expressed in various types of cells such as pulmonary cells, neurons, and mast cells. Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expressions of CADM1 correlate with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and allergic diseases. In this review, we specifically focus on how CADM1 is involved in the development of pathological lesions in pulmonary emphysema and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26636084

  11. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesgner, Craig D.; Gundel, Robert H.; Reilly, Patricia; Haynes, Nancy; Letts, L. Gordon; Rothlein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Airway eosinophilia, epithelial desquamation, and hyperresponsiveness are characteristics of the airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma. The contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to eosinophil migration and airway responsiveness was studied. ICAM-1 partially mediated eosinophil adhesion to endothelium in vitro and was upregulated on inflamed bronchial endothelium in vivo. ICAM-1 expression was also upregulated on inflamed airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In a primate model of asthma, a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 attenuated airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Thus, antagonism of ICAM-1 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and asthma symptoms.

  12. Elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in AIDS encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W. A.; Lackner, A. A.; Smith, M. O.; Lausen, N. C.; Beall, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIDS encephalitis is a common sequela to HIV-1 infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) infection in macaques. Although lentiviral-infected macrophages comprise parenchymal inflammatory infiltrates in affected brain tissue, the mechanisms responsible for leukocyte trafficking to the central nervous system in AIDS are unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of various endothelial-derived leukocyte adhesion proteins in SIVmac-induced AIDS encephalitis. Encephalitic brains from SIVmac-infected macaques, but not uninflamed brains from other SIVmac-infected animals, were found to express abundant vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein on the majority of arteriolar, venular, and capillary endothelial cells. Soluble VCAM-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from encephalitic animals were increased approximately 20-fold above those from animals without AIDS encephalitis. Expression of other endothelial-related adhesion molecules, including E-selectin, P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), was not uniformly associated with AIDS encephalitis. Thus, the presence of VCAM-1 in both brain and CSF was uniformly associated with SIVmac-induced disease of the central nervous system, and this expression may, at least in part, influence monocyte and lymphocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Moreover, measurement of soluble VCAM-1 in CSF may assist in the clinical assessment of animals or people with AIDS. Images Figure 1 PMID:1279978

  13. Involvement of oxidative stress and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mizushima, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Shimura, Takaya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease involves excessive immune effects of inflammatory cells against gut microbes. In genetically predisposed individuals, these effects are considered to contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal injury. Oxidative stress is a fundamental tissue-destructive mechanisms that can occur due to the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen metabolites which are released in abundance from numerous inflammatory cells that have extravasated from lymphatics and blood vessels to the lamina propria. This extravasation is mediated by interactions between adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on the surface of lymphocytes or neutrophils and their ligands on endothelial cells. Thus, reactive oxygen species and adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The present review focuses on the involvement of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, in particular mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21373262

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a drug target in asthma and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Srirupa; Malik, Parth; Arora, Sunil K; Mukherjee, Tapan K

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Endothelial cells, epithelial cells, leukocytes and neutrophils are the major cells expressing ICAM-1. Ligands of ICAM-1 are macrophage adhesion ligand-1, leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 and fibrinogen (extracellular matrix protein). In normal physiological conditions, engagement of ICAM-1 receptor with immunological cells surface ligands assists in homing and trafficking of inflammatory cells to distant tissues. ICAM-1 has also long been known to mediate cell-to-cell interaction during antigen presentation and outside-in cell signalling pathways. ICAM-1-mediated elevated inflammation is implicated in asthma. On respiratory epithelial cells surface, ICAM-1 acts as natural binding site for human rhinovirus (HRV), a common cold virus that ultimately causes exacerbation of asthma. This review presents the findings on the role of ICAM-1 in the complication of asthma and in particular asthma exacerbation by HRV. PMID:24689994

  15. Inflammatory and immune responses are impaired in mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Sligh, J E; Ballantyne, C M; Rich, S S; Hawkins, H K; Smith, C W; Bradley, A; Beaudet, A L

    1993-01-01

    Gene targeting was used to produce mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) or CD54, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule that binds beta 2 integrins. Homozygous deficient animals develop normally, are fertile, and have a moderate granulocytosis. The nature of the mutation, RNA analysis, and immunostaining are consistent with complete loss of surface expression of ICAM-1. Deficient mice exhibit prominent abnormalities of inflammatory responses including impaired neutrophil emigration in response to chemical peritonitis and decreased contact hypersensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Mutant cells provided negligible stimulation in the mixed lymphocyte reaction, although they proliferated normally as responder cells. These mutant animals will be extremely valuable for examining the role of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors in inflammatory disease processes and atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8104338

  16. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts. PMID:8826968

  17. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p

  18. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in rat heart with ischemia/reperfusion and limitation of infarct size by treatment with antibodies against cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, T.; Seko, Y.; Tamatani, T.; Miyasaka, M.; Yagita, H.; Okumura, K.; Nagai, R.; Yazaki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of myocardial reperfusion injury, we investigated the roles of cell adhesion molecules on both leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells in the reperfused myocardia. We found that within 2 hours after reperfusion leukocytes began to infiltrate into the rat myocardia subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and clarified, for the first time, that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was enhanced on the capillary and venous endothelial cells from 8 to 96 hours after the start of reperfusion. Furthermore, pretreatment with individual monoclonal antibodies against cell adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11bc, CD18, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) reduced not only the infiltration of leukocytes but also the area of infarction in the reperfused hearts. These observations suggest that cell adhesion molecules play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8102030

  19. Effect of candesartan on the expression of sclera-choroidal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic models

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Torres, Rogil Jose; Luchini, Andrea; do Rocio de Almeida Torres, Regiane; de Oliveira, Luciano Rodrigo Silva; de Almeida Torres, Caroline Luzia; de Almeida Torres, Robson Antonio; Olandoski, Marcia; Nagashima, Seigo; de Noronha, Lucia; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. RESULTS: Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera and choroid morphometry showed a significant increase in thickness in comparison to GI and GIII. GIII presented a significant increase in thickness in relation to GI. Sclera and choroid immunohistochemical analysis for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in GII in relation to GI and GIII. GIII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in relation to GI. CONCLUSION: Candesartan reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and consequently macrophage accumulation in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:24519206

  20. PLGA Nanoparticle-Peptide Conjugate Effectively Targets Intercellular Cell-Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Chittapuso, Chuda; Ampassavate, Chadarat; Siahaan, Teruna J.; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics possesses the potential to localize therapeutic agents to a specific tissue as a mechanism to enhance treatment efficacy and abrogate side effects. Antibodies have been used clinically as therapeutic agents and are currently being explored for targeting drug-loaded nanoparticles. Peptides such as RGD peptides are also being developed as an inexpensive and stable alternative to antibodies. In this study, cyclo(1,12)PenITDGEATDSGC (cLABL) peptide was used to target nanoparticles to human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) monolayers that have upregulated intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. The cLABL peptide has been previously demonstrated to possess high avidity for ICAM-1 receptors on the cell surface. Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles conjugated with polyethylene glycol and cLABL demonstrated rapid binding to HUVEC with upregulated ICAM-1, which was induced by treating cells with the proinflammatory cytokine, interferon-?. Binding of the nanoparticles could be efficiently blocked by pre-incubating cells with free peptide suggesting that the binding of the nanoparticles is specifically mediated by surface peptide binding to ICAM-1 on HUVEC. The targeted nanoparticles were rapidly endocytosed and trafficked to lysosomes to a greater extent than the untargeted PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. Verification of peptide-mediated nanoparticle targeting to ICAM-1 may ultimately lead to targeting therapeutic agents to inflammatory sites expressing upregulated ICAM-1. PMID:17997512

  1. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  2. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward ?-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of ?-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  3. Dermatan sulfate activates nuclear factor-?b and induces endothelial and circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Penc, Stanley F.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Eriksson, Elof; Detmar, Michael; Gallo, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) can influence cell behaviors through binding events mediated by their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. This report demonstrates that chondroitin sulfate B, also known as dermatan sulfate (DS), a major GAG released during the inflammatory phase of wound repair, directly activates cells at the physiologic concentrations of DS found in wounds. Cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells exposed to DS responded with rapid nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA, and increased ICAM-1 cell surface protein. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates A and C had no effect on activation of NF-?B or induction of ICAM-1. Inhibition of NF-?B activation blocked the effect of DS. The increase in cell surface ICAM-1 did not involve TNF-? or IL-1 release by endothelial cells, but it was facilitated by autocrine factors whose release was initiated by DS. The ICAM-1–inductive activity of DS was confirmed in vivo. Injection of DS, but not heparin or other chondroitin sulfates, into mice greatly increased circulating levels of soluble ICAM. These data provide evidence that DS, but not other GAGs, initiates a previously unrecognized cell signaling event that can act during the response to injury. PMID:10225976

  4. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  5. Decreased soluble cell adhesion molecules after tirofiban infusion in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Bozdemir, Huseyin; Tengiz, Istemihan; Sekuri, Cevad; Aliyev, Emil; Akilli, Azem; Akin, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Aim The inflammatory response, initiated by neutrophil and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, is important in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. Platelets play an important role in inflammatory process by interacting with monocytes and neutrophils. In this study, we investigated the effect of tirofiban on the levels of cell adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, sICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1) in patients with unstable angina pectoris (AP). Methods Thirty-five patients with unstable AP (Group I), ten patients with stable AP (Group II) and ten subjects who had angiographycally normal coronary arteries (Group III) were included the study. Group I was divided into two subgroups for the specific treatment regimens: Group IA (n = 15) received tirofiban and Group IB (n = 20) did not. Blood samples for investigating the cell adhesion molecules were drawn at zero time (baseline; 0 h) in all patients and at 72 h in Group I. Results The baseline levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were higher in Group I than in Groups II and III. They were higher in Group IA than in Group IB. However, the sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels decreased significantly in Group IA after tirofiban infusion. In contrast, these levels remained unchanged or were increased above the baseline value in Group IB at 72 h. Conclusion The levels of cell adhesion molecules in patients with unstable AP decreased significantly after tirofiban infusion. Inhibition of platelet function by specific glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists may decrease platelet-mediated inflammation and the ischemic end-point. PMID:15059285

  6. Kupffer cell iron overload induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on hepatocytes in genetic hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Stål, P; Broomé, U; Scheynius, A; Befrits, R; Hultcrantz, R

    1995-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying iron-induced liver fibrogenesis in patients with genetic hemochromatosis are poorly understood. We studied signs of Kupffer cell activation and inflammatory responses in liver biopsy specimens obtained from 15 patients with untreated and six patients with treated hemochromatosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 11 of the untreated and all treated patients. Three of the untreated patients (20%) had cirrhosis and eight (53%) had fibrosis. None had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). Immunohistochemistry indicated that 55% of the untreated patients had sparse intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by hepatocytes, and all of these had Kupffer cell iron overload. No ICAM-1 expression was seen by hepatocytes in treated patients or healthy controls. ICAM-1 was strongly expressed by hepatocytes from control patients with inflammatory liver disease. HLA-DR reactivity was seen on sinusoidal cells in all groups, but not on hepatocytes except for two of the control patients with CAH. Twenty-seven percent of the untreated hemochromatosis patients displayed moderate infiltration by CD3-positive lymphocytes. Electron microscopy of samples from untreated hemochromatosis patients showed hypertrophic Kupffer cells containing iron-rich remnants of phagocytosed hepatocytes. Fat-storing cells close to iron-laden hepatocytes contained multiple lipid droplets and adjacent collagen fibril bundles. Thus, in patients with untreated genetic hemochromatosis and Kupffer cell iron overload, hepatocytes occasionally express ICAM-1. In regions with heavy iron overload, Kupffer cell hypertrophy and transition of fat-storing cells are seen. Our findings indicate that release of factors from iron-loaded, activated Kupffer cells is of importance for the transformation of fat-storing cells and increased collagen deposition seen in genetic hemochromatosis. PMID:7737636

  7. Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Plays a Key Role in Acquired Immunity to Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Simon; Goldin, Robert; Hale, Christine; Aspinall, Richard; Simmons, Cameron; Mastroeni, Pietro; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of mice. We show that ICAM-1 is expressed in and around granulomas on day 4 of infection in wild-type mice. However, when naive ICAM-1?/? mice were challenged with a sublethal dose of serovar Typhimurium, there were no detectable differences in systemic bacterial burden over the first 9 days of infection compared to wild-type control mice. When mice were immunized with the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL2361 and then challenged with the virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain C5, 100% of the ICAM-1?/? mice succumbed to infection, compared to 30% of wild-type mice. T-cell responses, as measured by activation via interleukin-2 production, as well as antibody responses were comparable in the ICAM-1?/? and wild-type mice. Following challenge, counts in organs were significantly higher in the ICAM-1?/? mice, and histological examination of organs showed pathological differences. Strain SL3261-immunized wild-type mice had cellular infiltrate and normal granuloma formation in the liver and spleen on days 5 and 10 after challenge with strain C5. ICAM-1?/? mice had a similar infiltrate on day 5, whereas on day 10 the infiltrate was more widespread and there were fewer macrophages associated with the granulomas. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon, as well as a high burden of strain C5 in the blood, accompanied the differences in histopathology. In this study we show that ICAM-1 plays a critical role during rechallenge of immunized mice with virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:14500509

  8. Impact of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Coronary Artery Disease Susceptibility in Taiwanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Hung; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Liu, Yu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The principal pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is coronary artery atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel walls of the coronary artery. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) displays an important role in the development of the inflammation reaction and atherosclerosis. Few studies report the association of ICAM-1 genetic polymorphisms with CAD in Taiwanese subjects. Therefore, we conducted a study to associate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM-1, rs5491, rs5498, rs281432 and rs3093030 with CAD. Five hundred and twenty-five male and female subjects, who received elective coronary angiography in Taiwan Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, were recruited to determine four ICAM-1 SNPs by real time-polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. The relationships among ICAM-1 SNPs, haplotypes, demographic and characteristics and CAD were analyzed. This study showed that rs281432 (C8823G) was the only ICAM-1 SNP which affect the development of CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 CC/CG [p=0.016; odds ratio (OR): 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.56], male gender (p=0.018; OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51), aspirin use in the past 7 days (p=0.001; OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33-3.14), hypertension (p<0.001; OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42-3.25), serum cardiac troponin I elevation (p<0.001; OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.47-3.24) and severe angina in recent 24 hours (p=0.001; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31- 2.95) increase the risk of CAD. In conclusion, ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 is an independent factor to predict the development of CAD. ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 homozygotic mutant GG can reduce the susceptibility to the CAD in Taiwanese subjects. PMID:26078712

  9. Role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LAIFANG; DING, YANJIE; GUO, XIAQING; ZHAO, QING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and twenty patients with RA who had been admitted to the Huaihe Hospital of Henan University between January and December 2013 were enrolled in the study as the observation group, while, in the corresponding period, 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. The serum levels of VCAM-1 and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using ELISA. The patients underwent conventional treatment and their serum VCAM-1 and RF levels were detected at different time-points to determine their correlation. The observation group exhibited significantly higher serum VCAM-1 and RF levels than the control group (P<0.01). Twenty-four hours after treatment, the serum VCAM-1 levels of the patients peaked (1,269.47±128.76 µg/l); 36 h after treatment, the serum RF levels peaked (34.42±8.45 U/ml); 1 month after treatment, the VCAM-1 and serum RF levels of the patients were lower than those prior to treatment (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant, positive correlation between the serum VCAM-1 and RF levels in the patients with RA (r=0.852, P<0.01). In conclusion, the serum VCAM-1 levels of patients with RA increased and subsequently decreased as the condition was relieved, which could possibly be associated with the autoimmune and inflammatory reactions found in RA. Serum VCAM-1 levels can therefore reflect the disease condition and curative effects of treatment. PMID:26622470

  10. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  11. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the integrin VLA-4 mediate adhesion of human B cell precursors to cultured bone marrow adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, D H; Nuccie, B L; Abboud, C N; Winslow, J M

    1991-01-01

    Adhesion of B cell precursors to accessory cells in the bone marrow microenvironment may be required for normal early B cell development. Human bone marrow B cell precursors adhere more avidly than mature B cells to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. To determine the mechanism of this adhesion, expression of adhesion proteins on human B precursor cells and cell lines was measured by flow cytometry. The very late antigen (VLA) integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5 were the only adhesion proteins expressed at higher levels in B cell precursors than mature B cells. Antibodies to the alpha and beta chains of VLA-4, but not VLA-5, significantly blocked binding to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts of immature B cells and cell lines. Although fibronectin is a ligand for VLA-4, anti-fibronectin antibody and a soluble fibronectin fragment containing the VLA-4 binding domain did not block adhesion, suggesting that VLA-4 is involved in adhesion of B cell precursors, but not as a fibronectin receptor. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the other known counterreceptor for VLA-4, was identified on bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, and anti-VCAM-1 significantly blocked adhesion of normal B cell precursors to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, indicating that VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions are important in adhesion of B cell precursors to the bone marrow microenvironment. Images PMID:1715889

  12. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines.

  13. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. PMID:25202042

  14. Differential Associations between CDH13 Genotypes, Adiponectin Levels, and Circulating Levels of Cellular Adhesive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsu, Lung-An; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    CDH13 gene variants with lower adiponectin levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable metabolic profile. We investigated the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels by examining 12 circulating inflammation marker levels and adiposity status in 530 Han Chinese people in Taiwan. After adjustments for clinical covariates, adiponectin levels were positively associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1) levels and negatively associated with adiposity status and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1). In addition, minor alleles of the CDH13 rs12051272 polymorphism were found to have lower adiponectin levels and higher CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM1, and sVCAM1 levels as well as higher body mass indices and waist circumferences in participants (all P < 0.05). In a subgroup analysis stratified by sex, significant associations between CDH13 genotypes and sE-selectin levels occurred only in men (P = 3.9 × 10?4 and interaction P = 0.005). CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels are associated with circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules and adiposity status in a differential manner that interacts with sex. These results provide further evidence for the crucial role of adiponectin levels and CDH13 gene variants in immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26600672

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  16. Optimal selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes during inflammation in vivo requires intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Steeber, Douglas A.; Campbell, Matthew A.; Basit, Abdul; Ley, Klaus; Tedder, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    Leukocyte interactions with vascular endothelium during inflammation occur through discrete steps involving selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling and subsequent firm adhesion mediated by members of the integrin and Ig families of adhesion molecules. To identify functional synergy between selectin and Ig family members, mice deficient in both L-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were generated. Leukocyte rolling velocities in cremaster muscle venules were increased significantly in ICAM-1-deficient mice during both trauma- and tumor necrosis factor ?-induced inflammation, but rolling leukocyte flux was not reduced. Elimination of ICAM-1 expression in L-selectin-deficient mice resulted in a sharp reduction in the flux of rolling leukocytes during tumor necrosis factor ?-induced inflammation. The observed differences in leukocyte rolling behavior demonstrated that ICAM-1 expression was required for optimal P- and L-selectin-mediated rolling. Increased leukocyte rolling velocities presumably translated into decreased tissue emigration because circulating neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte numbers were increased markedly in L-selectin/ICAM-1-deficient mice. Furthermore, neutrophil emigration during acute peritonitis was reduced by 80% in the double-deficient mice compared with either L-selectin or ICAM-1-deficient mice. Thus, members of the selectin and Ig families function synergistically to mediate optimal leukocyte rolling in vivo, which is essential for the generation of effective inflammatory responses. PMID:9636189

  17. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  18. Antibodies to proteinase 3 mediate expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    MAYET, W-J; SCHWARTING, A; ORTH, T; DUCHMANN, R; MEYER ZUM BÜSCHENFELDE, K-H

    1996-01-01

    VCAM-1 was first identified as an adhesion molecule induced on human endothelial cells (HEC) by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The molecule binds to a variety of leucocytes, including B cells, T cells, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Vascular expression of VCAM-1 has been associated with a number of disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis. The detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), especially to proteinase 3 (PR3), has become important in the diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) and related vasculitides. Recently we were able to demonstrate a direct effect of anti-PR3 antibodies on neutrophil–endothelial interactions (Blood 1993; 82:1221). Binding of anti-PR3 antibodies to their antigen translocated into the membrane of HEC leads to an enhanced adhesion of neutrophils via induction of E-selectin (Clin Exp Immunol 1993; 94:440). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anti-PR3 antibodies on the expression of VCAM-1. HEC was isolated from umbilical vein and cultured on microtitre plates. After preincubatiion with purified anti-PR3 antibody, purified control antibodies (SS-A, SS-B, RNP) (IgG and F(ab?)2 fragments) or different cytokines (controls), VCAM-1 was detected on the surface of unfixed HEC by cyto-ELISA and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Incubation of HEC with anti-PR3 antibodies led to a marked increase of endothelial VCAM-1 expression with a peak after 8 h. Incubation with TNF-? also led to maximal VCAM-1 expression after 4–6 h (control). Increased adhesion of T lymphocytes to HEC after binding of anti-PR3 antibodies to their antigen could be confirmed by performing adherence assays. This effect could be inhibited by antibodies to VLA-4. In conclusion, we have been able to show that cytokine-like effects of anti-PR3 antibodies on HEC are not limited to induction of neutrophil adhesion. Anti-PR3 antibodies may thus contribute to the regulation of T lymphocyte migration from the blood by HEC in ANCA-related vasculitides. PMID:8565309

  19. MITF is a critical regulator of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nico; Löffek, Stefanie; Horn, Susanne; Ennen, Marie; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zhao, Fang; Breitenbuecher, Frank; Davidson, Irwin; Singer, Bernhard B; Schadendorf, Dirk; Goding, Colin R; Helfrich, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion, and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression. PMID:26301891

  20. Role of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1/very late activation antigen 4 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 interactions in antigen-induced eosinophil and T cell recruitment into the tissue

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To determine the role of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM- 1)/very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) interactions in causing antigen-induced eosinophil and T cell recruitment into the tissue, we studied the effect of the in vivo blocking of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and LFA-1 by pretreatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to these four adhesion molecules on the eosinophil and T cell infiltration of the trachea induced by antigen inhalation in mice. The in vivo blocking of VCAM-1 and VLA-4, but not of ICAM-1 and LFA-1, prevented antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into the mouse trachea. On the contrary, the in vivo blocking of VCAM-1 and VLA-4, but not of ICAM-1 and LFA-1, increased blood eosinophil counts after antigen challenge, but did not affect blood eosinophil counts without antigen challenge in sensitized mice. Furthermore, the expression of VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 was strongly induced on the endothelium of the trachea after antigen challenge. In addition, pretreatment with anti-IL-4 mAb decreased the antigen-induced VCAM-1 expression only by 27% and had no significant effect on antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into the trachea. The in vivo blocking of VCAM- 1 and VLA-4 inhibited antigen-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration into the trachea more potently than that of ICAM-1 and LFA-1. In contrast, regardless of antigen challenge, the in vivo blocking of LFA- 1, but not of ICAM-1, increased blood lymphocyte counts more than that of VCAM-1 and VLA-4. These results indicate that VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction plays a predominant role in controlling antigen-induced eosinophil and T cell recruitment into the tissue and that the induction of VCAM-1 expression on the endothelium at the site of allergic inflammation regulates this eosinophil and T cell recruitment. PMID:7511681

  1. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through ?4?1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Emiko; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Nagai, Kei; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Shibuya, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation contributes considerably to immune responses, such as host protection and allergy. Cell surface immunoreceptors expressed on MCs play an important role in MC activation. Although various immunoreceptors on MCs have been identified, the regulatory mechanism of MC activation is not fully understood. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of MC activation, we used gene expression analyses of human and mouse MCs to identify a novel immunoreceptor expressed on MCs. We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice. However, Tie2 was not detected on the cell surface of the mouse MCs of the peritoneal cavity, ear skin, or colon lamina propria. In contrast, it was expressed on mouse bone marrow–derived MCs and bone marrow MC progenitors (BM-MCps). Stimulation of Tie2 by its ligand angiopoietin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 in MEDMC-BRC6, a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived mast cell line, and enhanced MEDMC-BRC6 and mouse BM-MCp adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through ?4?1 integrin. These results suggest that Tie2 signaling induces ?4?1 integrin activation on BM-MCps for adhesion to VCAM-1. PMID:26659448

  2. Immunologic changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in pediatric patients treated for psoriasis with the Goeckerman regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.; Andrys, C.; Vokurkova, D.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Ettler, K.

    2007-11-15

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is often manifested during childhood. The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1 decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-?B-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-01-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3?,4?,6?-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-?-induced activation of I?B? and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The I?B kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-?-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-?B signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-?-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-?B activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-?B, as well as expression of adhesion molecules. PMID:22862554

  4. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hönes, Felix M.; Messerer, David A. C.; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumüller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2?h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ? 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4?h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction. PMID:26556956

  5. In vivo MR imaging of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blezer, Erwin L A; Deddens, Lisette H; Kooij, Gijs; Drexhage, Joost; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Reijerkerk, Arie; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; de Vries, Helga E

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an early event in lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Monitoring its expression may provide a biomarker for early disease activity and allow validation of anti-inflammatory interventions. Our objective was therefore to explore whether ICAM-1 expression can be visualized in vivo during EAE with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO), and to compare accumulation profiles of targeted and untargeted MPIO, and a gadolinium-containing agent. Targeted ?ICAM-1-MPIO/untargeted IgG-MPIO were injected at two model-characteristic phases of EAE (in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 -immunized C57BL/6?J mice), that is, at the peak of the acute phase (14?±?1?days post-immunization) and during the chronic phase (26?±?1?days post-immunization), followed by T2 *-weighted MRI. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was measured using gadobutrol-enhanced MRI. Cerebellar microvessels were analyzed for ICAM-1 mRNA expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR). ICAM-1 and iron oxide presence was examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC). During EAE, ICAM-1 was expressed by brain endothelial cells, macrophages and T-cells as shown with qPCR and (fluorescent) IHC. EAE animals injected with ?ICAM-1-MPIO showed MRI hypointensities, particularly in the subarachnoid space. ?ICAM-1-MPIO presence did not differ between the phases of EAE and was not associated with BBB dysfunction. ?ICAM-1-MPIO were associated with endothelial cells or cells located at the luminal side of blood vessels. In conclusion, ICAM-1 expression can be visualized with in vivo molecular MRI during EAE, and provides an early tracer of disease activity. PMID:24753465

  6. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the aortic tissues of atherosclerotic patients and the associated clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    MU, WEI; CHEN, MINGYOU; GONG, ZUSHUN; ZHENG, FEI; XING, QICHONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the aortic tissues of atherosclerotic patients and to explore the associated clinical implications. Full-thickness aortic wall tissue samples were collected from atherosclerotic patients. Biochemical analysis was used for the detection of the serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)], apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and Apo-B. Coronary angiography and SYNTAX scoring were used to determine the extent and severity of the disease. Immunohistochemistry was employed for the detection of the VCAM-1 protein expression levels in the arterial tissues. Significant differences were observed in the blood lipid levels between atherosclerotic patients and control subjects. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the aortic VCAM-1 expression level in atherosclerotic patients was 0.23±0.06 optical density (OD) units, which was significantly higher than that in the control subjects (0.08±0.03 OD units). In the atherosclerotic patients, the aortic VCAM-1 expression was positively correlated with the serum levels of TG (r=0.347), TC (r=0.469), LDL-C (r=0.463), Lp (a) (r=0.507) and Apo-B (r=0.384), while VCAM-1 and HDL-C were negatively correlated (r=-0.319). Furthermore, a higher SYNTAX score was accompanied by a higher VCAM-1 expression level (r=0.532), and an elevated aortic VCAM-1 expression was associated with certain cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, aortic VCAM-1 expression is associated with the severity of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that VCAM-1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  7. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-?. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10?µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-?, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation. PMID:24728914

  8. Accessory cell function of keratinocytes for superantigens. Dependence on lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Mitra, R S; Green, J; Zheng, X G; Shimizu, Y; Thompson, C; Turka, L A

    1993-03-15

    A growing body of evidence points to a role for epidermal keratinocytes as active participants in immunologic reactions. Inasmuch as certain T cell-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are triggered by microbial infection, we asked whether multipassaged human keratinocytes could provide the costimulatory signals necessary to induce autologous T cell proliferation in response to bacterial-derived super-antigens. On exposure to IFN-gamma, keratinocytes are induced to express HLA-DR and HLA-DQ class II MHC Ag, and the lymphocyte function-associated Ag-1 counter-receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This change in keratinocyte phenotype is accompanied by the ability of these cells to support T cell proliferation induced by two different bacterial-derived superantigens, staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B. Superantigen-driven proliferation in the presence of IFN-gamma-treated keratinocytes was significantly inhibited (70-90% reduction) by mAb against the LFA-1 alpha- or beta-chain or ICAM-1. Proliferation was not inhibited by mAb against the CD28 ligands BB-1 or B7, even though these keratinocytes express BB-1. In addition to previous defined roles for class II MHC Ag, stimulation of LFA-1 on the T cells by ICAM-1 on the keratinocytes also plays an important costimulatory role in this superantigen-mediated response. The accessory cell capability of keratinocytes was not unique to superantigen driven responses as PHA, as well as anti-CD3 mAb also induced vigorous T cell proliferation when IFN-gamma-treated keratinocytes were added. However, IFN-gamma-treated keratinocytes consistently failed to provoke an allogeneic response. These data demonstrate that 1) keratinocytes can serve as accessory cells for T cell proliferation using a variety of different stimuli, 2) the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction plays a major role in keratinocyte-mediated costimulation, and 3) previous reports in which IFN-gamma-treated keratinocytes failed to support T cell proliferation to nominal or alloantigens, may reflect impaired Ag presentation via class II MHC molecules, rather than lack of necessary costimulatory signals. These findings highlighting the accessory cell function of keratinocytes may have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of immunologic disorders of the skin. PMID:8450207

  9. Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is associated with cerebral blood flow dysregulation, mobility impairment, and falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tchalla, Achille E; Wellenius, Gregory A; Travison, Thomas G; Gagnon, Margaret; Iloputaife, Ikechukwu; Dantoine, Thierry; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) is associated with hypertension, vascular inflammation, and systemic endothelial dysfunction. We evaluated whether elevated plasma sVCAM-1 is associated with impaired cerebrovascular function and mobility impairments in elderly people. We studied the cross-sectional relationships between plasma sVCAM-1 level, gait speed, and cerebrovascular hemodynamics, and its longitudinal relationship with falls in 680 community-dwelling participants aged ?65 years in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Falls were recorded prospectively for 1 year on daily calendars. sVCAM-1 was measured by ELISA assay and beat-to-beat blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery during rest and in response to changes in end-tidal CO2 was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. sVCAM-1 concentration was 1094±340 ng/mL in normotensives, 1195±438 ng/mL in controlled hypertensives, and 1250±445 ng/mL in uncontrolled hypertensives (P=0.008). The mean resting blood flow velocity and cerebral vasomotor range were, respectively, 41.0±10.3 cm/s and 1.3±0.4 cm/s per millimeter of mercury. Elevated sVCAM-1 levels indicative of endothelial dysfunction were associated with reduced resting blood flow velocity (P=0.017) and cerebral vasomotor range (P=0.0048). Elevated sVCAM-1 levels were associated with slower gait speed (<0.8 m/s; odds ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.83; P=0.0011) and an increased odds of injurious falls (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.2; P=0.0028). An elevated sVCAM-1 level may be a marker of cerebral blood flow dysregulation because of endothelial damage from hypertension. It may also signal the presence of cerebral microvascular disease and its clinical consequences, including slow gait speed and falls. PMID:26056332

  10. Effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on levels of adhesion molecules in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Ruprecht, Zofia; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Gadomska, Gra?yna; Ro??, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled diabetes has become a major cause of mortality and morbidity by reason of vascular angiopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble forms of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), E-selectin, and thrombomodulin in patients with well-controlled and uncontrolled diabetes type 2. Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 35 patients with well-controlled diabetes. The second group included 27 patients with uncontrolled diabetes with micro-albuminuria. A control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and soluble thrombomodulin were assayed in plasma. Serum concentration of creatinine was measured and the plasma concentrations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) determined. Results: Lower concentrations of ICAM-1 were found in the group of uncontrolled diabetes patients compared with those with well-controlled disease. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher compared with the group with well-controlled diabetes. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes a positive correlation was obtained between glomerular filtration rate and sE-selectin and a negative correlation between the levels of creatinine and ICAM-1, although there was a positive correlation between (HbA1c) and ICAM-1. Conclusions: The study confirmed the participation of the inflammatory process associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The opposite effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on adhesion molecules suggests different functions of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in complications of diabetes. PMID:25990052

  11. Gene expression profiling of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1+ high endothelial venule cells (HEV) and identification of a leucine-rich HEV glycoprotein as a HEV marker.

    PubMed

    Saito, Koichi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kanda, Hidenobu; Ebisuno, Yukihiko; Izawa, Dai; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kosaku; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2002-02-01

    High endothelial venule (HEV) cells support lymphocyte migration from the peripheral blood into secondary lymphoid tissues. Using gene expression profiling of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1(+) mesenteric lymph node HEV cells by quantitative 3'-cDNA collection, we have identified a leucine-rich protein, named leucine-rich HEV glycoprotein (LRHG) that is selectively expressed in these cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that LRHG mRNA is approximately 1.3 kb and is expressed in lymph nodes, liver, and heart. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the mRNA expression in lymph nodes is strictly restricted to the HEV cells, and immunofluorescence analysis with polyclonal Abs against LRHG indicated that the LRHG protein is localized mainly to HEV cells and possibly to some lymphoid cells surrounding the HEVs. LRHG cDNA encodes a 342-aa protein containing 8 tandem leucine-rich repeats of 24 aa each and has high homology to human leucine-rich alpha(2)-glycoprotein. Similar to some other leucine-rich repeat protein family members, LRHG can bind extracellular matrix proteins that are expressed on the basal lamina of HEVs, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin. In addition, LRHG binds TGF-beta. These results suggest that LRHG is likely to be multifunctional in that it may capture TGF-beta and/or other related humoral factors to modulate cell adhesion locally and may also be involved in the adhesion of HEV cells to the surrounding basal lamina. PMID:11801638

  12. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  13. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 phosphorylation in human endothelial cells through cSrc and Fyn.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chou, Chia-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2008-08-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifunctional phospholipid which acts through a specific family of G protein-coupled receptors. Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) form trans-homophilic binding at lateral cell border. Upon stimulation, its cytoplasmic tyrosine residues could be phosphorylated and interact with various downstream signaling molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that S1P induced PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in human umbilical cord vein cells (HUVECs). By pharmacological inhibitors, it was suggested that G(i) and Src family kinases were involved in PECAM-1 phosphorylation. Moreover, cSrc and Fyn siRNA significantly suppressed S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation. These results suggested that S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation through G(i) and subsequent cSrc and Fyn. Our findings provide further understanding of S1P and PECAM-1 signaling as well as their functions in endothelial cells. PMID:18502612

  14. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  15. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates TNF-?-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thichanpiang, Peeradech; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrates anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG has been shown to protect retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) against oxidative stress-induced cell death. The pathogenesis of diseases in the retina is usually initiated by local inflammation at the RPE cell layer, and inflammation is mostly associated with leukocyte migration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether EGCG can modulate the cytokine-induced inflammatory response of RPE, particularly leukocyte migration, has not been clearly elucidated, and was therefore the objective of this study. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with different concentrations of TNF-? in the presence or absence of EGCG to different time points. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and phosphor-NF-?B and I?B expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Phosphor-NF-?B nuclear translocation and monocyte-RPE adhesion were investigated using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to further determine the ultrastructure of monocyte-RPE adhesion. The results demonstrated that TNF-? modulated inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 by induction of ROS and up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, TNF-?-induced phosphor-NF-?B nuclear translocation, increased phosphor-NF-?B expression and I?B degradation, and increased the degree of monocyte-RPE adhesion. Pretreating the cells with EGCG ameliorated the inflammatory effects of TNF-?. The results indicated that EGCG significantly exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 cells, partly as a suppressor of TNF-? signaling and that the inhibition was mediated via the NF-?B pathway. PMID:25644976

  16. The Interaction Affinity between Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) Analyzed by Quantitative FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Han; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), a member of integrin superfamily, interacts with its major counter ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and immunological synapse formation. However, irregular expressions of these proteins may also lead to several autoimmune diseases and metastasis cancer. Thus, quantifying the interaction affinity of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction is of fundamental importance in further understanding the nature of this interaction and drug discovery. In this study, we report an ‘in solution’ steady state organic fluorophore based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to quantify this interaction in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd). We have used, in our FRET assay, the Alexa Fluor 488-VLA-4 conjugate as the donor, and Alexa Fluor 546-VCAM-1 as the acceptor. From the FRET signal analysis, Kd of this interaction was determined to be 41.82 ± 2.36 nM. To further confirm our estimation, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to obtain Kd = 39.60 ± 1.78 nM, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by FRET. This is the first reported work which applies organic fluorophore based ‘in solution’ simple quantitative FRET assay to obtain the dissociation constant of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction, and is also the first quantification of this interaction. Moreover, the value of Kd can serve as an indicator of abnormal protein-protein interactions; hence, this assay can potentially be further developed into a drug screening platform of VLA-4/VCAM-1 as well as other protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25793408

  17. Blocking lymphotoxin-? receptor activation diminishes inflammation via reduced mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) expression and leucocyte margination in chronic DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    STOPFER, P; OBERMEIER, F; DUNGER, N; FALK, W; FARKAS, S; JANOTTA, M; MÖLLER, A; MÄNNEL, D N; HEHLGANS, T

    2004-01-01

    The lymphotoxin-? receptor (LT?R) pathway is critical for maintenance of organized lymphoid structures and is involved in the development of colitis. To investigate the mechanisms by which LT?R activation contributes to the pathology of chronic inflammation we used a soluble LT?R-Ig fusion protein as a competitive inhibitor of LT?R activation in the mouse model of chronic colitis induced by oral administration of dextran sulphate sodium. Strong expression of LT? which constitutes part of the LT?1?2 ligand complex was detected in colonic tissue of mice with chronic colitis. Treatment with LT?R-Ig significantly attenuated the development and histological manifestations of the chronic inflammation and reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1?, and IL-6. Moreover, LT?R-Ig treatment significantly down-regulated mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) expression, leading to reduced leucocyte rolling and sticking in postcapillary and collecting venules and reduced extravasation into the intestinal mucosa as quantified by in vivo fluorescence microscopy. Thus, LT?R pathway inhibition ameliorates DSS-induced experimental chronic colitis in mice by MAdCAM-1 down-regulation entailing reduced lymphocyte margination and extravasation into the inflamed mucosa. Therefore, a combined treatment with reagents blocking T cell-mediated perpetuation of chronic inflammation such as LT?R-Ig together with direct anti-inflammatory reagents such as TNF inhibitors could constitute a promising treatment strategy for chronic colitis. PMID:15030510

  18. Expression of interleukin-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the synovial membrane and cranial cruciate ligament of dogs after rupture of the ligament.

    PubMed

    El-Hadi, Mustafa; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Aebischer, Andrea; Smith, C Wayne; Shmon, Cindy; Singh, Baljit

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study compared inflammation, including expression of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the stifle joints of 4 control dogs and 23 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). The CCL, synovial membrane, meniscus, cartilage, and synovial fluid from the affected stifle joints of all the dogs were examined. Inflammatory cell counts were performed on the synovial fluid, and the tissues were processed for histologic study and immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 and ICAM-1. The synovial fluid from the stifle joints of the dogs with CCLR had an increased percentage of neutrophils (P = 0.054) and a decreased percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.004) but not macrophages compared with the fluid from the control dogs. There was accumulation of inflammatory cells and increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the vascular endothelium of the synovial membrane and the CCL of the dogs with CCLR. The increase in inflammatory cells in the stifle joints of dogs with CCLR may therefore be due to increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the synovial membrane and the CCL after the injury. These data may help in understanding the mechanisms of inflammation associated with CCLR. PMID:22754089

  19. Clinical and experimental studies regarding the expression and diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a multifunctional Ig-like cell adhesion molecule that has a wide range of biological functions. According to previous reports, serum CEACAM1 is dysregulated in different malignant tumours and associated with tumour progression. However, the serum CEACAM1 expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) is unclear. The different expression ratio of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L isoform has seldom been investigated in NSCLC. This research is intended to study the serum CEACAM1 and the ratio of CEACAM1-S/L isoforms in NSCLC. Methods The expression of the serum CEACAM1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression and the location of CEACAM1 in tumours were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The CEACAM1 mRNA levels in tumour and normal adjacent tissues were measured using quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression patterns and the rate of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L were analysed by reverse transcription-PCR. Results Serum CEACAM1 levels were significantly higher in NSCLC patients compared with that from normal healthy controls (P <0.0001). 17 patients (81%) among 21 showed high expression of CEACAM1 by immunohistochemical staining. Although no significant differences were found between tumour and normal tissues on mRNA expression levels of CEACAM1 (P >0.05), the CEACAM1-S and the CEACAM1-S/L (S: L) ratios were significantly higher in tumour than normal tissues (P <0.05). Conclusions Our data indicated that the serum levels of CEACAM1 could discriminate lung cancer patients from health donors and that CEACAM1 might be a useful marker in early diagnosis of NSCLC. Moreover, our results showed that the expression patterns of CEACAM1 isoforms could be changed during oncogenesis, even when total CEACAM1 in tumour tissues did not show significant changes. Our study suggested that the expression ratios of CEACAM1-S/CEACAM1-L might be a better diagnostic indicator in NSCLC than the quantitative changes of CEACAM1. PMID:23885995

  20. Induction of the proapoptotic tumor suppressor gene Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 by chemotherapeutic agents is repressed in therapy resistant acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fisser, Muriel C; Rommer, Anna; Steinleitner, Katarina; Heller, Gerwin; Herbst, Friederike; Wiese, Meike; Glimm, Hanno; Sill, Heinz; Wieser, Rotraud

    2015-12-01

    Even though a large proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve a complete remission upon initial therapy, the majority of them eventually relapse with resistant disease. Overexpression of the gene coding for the transcription factor Ecotropic Virus Integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with rapid disease recurrence and shortened survival. We therefore sought to identify EVI1 target genes that may play a role in chemotherapy resistance using a previously established in vitro model system for EVI1 positive myeloid malignancies. Gene expression microarray analyses uncovered the Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1) gene as a candidate whose deregulation by EVI1 may contribute to drug refractoriness. CADM1 is an apoptosis inducing tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated by methylation in a variety of tumor types. In the present study we provide evidence that it may play a role in chemotherapy induced cell death in AML: CADM1 was induced by drugs used in the treatment of AML in a human myeloid cell line and in primary diagnostic AML samples, and its experimental expression in a cell line model increased the proportion of apoptotic cells. CADM1 up-regulation was abolished by ectopic expression of EVI1, and EVI1 expression correlated with increased CADM1 promoter methylation both in a cell line model and in primary AML cells. Finally, CADM1 induction was repressed in primary samples from AML patients at relapse. In summary, these data suggest that failure to up-regulate CADM1 in response to chemotherapeutic drugs may contribute to therapy resistance in AML. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25491945

  1. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  2. Expression profile of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) in inflammatory foci using rhenium-188 labelled monoclonal antibody in mice.

    PubMed

    Kairemo, K J; Strömberg, S; Nikula, T K; Karonen, S L

    1998-06-01

    Rhenium (Re)-188 is a generator (W-188/Re-188) produced high energy beta-emitter suitable for radionuclide therapy (T1/2 is 16.9 hrs and Emax 2.1 MeV (range 11 mm)). We have labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with Re-188 using glucoheptonate chelation technique and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The labelling efficiency, free perrhenate and reduced Re were controlled with thin layer chromatography and the purification of Re-188-MoAbs was performed using gel filtration. Our results indicate that Re-188-labelled antibodies remain in vitro stable and the labelling purity is > 90%. We also have applied these Re-188-MoAbs for detection of inflammatory disease in a mouse. The effective half-lives of organs of interest after an injection of Re-188-anti-VCAM1 were as follows: blood 5.2 hr, kidney 4.7 hr, and liver 9.6 hr. Re-188-anti-VCAM-1 was found to accumulate mainly in kidney and liver. One hour after the injection, the kidney contained in average as high as 12.5% and the liver 2.8 ID/g tissue. After 6 hr, the kidney contained 5.5% ID/g and the liver 2.6% ID/g. At 24 hr, the kidney uptake was 0.5% ID/g and the liver uptake 0.8% ID/g, respectively. The inflamed foci, subcutaneous lesions in the footpad skin, were visualized using gamma camera. From the distribution data the uptakes in the inflamed foci as follows: at 1 hr 2.18 (inflammation) and 1.72% ID/g (control), at 6 hr 1.42 (inflammation) and 0.85% ID/g (control), and at 24 hr 0.17 (inflammation) and 0.084% ID/g (control), respectively. Anti-VCAM-1 MAb showed better targeting as compared to control MoAbs in inflammation (caused by E.coli lipoplysaccaride). In conclusion, Re-188 is suitable for MAb labelling, and MAb against VCAM-1 may be used for detection of local inflammatory disease. PMID:9762472

  3. ?M?2-integrin-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interactions drive the flow-dependent trafficking of Guillain-Barré syndrome patient derived mononuclear leukocytes at the blood-nerve barrier in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of hematogenous leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) are largely unknown. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We developed a cytokine-activated human in vitro BNB model using primary endoneurial endothelial cells. Endothelial treatment with 10 U/mL tissue necrosis factor-? and 20 U/mL interferon-? resulted in de novo expression of proinflammatory chemokines CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL11 and CCL20, with increased expression of CXCL2-3, CXCL8 and CXCL10 relative to basal levels. Cytokine treatment induced/ enhanced ICAM-1, E- and P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the alternatively spliced pro-adhesive fibronectin variant, fibronectin connecting segment-1 expression in a time-dependent manner, without alterations in junctional adhesion molecule-A expression. Lymphocytes and monocytes from untreated GBS patients express ICAM-1 counterligands, ?M- and ?L-integrin, with differential regulation of ?M-integrin expression compared to healthy controls. Under flow conditions that mimic capillary hemodynamics in vivo, there was a >3-fold increase in total GBS patient and healthy control mononuclear leukocyte adhesion/ migration at the BNB following cytokine treatment relative to the untreated state. Function neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human ?M-integrin (CD11b) and ICAM-1 reduced untreated GBS patient mononuclear leukocyte trafficking at the BNB by 59% and 64.2% respectively. Monoclonal antibodies against ?L-integrin (CD11a) and human intravenous immunoglobulin reduced total leukocyte adhesion/migration by 22.8% and 17.6% respectively. This study demonstrates differential regulation of ?M-integrin on circulating mononuclear cells in GBS, as well as an important role for ?M-integrin-ICAM-1 interactions in pathogenic GBS patient leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. PMID:22552879

  4. Blockade of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in muscle flaps at microcirculatory level.

    PubMed

    Türegün, M; Güdemez, E; Newman, P; Zins, J; Siemionow, M

    1999-09-01

    Several lines of evidence show that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), a component of endothelial cell junctions, is required for leukocyte transmigration through endothelial cell monolayers. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. We sought to determine whether administering an anti-PECAM-1 antibody would prevent or attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat cremaster muscle flap injury model. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group I (control): Cremaster muscle island flaps were dissected for baseline measurements of eight indicators: numbers of rolling, sticking, and transmigrating neutrophils, numbers of rolling and sticking lymphocytes, number of perfused capillaries, endothelial edema, and vessel permeability. Group II: The prepared cremaster flap was subjected to 4 hours of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. Group III: The muscle flap was subjected to ischemia and reperfusion as in group II, and anti-PECAM-1 antibodies (1 mg/kg) were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before reperfusion. Blood vessels were observed in vivo under an intravital microscopy system. Microvascular permeability was made visible with injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled albumin and evaluated with Kontron Elektronik computer software. The ischemia-reperfusion-alone group (group II) presented a 225-percent increase in the activation of sticking leukocytes (2.4 +/- 0.4 to 7.8 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05) (p < 0.01). This leukocyte activation was reduced by 83 percent following anti-PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody treatment (1.3 +/- 0.5 per 100 microm) (p < 0.01). At 24 hours, endothelial injury in group II was confirmed by a 4-fold increase in the number of transmigrating leukocytes into the interstitial space (7.6 +/- 1.2 per field versus 1.9 +/- 0.4 per field in controls). This phenomenon was reduced by 85 percent following anti-PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody treatment (1.1 +/- 0.2 per field) (p < 0.01). Analysis showed that the number of flowing capillaries was 67 percent lower in group II (6.8 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.01). Anti-PECAM-1 antibody treatment caused a 2.5-fold increase in this number (5.6 +/- 0.5, p < 0.01). Microcirculatory permeability index showed a 180-percent increase in group II (p < 0.05) when compared with baseline values. This increased albumin leakage was effectively attenuated by antibody treatment (p < 0.05). Blocking the action of PECAM-1 in vivo by administering monoclonal antibodies significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury, presumably by inhibiting transendothelial migration of neutrophils and by increasing capillary perfusion at a muscle flap microcirculatory level. PMID:10654744

  5. Interleukin-17 synergizes with IFN? or TNF? to promote inflammatory mediator release and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in human intervertebral disc cells

    PubMed Central

    Gabr, Mostafa A.; Jing, Liufang; Helbling, Antonia R.; Sinclair, S. Michael; Allen, Kyle D.; Shamji, Mohammed F.; Richardson, William J.; Fitch, Robert D.; Setton, Lori A.; Chen, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine recently shown to be elevated, along with interferon-? (IFN?) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF?), in degenerated and herniated intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues, suggesting a role for these cytokines in intervertebral disc disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the involvement of IL-17 and costimulants IFN? and TNF? in intervertebral disc pathology. Cells were isolated from anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus tissues of patients undergoing surgery for intervertebral disc degeneration or scoliosis. The production of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NOx), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression, were quantified for cultured cells following exposure to IL-17, IFN? and TNF?. Intervertebral disc cells exposed to IL-17, IFN? or TNF? showed a remarkable increase in inflammatory mediator release and ICAM-1 expression (GLM and ANOVA, p<0.05). Addition of IFN? or TNF? to IL-17 demonstrated a synergistic increase in inflammatory mediator release, and a marked increase in ICAM-1 expression. These findings suggest that IVD cells not only respond with a catabolic phenotype to IL-17 and costimulants IFN? and TNF?, but also express surface ligands with consequent potential to recruit additional lymphocytes and immune cells to the IVD microenvironment. IL-17 may be an important regulator of inflammation in the IVD pathologies. PMID:20665551

  6. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Intereukin-6 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Reduction, Preliminary Results of a Double-blind Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Mona; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Hajimiresmail, Seyed Javad; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present investigation was aimed to improve the inflammatory factors and lipoproteins concentration in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) by supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we measured serum concentrations of one soluble cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]), serum concentration of intereukin-6 (IL-6) and lipid profiles (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol and triglyceride [TG]) in CoQ10 supplementation group (n = 26) compared with placebo group (n = 26) in hyperlipidemic patients with MI. Fifty-two patients were randomized to receive 200 mg/day of CoQ10 or placebo for 12 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences for serum LDL-C, total cholesterol, and TG between two mentioned groups after the intervention. A significant enhancement in serum HDL-C level was observed between groups after the intervention (55.46 ± 6.87 and 44.07 ± 6.99 mg/dl in CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively P < 0.001). Concentrations of ICAM-1 (415.03 ± 96.89 and 453.38 ± 0.7 ng/dl CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively, P = 0.001) and IL-6 (11 ± 9.57 and 12.55 ± 8.76 pg/ml CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively P = 0.001) in serum were significantly decreased in CoQ10 group. Conclusions: Supplementation with CoQ10 in hyperlipidemic patients with MI that have statin therapy has beneficial effects on their aspects of health. PMID:26330989

  7. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  8. Betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, natural pentacyclic triterpenoids, interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Reiko; Fukuhara, Sayuri; Mitsuda, Satoshi; Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Kataoka, Takao

    2015-11-15

    Betulinic acid (3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-oic acid), oleanolic acid (3?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid), and ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are close structural isomers of natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acids. We recently identified a unique biological effect of ursolic acid, its inhibition of the intracellular trafficking of glycoproteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid did not inhibit the interleukin-1?-induced expression of cell-surface intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Nevertheless, betulinic acid and, to a lesser extent, oleanolic acid interfered with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1 in a similar manner to castanospermine (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum ?-glucosidases I and II), but not swainsonine (an inhibitor of Golgi ?-mannosidase II). Consistent with these results, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid inhibited yeast ?-glucosidase activity, but not Jack bean ?-mannosidase activity. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface. PMID:26460147

  9. Crystal structure of the V domain of human Nectin-like molecule-1/Syncam3/Tsll1/Igsf4b, a neural tissue-specific immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuhua; Xu, Feng; Gong, Yanhua; Gao, Jing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Tao; Peng, Ying; Qiang, Boqin; Yuan, Jiangang; Peng, Xiaozhong; Rao, Zihe

    2006-04-14

    Nectins are Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily proteins that participate in the organization of epithelial and endothelial junctions. Nectins have three Ig-like domains in the extracellular region, and the first one is essential in cell-cell adhesion and plays a central role in the interaction with the envelope glycoprotein D of several viruses. Five Nectin-like molecules (Necl-1 through -5) with similar domain structures to those of Nectins have been identified. Necl-1 is specifically expressed in neural tissue, has Ca(2+)-independent homophilic and heterophilic cell-cell adhesion activity, and plays an important role in the formation of synapses, axon bundles, and myelinated axons. Here we report the first crystal structure of its N-terminal Ig-like V domain at 2.4 A, providing insight into trans-cellular recognition mediated by Necl-1. The protein crystallized as a dimer, and the dimeric form was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking experiments, indicating this V domain is sufficient for homophilic interaction. Mutagenesis work demonstrated that Phe(82) is a key residue for the adhesion activity of Necl-1. A model for homophilic adhesion of Necl-1 at synapses is proposed based on its structure and previous studies. PMID:16467305

  10. BriefDefinitive Report Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1-

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    infected with the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum to postcapillary venular en- dothelium Mediates Phagocytosis of Malaria-infected Erythrocytes By Donald E. Stauntonj Christian F. Ockenhouse of the human immunoglobulin G1 H chain that binds Plasmodiumfalciparum-infected erythrocytes. This receptor

  11. Serum Soluble Adhesion Molecules and Markers of Systemic Inflammation in Elderly Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules and hs-CRP in elderly diabetics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) alone or with depressive symptoms. Methods. 219 diabetics elders were screened for psychiatric disorders and divided: group 1, MCI without depressive mood; group 2, MCI with depressive mood; group 3, controls. Data of biochemical parameters and biomarkers were collected. Results. In groups 1 and 2 levels of all biomarkers were significantly higher as compared to controls. The highest level of hs-CRP and sICAM-1 was detected in group 2. SVCAM-1 and sE-selectin levels were also the highest in group 2; however they did not significantly differ as compared to group 1. MoCA score was negatively correlated with all biomarkers in group 1. The logistic regression model showed that variables which increased the likelihood of having depressive syndrome in MCI patients were older age, stroke, neuropathy, increased number of comorbidities, and higher sICAM-1 level. Conclusions. We first demonstrated that elderly diabetic patients with MCI, particularly those with depressive mood have higher levels of soluble adhesion molecules and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation. Coexisting depressive syndrome in patients with MCI through common inflammatory pathways may result in augmentation of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26167502

  12. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels (? = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; ? = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 (? = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; ? = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 (? = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  13. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble TNF Receptors and Adhesion Molecules Are Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type-1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Purohit, Sharad; Sharma, Ashok; Hopkins, Diane; Steed, Leigh; Bode, Bruce; Anderson, Stephen W.; Caldwell, Ruth; She, Jin-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine the association of the serum levels of TNF receptors, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory mediators with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in T1D patients. Methods. Using the multiplex immunoassay, we measured serum levels of eight proteins in 678 T1D subjects aged 20–75 years. Comparisons were made between 482 T1D patients with no complications and 196 T1D patients with DR. Results. The levels of sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II, CRP, SAA, sgp130, sIL6R, sVCAM1, and sICAM1 were significantly higher in the T1D patients with DR as compared to T1D patients with no complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant association for five proteins after adjustment for age, sex, and disease duration (sTNFR-I: OR = 1.57, sgp130: OR = 1.43, sVCAM1: OR = 1.27, sICAM1: OR = 1.42, and CRP: OR = 1.15). Conditional logistic regression on matched paired data revealed that subjects in the top quartile for sTNFR-I (OR = 2.13), sTNFR-II (OR = 1.66), sgp130 (OR = 1.82), sIL6R (OR = 1.75), sVCAM1 (OR = 1.98), sICAM1 (OR = 2.23), CRP (OR = 2.40) and SAA (OR = 2.03), had the highest odds of having DR. Conclusions. The circulating markers of inflammation, endothelial injury, and TNF signaling are significantly associated with DR in patients with T1D. TNFR-I and TNFR-II receptors are highly correlated, but DR associated more strongly with TNFR-I in these patients. PMID:26339132

  14. Targeting of nanoparticles to cell adhesion molecules for potential immune therapy

    E-print Network

    Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-12-10

    Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses. For circulating leukocytes to enter inflamed tissue...

  15. Maternal Serum Levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Young; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon-Young; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Lim, Ha-Jung; Shin, Joong-Sik; Woo, Hyuk-Jun; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Jin-Woo; Cho, Eun Hee

    2004-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in preeclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) in sera of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. We studied the serum levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in normal pregnant women (n=63), mild preeclampsia (n=33) and severe preeclampsia (n=82). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules were determined with enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Serum concentrations of sVCAM-1 were significantly higher in both mild (p=0.004) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.002). sICAM-1 levels of severe preeclampsia were statistically different from those of normal pregnancy (p=0.038). Levels of sE-selectin were elevated in both mild (p=0.011) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) compared to normal pregnancy, but no statistical difference between the mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.345). These results suggest that all three soluble adhesion molecules are increased in severe preeclampsia, and sVCAM-1 among them may be useful in predicting the severity of preeclampsia. PMID:15483345

  16. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation. PMID:24302679

  17. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Guides Naive T Cell Differentiation and Regulatory T Cell Induction

    E-print Network

    Williams, Kelli M.

    2012-12-31

    Genet 27: 20-1 40. Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY. 2003. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 4: 330-6 41. Huehn J, Polansky JK, Hamann A. 2009. Epigenetic control of FOXP3 expression: the key...). Refer to Protocol 1 in the Appendix for more detail. In selected experiments where indicated, naïve CD4+ T cells were isolated from human tonsil tissue. In summary, tonsils were minced over a strainer to obtain cell suspensions, mononuclear cells...

  18. The Lymphocyte Function–associated Antigen 1 I Domain Is a Transient Binding Module for Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 in Hydrodynamic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Knorr, Ruth; Dustin, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The I domain of lymphocyte function–associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1–containing membranes. In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. Rolling of I-GPI cells was dependent on the presence of Mg2+. Mn2+ only partially substituted for Mg2+, giving rise to a small fraction of rolling cells and increased rolling velocity. This suggests that the I domain acts as a transient, Mg2+-dependent binding module that cooperates with another Mn2+-stimulated site in LFA-1 to give rise to the stable interaction of intact LFA-1 with ICAM-1. PMID:9271587

  19. An isolated, surface-expressed I domain of the integrin L 2 is sufficient for strong adhesive

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    An isolated, surface-expressed I domain of the integrin L 2 is sufficient for strong adhesive- tutively adhered to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) substrates. Locking the I domain closed abolished constitutive and activatable adhesion. The isolated locked-open I domain bound as well

  20. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  1. Systemic endothelial activation occurs in both mild and severe malaria. Correlating dermal microvascular endothelial cell phenotype and soluble cell adhesion molecules with disease severity.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. D.; Ly, V. C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Tran, T. H.; Nguyen, H. P.; Bethell, D.; Wyllie, S.; Louwrier, K.; Fox, S. B.; Gatter, K. C.; Day, N. P.; Tran, T. H.; White, N. J.; Berendt, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria is accompanied by systemic endothelial activation. To study endothelial activation directly during malaria and sepsis in vivo, the expression of cell adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelium was examined in skin biopsies and correlated with plasma levels of soluble (circulating) ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Skin biopsies were obtained from 61 cases of severe malaria, 42 cases of uncomplicated malaria, 10 cases of severe systemic sepsis, and 17 uninfected controls. Systemic endothelial activation, represented by the up-regulation of inducible cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on endothelium and increased levels of soluble CAMs (sCAMs), were seen in both severe and uncomplicated malaria and sepsis when compared with uninfected controls. Plasma levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin correlated positively with the severity of malaria whereas TNF-alpha was raised nonspecifically in malaria and sepsis. Immunohistochemical evidence of endothelial activation in skin biopsies did not correlate with sCAM levels or disease severity. This indicates a background of systemic endothelial activation, which occurs in both mild and severe malaria and sepsis. The levels of sCAMs in malaria are thus not an accurate reflection of endothelial cell expression of CAMs in a particular vascular bed, and other factors must influence their levels during disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626052

  2. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Saintclair, T. L. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A process of preparing aromatic polyamide-acids for use as adhesives is described. An equimolar quantity of an aromatic dianhydride is added to a stirred solution of an aromatic diamine in a water or alcohol-miscible ether solvent to obtain a viscous polymer solution. The polymeric-acid intermediate polymer does not become insoluble but directly forms a smooth viscous polymer solution. These polyamic-acid polymers are converted, by heating in the range of 200-300 C and with pressure, to form polyimides with excellent adhesive properties.

  3. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells by suppression of cell surface expression of adhesion molecules and of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Dhawan, S; Hardegen, N J; Aggarwal, B B

    1998-03-15

    Recruitment of leukocytes by endothelial cells and their subsequent migration from the vasculature into the tissue play major roles in inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin, an antiinflammatory agent, on the adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC). Treatment of EC with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) for 6 hr augmented the adhesion of monocytes to EC, and this adhesion was due to increased expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). Pretreatment of EC for 1 hr with curcumin completely blocked their adhesion to monocytes, as well as the cell surface expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and ELAM-1 in EC. Although curcumin inhibited adhesion even when administered 1 hr after TNF treatment, maximum inhibition occurred when added either 1 hr before or at the same time as TNF. As the induction of various adhesion molecules by TNF requires activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, the effect of curcumin on the activation of this factor in the EC was also investigated. A 30-min treatment with TNF activated NF-kappaB; the activation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by pretreatment with curcumin, indicating that NF-kappaB inhibition may play a role in the suppression of expression of adhesion molecules in EC. Our results demonstrate that the antiinflammatory properties of curcumin may be attributable, in part, to inhibition of leukocyte recruitment. PMID:9586949

  4. Periatrial Epicardial Fat Is Associated with Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Scridon, Alina; Bessière, Francis; Chauveau, Samuel; Geloen, Alain; Boussel, Loic; Morel, Elodie; Chevalier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated to atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and outcome after AF ablation. We intended to determine whether global or local EAT is associated with systemic and/or left atrial (LA) inflammation and markers of endothelial dysfunction in AF patients. Methods and Results Total, atrial, and ventricular EAT volume (EATtotal, EATatrial, EATventricular) were measured by multislice cardiac CT in 49 patients with paroxysmal (PAF, n=25) or persistent AF (PeF, n=24). Periatrial epicardial fat thickness at the esophagus (LA-ESO) and thoracic aorta (LA-ThA) were also measured. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) levels were measured in peripheral and LA blood samples obtained during catheterization during AF ablation. Patients with PeF had higher EATatrial (P<0.05) and LA-ESO (P=0.04) than patients with PAF. VEGF, IL-8, and TGF-?1 were not associated with EAT. In contrast, after adjusting for LA volume and body mass index, higher LA-ThA was significantly associated with higher sICAM-1 and vWF levels, both in peripheral blood (P<0.05) and in LA (P<0.05). Similar results were found with LA-ESO. Body mass index, EATtotal and EATventricular were not associated with sICAM-1 and vWF. Conclusions Periatrial epicardial fat showed a significant positive association with increased levels of sICAM-1 and vWF, which are biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. No such associations were found when considering body mass index or EATtotal. These results suggest that local EAT rather than regional or total adiposity may modulate endothelial dysfunction in patients with AF. PMID:24143210

  5. Nanofibrous adhesion: the twin of gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guangming; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Juntao; Jin, Xu; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by dusty spider dragline silk, we studied the adhesive interaction between artificial nanofibers and their aerosol surroundings. The nanofibers are found to be able to actively capture particulate matters from the environment, exactly as the spider dragline silk does. Examinations prove that such nanofibrous adhesion is insensitive to the chemical nature of the fibers and the physical states of the particulate matter and depends only on the fiber diameters. Such facts indicate that nanofibrous adhesion is a case of dry adhesion, mainly governed by van der Waals force, sharing the same mechanism to gecko adhesion. Nanofibrous adhesion is of great importance and has promising potential. For instance, in this work, nanofibers are fabricated into a thin and translucent filter, which has a filtration performance, as high as 95%, that easily outperformed ordinary ones. We believe that this adhesive property of nanofibers will open up broader applications in both scientific and industrial fields. PMID:25602975

  6. Iron sucrose accelerates early atherogenesis by increasing superoxide production and upregulating adhesion molecules in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-11-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-?B signaling. We then measured mononuclear-endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-?B/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  7. Iron Sucrose Accelerates Early Atherogenesis by Increasing Superoxide Production and Upregulating Adhesion Molecules in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte–endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-?B signaling. We then measured mononuclear–endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE?/?) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE?/? mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear–endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-?B/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear–endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  8. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  9. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  10. Acute and Chronic Shear Stress Differently Regulate Endothelial Internalization of Nanocarriers Targeted to Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jingyan; Zern, Blaine J.; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Davies, Peter F.; Muro, Silvia; Muzykantov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of nanocarriers (NC) is controlled by their design and target cell phenotype, microenvironment, and functional status. Endothelial cells (EC) lining the vascular lumen represent an important target for drug delivery. Endothelium in vivo is constantly or intermittently (as, for example, during ischemia-reperfusion) exposed to blood flow, which influences NC–EC interactions by changing NC transport properties, and by direct mechanical effects upon EC mechanisms involved in NC binding and uptake. EC do not internalize antibodies to marker glycoprotein PECAM(CD31), yet internalize multivalent NC coated with PECAM antibodies (anti-PECAM/NC) via a noncanonical endocytic pathway distantly related to macropinocytosis. Here we studied the effects of flow on EC uptake of anti-PECAM/NC spheres (?180 nm diameter). EC adaptation to chronic flow, manifested by cellular alignment with flow direction and formation of actin stress fibers, inhibited anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis consistent with lower rates of anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis in vivo in arterial compared to capillary vessels. Acute induction of actin stress fibers by thrombin also inhibited anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis, demonstrating that formation of actin stress fibers impedes EC endocytic machinery. In contrast, acute flow without stress fiber formation, stimulated anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis. Anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis did not correlate with the number of cell-bound particles under flow or static conditions. PECAM cytosolic tail deletion and disruption of cholesterol-rich plasmalemma domains abrogated anti-PECAM/NC endocytosis stimulation by acute flow, suggesting complex regulation of a flow-sensitive endocytic pathway in EC. The studies demonstrate the importance of the local flow microenvironment for NC uptake by the endothelium and suggest that cell culture models of nanoparticle uptake should reflect the microenvironment and phenotype of the target cells. PMID:22957767

  11. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNF?-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNF?-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNF?-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  12. Engineering of Single Ig Superfamily Domain of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) for Native Fold and Function*S

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    of several cell types including leukocytes and endothelial cells and is up-regulated by inflammatory labeled A-G along the polypeptide chain. The two sides of the sandwich are formed by two sheets, one sheet

  13. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in T cell differentiation and as a target for peptide therapy of type 1 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Dotson, Abby Louise

    2012-05-31

    CD4+ T cells are essential for proper function of the immune system. Many facets of an immune response are dependent on help from CD4+ T cells to become activated and exhibit effector function. Memory CD4+ T cells are a differentiated subset...

  14. Sargaquinoic Acid Inhibits TNF-?-Induced NF-?B Signaling, Thereby Contributing to Decreased Monocyte Adhesion to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

    PubMed

    Gwon, Wi-Gyeong; Lee, Bonggi; Joung, Eun-Ji; Choi, Min-Woo; Yoon, Nayoung; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-10-21

    Sargaquinoic acid (SQA) has been known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of SQA isolated from Sargassum serratifolium on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SQA decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as chemotactic cytokines such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in TNF-?-treated HUVECs. As a result, SQA prevented monocyte adhesion to TNF-?-induced adhesion. SQA also inhibited TNF-?-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) translocation into the nucleus by preventing proteolytic degradation of inhibitor ?B-?. Overall, SQA protects against TNF-?-induced vascular inflammation through inhibition of the NF-?B pathway in HUVECs. These data suggest that SQA may be used as a therapeutic agent for vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:26437568

  15. Structural equation modeling of the inflammatory response to traffic air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Baja, Emmanuel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Suh, Helen H.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the effect of traffic-related pollutants on markers of inflammation. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on inflammation using structural equation models (SEMs). We studied measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) for 749 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using repeated measures SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide to estimate its effect on a latent variable for inflammation that included sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and CRP. Exposure periods were assessed using 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day moving averages previsit. We compared our findings using SEMs with those obtained using linear mixed models. Traffic pollution was related to increased inflammation for 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day exposure periods. An inter-quartile range increase in traffic pollution was associated with a 2.3% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.0–4.7%) increase in inflammation for the 3-day moving average, with the most significant association observed for the 30-day moving average (23.9%; 95% PI: 13.9–36.7%). Traffic pollution adversely impacts inflammation in the elderly. SEMs in a Bayesian framework can comprehensively incorporate multiple pollutants and health outcomes simultaneously in air pollution–cardiovascular epidemiological studies. PMID:23232970

  16. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  17. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering. PMID:23802872

  18. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-?B and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-?B activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  19. Adhesion Enhancement through Micropatterning at Polydimethylsiloxane-Acrylic Adhesive Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    Adhesion Enhancement through Micropatterning at Polydimethylsiloxane-Acrylic Adhesive Interfaces M Adhesion at polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-acrylic adhesive interfaces is shown to be enhanced through features on the level of adhesion have been analyzed. For cylindrical pillars, two regimes are clearly

  20. Bond properties of liquid adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were conducted on a liquid adhesive used to bond circuit laminates to rigid plastic components. Areas investigated include: adhesive formulation, factors influencing bond strength, laminate cleaning, and automated adhesive application.

  1. Adhesive for composite bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.E.; Walkup, C.M.; Matthews, J.T.

    1989-11-27

    Adhesive bonding is a viable option for structural joining of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Recent examples from laboratory programs include a composite tube joined to a flared composite collar (skirt) to provide a means for mechanical attachment. Another application involves adhesive bonding of a close-tolerance composite ring to the inside of a tapered, cylindrical composite penetrator case in order to provide a load bearing surface for prestressing the internal package. The adhesive bond in both of these applications is the critical load bearing component and must sustain large shearing stresses in order to maintain the structural integrity and viability of the part. The ideal adhesive would be a low viscosity (<10 poise) liquid with a long pot life, good wetting characteristics and high ultimate shear strength when cured at moderate (<50{degree}C) temperature. An adhesive with these characteristics would allow for the production of defect-free bonds by capillary wetting or squeezing flow of the adhesive into the narrow (.005{double prime}) annular space between the concentric composite parts. Since adhesives possessing these characteristics were not known to be available commercially, candidate materials were evaluated for this application. In this paper we present bond shear strength data and selected physical properties for some epoxy adhesive formulations. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, E.W.; Shannon, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The topics concerned with the European chromic acid anodize process, the sealed chromic acid anodize, the phosphoric acid anodize, surface analysis, and adhesive selection are discussed. Consideration is given to epoxy adhesives, elevated-temperature-resistant adhesives, the mechanical properties of adhesives, environmental/durability testing, and coatings. Data on the use of chemical analysis for control, the structural analysis of adhesive-bonded joints, tooling design and inspection, nondestructive inspection, and adhesive-bonded aluminum structure repair are presented.

  3. Cryogenic vacuum tight adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anashkin, O. P.; Keilin, V. E.; Patrikeev, V. M.

    1999-12-01

    A synthetic adhesive for vacuum tight joints at cryogenic temperatures has been developed. It consists of three components, the main component being epoxy silicone organic resin. The joints made with the adhesive remain vacuum tight at liquid helium temperature, including superfluid helium. It was found possible to connect different materials with the adhesive (copper and stainless steel with each other, aluminum, aluminum alloys, fiberglass, etc.). The joints withstood thermal shock tests of ten repeated sharps cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature and heating in hot water. Using the adhesive a lot of different vacuum tight low temperature joints have been made. More than fifteen years of wide application of this adhesive in vacuum tight cryogenic joints proved its high reliability. Some designs of vacuum tight cryogenic joints are presented and the technique of their manufacturing is described.

  4. LARC-13 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.; Sheppard, C. H.; Johnson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A LARC-13 type adhesive system was developed and property data obtained that demonstrated improved thermomechanical properties superior to base LARC-13 adhesive. An improved adhesive for 589 K (600 F) use was developed by physical or chemical modification of LARC-13. The adhesive was optimized for titanium and composite bonding, and a compatible surface preparation for titanium and composite substrates was identified. The data obtained with the improved adhesive system indicated it would meet the 589 K (600 F) properties desired for application on space shuttle components. Average titanium lap shear data were: (1) 21.1 MPa (3355 psi) at RT, (2) 13.0 MPa (1881 psi) at 600 F, and (3) 16.4 MPa (2335) after aging 125 hours at 600 F and tested at 600 F.

  5. Adhesion of Polymer Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John J.; Bates, Frank S.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Silas, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The adhesion and bending modulus of polybutadiene-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer vesicles made from a bidisperse mixture of polymers is measured using micropipette aspiration. The adhesion energy between biotinylated vesicles and avidin beads is modeled by incorporating the extension of the adhesive ligands above the surface brush of the vesicle according to the blob model of bidisperse polymer mixtures of Komura and Safran assuming the polymer brush at the surface of the vesicle is compact. The same model accurately reproduces the scaling of the bending modulus with polymer composition.

  6. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  7. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  8. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  9. High temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace and electronics industries have an ever increasing need for higher performance materials. In recent years, linear aromatic polyimides have been proven to be a superior class of materials for various applications in these industries. The use of this class of polymers as adhesives is continuing to increase. Several NASA Langley developed polyimides show considerable promise as adhesives because of their high glass transition temperatures, thermal stability, resistance to solvents/water, and their potential for cost effective manufacture.

  10. Detection of Bidirectional Signaling During Integrin Activation and Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Stuart M.; Dixit, Neha; Simon, Scott I.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil arrest and migration on inflamed endothelium is dependent upon a conformational shift in CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) from a low to high affinity and clustered state which determines the strength and lifetime of bond formation with intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Cytoskeletal adaptor proteins kindlin-3 and talin-1 anchor clustered LFA-1 to the cytoskeleton and support the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. We employ microfluidic flow channels and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to evaluate the spatiotemporal regulation of LFA-1 affinity and bond formation that facilitate the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. Methodology is presented to correlate the relationship between integrin conformation, bond formation with ICAM-1, and cytoskeletal engagement and adhesion strengthening necessary to achieve a migratory phenotype. PMID:24504956

  11. The focal adhesion kinase inhibitor PF-562,271 impairs primary CD4+ T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Andrew J.; Wernimont, Sarah A.; Cung, Thai-duong; Bennin, David A.; Beggs, Hilary E.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, PF-562,271, is currently in clinical development for cancer, however it is not known how PF-562,271 affects T cell function. Here, we demonstrate inhibitory effects of PF-562,271 on the activation of primary human and mouse T cells. PF-562,271 inhibits T cell receptor signaling-induced T cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and T cell interactions with antigen-presenting cells. An additional focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, PF-573,228, and genetic depletion of focal adhesion kinase also impair T cell conjugation with antigen-presenting cells. PF-562,271 blocks phosphorylation of the signaling molecules zeta chain associate protein of 70 kDa, linker of activated T cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and impairs T cell proliferation. The effects observed on T cell proliferation cannot solely be attributed to focal adhesion kinase inhibition, as genetic depletion did not alter proliferation. The effect of PF-562,271 on T cell proliferation is not rescued when proximal T cell receptor signaling is bypassed by stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and ionomycin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that focal adhesion kinase regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion following T cell receptor activation. Moreover, our findings suggest that PF-562,271 may have immunomodulatory effects that could impact its therapeutic applications. PMID:23928188

  12. The focal adhesion kinase inhibitor PF-562,271 impairs primary CD4+ T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Andrew J; Wernimont, Sarah A; Cung, Thai-Duong; Bennin, David A; Beggs, Hilary E; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2013-09-15

    The focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, PF-562,271, is currently in clinical development for cancer, however it is not known how PF-562,271 affects T cell function. Here, we demonstrate inhibitory effects of PF-562,271 on the activation of primary human and mouse T cells. PF-562,271 inhibits T cell receptor signaling-induced T cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and T cell interactions with antigen-presenting cells. An additional focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, PF-573,228, and genetic depletion of focal adhesion kinase also impair T cell conjugation with antigen-presenting cells. PF-562,271 blocks phosphorylation of the signaling molecules zeta chain associate protein of 70 kDa, linker of activated T cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and impairs T cell proliferation. The effects observed on T cell proliferation cannot solely be attributed to focal adhesion kinase inhibition, as genetic depletion did not alter proliferation. The effect of PF-562,271 on T cell proliferation is not rescued when proximal T cell receptor signaling is bypassed by stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and ionomycin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that focal adhesion kinase regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion following T cell receptor activation. Moreover, our findings suggest that PF-562,271 may have immunomodulatory effects that could impact its therapeutic applications. PMID:23928188

  13. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 28 (2007) 7790 Properties of adhesives and CPVC materials proposed

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 28 (2007) 77­90 Properties of adhesives and CPVC material properties and bond characteristics of adhesives when subjected to normal and severe environmental specimens subjected to salt spray conditions. Major improvements in durability were achieved using

  14. Effects of anti-rheumatic herbal medicines on cellular adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D.; Kuo, S.; Lai, J.; Chang, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis whether herbal medicines ameliorate inflammatory diseases via the modulation of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs).?METHODS—Human neutrophils, synovial fibroblasts, and endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook-f (TWH-f) or Tetrandrine in the presence or absence of interleukin 1 (IL1). The amount of soluble E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) secreted by cells were determined by ELISA. The cell surface expression of these three CAMs was detected by flow cytometry.?RESULTS—TWH-f at high concentration (50 ng/ml) has a significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effect on both the secretion and the expression of the cellular adhesion molecules. However, Tetrandrine did not demonstrate the same effects.?CONCLUSIONS—The cellular adhesion molecules of the endothelium and leucocytes may constitute excellent targets for the development of new anti-inflammation medicines. These results indicate that TWH could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.?? PMID:10340961

  15. Dietary patterns are associated with biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)2

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Jenny, Nancy S; Jiang, Rui; Herrington, David M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns may influence cardiovascular disease risk through effects on inflammation and endothelial activation. Objective We examined relations between dietary patterns and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Design At baseline, diet (food-frequency questionnaire) and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), homocysteine, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin were assessed in 5089 nondiabetic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results Four dietary patterns were derived by using factor analysis. The fats and processed meats pattern (fats, oils, processed meats, fried potatoes, salty snacks, and desserts) was positively associated with CRP (P for trend < 0.001), IL-6 (P for trend < 0.001), and homocysteine (P for trend = 0.002). The beans, tomatoes, and refined grains pattern (beans, tomatoes, refined grains, and high-fat dairy products) was positively related to sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.007). In contrast, the whole grains and fruit pattern (whole grains, fruit, nuts, and green leafy vegetables) was inversely associated with CRP, IL-6, homocysteine (P for trend ? 0.001), and sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.034), and the vegetables and fish pattern (fish and dark-yellow, cruciferous, and other vegetables) was inversely related to IL-6 (P for trend = 0.009). CRP, IL-6, and homocysteine relations across the fats and processed meats and whole grains and fruit patterns were independent of demographics and lifestyle factors and were not modified by race-ethnicity. CRP and homocysteine relations were independent of waist circumference. Conclusions These results corroborate previous findings that empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with inflammation and show that these relations in an ethnically diverse population with unique dietary habits are similar to findings in more homogeneous populations. PMID:16762949

  16. Flexibilized copolyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Two copolyimides, LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2, with flexible backbones were processed and characterized as adhesives. The processability and adhesive properties were compared to those of a commercially available form of LARC-TPI. Lap shear specimens were fabricated using adhesive tape prepared from each of the three polymers. Lap shear tests were performed at room temperature, 177 C, and 204 C before and after exposure to water-boil and to thermal aging at 204 C for up to 1000 hours. The three adhesive systems possess exceptional lap shear strengths at room temperature and elevated temperatures both before and after thermal exposure. LARC-STPI, because of its high glass transition temperature provided high lap shear strengths up to 260 C. After water-boil, LARC-TPI exhibited the highest lap shear strengths at room temperature and 177 C, whereas the LARC-STPI retained a higher percentage of its original strength when tested at 204 C. These flexible thermoplastic copolyimides show considerable potential as adhesives based on this study and because of the ease of preparation with low cost, commercially available materials.

  17. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  18. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  19. Adhesion in Nanodiamond Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lutkus, Luke; Legum, Benjamin; Clarion Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Due to their excellent mechanical properties and biologically non-toxic nature, nanodiamonds show great promise for applications in tribology, lubrication, drug delivery, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. In order to design effective nanocomposites and other biomedical systems exploiting these properties, it is important to understand the properties and mechanisms by which nanodiamonds adhere to other materials, and how they behave at interfaces. In this article, the adhesive force between nanodiamond particles and the silicon scanning probe microscope tip are reported. The adhesive force can be correlated to the purity and functionalization of nanodiamond surface, and the values range from 0.1nN to 2.0nN for the samples studied. It is observed that the lateral forces applied by the scanning probe tip can cause the adhesive forces to increase by an order of magnitude from 0.1 to 2.0nN at regions where the tip experiences maximum contact force.

  20. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  1. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  2. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

  3. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  4. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  5. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  6. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  7. Association between Endothelial Biomarkers and Arterial Elasticity in Young Adults – The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Valappil, Narayanan I.; Jacobs, David R.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Gross, Myron D.; Arnett, Donna K.; Glasser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background Reduced arterial elasticity and endothelial dysfunction both may indicate early cardiovascular (CV) disease in young adults. Pulse waveform analysis estimates large (LAE) and small (SAE) artery elasticity noninvasively. We assessed the associations between LAE and SAE and markers of endothelial dysfunction and CV risk factors. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) assessed arterial elasticity and other characteristics cross-sectionally in 389 men and 381 women aged 27–42 years in 1995 (CARDIA year 10) and circulating levels of P-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) in 2000. We adjusted for variables included in the estimation of arterial elasticity (year 10 height, body mass index, age, heart rate, and blood pressure) and other year 10 characteristics. Results Mean adjusted SAE was 8.5 vs. 7.6 ml/mmHg ×100 in those with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ?4 vs. microalbuminuria (ratio > 25; ptrend =0.008). Mean LAE was 25.6 vs. 24.2 ml/mmHg ×10 in the lowest vs. highest quintile of P-selectin (ptrend =0.004). sICAM-1 was unrelated to either LAE or SAE. Plasma triglycerides were inversely related to LAE (ptrend =0.029). Cigarette smokers had lower SAE than nonsmokers (ptrend = 0.009). Conclusion In addition to smoking and triglycerides, biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction were associated with impaired LAE and SAE in young adults. PMID:19343081

  8. High temperature electrically conductive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.J.; Allen, C.; Kerr, C.; Walker, P.

    1987-06-23

    A non-proprietary electrically conductive, high-temperature adhesive has been developed. The base resin is a commercial bismaleimide resin with silver particles added to produce electrical conductivity. This adhesive has been formulated for use in our microelectronic area as a die-attach adhesive. Following a typical chip processing cycle (350/sup 0/C for one hour), the adhesive has a strength of 8.3 MPa and a volume resistivity of 10/sup -4/ ohm.cm.

  9. Membrane adhesion and domain formation

    E-print Network

    Thomas R. Weikl; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2007-09-23

    We review theoretical results for the adhesion-induced phase behavior of biomembranes. The focus is on models in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic sheets with embedded adhesion molecules. We present several mechanism that lead to the formation of domains during adhesion, and discuss the time-dependent evolution of domain patterns obtained in Monte-Carlo simulations. The simulated pattern dynamics has striking similarities to the pattern evolution observed during T cell adhesion.

  10. Copyright 2009 Tech Science Press MCB, vol.7, no.2, pp.77-91, 2009 Tumor Cell Extravasation Mediated by Leukocyte Adhesion is Shear Rate

    E-print Network

    Dong, Cheng

    neutrophils (PMNs) facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation by a shear-rate dependent mecha- nism. Melanoma cell-PMN interactions are me- diated by the binding between intercellular ad- hesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and 2 integrins on PMNs. In addition, the fluid convection

  11. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  12. Adept Adhesion Reduction Solution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icodextrin. The fluid is used during or after laparoscopic gynecological surgery to separate and protect tissues and decrease the number of new adhesions after surgery. Adept® is supplied sterile, in a single-use bag. How does it work? During surgery, ...

  13. Adhesion of microcapsules

    E-print Network

    Peter Graf; Reimar Finken; Udo Seifert

    2006-06-14

    The adhesion of microcapsules to an attractive contact potential is studied theoretically. The axisymmetric shape equations are solved numerically. Beyond a universal threshold strength of the potential, the contact radius increases like a square root of the strength. Scaling functions for the corresponding amplitudes are derived as a function of the elastic parameters.

  14. Adhesivity, Bigraphs and Bisimulation Congruences

    E-print Network

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    Adhesivity, Bigraphs and Bisimulation Congruences Pawel Soboci´nski1 IT University Copenhagen] and the author [7]. The general areas include adhesive categories and generalisations, contextual labelled for Modeling Distributed and Mobile Systems". We shall concentrate on the notions of adhesivity and reactive

  15. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  16. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  17. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  18. Evidence of proatherogenic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    González, Frank; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi; Kirwan, John P

    2009-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-level inflammation that can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We measured circulating proatherogenic inflammatory mediators in women with PCOS (8 lean: body mass index, 18-25 kg/m(2); 8 obese: body mass index, 30-40 kg/m(2)) and weight-matched controls (8 lean, 8 obese). Blood samples were obtained fasting and 2 hours after glucose ingestion to measure interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinase-2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and activated nuclear factor kappaB in mononuclear cells. Truncal fat was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting MCP-1 levels were elevated in lean women with PCOS compared with lean controls (159.9 +/- 14.1 vs 121.2 +/- 5.4 pg/mL, P < .02). Hyperglycemia failed to suppress matrix metalloproteinase-2 in lean women with PCOS compared with lean controls (1.7 +/- 1.2 vs -4.8 +/- 1.6 pg/mL, P < .002). Among women with PCOS, obese individuals exhibited higher fasting sICAM-1 (16.1 +/- 0.8 vs 10.5 +/- 1.0 ng/mL, P < .03) and PAI-1 (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs 3.4 +/- 0.8 ng/mL, P < .03) levels. Trend analysis revealed higher (P < .005) IL-6, sICAM-1, CRP, PAI-1, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index in women with PCOS compared with weight-matched controls, and the highest levels in the obese regardless of PCOS status. Fasting MCP-1 levels correlated with activated nuclear factor kappaB during hyperglycemia (P < .05) and androstenedione (P < .004). Truncal fat correlated with fasting IL-6 (P < .004), sICAM-1 (P < .006), CRP (P < .0009), and PAI-1 (P < .02). We conclude that both PCOS and obesity contribute to a proatherogenic state; but in women with PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:19375763

  19. Demystified ... adhesion molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Freemont, A J

    1998-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecules are ubiquitous recognition molecules that allow cells to communicate with one another and their environment. Through these molecules, complex alterations in the cytoplasmic messenger pathways and the microfilamentous cytoskeleton can lead to profound alterations in cell division, differentiation, behaviour, and function (fig 9). It is difficult to conceive of a group of molecules that could be more important to pathologists and to their understanding of disease processes. PMID:9893742

  20. Adhesion between cerebroside bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, K; Snyder, D S; McIntosh, T J

    1999-11-16

    The structure, hydration properties, and adhesion energy of the membrane glycolipid galactosylceramide (GalCer) were studied by osmotic stress/X-ray diffraction analysis.(1) Fully hydrated GalCer gave a repeat period of 67 A, which decreased less than 2 A with application of applied osmotic pressures as large as 1.6 x 10(9) dyn/cm(2). These results, along with the invariance of GalCer structure obtained by a Fourier analysis of the X-ray data, indicated that there was an extremely narrow fluid space (less than the diameter of a single water molecule) between fully hydrated cerebroside bilayers. Electron density profiles showed that the hydrocarbon chains from apposing GalCer monolayers partially interdigitated in the center of the bilayer. To obtain information on the adhesive properties of GalCer bilayers, we incorporated into the bilayer various mole ratios of the negatively charged lipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) to provide known electrostatic repulsion between the bilayers. Although 17 and 20 mol % DPPG swelled (disjoined) the GalCer bilayers by an amount predictable from electrostatic double-layer theory, 5, 10, 13, and 15 mol % DPPG did not disjoin the bilayers. By calculating the magnitude of the electrostatic pressure necessary to disjoin the bilayers, we estimated the adhesion energy for GalCer bilayers to be about -1.5 erg/cm(2), a much larger value than that previously measured for phosphatidylcholine bilayers. The observed discontinuous disjoining with increased electrostatic pressure and this relatively large value for adhesion energy indicated the presence of an attractive interaction, in addition to van der Waals attraction, between cerebroside bilayers. Possible attractive interactions are hydrogen bond formation and hydrophobic interactions between the galactose headgroups of apposing GalCer bilayers. PMID:10563811

  1. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  2. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  3. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Won Hee; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Because we hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis, the present study focused on the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin consumption on high-cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. During our study, New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a normal diet, a normal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HCD), or an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin. At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to determine the levels of serum lipids, cytokines, and soluble adhesion molecule levels. Gene expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortas were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Compared with the HCD group, rabbits fed an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin had significantly less aortic lesion areas and neointima thickening. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression. PMID:25282128

  4. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1? (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. PMID:26412140

  5. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-?-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-?-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. PMID:23422838

  6. Effects of monoclonal antibodies to adhesion molecules on eosinophilic myocarditis in Toxocara canis-infected CBA/J mice.

    PubMed

    Hokibara, S; Takamoto, M; Isobe, M; Sugane, K

    1998-11-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis followed by fibrosis of the cardiac muscle was observed in addition to peripheral blood eosinophilia in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis. The infected mice were used as an experimental model of eosinophilic endomyocarditis associated with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Effects of in vivo treatment with MoAbs to adhesion molecules on eosinophilic myocarditis were examined using this experimental model. Expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells of capillaries in myocardium were increased 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Infiltration of very late antigen (VLA)-4+ and/or CD11a+ cells into the cardiac muscles was also observed 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Infiltration of eosinophils into the heart was significantly suppressed by anti-CD18 MoAb and anti-VLA-4 MoAb, and focal fibrosis of the cardiac muscle was also significantly suppressed by combined administration of anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 MoAbs. These results indicate that adhesion molecules may play important roles in eosinophilic myocarditis, and that blockade of interaction between adhesion molecules and their ligands may help to control it. PMID:9822282

  7. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor-ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  8. Biomarkers and neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected or exposed youth: a structural equation model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Griner, Ray; Zeldow, Bret; Nichols, Sharon; Leister, Erin; Gelbard, Harris A.; Miller, Tracie L.; Hazra, Rohan; Mendez, Armando J.; Malee, Kathleen; Kammerer, Betsy; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between markers of vascular dysfunction and neurodevelopmental outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. Design Cross-sectional design within a prospective, 15-site US-based cohort study. Methods Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated in relation to nine selected vascular biomarkers in 342 youth (212 PHIV+, 130 PHEU). Serum levels were assessed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-selectin), monocyte chemoattractant protein (sMCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and P-selectin (sP-selectin). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was administered at entry, yielding a Full-Scale IQ score, and four index scores. Factor analysis was conducted to reduce the biomarkers to fewer factors with related biological roles. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to measure associations between resulting factors and WISC-IV scores. Results Mean participant age was 11.4 years, 54% were female, 70% black. The nine biomarkers were clustered into three factor groups: F1 (fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6); F2 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1); and F3 (MCP-1, sP-selectin, and sE-selectin). Adiponectin showed little correlation with any factor. SEMs revealed significant negative association of F1 with WISC-IV processing speed score in the total cohort. This effect remained significant after adjusting for HIV status and other potential confounders. A similar association was observed when restricted to PHIV+ participants in both unadjusted and adjusted SEMs. Conclusion Aggregate measures of fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 may serve as a latent biomarker associated with relatively decreased processing speed in both PHIV+ and PHEU youth. PMID:24670521

  9. Hot melt adhesive attachment pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzill, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Gleason, J. R.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St.clair, T. L. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A hot melt adhesive attachment pad for releasably securing distinct elements together is described which is particularly useful in the construction industry or a spatial vacuum environment. The attachment pad consists primarily of a cloth selectively impregnated with a charge of hot melt adhesive, a thermo-foil heater, and a thermo-cooler. These components are securely mounted in a mounting assembly. In operation, the operator activates the heating cycle transforming the hot melt adhesive to a substantially liquid state, positions the pad against the attachment surface, and activates the cooling cycle solidifying the adhesive and forming a strong, releasable bond.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  14. Enhanced expression of CD31/platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) correlates with hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) in human glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castorina, Alessandro; Magro, Gaetano; Cardile, Vera; Castorina, Sergio; Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-12-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by numerous abnormal blood vessels, which rapidly proliferate and invade brain tissue and express different angiogenic factors. In this study we have investigated whether the expression levels of CD31/ PECAM1 are deregulated in human GBM tissue specimens and we have also correlated the expression levels of CD31/PECAM1 with those of HIF-1?. Finally, we have established a correlation between the expression levels of CD31/PECAM1 and HIF-1?, and those of two other biomarkers, namely N-cadherin and ADAM-10, of aggressiveness in the same tumors. Results have shown an increased expression of CD31/PECAM1 correlated to HIF-1? expression, confirming evidence demonstrating that different types of tumor are able to trigger aberrant angiogenesis through HIF-1?. Moreover, we also established a further correlation among CD31/PECAM1 and HIF-1? and N-cadherin and ADAM-10, two other markers of aggressiveness in the same tumors. PMID:26376118

  15. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate. PMID:26167951

  16. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1) Identification . A tissue adhesive for non-topical use, including adhesives intended for use in the embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation or for use in ophthalmic surgery, is a device used for adhesion of internal tissues and...

  17. Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced cellular adhesion by competitive binding of NF-kappa B in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eck, S L; Perkins, N D; Carr, D P; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive interactions between cells are essential for the organization and function of differentiated tissues and organs and are mediated by inducible cell surface glycoproteins. In normal tissues, cell adhesion molecules contribute to immune regulation, inflammation, and embryogenesis. Additionally, they play an important role in a variety of pathogenic processes. Cell adhesion molecule expression can be induced by stimuli known to activate NF-kappa B, a ubiquitous transcription factor found in a variety of cell types. To investigate the role of NF-kappa B in cell adhesion molecule expression, we treated HL-60 cells with a double-stranded oligonucleotide which specifically inhibits NF-kappa B-mediated transcription. This treatment resulted in the inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced cellular adhesion, morphological changes, and the expression of leukocyte integrin CD11b. In a similar fashion, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human endothelial cells induced by PMA was specifically inhibited by the NF-kappa B antagonist. We suggest that NF-kappa B activation is a necessary event for the PMA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells and the expression of certain activation is a necessary event for the PMA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells and the expression of certain adhesion molecules. Furthermore, the inhibition of transcription factor functions by this generally applicable mechanism can be used to define their role in cellular differentiation and function. Images PMID:8105372

  18. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  19. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Sheets

    E-print Network

    Arthur A. Evans; Eric Lauga

    2009-05-31

    Intermolecular forces are known to precipitate adhesion events between solid bodies. Inspired by a macro-scale experiment showing the hysteretic adhesion of a piece of flexible tape over a plastic substrate, we develop here a model of far-field dry adhesion between two flexible sheets interacting via a power-law potential. We show that phase transitions from unadhered to adhered states occur as dictated by a dimensionless bending parameter representing the ratio of interaction strength to bending stiffness. The order of the adhesion transitions, as well as their hysteretic nature, is shown to depend on the form of the interaction potential between the flexible sheets. When three or more sheets interact, additional geometrical considerations determine the hierarchical or sequential nature of the adhesion transitions.

  20. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medi?, Branislava; Rov?anin, Branislav; Basta Jovanovi?, Gordana; Radojevi?-Škodri?, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  1. Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 attenuates hepatocyte growth factor-induced endothelial progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yankun; Song, Mingbao; Guo, Ruiwei; Wang, Hong; Gao, Pan; Shi, Weibin; Huang, Lan

    2010-03-01

    Increased Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCCs) plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell proliferation. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is thought to transmit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion signals to the plasma membrane (PM), causing the opening of SOCCs in the PM. However, the relationship between HGF and STIM1 in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation remains uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of STIM1 in HGF-induced EPC proliferation. For this purpose, we used cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs and found that HGF-induced EPC proliferation at low concentrations. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) was elevated in HGF-treated EPCs, and the SOCC inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and BTP-2 inhibited the HGF-induced proliferation response. Moreover, STIM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were increased in response to HGF stimulation and knockdown of STMI1 decreased SOCE and prevented HGF-induced EPC proliferation. In conclusion, our data suggest that HGF-induced EPC proliferation is mediated partly via activation of STIM1. PMID:20404049

  2. POST, partner of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), targets STIM1 to multiple transporters

    PubMed Central

    Krapivinsky, Grigory; Krapivinsky, Luba; Stotz, Stephanie C.; Manasian, Yunona; Clapham, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Specialized proteins in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria tightly regulate intracellular calcium. A unique mechanism called store-operated calcium entry is activated when ER calcium is depleted, serving to restore intra-ER calcium levels. An ER calcium sensor, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), translocates within the ER membrane upon store depletion to the juxtaplasma membrane domain, where it interacts with intracellular domains of a highly calcium-selective plasma membrane ion channel, Orai1. STIM1 gates Orai1, allowing calcium to enter the cytoplasm, where it repletes the ER store via calcium-ATPases pumps. Here, we performed affinity purification of Orai1 from Jurkat cells to identify partner of STIM1 (POST), a 10-transmembrane–spanning segment protein of unknown function. The protein is located in the plasma membrane and ER. POST-Orai1 binding is store depletion-independent. On store depletion, the protein binds STIM1 and moves within the ER to localize near the cell membrane. This protein, TMEM20 (POST), does not affect store-operated calcium entry but does reduce plasma membrane Ca2+ pump activity. Store depletion promotes STIM1–POST complex binding to smooth ER and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs and PMCAs, respectively), Na/K-ATPase, as well as to the nuclear transporters, importins-? and exportins. PMID:22084111

  3. Recombinant mussel adhesive protein Mgfp-5 as cell adhesion biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Gim, Youngsoo; Kang, Dong Gyun; Kim, Yeon Kyu; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2007-01-20

    Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type-5 (Mgfp-5) is one of the mussel adhesive proteins that participate in adhesion with the substratum. We previously reported the production of recombinant Mgfp-5 in Escherichia coli and showed that the recombinant protein had superior adhesion abilities versus those of Cell-Tak, a commercially available mussel adhesive protein mixture. In the present work, we investigated the feasibility of using recombinant Mgfp-5 as a cell adhesion agent. Purified and tyrosinase-modified recombinant Mgfp-5 was used to adhere living anchorage-independent cells such as insect Drosophila S2 cells and human MOLT-4 cells onto glass slides. Our results revealed that these cell lines efficiently attached to recombinant Mgfp-5-coated glass surfaces, and that surface-immobilized S2 cells were viable and able to undergo cell division for up to 1 week. Cytochemical studies with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of nuclei and immunofluorescence for secreted foreign human erythropoietin (hEPO) from recombinant S2 cells and quantitative comparative analyses of S2 cell binding ability with Cell-Tak and poly-L-lysine, the main cell adhesion agent, were performed to demonstrate successful usage of recombinant Mgfp-5 for cell biological applications. Collectively, these results indicate that recombinant Mgfp-5 may be a useful new cell adhesion biomaterial for anchorage-independent cells. PMID:16979252

  4. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications. PMID:25841348

  5. Structural specializations of ?4?7, an integrin that mediates rolling adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yamei; Zhu, Jianghai; Mi, Li-Zhi; Walz, Thomas; Sun, Hao; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    The lymphocyte homing receptor integrin ?4?7 is unusual for its ability to mediate both rolling and firm adhesion. ?4?1 and ?4?7 are targeted by therapeutics approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Here, we show by electron microscopy and crystallography how two therapeutic Fabs, a small molecule (RO0505376), and mucosal adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) bind ?4?7. A long binding groove at the ?4–?7 interface for immunoglobulin superfamily domains differs in shape from integrin pockets that bind Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. RO0505376 mimics an Ile/Leu-Asp motif in ?4 ligands, and orients differently from Arg-Gly-Asp mimics. A novel auxiliary residue at the metal ion–dependent adhesion site in ?4?7 is essential for binding to MAdCAM-1 in Mg2+ yet swings away when RO0505376 binds. A novel intermediate conformation of the ?4?7 headpiece binds MAdCAM-1 and supports rolling adhesion. Lack of induction of the open headpiece conformation by ligand binding enables rolling adhesion to persist until integrin activation is signaled. PMID:22232704

  6. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  7. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 314324 Dynamic response of a repaired composite beam with an adhesively

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    2006-01-01

    International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 314­324 Dynamic response of a repaired composite beam with an adhesively bonded patch under a harmonic peeling load A. Vaziri1 , H. Nayeb with adhesive. In the theoretical part, the equations of motion in the axial and transverse directions were

  8. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 25 (2005) 502506 Effects of adhesive type and polystyrene concentration on the shear

    E-print Network

    2005-01-01

    in the blend and the type of adhesive, and the acrylic adhesives demonstrated the best performance for all or corona discharge, or by flame or acid treatment [4,5]. Epoxy adhesives have also been used to bond and epoxy adhesives will also provide a good bond [6,7]. However, due to the increasing usage of immiscible

  9. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Bashkarev, A. Ya.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. A.; Sytov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    The time dependence of the potential difference that appears between two VT6 titanium alloy plates separated by a mixture of epoxy resin with an epoxy hardener is studied. One of the plates is placed in epoxy resin until equilibrium is established, and the second plate is coated with an as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Ti2+ ions through epoxy resin. Photoluminescence and infrared absorption spectra of epoxy adhesive on the VT6 alloy surface are recorded. Their analysis shows that the Ti2+ ions having penetrated into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener interact with CN groups in adhesive molecules to form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated with coordination compounds forms at the alloy/adhesive interface, which leads to an increase in the strength of the adhesive.

  10. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan (Manhattan, KS); Wang, Donghai (Manhattan, KS); Zhong, Zhikai (Manhattan, KS); Yang, Guang (Shanghai, CN)

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  11. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  12. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  13. APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWSFOCUSED REVIEW Adhesive wafer bonding

    E-print Network

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS­FOCUSED REVIEW Adhesive wafer bonding F. Niklausa Microsystem Technology 9 February 2006 Wafer bonding with intermediate polymer adhesives is an important fabrication-dimensional integrated circuits, advanced packaging, and microfluidics. In adhesive wafer bonding, the polymer adhesive

  14. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  16. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    E-print Network

    water undermines polymer adhesion, how mussel adhesives and coatings work, and how basic research to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much #12;Work of adhesion: WA 12 is the work done on the system when two condensed phases 1 and 2 (1 = 2

  17. Module: Material Structure Focus: Adhesion & Cohesion

    E-print Network

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    Module: Material Structure Focus: Adhesion & Cohesion Duration: 43 minute period Contact: Daniel will develop a working understanding of adhesion and cohesion. Materials: Water Pipette (or Dropper) Plastic and illustrate the terms "adhesion" and "cohesion." 3. Students will complete a lab on adhesion and cohesion

  18. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  19. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  20. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  1. Temperature dependence of vesicle adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Thomas; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermal fluctuations on the adhesion behavior of fluid vesicles is investigated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. The adhesion area A(ad) of a fluid vesicle adhering to a smooth attractive substrate is studied systematically for different values of temperature, adhesion strength, and potential range. For low temperatures T , the ratio A(ad) /A between the adhesion area and the total area A of the vesicle is a linear function of T/kappa , where kappa is the bending rigidity. Linear fits of the simulation data allow an extrapolation to T=0 which corresponds well with data obtained from a simplified analytic model. A new ansatz for A(ad) (T) which is based on the eigenmodes of the adhering vesicle explains the linear behavior of A(ad) (T) for low T and helps to define a fit function which reproduces the linear behavior of the obtained simulation data. This fit function may be used in order to determine the bending rigidity and the adhesion strength from the observed adhesion geometry. PMID:15697626

  2. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  3. Stressing the limits of focal adhesion mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Patrick W; Gardel, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion assembly and maturation often occurs concomitantly with changes in force generated within the cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix. To coordinate focal adhesion dynamics with force, it has been suggested that focal adhesion dynamics are mechanosensitive. This review discusses current understanding of the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and force transmission, and the limits to which we can consider focal adhesion plaques as mechanosensitive entities. PMID:24998185

  4. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by arsenite inhibits cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xi; Pi Jingbo; Liu Wenlan; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian; Feng Changjian

    2009-04-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. Arsenite, as an oxidative stressor, is a potent inducer of HO-1 in human and rodent cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of arsenite-induced HO-1 in modulating tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Arsenite pretreatment, which upregulated HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 protein expression by 50% and 40%, respectively. Importantly, knockdown of HO-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the arsenite-induced inhibitory effects. These results indicate that induction of HO-1 by arsenite inhibits the cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC by suppressing adhesion molecule expression. These findings established an important mechanistic link between the functional monocyte adhesion properties of HUVEC and the induction of HO-1 by arsenite.

  5. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Huiwen; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee; Wang, Lei; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wu, Shiyong; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (? 56%) the activity of ?1 integrin, which binds to ?4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ? NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ? NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ? NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of ?1 integrin.

  6. Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-12-23

    Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings. PMID:26618537

  7. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  8. Notes on G-factor of 1/2 molecules (1 June 2005 --1st July 2005)

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    Notes on G-factor of 1/2 molecules (1 June 2005 -- 1st July 2005) M. G. KOZLOV 1. Here I use my old notes to check Neil's conditions for G-factor of a 1/2 molecule to turn to zero. The spin = BJ2 + S · J - Dn · E + µBS ^GB, (1) where G-tensor is diagonal in the molecular frame (Gxx = Gyy = G

  9. Inhibition of Monocyte Adhesion to Brain-Derived Endothelial Cells by Dual Functional RNA Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Hao, Xin; Bai, Shuhua; Hao, Jiukuan

    2014-01-01

    Because adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is the first step of vascular-neuronal inflammation, inhibition of adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells will have a beneficial effect on neuroinflammatory diseases. In this study, we used the pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor to construct a novel RNA nanoparticle for specific targeting to transferrin receptor (TfR) on the murine brain-derived endothelial cells (bEND5) to deliver ICAM-1 siRNA. This RNA nanoparticle (FRS-NPs) contained a FB4 aptamer targeting to TfR and a siRNA moiety for silencing the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our data indicated that this RNA nanoparticle was delivered into murine brain-derived endothelial cells. Furthermore, the siRNA was released from the FRS-NPs in the cells and knocked down ICAM-1 expression in the TNF-?–stimulated cells and in the cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition. The functional end points of the study indicated that FRS-NPs significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion to the bEND5 cells induced by TNF-? and OGD/R. In conclusion, our approach using RNA nanotechnology for siRNA delivery could be potentially applied for inhibition of inflammation in ischemic stroke and other neuroinflammatory diseases, or diseases affecting endothelium of vasculature. PMID:25368913

  10. Modulation of cationicity of chitosan for tuning mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dong; Yao, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modulate the cationicity of chitosan to influence the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) responses in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The authors prepared water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels using genipin as the crosslinking agent. The chitosan cationicity was modulated by varying the genipin content from 0.5 to 10?wt. %. The results indicated that the cationicity exerted a striking modulation effect on various MSC responses. The increase of the genipin content, i.e., decrease of the free amino group content (cationicity), overall promoted the MSC adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, proliferation, and differentiation into the osteogenic lineage. A surprising cell alignment effect was also observed on chitosan samples with high genipin concentrations (>2.5%). The chitosan sample with the highest genipin concentrations (10%) exhibited the best MSC proliferation and highest protein expression levels toward osteogenic lineages. The genipin content also showed a strong modulation effect on MSC condensation, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, as suggested by the expressions of the sry related HMG box9 (Sox9), intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and N-Cadherin. Overall, the authors have demonstrated that modulation of cationicity (amino content) of chitosan is an effective and simple approach to tuning various MSC responses, including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell-cell interactions. Such findings might have important implications in biomaterial design for various biomedical applications. PMID:26433366

  11. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  12. Capillarity-based switchable adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the adhesion abilities of a leaf beetle found in nature, we have engineered a switchable adhesion device. The device combines two concepts: The surface tension force from a large number of small liquid bridges can be significant (capillarity-based adhesion) and these contacts can be quickly made or broken with electronic control (switchable). The device grabs or releases a substrate in a fraction of a second via a low-voltage pulse that drives electroosmotic flow. Energy consumption is minimal because both the grabbed and released states are stable equilibria that persist with no energy added to the system. Notably, the device maintains the integrity of an array of hundreds to thousands of distinct interfaces during active reconfiguration from droplets to bridges and back, despite the natural tendency of the liquid toward coalescence. We demonstrate the scaling of adhesion strength with the inverse of liquid contact size. This suggests that strengths approaching those of permanent bonding adhesives are possible as feature size is scaled down. In addition, controllability is fast and efficient because the attachment time and required voltage also scale down favorably. The device features compact size, no solid moving parts, and is made of common materials. PMID:20133725

  13. High performance Cu adhesion coating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.W.; Viehbeck, A.; Chen, W.R.; Ree, M.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (PAEBI) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with imidazole functional groups forming the polymer backbone structure. It is proposed that upon coating PAEBI onto a copper surface the imidazole groups of PAEBI form a bond with or chelate to the copper surface resulting in strong adhesion between the copper and polymer. Adhesion of PAEBI to other polymers such as poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide is also quite good and stable. The resulting locus of failure as studied by XPS and IR indicates that PAEBI gives strong cohesive adhesion to copper. Due to its good adhesion and mechanical properties, PAEBI can be used in fabricating thin film semiconductor packages such as multichip module dielectric (MCM-D) structures. In these applications, a thin PAEBI coating is applied directly to a wiring layer for enhancing adhesion to both the copper wiring and the polymer dielectric surface. In addition, a thin layer of PAEBI can also function as a protection layer for the copper wiring, eliminating the need for Cr or Ni barrier metallurgies and thus significantly reducing the number of process steps.

  14. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  15. Dietary fish oil diminishes lymphocyte adhesion to macrophage and endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, P; Calder, P C

    1998-01-01

    To further investigate the immunomodulatory effects of dietary lipids, rats were fed on a low-fat diet or on high-fat diets that contained hydrogenated coconut, olive, safflower, evening primrose or fish oil as the principal fat source. The fish oil diet decreased the level of expression of CD2, CD11a, CD18 and CD44 on the surface of freshly prepared lymphocytes and of CD2, CD11a, CD18, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1) and CD62L (L-selectin) on the surface of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes. The olive oil diet also resulted in decreased expression of some adhesion molecules. The fish or olive oil diets, and to a lesser extent the safflower or evening primrose oil diets, decreased the adhesion of both freshly prepared and Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to macrophage monolayers. The fish oil diet, and to a lesser extent the olive or evening primrose oil diets, reduced the ability of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to adhere to untreated endothelial cells. Furthermore, the fish oil diet resulted in a 50% reduction in Con A-stimulated lymphocyte adhesion to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated endothelial cells. This study demonstrates that dietary lipids affect the expression of functionally important adhesion molecules on the surface of lymphocytes. Furthermore, this study suggests that such diet-induced effects on adhesion molecule expression might alter the ability of lymphocytes to bind to macrophages and to endothelial cells. Of the diets studied fish oil causes the most significant effects. The results of this study suggest that a reduction in cellular infiltration may partly explain the protective effect of a fish-oil-rich diet against the development of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9708190

  16. Force contribution of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex to T cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sung, K L; Kuhlman, P; Maldonado, F; Lollo, B A; Chien, S; Brian, A A

    1992-09-01

    Little is known in quantitative terms about forces between cells generated during adhesion and recognition, or about the contribution of any one set of molecular associations to the development of these forces. To determine the forces involved in adhesion dependent on lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), we have measured the junctional avidity between single cell pairs consisting of a cloned T cell that expresses LFA-1 and a fibroblast cell that expresses MHC class II molecules and ICAM-1 after transfection. Micromanipulation was used to induce conjugation of cell pairs and to determine the force required to separate the conjugate. T cell adhesion to three related fibroblast cell lines was compared: the parent line that does not express ICAM-1 or other LFA-1 counter-receptors, and two transfectants that have high and moderate levels of surface ICAM-1 expression. The force needed to separate the conjugates varied with the fibroblast ICAM-1 expression levels. The T cell adhesion to ICAM-1-expressing fibroblasts was strong, and the critical separation stresses measured for the three cell lines were 1.4 x 10(3) dyn/cm2 (1 dyn=10(-5) N) for the ICAM-1-negative fibroblast, 4.98 x 10(3) dyn/cm2 for the fibroblast with a moderate level of ICAM-1 expression, and 6.25 x 10(3) dyn/cm2 for the fibroblast line with the highest ICAM-1 expression. The dependence of adhesion strength on the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex was confirmed by the use of blocking antibodies, which showed the contribution from the interaction of CD4/MHC class II to be negligible. PMID:1358901

  17. Adhesive contact of elastomers: effective adhesion energy and creep function

    E-print Network

    Etienne Barthel; Christian Frétigny

    2009-06-11

    For the adhesive contact of elastomers, we propose expressions to quantify the impact of viscoelastic response on effective adhesion energy as a function of contact edge velocity. The expressions we propose are simple analytical functionals of the creep response and should be suitable for experimental data analysis in terms of measured rheologies. We also emphasize the role of the coupling between local stress field at the contact edge and the macroscopic remote loading (far field). We show that the contrast between growing and receding contact originates from the impact of viscoelastic response on coupling, while the separation process at the contact edge is similarly affected by viscoelasticity in both cases.

  18. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  19. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  20. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections. Manipulation under anesthesia is advocated when the conservative treatment fails. A case of secondary adhesive capsulitis in a forty-seven-year-old female recreational squash player is presented to illustrate clinical presentation, diagnosis, radiographic assessment and conservative chiropractic management. The patient’s shoulder range of motion was full and pain free with four months of conservative chiropractic care. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  1. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  2. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  3. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  4. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphaël; Joanny, Jean-François; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Cécile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  5. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn (Tucson, AZ); Pollard, John Randolph (Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Robert Aubrey (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  6. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  7. Anti-atherosclerotic function of Astragali Radix extract: downregulation of adhesion molecules in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease. Astragali Radix extract (ARE) is one of the major active ingredients extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. Although ARE has an anti-inflammatory function, its anti-atherosclerotic effects and mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Methods Murine endothelial SVEC4-10 cells were pretreated with different doses of ARE at different times prior to induction with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Cell adhesion assays were performed using THP-1 cells and assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses to detect the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), phosphorylated inhibitor of ?B (p-i?B) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B. We also examined the effect of ARE on atherosclerosis in the aortic endothelium of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE?/?) mice. Results TNF-? strongly increased the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 accompanied by increased expression of p-i?B and NF-?B proteins. However, the expression levels of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were reduced by ARE in dose- and time-dependent manners, with the strongest effect at a dose of 120??g/ml incubated for 4?h. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of p-i?B and inhibited activation of NF-?B. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed that oral administration of ARE resulted in downregulation of adhesion molecules and decreased expression of macrophages in the aortic endothelium of apoE?/? mice. ARE could suppress the inflammatory reaction and inhibit the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE?/? mice. Conclusion This study demonstrated that ARE might be an effective anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis, possibly acting via the decreased expression of adhesion molecules. PMID:22536886

  8. Effects of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid on adhesion of human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing-Qing; Yang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Qi; Gao, Yan-Hui; Liu, Jia-Ren; Zhang, Jing-Shu; Wang, Xuan-Lin; Liu, Rui-Hai

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA) on the adhesion of human gastric carcinoma cell line (SGC-7901). METHODS: SGC-7901 cells were at first treated with different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200 ?mol/L) of c9, t11-CLA and 1 mL/L ethanol (as a negative control) for 24 h. Using adhesion assay and Western blot, we investigated the ability of SGC-7901 cells to adhere to intracellular matrix and examined the expression of E-cadherin (ECD), ?-catenin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in these cells. RESULTS: The attachment rate to laminin of SGC-7901 cells treated with different concentrations of c9, t11-CLA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ?mol/L) was 100.0 ± 3.3, 95.7 ± 4.0, 89.2 ± 4.6, 87.9 ± 6.1, and 65.9 ± 5.8, respectively. The attachment rate to fibronectin was 100.0 ± 4.7, 96.8 ± 3.8, 94.5 ± 4.1, 76.5 ± 4.3, and 61.8 ± 4.8, respectively. The attachment rate to Matrigel was 99.9 ± 6.6, 91.4 ± 6.8, 85.5 ± 7.4, 79.3 ± 5.6, and 69.6 ± 5.1, respectively. Besides, c9, t11-CLA could increase the level of ECD and ?-catenin, and decrease the level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in SGC-7901 cells. CONCLUSION: c9,t11-CLA can reduce the adhesion of human gastric carcinoma cells to laminin, fibronectin and Matrigel. c9,t11-CLA can increase the level of ECD and ?-catenin, and decrease the level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human gastric carcinoma cells. PMID:15133841

  9. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  10. Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids

    E-print Network

    Ewoldt, Randy H.

    We demonstrate that field-responsive magnetorheological fluids can be used for variable-strength controllable adhesion. The adhesive performance is measured experimentally in tensile tests (a.k.a. probe-tack experiments) ...

  11. Bistability of Cell Adhesion in Shear Flow

    E-print Network

    Efremov, Artem K.

    Cell adhesion plays a central role in multicellular organisms helping to maintain their integrity and homeostasis. This complex process involves many different types of adhesion proteins, and synergetic behavior of these ...

  12. Cell Adhesion Strength Is Controlled by Intermolecular Spacing of Adhesion Receptors

    E-print Network

    Schwarz, Ulrich

    Cell Adhesion Strength Is Controlled by Intermolecular Spacing of Adhesion Receptors C. Selhuber numerous cellular processes such as spreading, adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Using force the strength of cell adhesion. For spacings R90 nm, focal contact formation was inhibited and the detachment

  13. The state diagram for cell adhesion under flow: Leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion

    E-print Network

    Tees, David F.J.

    The state diagram for cell adhesion under flow: Leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion Kai-Chien Chang, Philadelphia, PA, and approved July 31, 2000 (received for review May 24, 2000) Leukocyte adhesion under flow mediated by selectins) followed by firm adhesion (primarily me- diated by integrins). Using a computational

  14. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  15. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  16. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA)

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  17. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  18. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin is a device intended for topical closure of surgical incisions, including laparoscopic incisions, and simple traumatic lacerations that have easily approximated skin edges. Tissue adhesives...

  1. Recharging "Hot-Melt" Adhesive Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for recharging surface with "hot-melt" film makes use of one sided, high-temperature, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Purpose of the one-sided tape is to hold hot-melt charge in place until fused to surface. After adhesive has fused to surface and cooled, tape is removed, leaving adhesive on surface.

  2. Toposes are adhesive Stephen Lack1

    E-print Network

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    Toposes are adhesive Stephen Lack1 and Pawel Soboci´nski2 1 School of Computing and Mathematics Abstract. Adhesive categories have recently been proposed as a cate- gorical foundation for facets for reason- ing about concurrency. Here we continue our study of adhesive categories by showing that toposes

  3. Adhesion of multicomponent vesicle membranes Yanxiang Zhao*

    E-print Network

    Du, Qiang

    Adhesion of multicomponent vesicle membranes Yanxiang Zhao* Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania 2010 In this work, we study the adhesion of multicomponent vesicle membrane to both flat and curved substrates, based on the conventional Helfrich bending energy for multicomponent vesicles and adhesion

  4. The Nanoscale Biophysics of Microscale Cell Adhesion

    E-print Network

    Tees, David F.J.

    The Nanoscale Biophysics of Microscale Cell Adhesion David F. J. Tees, Ph.D. Department of Physics://www.phy.ohiou.edu/~tees/current_research.html #12;Outline 1) Adhesion molecules and review of cell-scale phenomena 2) Force dependence of reaction Appendix 2--Bell model Appendix 3--Reliability theory #12;Cell Adhesion: Microscale to Nanoscale Cell 1

  5. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  6. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STRESS ON BACTERIAL ADHESION

    E-print Network

    Ribot, Magali

    EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STRESS ON BACTERIAL ADHESION AND EARLY BIOFILM GROWTH Sigolène LECUYER-4. growth and maturation (h-days) 5. dispersion (days-months) #12;MECHANICAL STRESS DURING ADHESION stress can be transmitted: ·by the underlying substrate (adhesion, friction) time PART I PART II #12

  7. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  8. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  9. M, N -Adhesive Transformation Systems (Long Version)

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    M, N -Adhesive Transformation Systems (Long Version) Annegret Habel1 and Detlef Plump2 1 Carl von.plump@york.ac.uk Draft: October 1, 2012 Abstract. The categorical framework of M-adhesive transformation systems does with graphs, however, and are commonly used in graph transformation languages. In this paper, we generalise M-adhesive

  10. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-01

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction. PMID:26459267

  11. INTERFACE ADHESION: EFFECTS OF PLASTICITY AND SEGREGATION

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    INTERFACE ADHESION: EFFECTS OF PLASTICITY AND SEGREGATION A. G. EVANS, J. W. HUTCHINSON{ and Y. WEIÐThe adhesion at interfaces between dissimilar materials is strongly aected by both segregation and the extent either by alloying with elements that ``getter'' the contaminants or by using an ``adhesion layer

  12. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  13. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11?HSD2) and inhibition of 11?HSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11?HSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  14. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  15. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (? = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8) kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase. PMID:20825632

  16. Fatal attraction: adhesion molecules and disease.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, J A; Bergijk, E C; Kootstra, C J; de Heer, E

    1997-08-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion has increased rapidly in the past decade. Adhesion mechanisms are of prime importance in both physiology and pathology. With respect to the kidney, expression of adhesion molecules has been studied in a variety of diseases, including various forms of glomerulonephritis. Hitherto, these descriptive studies have merely launched extensive speculation regarding the role of adhesion mechanisms in renal pathology. A logical next step is to correlate adhesion molecule expression to alterations in structures which may possibly be affected by altered adhesion, for example gap junctions. Current studies linking structural to functional adhesion expand our understanding of cell biology in health and disease. PMID:9306955

  17. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  18. Theory of adhesion: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Scaraggi, M

    2014-09-28

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ? u(-n), n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results. PMID:25273455

  19. Bio-inspired adhesion: local chemical environments impact adhesive stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Rapp, Michael V.; Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2014-03-01

    3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized by marine mussels and exhibits the unique ability to strongly bind to surfaces in aqueous environments. However, the Dopa functional group undergoes auto-oxidation to a non-adhesive quinone form in neutral to basic pH conditions, limiting the utilization of Dopa in biomedical applications. In this work, we performed direct surface force measurements with in situ electrochemical control across a Dopa-rich native mussel foot protein (mfp-5), as well as three simplified model peptide sequences. We find that the neighboring peptide residues can significantly impact the redox stability of Dopa functional groups, with lysine residues imparting a substantial degree of Dopa redox stabilization. Surprisingly, the local chemical environments only minimally impact the magnitude of the adhesion forces measured between molecularly-smooth mica and gold surfaces. Our results provide molecular level insight into approaches that can be used to mitigate the detrimental impact of Dopa auto-oxidation, thus suggesting new molecular design strategies for improving the performance of Dopa-based underwater adhesives.

  20. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hélène; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  1. Transient adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescently labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were used to measure adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) cultured in vitro. Stimulation of PMN with phorbol dibutyrate (PDB), TNF, or C5a caused an increase in adhesion followed by a return to prestimulation levels of adhesion of longer times of incubation. Maximal adhesion of PMN to EC occurred rapidly in response to C5a (5 min) and more slowly with TNF or PDB (15 min). PMN stimulated to adhere with C5a detached from EC by 15 min. PMN from CD11/CD18-deficient patients and PMN incubated with anti-CD18 mAbs failed to bind to EC despite maximal stimulation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b/CD18 each partially inhibited adhesion, and a combination of these two reagents completely blocked adhesion. The adhesion we measured was therefore completely dependent on CD11/CD18, and CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 each contributed to adhesion. Stimuli that enhanced adhesion of PMN to EC also enhanced expression of CD11b/CD18 on the cell surface, but the time course of expression correlated poorly with changes in adhesivity. To determine if changes in the expression of CD11b/CD18 are necessary for the changes in adhesivity, we used enucleate cytoplasts that did not increase expression of CD11b/CD18. Cytoplasts showed a normal rise and fall in adhesivity in response to PDB. We conclude that the transient adhesion of stimulated PMN to naive EC is regulated by changes in the nature of existing CD11/CD18 molecules on the PMN surface. Changes in expression of CD11b/CD18 may contribute to enhancement of adhesivity, but a definite role for this phenomenon has yet to be established. PMID:2565948

  2. Particle adhesion in powder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Wankum, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Williams, S.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electrostatic powder coating is a widely used industrial painting process. It has three major advantages: (1) it provides high quality durable finish, (2) the process is environmentally friendly and does not require the use of organic solvents, and (3) it is economically competitive. The adhesion of electrostatically deposited polymer paint particles on the grounded conducting substrate depends upon many parameters: (a) particle size and shape distributions, (b) electrostatic charge distributions, (c) electrical resistivity, (d) dielectric strength of the particles, (e) thickness of the powder film, (f) presence and severity of the back corona, and (g) the conductivity and surface properties of the substrate. The authors present a model on the forces of deposition and adhesion of corona charged particles on conducting substrates.

  3. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-13 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples.

  4. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-43 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples. Previously announced in STAR as N83-18910

  5. Polymer Nanocarriers for Dentin Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, R.; Osorio, E.; Medina-Castillo, A.L.; Toledano, M.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP-nActive nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days’ immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be incorporated into dental adhesive systems to provide the appropriate environment in which dentin MMP collagen degradation is inhibited and mineral growth can occur. PMID:25227634

  6. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol suppresses monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by attenuation of JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Kanamori, Yuta; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Morihara, Naoaki

    2015-09-25

    Several clinical studies have shown that the intake of aged garlic extract improves endothelial dysfunction. Lignan compounds, (+)-(2S,3R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDC) and (-)-(2R,3S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDDC), have been isolated as antioxidants in aged garlic extract. There is evidence showing the importance of oxidative stress in endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we examined whether DDC and DDDC enhance endothelial cell function in vitro. Cell adhesion assay was performed using THP-1 monocyte and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-BSA. Cellular ELISA method was used for the evaluation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression on HUVECs. DDC and DDDC suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs which was activated by LPS or AGEs-BSA. DDC and DDDC also inhibited VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS or AGEs-BSA, but DDDC was less effective than DDC. In addition, the inhibitory effect of DDC on VCAM-1 expression involved suppressing JNK/c-Jun pathway rather than NF-?B pathway. DDC has an inhibitory effect on VCAM-1 expression via JNK pathway in endothelial cells and therefore may serve as a novel pharmacological agent to improve endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26271597

  7. Adhesive evaluation of new polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, Terry L.; Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years, the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several novel high temperature polyimide adhesives for anticipated needs of the aerospace industry. These developments have resulted from fundamental studies of structure-property relationships in polyimides. Recent research at LaRC has involved the synthesis and evaluation of copolyimides which incorporate both flexibilizing bridging groups and meta-linked benzene rings. The purpose was to develop systems based on low cost, readily available monomers. Two of these copolyimides evaluated as adhesives for bonding titanium alloy, Ti(6Al-4V), are identified as LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2. Lap shear strength (LSS) measurements were used to determine the strength and durability of the adhesive materials. LSS results are presented for LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI lap shear specimens thermally exposed in air at 232 C for up to 5000 hrs. LARC-TPI was shown to perform better than the copolymer LARC-STPI which exhibited poor thermooxidative performance possibly due to the amines used which would tend to oxidize easier than the benzophenone system in LARC-TPI.

  8. Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Téllez, J. P.; Harirchian-Saei, S.; Li, Y.; Menon, C.

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved.

  9. Handbook of Adhesion, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, D. E.

    2005-06-01

    This second edition of the successful Handbook of Adhesion provides concise and authoritative articles covering many aspects of the science and technology associated with adhesion and adhesives. It is intended to fill a gap between the necessarily simplified treatment of the student textbook and the full and thorough treatment of the research monograph and review article. The articles are structured in such a way, with internal cross-referencing and external literature references, that the reader can build up a broader and deeper understanding, as their needs require. This second edition includes many new articles covering developments which have risen in prominence in the intervening years, such as scanning probe techniques, the surface forces apparatus and the relation between adhesion and fractal surfaces. Advances in understanding polymer - polymer interdiffusion are reflected in articles drawing out the implications for adhesive bonding. In addition, articles derived from the earlier edition have been revised and updated where needed. Throughout the book there is a renewed emphasis on environmental implications of the use of adhesives and sealants. The scope of the Handbook, which features nearly 250 articles from over 60 authors, includes the background science - physics, chemistry and material science - and engineering, and also aspects of adhesion relevant to the use of adhesives, including topics such as: Sealants and mastics Paints and coatings Printing and composite materials Welding and autohesion Engineering design The Handbook of Adhesion is intended for scientists and engineers in both academia and industry, requiring an understanding of the various facets of adhesion.

  10. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50?m2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  11. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  12. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  13. Adhesive bonding of carbon and ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kravetskii, G.A.; Anikin, L.T.; Demin, A.V.; Butyrin, G.M.

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of phenol resins and high-melting powder fillers, adhesives for bonding carbon and ceramic materials have been developed at NIIGRAFIT that allow adhesively bonded parts to be used at temperatures as high as 1500 to 1800{degrees}C, Some properties of those adhesives are covered in. The present paper describes results of recent investigations of the heat- and corrosion-resistance of the NIIGRAFIT`s adhesives. As the subjects of investigations were taken adhesives differing in the powder filler composition. Moreover, one adhesive (SVK) was subjected to a preliminary heat treatment (1200{degrees}C, 1 h, Ar) to fully complete the interaction processes between powder components and a binder coke.

  14. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  15. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  16. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at ?2?V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives. PMID:26282730

  17. NR-150B2 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatz, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive based polyimide solutions which are more easily processed than conventional aromatic polyimide systems and show potential for use for extended times at 589K are discussed. The adhesive system is based on a solution containing diglyme as the solvent and 2,2 bis(3',4'-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane, paraphenylenediamine, and oxydianiline. The replacement of N-methylpyrrolidone with diglyme as the solvent was found to improve the adhesive strengths of lap shear samples and simplify the processing conditions for bonding both titanium and graphite fiber/polyimide matrix resin composites. Information was obtained on the effects of various environments including high humidity, immersion in jet fuel and methylethylketone on aluminum filled adhesive bonds. The adhesive was also evaluated in wide area bonds and flatwise tensile specimens using titanium honeycomb and composite face sheets. It was indicated that the developed adhesive system has the potential for use in applications requiring long term exposure to at least 589K (600 F).

  18. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-08-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at -2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives.

  19. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  20. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  1. Computational Contact Formulations for Soft Body Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    This article gives an overview of adhesive contact for soft bodies and focuses on a general computational framework that is suitable for treating a large class of adhesion problems. The contact formulation is based on a non-linear continuum approach that is capable of describing bodies down to length scales of several nanometers. Several finite element formulations are presented, that introduce various approximations in order to increase the computational efficiency. The approaches are illustrated by several examples throughout the text. These include carbon nanotube interaction, adhesion of spheres, nanoindentation, thin film peeling, gecko adhesion and self-cleaning surface mechanisms.

  2. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D.; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement risk being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  3. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-08-28

    We explore adhesive loose packings of small dry spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics and statistical ensemble theory. A dimensionless adhesion parameter (Ad) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for Ad > 1. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes the correlation between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) an equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appear as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram and (ii) the existence of an asymptotic adhesive loose packing point at a coordination number Z = 2 and a packing fraction ? = 1/2(3). Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing (RLP), which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP. PMID:26186271

  4. Chlorinated polyolefins as adhesion promoters for plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak, J.; Sass, C.; Stoffer, J.O.; Dechent, W.L.

    1993-12-31

    A new procedure which tests the peel strength of a topcoat applied to a substrate was used to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of a chlorinated pololefin as an adhesion promoter for coatings on plastics. A 4 to 5-fold increase in adhesion resulted for a latex vinyl acrylic topcoat that was applied to polypropylene. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis studies showed a topcoat/chlorinated polyolefin adhesive failure for both melamine crosslinked and urethane crosslinked polyester systems on polypropylene. Topcoat/chlorinated polyolefin adhesive failure also occured for both melamine crosslinked and urethane crosslinked polyester systems on thermal plastic olefins. All failure tests were performed at ambient conditions.

  5. Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Ranjith; Shajahan, P A; Mathew, Jyothis; Koruthu, Anil; Aravind, Prasad; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    The use of denture adhesives is common among denture wearers, and it is also prescribed by many dentists. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for any defects in the fabrication procedures. Denture adhesives add to the retention and thereby improve chewing ability, reduce any instability, provide comfort and eliminate the accumulation of food debris beneath the dentures. Consequently, they increase the patient's sense of security and satisfaction. However, obtaining the advice of the dental practitioner prior to the use of adhesives is a must. PMID:26225115

  6. Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Ranjith; Shajahan, P A; Mathew, Jyothis; Koruthu, Anil; Aravind, Prasad; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    The use of denture adhesives is common among denture wearers, and it is also prescribed by many dentists. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for any defects in the fabrication procedures. Denture adhesives add to the retention and thereby improve chewing ability, reduce any instability, provide comfort and eliminate the accumulation of food debris beneath the dentures. Consequently, they increase the patient’s sense of security and satisfaction. However, obtaining the advice of the dental practitioner prior to the use of adhesives is a must. PMID:26225115

  7. Adhesion of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jessica S; Kamperman, Marleen; de Souza, Emerson J; Schick, Bernhard; Arzt, Eduard

    2011-02-01

    We studied the effects of pillar dimensions and stiffness of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces on adhesion on different compliant substrates. The micropatterned adhesives were based on biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) polymer systems. Micropatterned and non-patterned compliant PDMS did not show significant differences in adhesion on compliant mice ear skin or on gelatin-glycerin model substrates. However, adhesion measurements for micropatterned stiff PLGA on compliant gelatin-glycerin model substrates showed significant enhancement in pull-off strengths compared to non-patterned controls. PMID:21374557

  8. Comparison of three work of adhesion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, J.A.; O`Toole, E.; Zamora, D.; Poon, B.

    1998-02-01

    Practical work of adhesion measurements are being studied for several types of polymer/metal combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. The primary question is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. The authors report on their first attempts to obtain the work of adhesion between a PDMS polymer and stainless steel. The work of adhesion measurements were made using three techniques -- contact angle, adhesive fracture energy at low deformation rates and JKR. Previous work by Whitesides` group show a good correlation between JKR and contact angle measurements for PDMS. Their initial work focused on duplicating the PDMS measurements of Chaudury. In addition, in this paper the authors extend the work of adhesion measurement to third technique -- interfacial failure energy. The ability to determine the reversible work of adhesion for practical adhesive joints allows understanding of several issues that control adhesion: surface preparation, nature of the interphase region, and bond durability.

  9. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  10. VISCOELASTIC AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DENTAL ADHESIVES AND THEIR IMPACT ON DENTIN-ADHESIVE INTERFACE DURABILITY

    E-print Network

    Singh, Viraj

    2009-12-22

    VISCOELASTIC AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DENTAL ADHESIVES AND THEIR IMPACT ON DENTIN-ADHESIVE INTERFACE DURABILITY By Viraj Singh Submitted to the graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of University... certifies that this is the approved Version of the following thesis: VISCOELASTIC AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DENTAL ADHESIVES AND THEIR IMPACT ON DENTIN-ADHESIVE INTERFACE DURABILITY Committee: Chairperson: Dr Anil Misra...

  11. Experimental Investigation of Optimal Adhesion of Mushroomlike Elastomer Microfibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Song, Sukho; Sitti, Metin

    2015-09-22

    Optimal fiber designs for the maximal pull-off force have been indispensable for increasing the attachment performance of recently introduced gecko-inspired reversible micro/nanofibrillar adhesives. There are several theoretical studies on such optimal designs; however, due to the lack of three-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques that can fabricate such optimal designs in 3D, there have not been many experimental investigations on this challenge. In this study, we benefitted from recent advances in two-photon lithography techniques to fabricate mushroomlike polyurethane elastomer fibers with different aspect ratios of tip to stalk diameter (?) and tip wedge angles (?) to investigate the effect of these two parameters on the pull-off force. We found similar trends to those predicted theoretically. We found that ? has an impact on the slope of the force-displacement curve while both ? and ? play a role in the stress distribution and crack propagation. We found that these effects are coupled and the optimal set of parameters also depends on the fiber material. This is the first experimental verification of such optimal designs proposed for mushroomlike microfibers. This experimental approach could be used to evaluate a wide range of complex microstructured adhesive designs suggested in the literature and optimize them. PMID:26322396

  12. Adhesive for solar control film

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, H.J.

    1984-01-31

    A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

  13. Adhesive bowel obstruction? Not always

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, D; Sebastian, B J; Leung, E; Barnes, N; Senapati, P S P

    2011-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented acutely with features of post-surgical adhesive small bowel obstruction. Following an unsuccessful trial of conservative management, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed. This revealed a mass in the ileocaecal region, for which he underwent a subsequent right hemicolectomy. Histology revealed diffuse B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the terminal ileum. Confounding obstructive lesion of the intestine in patients with a history of previous laparotomy is extremely uncommon. Early high resolution imaging may predict diagnosis and consolidate clinical management plans. PMID:21633584

  14. A computational model for nanoscale adhesion between deformable solids and its application to gecko adhesion

    E-print Network

    A computational model for nanoscale adhesion between deformable solids and its application to gecko to the dynamic modeling and simulation of the adhesion and deformation of a gecko seta based on a 3D multiscale to the macroscale. A prominent example is the adhesion mechanism of the gecko, that is also the central focus

  15. Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kejia

    There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. The results in this study may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness. The novel designs of our dry adhesives open the way for new gecko-like adhesive surfaces and articulation mechanisms that do not rely on intensive nanofabrication.

  16. P-8 / D. R. Cairns P-8: Conductive and Adhesive Properties of Z-axis Adhesives for Tail

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Darran

    P-8 / D. R. Cairns P-8: Conductive and Adhesive Properties of Z-axis Adhesives for Tail Bonding Abstract The change in resistance of an anisotropic conducting adhesive (Z-axis adhesive) solderless joint ageing at 85° C and 85 % Relative humidity for six days. The anisotropic conducting adhesive performs

  17. Cavity growth in soft adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiche, A.; Dollhofer, J.; Creton, C.

    2005-08-01

    The growth process of cavities nucleated at the interface between a rigid surface and a soft adhesive layer has been investigated with a probe method. A tensile stress was applied to the highly confined layer resulting in a negative hydrostatic pressure in the layer. The statistics of appearance and rate of growth of cavities as a function of applied negative stress were monitored with a CCD camera. If large germs of cavities were initially present, most of the cavities became optically visible above a critical level of stress independent of layer thickness. Cavities grew simultaneously and at the same expansion rate as a function of applied stress. In the absence of large germs, cavities became optically visible one after another, reaching a limiting size controlled by the thickness of the layer independently and very rapidly. Although, for each sample, we observed a statistical distribution of critical stress levels where a cavity expanded, the mean cavitation stress depended both on surface topography and more surprisingly on layer thickness. We believe that this new and somewhat surprising result can be interpreted with a model for the growth of small germs in finite size layers (J. Dollhofer, A. Chiche, V. Muralidharan et al., Int. J. Solids Struct. 41, 6111 (2004)). This model is mainly based on the dual notion of an energy activated transition from an unexpanded metastable state to an expanded stable state and to the proportionality of the activation energy with the elastic energy stored in the adhesive layer.

  18. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. 1500.133 Section...REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as...

  19. INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORK (IPN) ADHESIVES FOR ELECTRON BEAM CURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron beam (e-beam)-processed polymer adhesives have historically performed poorly compared to traditional adhesive technologies due to a lack of toughness engineered into these new types of adhesive materials. Consequently, sequential- and simultaneous-interpenetrating polyme...

  20. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  1. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  2. Material Safety Data Sheet Mastisol Liquid Adhesive

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Mastisol® Liquid Adhesive Page 1 of 5 This Material Safety Data sheet 48220 Emergency Telephone: For emergency involving spill, leak, fire exposure or accident, call CHEMTREC, and redness. #12;Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Mastisol® Liquid Adhesive Page 2 of 5 Skin Contact: Repeated

  3. Material Safety Data Sheet Detachol Adhesive Remover

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Detachol® Adhesive Remover Page 1 of 4 This Material Safety Data sheet, Michigan 48220-2498 Emergency Telephone: For emergency involving spill, leak, fire exposure or accident;Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Detachol® Adhesive Remover Page 2 of 4 4. FIRST AID MEASURES Inhalation

  4. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  5. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  6. Pathophysiology and prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions represent an important clinical challenge in gastrointestinal surgery. Peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of peritoneal irritation by infection or surgical trauma, and may be considered as the pathological part of healing following any peritoneal injury, particularly due to abdominal surgery. The balance between fibrin deposition and degradation is critical in determining normal peritoneal healing or adhesion formation. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are a major cause of morbidity resulting in multiple complications, many of which may manifest several years after the initial surgical procedure. In addition to acute small bowel obstruction, peritoneal adhesions may cause pelvic or abdominal pain, and infertility. In this paper, the authors reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis and various prevention strategies of adhesion formation, using Medline and PubMed search. Several preventive agents against postoperative peritoneal adhesions have been investigated. Their role aims in activating fibrinolysis, hampering coagulation, diminishing the inflammatory response, inhibiting collagen synthesis or creating a barrier between adjacent wound surfaces. Their results are encouraging but most of them are contradictory and achieved mostly in animal model. Until additional findings from future clinical researches, only a meticulous surgery can be recommended to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality rates from these untoward effects of surgery. In the current state of knowledge, pre-clinical or clinical studies are still necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the several proposed prevention strategies of postoperative peritoneal adhesions. PMID:22147959

  7. Viscosity and adhesion strength of cream-type denture adhesives and mouth moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroshi; Kurogi, Tadafumi; Shimizu, Takaharu; Nishimura, Masahiro; Murata, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated adhesion strength to acrylic resins under various experimental conditions and viscosity of 4 cream-type denture adhesives and 2 mouth moisturizers. The viscosity was determined by a sine-wave vibro viscometer. The adhesion strength tests were performed with 2 resin plates at a universal tester. In Method A, various constant thicknesses of material layer were tested and tensile strength was measured, while in Method B a constant load was applied before measurement. Five tests were carried out for each measurement. With Method A, adhesion strength increased exponentially as the layer got thin. Effect of the material thicknesses (contribution ratio ?=79.0%) was much larger than that of material type (?=15.3%). Materials with higher viscosity had greater levels of adhesion strength in Method A, whereas those with the higher viscosity had lower levels of adhesion strength in Method B. Adhesion strength was significantly affected by the experimental condition prior to applying tension. PMID:23207201

  8. Adhesion hysteresis of silane coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    2000-04-17

    The authors have developed a new experimental approach for measuring hysteresis in the adhesion between micromachined surfaces. By accurately modeling the deformations in cantilever beams that are subject to combined interfacial adhesion and applied electrostatic forces, they determine adhesion energies for advancing and receding contacts. They draw on this new method to examine adhesion hysteresis for silane coated micromachined structures and found significant hysteresis for surfaces that were exposed to high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Atomic force microscopy studies of these surfaces showed spontaneous formation of agglomerates that they interpreted as silages that have irreversibly transformed from uniform surface layers at low RH to isolated vesicles at high RH. They used contact deformation models to show that the compliance of these vesicles could reasonably account for the adhesion hysteresis that develops at high RH as the surfaces are forced into contact by an externally applied load.

  9. Coating to enhance metal-polymer adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathi, A.; Mahulikar, D.

    1996-12-31

    An ultra-thin electroplated coating has been developed to enhance adhesion of metals to polymers. The coating was developed for microelectronic packaging applications where it greatly improves adhesion of metal leadframes to plastic molding compounds. Recent tests show that the coating enhances adhesion of different metals to other types of adhesives as well and may thus have wider applicability. Results of adhesion tests with this coating, as well as its other characteristics such as corrosion resistance, are discussed. The coating is a very thin transparent electroplated coating containing zinc and chromium. It has been found to be effective on a variety of metal surfaces including copper alloys, Fe-Ni alloys, Al alloys, stainless steel, silver, nickel, Pd/Ni and Ni-Sn. Contact resistance measurements show that the coating has little or no effect on electrical resistivity.

  10. Analysis of thermal conductivity in composite adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Kathleen Louise

    Thermally conductive composite adhesives are desirable in many industrial applications, including computers, microelectronics, machinery and appliances. These composite adhesives are formed when a filler particle of high conductivity is added to a base adhesive. Typically, adhesives are poor thermal conductors. Experimentally only small improvements in the thermal properties of the composite adhesives over the base adhesives have been observed. A thorough understanding of heat transfer through a composite adhesive would aid in the design of a thermally conductive composite adhesive that has the desired thermal properties. In this work, we study design methodologies for thermally conductive composite adhesives. We present a three dimensional model for heat transfer through a composite adhesive based on its composition and on the experimental method for measuring its thermal properties. For proof of concept, we reduce our model to a two dimensional model. We present numerical solutions to our two dimensional model based on a composite silicone and investigate the effect of the particle geometry on the heat flow through this composite. We also present homogenization theory as a tool for computing the "effective thermal conductivity" of a composite material. We prove existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence theorems for our two dimensional model. We formulate a parameter estimation problem for the two dimensional model and present numerical results. We first estimate the thermal conductivity parameters as constants, and then use a probability based approach to estimate the parameters as realizations of random variables. A theoretical framework for the probability based approach is outlined. Based on the results of the parameter estimation problem, we are led to formally derive sensitivity equations for our system. We investigate the sensitivity of our composite silicone with respect to the thermal conductivity of both the base silicone polymer and the filler particles. Numerical results of this investigation are also presented.

  11. Correlation of clinical features and genetic profiles of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-12-01

    STIM1 overexpression has been observed in a portion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and associated with cancer cell invasion and migration. To characterize the distinctive expression profiles associated with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) overexpression/low-expression between CRC subtypes, and further assess the divergence transcription regulation impact of STIM1 between colon (COADs) and rectum (READs) adenocarcinomas in order to depict the role of SOCE pathway in CRCs, we have conducted a comprehensive phenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis to clarify underlying molecular differences of COADs/READs contributed by STIM1. Results demonstrated that a number of novel STIM1-associated signatures have been identified in COADs but not READs. Specifically, the presence of STIM1 overexpression in COADs, which represented a disturbance of the SOCE pathway, was associated with cell migration and cell motility properties. We identified 11 prognostic mRNA/miRNA predictors associated with the overall survival of COAD patients, suggesting the correlation of STIM1-associated features to clinicopathological outcomes. These findings enhance our understanding on differences between CRC subtypes in panoramic view, and suggested STIM1 as a promising therapeutic biomarker in COADs. PMID:26543234

  12. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  13. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs. PMID:20599714

  14. Drug exposure in a metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line gives rise to cells with differing adhesion, proliferation, and gene expression: Implications for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUILING; HE, JIANXING; ZHONG, NANSHAN; HOFFMAN, ROBERT M

    2015-01-01

    The Am1010 cell line was previously established from a metastatic deposit in an arm muscle from a patient with lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone four cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and taxol. Am1010 cells were labeled with red fluorescent protein or green fluorescent protein. A total of eight sublines were isolated following in vitro exposure to cisplatin or taxol. The sublines differed with regard to their adhesion and proliferation properties, with certain sublines exhibiting an increased proliferation rate and/or decreased surface adhesion. Gene expression assays demonstrated that tenascin C; cyclin D1; collagen, type 1, ?2; integrin ?1; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2; platelet-derived growth factor C; and Src homolog 2 domain containing in the focal adhesion pathway, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, F11 receptor, claudin 7 and cadherin 1 in the cell adhesion pathway, varied in expression among the sublines. The results of the present study suggested that drug exposure may alter the aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells, which has important implications for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26004767

  15. Improving controllable adhesion on both rough and smooth surfaces with a hybrid electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Ruffatto, Donald; Parness, Aaron; Spenko, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, controllable adhesive that combines the benefits of electrostatic adhesives with gecko-like directional dry adhesives. When working in combination, the two technologies create a positive feedback cycle whose adhesion, depending on the surface type, is often greater than the sum of its parts. The directional dry adhesive brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, increasing its effect. Similarly, the electrostatic adhesion helps engage more of the directional dry adhesive fibrillar structures, particularly on rough surfaces. This paper presents the new hybrid adhesive's manufacturing process and compares its performance to three other adhesive technologies manufactured using a similar process: reinforced PDMS, electrostatic and directional dry adhesion. Tests were performed on a set of ceramic tiles with varying roughness to quantify its effect on shear adhesive force. The relative effectiveness of the hybrid adhesive increases as the surface roughness is increased. Experimental data are also presented for different substrate materials to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved with the hybrid adhesive. Results show that the hybrid adhesive provides up to 5.1× greater adhesion than the electrostatic adhesive or directional dry adhesive technologies alone. PMID:24451392

  16. Radiation curable adhesive compositions and composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, W.

    1984-11-20

    This disclosure relates to novel adhesive compositions and composite structures utilizing the same, wherein said adhesive compositions contain an elastomer, a chemically compatible ethylenically unsaturated monomer, a tackifier, an adhesion promoter, and optionally, pigments, fillers, thickeners and flow control agents which are converted from the liquid to the solid state by exposure to high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam. A particularly useful application for such adhesive compositions comprises the assembly of certain composite structures or laminates consisting of, for example, a fiber flocked rubber sheet and a metal base with the adhesive fulfilling the multiple functions of adhering the flocked fiber to the rubber sheet as well as adhering the rubber sheet to the metal base. Optionally, the rubber sheet itself may also be cured at the same time as the adhesive composition with all operations being carried out at ambient temperatures and in the presence of air, with exposure of said assembly to selected dosages of high energy ionizing radiation. These adhesive compositions contain no solvents thereby almost eliminating air pollution or solvent toxicity problems, and offer substantial savings in energy and labor as they are capable of curing in very short time periods without the use of external heat which might damage the substrate.

  17. Adhesion in ceramics and magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a metal or a polymeric material such as a magnetic medium, strong bonds form between the materials. For ceramic-to-metal contacts, adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. Hardness of metals plays a much more important role in adhesion and friction than does the surface energy of metals. Adhesion, friction, surface energy, and hardness of a metal are all related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. An increase in shear modulus results in a decrease in area of contact that is greater than the corresponding increase in surface energy (the fond energy) with shear modulus. Consequently, the adhesion and friction decrease with increasing shear modulus. For ceramics in contact with polymeric magnetic tapes, environment is extremely important. For example, a nitrogen environment reduces adhesion and friction when ferrite contacts polymeric tape, whereas a vacuum environment strengthens the ferrite-to-tape adhesion and increases friction. Adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the particle loading of the tape. An increase in magnetic particle concentration increases the complex modulus of the tape, and a lower real area of contact and lower friction result.

  18. Interrelationship of Multiple Endothelial Dysfunction Biomarkers with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L. Lee; Mohler, Emile R.; Hudaihed, Alhakam; Arora, Robin; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Browne, Grace; Mills, Katherine T.; Kleinpeter, Myra A.; Simon, Eric E.; Rifai, Nader; Klag, Michael J.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The interrelationship of multiple endothelial biomarkers and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been well studied. We measured asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), L-arginine, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), von Willebrand factor (vWF), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID) in 201 patients with CKD and 201 community-based controls without CKD. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the interrelationship of endothelial biomarkers with CKD. The multivariable-adjusted medians (interquartile ranges) were 0.54 (0.40, 0.75) in patients with CKD vs. 0.25 (0.22, 0.27) ?mol /L in controls without CKD (p<0.0001 for group difference) for ADMA; 67.0 (49.6, 86.7) vs. 31.0 (27.7, 34.2) ?mol/L (p<0.0001) for L-arginine; 230.0 (171.6, 278.6) vs. 223.9 (178.0, 270.6) ng/mL (p=0.55) for sICAM-1; 981.7 (782.6, 1216.8) vs. 633.2 (507.8, 764.3) ng/mL (p<0.0001) for sVCAM-1; 47.9 (35.0, 62.5) vs. 37.0 (28.9, 48.0) ng/mL (p=0.01) for sE-selectin; 1320 (1044, 1664) vs. 1083 (756, 1359) mU/mL (p=0.008) for vWF; 5.74 (3.29, 8.72) vs. 8.80 (6.50, 11.39)% (p=0.01) for FMD; and 15.2 (13.5, 16.9) vs. 19.1 (17.2, 21.0)% (p=0.0002) for NID, respectively. In addition, the severity of CKD was positively associated with ADMA, L-arginine, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and vWF and inversely associated with FMD and NID. Furthermore, FMD and NID were significantly and inversely correlated with ADMA, L-arginine, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and vWF. In conclusion, these data indicate that multiple dysfunctions of the endothelium were present among patients with CKD. Interventional studies are warranted to test the effects of treatment of endothelial dysfunction on CKD. PMID:26132137

  19. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  20. Adhesion of membranes with active stickers.

    PubMed

    Rózycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    We consider a theoretical model for membranes with adhesive receptors, or stickers, that are actively switched between two conformational states. In their "on" state, the stickers bind to ligands in an apposing membrane, whereas they do not interact with the ligands in their "off" state. We show that the adhesiveness of the membranes depends sensitively on the rates of the conformational switching process. This dependence is reflected in a resonance at intermediate switching rates, which can lead to large membrane separations and unbinding. Our results may provide insights into novel mechanisms for the controlled adhesion of biological or biomimetic membranes. PMID:16486897

  1. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  2. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  3. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands

    PubMed Central

    El-Masry, Nabil S.; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  4. The development of low temperature curing adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Sutherland, J. D.; Hom, J. M.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for the development of a practical low temperature (293 K-311 K/68 F-100 F) curing adhesive system based on a family of amide/ester resins was studied and demonstrated. The work was conducted on resin optimization and adhesive compounding studies. An improved preparative method was demonstrated which involved the reaction of an amine-alcohol precursor, in a DMF solution with acid chloride. Experimental studies indicated that an adhesive formulation containing aluminum powder provided the best performance when used in conjunction with a commercial primer.

  5. Adhesion of membranes via actively switched receptors

    E-print Network

    Bartosz Rozycki; Reinhard Lipowsky; Thomas R. Weikl

    2005-12-20

    We consider a theoretical model for membranes with adhesive receptors, or stickers, that are actively switched between two conformational states. In their 'on'-state, the stickers bind to ligands in an apposing membrane, whereas they do not interact with the ligands in their 'off'-state. We show that the adhesiveness of the membranes depends sensitively on the rates of the conformational switching process. This dependence is reflected in a resonance at intermediate switching rates, which can lead to large membrane separations and unbinding. Our results may provide insights into novel mechanisms for the controlled adhesion of biological or biomimetic membranes.

  6. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  7. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  8. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  9. Adhesion patterns in early cell spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, Pavel; Prass, Marcus; Gummich, Meike; Kühn, Jac-Simon; Oettmeier, Christina; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2010-05-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts explore the chemical suitability before spreading on a given substrate. We find this early phase of cell spreading to be characterized by transient adhesion patches with a typical mean size of (1.0 ± 0.4) µm and a lifetime of (33 ± 12) s. Eventually, these patches fuse to initiate extensive spreading of the cell. We monitor cell adhesion using reflection interference contrast and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Digital time lapse movies are analysed employing spatio-temporal correlation functions of adhesion patterns. Correlation length and time can be scaled to obtain a master curve at the fusion point.

  10. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress induces monocyte adhesion by stimulating reactive oxygen species production from a nox1-based NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sorescu, George P; Song, Hannah; Tressel, Sarah L; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Smith, Debra A; Boyd, Nolan L; Platt, Manu O; Lassègue, Bernard; Griendling, Kathy K; Jo, Hanjoong

    2004-10-15

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions including oscillatory shear stress (OS). OS exposure induces endothelial expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), which in turn may activate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. OS is also known to induce monocyte adhesion by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, raising the possibility that BMP4 may stimulate the inflammatory response by ROS-dependent mechanisms. Here we show that ROS scavengers blocked ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion induced by BMP4 or OS in endothelial cells (ECs). Similar to OS, BMP4 stimulated H2O2 and O2- production in ECs. Next, we used ECs obtained from p47phox-/- mice (MAE-p47-/-), which do not produce ROS in response to OS, to determine the role of NADPH oxidases. Similar to OS, BMP4 failed to induce monocyte adhesion in MAE-p47-/-, but it was restored when the cells were transfected with p47phox plasmid. Moreover, OS-induced O2- production was blocked by noggin (a BMP antagonist), suggesting a role for BMP. Furthermore, OS increased gp91phox (nox2) and nox1 mRNA levels while decreasing nox4. In contrast, BMP4 induced nox1 mRNA expression, whereas nox2 and nox4 were decreased or not affected, respectively. Also, OS-induced monocyte adhesion was blocked by knocking down nox1 with the small interfering RNA (siRNA). Finally, BMP4 siRNA inhibited OS-induced ROS production and monocyte adhesion. Together, these results suggest that BMP4 produced in ECs by OS stimulates ROS release from the nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase leading to inflammation, a critical early atherogenic step. PMID:15388638

  11. Photochemical adhesion of fused silica optical elements with no adhesive strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Funatsu, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An adhesive method that creates properties of heatproof, waterproof, and transparent to ultraviolet ray of 200 nm and under in the wavelength without adhesive strain was developed by putting one silica glass to another with the silicone oil that had been photo-oxidized by Xe2 excimer lamp. The measurement by the ZYGO interferometer showed that there was neither adhesive strain nor bubbles, and the bonding strength of 18MPa was achieved. To compare the heat resistance of the photo-oxidized silicone oil with that of general-purpose adhesives such as silicone rubber, water glass, and epoxy resin, the shearing tensile strength test was conducted after exposing at high temperatures from 25 to 500 °C. As a result, the silicone rubber adhesive exfoliated at 110 °C, and the epoxy resin adhesive, at 150 °C however, the photo-oxidized silicone oil had the bonding strength of 6.5MPa at 500 °C.

  12. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives....

  14. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives....

  15. Cell adhesion to protein-micropatterned-supported lipid bilayer membranes

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    Cell adhesion to protein-micropatterned-supported lipid bilayer membranes Lance Kam, Steven G. These fibronec- tin barriers also facilitate the adhesion of endothelial cells, which exhibit minimal adhesion bilayers; cell adhesion; endothelial cells INTRODUCTION Cell­cell communication is mediated in large part

  16. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175... Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from one or...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...including adhesives intended for use in the embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation or for use in ophthalmic...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...including adhesives intended for use in the embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation or for use in ophthalmic...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...including adhesives intended for use in the embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation or for use in ophthalmic...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...including adhesives intended for use in the embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation or for use in ophthalmic...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.

  5. Molecular Adhesion between Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules

    E-print Network

    Rojas, Fredrick P.

    In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen ...

  6. Generic failure mechanisms in adhesive bonds

    E-print Network

    Hass, Philipp; Niemz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The failure of adhesive bondlines has been studied at the microscopic level via tensile tests. Stable crack propagation could be generated by means of samples with improved geometry, which made in-situ observations possible. The interaction of cracks with adhesive bondlines under various angles to the crack propagation was the focus of this study as well as the respective loading situations for the adhesives UF, PUR, and PVAc, which have distinctly different mechanical behaviors. It is shown how adhesive properties influence the occurrence of certain failure mechanisms and determine their appearance and order of magnitude. With the observed failure mechanisms, it becomes possible to predict the propagation path of a crack through the specimen.

  7. NREL Turning Biomass into Adhesives and Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and it's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing technology to make wood adhesives from sawdust, bark, or other biomass (plant materials or wastes derived from them).

  8. TOWARD MINIMALLY ADHESIVE SURFACES UTILIZING SILOXANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of siloxane-based network polymers have been investigated for their surface properties towards potential applications as minimally adhesive coatings. A filled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer, RTV it, has been studied to determine surface weldability and stabil...

  9. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  10. Chemistry technology: Adhesives and plastics: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technical information on chemical formulations for improving and/or producing adhesives is presented. Data are also reported on polymeric plastics with special characteristics or those plastics that were produced by innovative means.

  11. Modulation of Cellular Adhesion by Glycoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Dafik, Laila; d’Alarcao, Marc; Kumar, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of lipid and protein molecules on cellular surfaces is responsible for many of the pathophysiological events in tumor progression and metastasis. Sialic acids in particular, are overexpressed on the glycocalyx of malignant tumor cells and sialic acid-mediated cell adhesion is required for metastasis. We report here that replacement of sialic acids on cell surfaces with fluorinated congeners dramatically decreases cell adhesion to E– and P–selectin-coated surfaces. Comparison of adhesion of fluorinated cells with those modified with non-fluorinated analogues suggests that both reduce binding of the modified sialosides to their cognate lectins to a similar extent on a per molecule basis. The overall reduction in cell adhesion results from greater cell surface presentation of the fluorinated congeners. This work suggests an avenue for inhibition of metastasis by administration of small molecules, and concomitant non-invasive imaging of tumor cells by 19F MRI before they are visible by other means. PMID:20438083

  12. Ins and Outs of Microbial Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virji, Mumtaz

    Microbial adhesion is generally a complex process, involving multiple adhesins on a single microbe and their respective target receptors on host cells. In some situations, various adhesins of a microbe may co-operate in an apparently hierarchical and sequential manner whereby the first adhesive event triggers the target cell to express receptors for additional microbial adhesins. In other instances, adhesins may act in concert leading to high avidity interactions, often a prelude to cellular invasion and tissue penetration. Mechanisms used to target the host include both lectin-like interactions and protein-protein interactions; the latter are often highly specific for the host or a tissue within the host. This reflective chapter aims to offer a point of view on microbial adhesion by presenting some experiences and thoughts especially related to respiratory pathogens and explore if there can be any future hope of controlling bacterial infections via preventing adhesion or invasion stages of microbial pathogenesis.

  13. Advances in the Pathogenesis of Adhesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Belotte, Jimmy; Abuanzeh, Suleiman; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been increasing recognition that pathogenesis of adhesion development includes significant contributions of hypoxia induced at the site of surgery, the resulting oxidative stress, and the subsequent free radical production. Mitochondrial dysfunction generated by surgically induced tissue hypoxia and inflammation can lead to the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase which when optimal have the potential to abrogate mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, preventing the cascade of events leading to the development of adhesions in injured peritoneum. There is a significant cross talk between the several processes leading to whether or not adhesions would eventually develop. Several of these processes present avenues for the development of measures that can help in abrogating adhesion formation or reformation after intraabdominal surgery. PMID:24520085

  14. Preventing MIC through microbial adhesion inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Videla, H.A.; Guiamet, P.S.; Gomez de Saravia, S.G.

    1998-12-31

    The key to the alteration of conditions at a metal surface before the initiation of microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is the formation of a biofilm. Thus, prevention of bacterial adhesion processes on metal surfaces would be one of the potential weapons to avoid MIC. Serum globulin and by-products were used to prevent bacterial adhesion on different corrosion resistant metal surfaces generally used as implantable biomaterials. In this paper an immunoglobulin combination (IgA, IgG and IgM) has been used to prevent the formation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P.fluorescens) biofilms on carbon steel and two different types of stainless steel (SS). A marked inhibition of bacterial adhesion was found under different experimental conditions. Several microscopic techniques were used for assessing adhesion inhibition while the electrochemical behavior of the steels was evaluated by means of different electrochemical techniques applied in the presence and in the absence of the immunoglobulins.

  15. Polymers in the prevention of peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Yoon; Kohane, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are serious complications of surgery, and can result in pain, infertility, and potentially lethal bowel obstruction. Pharmacotherapy and barrier devices have reduced adhesion formation to varying degrees in preclinical studies or clinical trials; however, complete prevention of adhesions remains to be accomplished. We and others have hypothesized that the limitations of the two approaches could be overcome by combining their strengths in the context of controlled drug delivery. Here we review the role of polymeric systems in the prevention of peritoneal adhesions, with an emphasis on our recent work in developing and applying polymeric drug delivery systems such as nano-or microparticles, hydrogels, and hybrid systems for peritoneal use. PMID:17881201

  16. Analytical cell adhesion chromatography reveals impaired persistence of metastatic cell rolling adhesion to P-selectin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaeho; Edwards, Erin E; McClatchey, P Mason; Thomas, Susan N

    2015-10-15

    Selectins facilitate the recruitment of circulating cells from the bloodstream by mediating rolling adhesion, which initiates the cell-cell signaling that directs extravasation into surrounding tissues. To measure the relative efficiency of cell adhesion in shear flow for in vitro drug screening, we designed and implemented a microfluidic-based analytical cell adhesion chromatography system. The juxtaposition of instantaneous rolling velocities with elution times revealed that human metastatic cancer cells, but not human leukocytes, had a reduced capacity to sustain rolling adhesion with P-selectin. We define a new parameter, termed adhesion persistence, which is conceptually similar to migration persistence in the context of chemotaxis, but instead describes the capacity of cells to resist the influence of shear flow and sustain rolling interactions with an adhesive substrate that might modulate the probability of extravasation. Among cell types assayed, adhesion persistence to P-selectin was specifically reduced in metastatic but not leukocyte-like cells in response to a low dose of heparin. In conclusion, we demonstrate this as an effective methodology to identify selectin adhesion antagonist doses that modulate homing cell adhesion and engraftment in a cell-subtype-selective manner. PMID:26349809

  17. Mechanisms of criticality in environmental adhesion loss.

    PubMed

    White, Christopher; Tan, Kar Tean; Hunston, Donald; Steffens, Kristen; Stanley, Deborah L; Satija, Sushil K; Akgun, Bulent; Vogt, Bryan D

    2015-05-28

    Moisture attack on adhesive joints is a long-standing scientific and engineering problem. A particularly interesting observation is that when the moisture level in certain systems exceeds a critical concentration, the bonded joint shows a dramatic loss of strength. The joint interface plays a dominant role in this phenomenon; however, why a critical concentration of moisture exists and what role is played by the properties of the bulk adhesive have not been adequately addressed. Moreover if the interface is crucial, the local water content near the interface will help elucidate the mechanisms of criticality more than the more commonly examined bulk water concentration in the adhesive. To gain a detailed picture of this criticality, we have combined a fracture mechanics approach to determine joint strength with neutron reflectivity, which provides the moisture distribution near the interface. A well-defined model system, silica glass substrates bonded to a series of polymers based on poly(n-alkyl methacrylate), was utilized to probe the role of the adhesive in a systematic manner. By altering the alkyl chain length, the molecular structure of the polymer can be systematically changed to vary the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive over a relatively wide range. Our findings suggest that the loss of adhesion is dependent on a combination of the build-up of the local water concentration near the interface, interfacial swelling stresses resulting from water absorption, and water-induced weakening of the interfacial bonds. This complexity explains the source of criticality in environmental adhesion failure and could enable design of adhesives to minimize environmental failure. PMID:25893710

  18. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Progar, Donald J. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  19. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  20. Strengthening of dental adhesives via particle reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Belli, Renan; Kreppel, Stefan; Petschelt, Anselm; Hornberger, Helga; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The bond between methacrylic polymer adhesives and dental restoratives is not perfect and may fail either in the short or in the long term. This study aims to evaluate the effects of particle incorporation in a self-etch model adhesive on mechanical and physical properties that are relevant during application and service. Filled adhesives containing 5, 10, 15 or 25wt% glass fillers were compared to their unfilled counterpart in terms of water sorption and solubility; viscosity and dynamic viscosity during polymerization were recorded using rheological measurements and compared to FTIR analysis of the real-time degree of cure. Elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength measurements were performed in uniaxial tension; the energy to fracture was used to calculate the fracture toughness of the adhesives. Finally, the experimental adhesives were applied on dentin substrate to test the bond strength using the microtensile test. Results showed that the incorporation of 5-10wt% nanofiller to self-etching dental adhesives is efficient in accelerating the polymerization reaction and increasing the degree of cure without compromising the film viscosity for good wettability or water sorption and solubility. Fillers increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and fracture toughness to a plateau between 5 and 15wt% filler concentration, and despite the tendency to form agglomerations, active crack pinning/deflection toughening mechanisms have been observed. The bond strength between resin composite and dentin was also improved when adhesives with up to 10wt% fillers were used, with no additional improvements with further packing. The use of fillers to reinforce dental adhesives may therefore be of great practical benefit by improving curing and mechanical properties. PMID:24905178

  1. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  2. Yielding Elastic Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

  3. Contribution from pressure-sensitive adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gilbert

    1996-03-01

    The successful use of many security papers, foils and films depends on the technology of chemical fastening systems -- especially pressure sensitive adhesives. These are adhesives activated not by heat or by the evaporation of water or some other solvent, but simply by the act of application -- by pressure. These adhesives provide the means whereby laminations, substrates and seals are made effective. In addition to their physical properties these adhesives are often required to possess optical properties to allow the security materials to be visibly active and indeed the adhesive system may itself contribute as a carrier for a variety of security materials. Recent advances in adhesives chemistry have made it possible to achieve virtually all the required physical performance characteristics combined with a choice of optical properties ranging from total opacity to invisibility and including controlled translucency and tinting. The implications for security printing and packaging are important. Opacity is easy to achieve, for example by loading the adhesive with aluminum powder, by the selection of totally opaque materials like metallized film or by various printing processes. But achieving transparency is a different matter, and transparency is mandatory for applications involving the protection of documents, photographs, etc. with a clear film over-laminate. Obvious examples would be for passports, visas and other personal identification. But some security devices may themselves require protection; for example holograms or embossings. And transparency in the test laboratory is not enough. The Australian driving licence is stuck to the windshield, so the transparency of the adhesive must be sustained over long periods without deterioration due to prolonged u/v exposure, climatic conditions or aging. The commercial label market has helped to push the technology forward. There is a strong demand for the 'no-label look' for packaging of clear plastic and glass containers where the content can be easily seen without interference and where wording or symbols can be read through the container. You see this increasingly with pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and toiletries, even bottled beer. Achieving transparency is one thing but this property must be combined with all the physical properties required of the pressure sensitive adhesive. First there is the question of permanence, re-positionability and removability and the degree to which these features are required. Secondly many complications arise from the range of materials to which the adhesive must be anchored and the range to which it will be applied and must bond. Obviously these surfaces vary from those with the highest surface energy (polycarbonate for example) to those apolar surfaces engineered for minimum attraction (PTFE -- 'Teflon' for example).

  4. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  5. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  6. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  7. Nucleation and Adhesion of ALD Copper on Cobalt Adhesion Layers and Tungsten Nitride Diffusion Barriers

    E-print Network

    Nucleation and Adhesion of ALD Copper on Cobalt Adhesion Layers and Tungsten Nitride Diffusion, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA Atomic layer deposition ALD was used to make conformal diffusion barrier deposition ALD 2 is able to deposit films that are completely conformal even in very narrow trenches and vias

  8. Adhesion of latex films. Influence of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Charmeau, J.Y.; Kientz, E.; Holl, Y.

    1996-12-31

    In the applications of film forming latexes in paint, paper, coating, adhesive, textile industries, one of the most important property of latex films is adhesion onto a support. From the point of view of adhesion, latex films have two specificities. The first one arises from the particular structure of the film which is usually not homogeneous but retains to a certain extent the memory of the particles it was made from. These structure effects are clearly apparent when one compares mechanical or adhesion properties of pure latex films and of films of the same polymers but prepared from a solution. Latex films show higher Young`s moduli and lower adhesion properties than solution films. The second specificity of latex films comes from the presence of the surfactant which was used in the synthesis and as stabilizer for the latex. Most industrial latexes contain low amounts of surfactant, typically in the range 0.1 to 2-3 wt%. However, being usually incompatible with the polymer, the surfactant is not homogeneously distributed in the film. It tends to segregate towards the film-air or film-support interfaces or to form domains in the bulk of the film. Distribution of surfactants in latex films has been studied by several authors. The influence of the surfactant on adhesion, as well as on other properties, is thus potentially very important. This article presents the results of the authors investigation of surfactant effects on adhesion properties of latex films. To the authors knowledge, there is no other example, in the open literature, of this kind of study.

  9. Photoreversible surfaces to regulate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Lai Wing Sun, Karen; Kennedy, Timothy E; Barrett, Christopher J

    2012-09-10

    We report the development of a photoreversible cell culture substrate. We demonstrate the capacity to modify the adhesivity of the substrate using light, altering its capacity to support cell growth. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were used to produce tunable substrates of different thickness and matrix stiffness, which have different intrinsic capacities to support cell adhesion and survival. Surfaces were top-coated with a poly(acrylic acid)-poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polyelectrolyte bilayer functionalized with a small fraction (<1%) of an azobenzene-based photoswitchable sidegroup, which included the cell-adhesive three-amino-acid peptide RGD. Irradiation with light-induced geometric switching of the azo bond, resulting in changes to RGD exposure and consequently to cell adhesion and survival, was investigated on a variety of surfaces of different thickness and stiffness. Substrate stiffness, as modified by the thickness, had a significant influence on the adhesion of NIH 3T3 cells, consistent with previous studies. However, by disrupting the isomerization state of the azobenzene-linked RGD and exposing it to the surface, cell adhesion and survival could be enhanced up to 40% when the positioning of the RGD peptide was manipulated on the softest substrates. These findings identify permissive, yet less-than-optimal, cell culture substrate conditions that can be substantially enhanced using noninvasive modification of the substrate triggered by light. Indeed, where cell adhesion was tuned to be suboptimal under baseline conditions, the light-induced triggers displayed the most enhanced effect, and identification of this 'Goldilocks zone' was key to enabling light triggering. PMID:22913295

  10. Adhesive rough contacts near complete contact

    E-print Network

    M. Ciavarella

    2015-05-01

    Recently, there has been some debate over the effect of adhesion on the contact of rough surfaces. Classical asperity theories predict, in agreement with experimental observations, that adhesion is always destroyed by roughness except if the amplitude of the same is extremely small, and the materials are particularly soft. This happens for all fractal dimensions. However, these theories are limited due to the geometrical simplification, which may be particularly strong in conditions near full contact. We introduce therefore a simple model for adhesion, which aims at being rigorous near full contact, where we postulate there are only small isolated gaps between the two bodies. The gaps can be considered as "pressurized cracks" by using Ken Johnson's idea of searching a corrective solution to the full contact solution. The solution is an extension of the adhesive-less solution proposed recently by Xu, Jackson, and Marghitu (XJM model) (2014). This process seems to confirm recent theories using the JKR theory, namely that the effect of adhesion depends critically on the fractal dimension. For D2.5, seems for large enough magnifications that a full fractal roughness completely destroys adhesion. These results are partly paradoxical since strong adhesion is not observed in nature except in special cases. A possible way out of the paradox may be that the conclusion is relevant for the near full contact regime, where the strong role of flaws at the interfaces, and of gaps full of contaminant, trapped air or liquid in pressure, needs to be further explored. If conditions near full contact are not achieved on loading, probably the conclusions of classical asperity theories may be confirmed.

  11. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ?-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides. PMID:26250681

  12. Thermal Characterization of Epoxy Adhesive by Hotfire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.; Haddock, M. Reed; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes subscale solid-rocket motor hot-fire testing of epoxy adhesives in flame surface bondlines to evaluate heat-affected depth, char depth and ablation rate. Hot-fire testing is part of an adhesive down-selection program on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle to provide additional confidence in the down-selected adhesives. The current nozzle structural adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Prior to hot-fire testing, adhesives were tested for chemical, physical and mechanical properties, which resulted in the selection of two potential replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's TIGA 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. Hot-fire testing consisted of four forty-pound charge (FPC) motors fabricated in configurations that would allow side-by-side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives with the current RSRM adhesives. Results of the FPC motor testing show that: 1) the phenolic char depths on radial bondlines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used, 2) the replacement candidate adhesive char depths are equivalent to the char depths of the current adhesives, 3) the heat-affected depths of the candidate and current adhesives are equivalent, and 4) the ablation rates for both replacement adhesives were equivalent to the current adhesives.

  13. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress ?max to the area A: ?max ? A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: ?max ? A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. PMID:25411404

  14. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented. Recently, a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on a similar theoretical model was presented. A through-transmission setup for water immersion mode-converted shear waves was used to analyze the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of an adhesive bond. In addition, ultrasonic guided waves have been used to analyze adhesive or diffusion bonded joints. In this paper, the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is used to characterize the curing state of a polymer/aluminum adhesive joint. Ultrasonic through-transmission tests were conducted on samples cured under various conditions. The magnitude of the second order harmonic was measured and the corresponding ultrasonic nonlinear parameter was evaluated. A fairly good correlation between the curing condition and the nonlinear parameter is observed. The results show that the nonlinear parameter might be used as a good indicator of the cure state for adhesive joints.

  15. Probing adhesion forces at the molecular scale

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Houston, J.E.; Michalske, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Measurements of adhesion forces at the molecular scale, such as those discussed here, are necessary to understand macroscopic boundary-layer behavior such as adhesion, friction, wear, lubrication, and many other important phenomena. The authors` recent interfacial force microscopy (IFM) studies have provided detailed information about the mechanical response of both self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films and the underlying substrates. In addition, they recently demonstrated that the IFM is useful for studying the chemical nature of such films. In this talk, the authors discuss a new method for studying surface interactions and chemical reactions using the IFM. To quantitatively measure the work of adhesion and bond energies between two organic thin films, they modify both a Au substrate and a Au probe with self-assembling organomercaptan molecules having either the same or different end groups (-CH{sub 3}, -NH{sub 2}, and -COOH), and then analyze the force-versus-displacement curves (force profiles) that result from the approach to contact of the two surfaces. Their results show that the magnitude of the adhesive forces measured between methyl-methyl interactions are in excellent agreement with van der Waals calculations using Lifshitz theory and previous experimentally determined values. Moreover, the measured peak adhesive forces scale as expected for van der Waals, hydrogen-bonding, and acid-base interactions.

  16. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives. PMID:26513350

  17. Adhesion properties of sealants in resealed joints

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliuca, A.; Hutchinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    Resealing of joints in a typical building structure needs to take place a number of times within the life-time of the building. The resealing process is more difficult than sealing joints for the first time and among the most significant difficulties are the removal of old sealant, and the likely presence of residues left in the joint. This aspect of obtaining adhesion to sealant residues left on surfaces represents the main focus of this paper. Following a review of the fundamental concepts of adhesion, surface analytical techniques are used to predict favorably the adhesion performance of tensile adhesion joints prepared with sealants and contaminated substrate surfaces typical of those encountered in practice. It is shown that surface energy measurements can provide a good prediction of adhesion performance, whilst surface tension measurements of uncured resealing materials indicate potential wettability and therefore resealed joint performance. In general, traces of existing sealant will almost always lead to a reduction in joint extension and performance, in proportion to the nature, amount and surface energy of the residue present.

  18. Adhesive curing options for photonic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Steven C.; Hubert, Manfred; Tam, Robin

    2002-06-01

    Varying the intensity of illumination used to cure photoactivated adhesives has been applied in medical and dental applications to improve the performance of polymer materials. For example, it has been observed that dental polymer composite materials express reduced shrinkage, important for durability of non-amalgam restorations, by introducing a phased time-intensity cure schedule. This work identified that curing conditions could influence the final properties of materials, and suggested the possibility of extending the characteristics that could be influenced beyond shrinkage to humidity resistance, Tg, outgassing and other important material properties. Obviously, these results have important ramifications for the photonic industry, with current efforts focused on improved manufacturing techniques. Improvement in low cost packaging solutions, including adhesives, will have to be made to bring the component cost down to address the needs of Metro and similar markets. However, there are perceived problems with the widespread use of adhesives, the most prevalent of these involving long term durability of the bond. Devices are typically aligned to sub-micron precision using active feedback and then must be locked in position to maintain performance. In contrast to traditional fastening methods, adhesive bonding is a highly attractive option due to the ease of deployment, lower equipment costs, and improved flexibility. Moreover, using methods analogous to those employed in dental applications, materials properties of photonic adhesives may be tailored using a programmed cure approach.

  19. Environmental durability of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, Lawrence Michael

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the environmental durability of adhesively bonded aircraft joints using fracture mechanics. Three aerospace adhesives, two epoxies and one polyimide, were investigated. Adhesive specimens were tested for tensile and toughness behavior. Bonded joint specimens were subject to Mode I, Mode II, and mixed mode fracture and fatigue tests. Prior to testing, selected specimens were exposed for up to 10,000 hours to isothermal and thermally cyclic conditions similar to aircraft service environments. Analysis was accomplished using finite element programs and closed-form solutions. Environmental exposure caused reductions in the failure strain, strength, and toughness, of the adhesive specimens and in the toughness and fatigue threshold of the bonded joint specimens. Specimens exposed to high temperature and humidity prior to testing and those tested at low temperatures indicative of high altitude operations experienced the most significant toughness losses. Results are discussed in terms of their relationship to bonded joint design and should prove valuable to efforts aimed at extending the lives of aging aircraft using bonded repairs as well as to efforts focused on using adhesive bonding for future aerospace structures.

  20. Biochemical investigations of retinotectal adhesive specificity

    PubMed Central

    Marchase, RB

    1977-01-01

    The preferential adhesion of chick neural retina cells to surfaces of intact optic tecta has been investigated biochemically. The study uses a collection assay in which single cells from either dorsal or ventral halves of neural retain adhere preferentially to ventral or dorsal halves of optic tecta respectively. The data presented support the following conclusions: (a) The adhesion of ventral retina to dorsal tecta seems to depend on proteins located on ventral retina and on terminal ?-N-acetylgalactosamine residues on dorsal tecta. (b) The adhesion of dorsal retina to ventral tecta seems to depend on proteins located on ventral tecta and on terminal ?- N-acetylgalactosamine residues on dorsal retina. (c) A double gradient model for retinotectal adhesion along the dorsoventral axis is consistent with the data presented. The model utilizes only two complementary molecules. The molecule suggested to be concentrated dorsally in both retina and tectum seems to require terminal ?-N-acetylgalactosamine residues for adhesion. Its activity is not affected by protease. A molecule fitting these qualifications, the ganglioside GM(2), could not be detected in a gradient, but lecithin vesicles containing GM(2) adhered preferentially to ventral tectal surfaces. The second molecule, concentrated ventrally in both retina and tectum, is a protein and seems capable of binding terminal ?-N- acetylgalactosamine residues. One enzyme, UDP-galactose:GM(2) galactosyltransferase, has been found to be more concentrated in ventral retina than dorsal, but only by 30 percent. PMID:562348

  1. Inhibition of Flavobacterium psychrophilum adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Howell, Amy; Wiklund, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium known for its adhesion ability to surfaces, has recently been shown to express phenotypic variation, as smooth and rough colony types in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different compounds on adhesion of both phenotypes of F. psychrophilum to polystyrene surfaces of 96-well microtiter plates. Cells of F. psychrophilum of both phenotypes (10(8) CFU ml(-1)) were treated with different compounds for 1 h at 15°C and were subsequently allowed to adhere to polystyrene surfaces. The adhered cells were stained with crystal violet and optical density measured at 595 nm. The compounds were classified as non, weak, moderate or strong inhibitors of the F. psychrophilum adhesion. The results showed that a combination of selected carbohydrates, D- and L-amino acids, phytochemicals, an ion chelating agent (EDTA) and proteinase K strongly inhibited the adhesion of mainly smooth cells. We suggest that the compounds inhibit the cell adhesion by presumably disrupting the protein-protein interactions that hold smooth cells together and by negatively affecting the surface hydrophobicity of smooth cells. In contrast, rough cells exhibit resistance to most inhibitor compounds. PMID:26500088

  2. Actin Foci Adhesion of D. discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Paneru, Govind

    2014-03-01

    Amoeboid migration is a fast (10 ?m min-1) integrin-independent mode of migration that is important with D. discoideum, leukocytes, and breast cancer cells. It is poorly understood, but depends on the establishment of adhesive contacts to the substrate where the cell transmits traction forces. In pre-aggregative D. discoideum, a model system for learning about amoeboid migration, these adhesive contacts are discrete complexes that are known as actin-foci. They have an area of ~ 0.5 ?m2 and a lifetime of ~ 20 s. This talk will present measurements of the adhesive character of actin foci that have been obtained using a submicron force transducer that was designed for this purpose. Results on the rupture stresses and lifetimes of individual acting foci under nano-newton level forces will be described in the context of a general theory for cellular adhesion. This theory depends on, essentially, three cellular properties: the membrane-medium surface tension, the number density of adhesion receptors in the membrane, and the receptor-substrate potential energy surface. Therefore, the use of the transducer to determine the surface tension will be presented, as well.

  3. High-temperature Adhesive Development and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hale, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    High-temperature adhesive systems are evaluated for short and long-term stability at temperatures ranging from 232C to 427C. The resins selected for characterization include: NASA Langley developed polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ), and commercially available polyimides (PI). The primary method of bond testing is single lap shear. The PPQ candidates are evaluated on 6A1-4V titanium adherends with chromic acid anodize and phosphate fluoride etch surface preparations. The remaining adhesives are evaluated on 15-5 PH stainless steel with a sulfuric acid anodize surface preparation. Preliminary data indicate that the PPQ adhesives tested have stability to 3000 hours at 450F with chromic acid anodize surface preparation. Additional studies are continuing to attempt to improve the PPQ's high-performance by formulating adhesive films with a boron filler and utilizing the phosphate fluoride surface preparation on titanium. Evaluation of the polyimide candidates on stainless-steel adherends indicates that the FM-35 (American Cyanamid), PMR-15 (U.S. Polymeric/Ferro), TRW partially fluorinated polyimide and NR 150B2S6X (DuPont) adhesives show sufficient promise to justify additional testing.

  4. Pattern formation in cell membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Hategan, A.; Sengupta, K.; Sackmann, E.

    2004-03-01

    Strong adhesion of highly active cells often nucleates focal adhesions or related structures that are, over time, reinforced by cytoskeleton (actin, etc.). Red cells lack such complex adhesion systems, but they are shown here to also exhibit complex spatial patterns within an adhesive contact zone. While strong adhesion and spreading of the red cell to a dense poly-L-lysine surface appears complete in < 1 s by reflective interference microscopy, over longer times of 10-15 min or more distinct patterns in fluorescently labeled membrane components emerge. The fluorescent lipid Fl-PE (fluorescein phosphoethanolamine), in particular, is seen to diffuse and reorganize (eg. worm-like domains of <500 nm) within the contact zone, independent of whether the cell is intact or ruptured. Lipid patterns are accompanied by visible perturbations in band 3 distribution and weaker perturbations in membrane skeleton actin. Although fluorescent poly-L-lysine is shown to be uniform under cells, pressing down on the membrane quenches the lipid patterns and reveals the topographical basis for pattern formation. Regions of strong contact are thus separated by regions where the membrane is more distant from the surface.

  5. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Delaney, M. Keegan; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Du, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets are activated by adhesion to adhesive proteins like von Willebrand factor and collagen, or by soluble platelet agonists like ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. These adhesive proteins and soluble agonists induce signal transduction via their respective receptors. The various receptor-specific platelet activation signaling pathways converge into common signaling events, which stimulate platelet shape change, granule secretion, and ultimately induce the “inside-out” signaling process leading to activation of the ligand binding function of integrin ?IIb?3. Ligand binding to integrin ?IIb?3 mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers “outside-in” signaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction. It has become increasingly evident that agonist-induced platelet activation signals also crosstalk with integrin “outside-in” signals to regulate platelet responses. Platelet activation involves a series of rapid positive feedback loops that greatly amplify initial activation signals, and enable robust platelet recruitment and thrombus stabilization. Recent studies have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of these processes. PMID:21071698

  6. Advanced glycation endproducts interacting with their endothelial receptor induce expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in cultured human endothelial cells and in mice. A potential mechanism for the accelerated vasculopathy of diabetes.

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hori, O.; Chen, J. X.; Li, J. F.; Crandall, J.; Zhang, J.; Cao, R.; Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Brett, J.; Stern, David M.

    1995-09-01

    of the receptor (soluble RAGE) or N-acetylcysteine on VCAM-1 expression indicated that AGE-RAGE-induced oxidant stress was central to VCAM-1 induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays on nuclear extracts from AGE-treated ECs showed induction of specific DNA...

  7. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattranctant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, & soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men/women consuming fructose-or glucose-sweetened beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. The objective of this study was ...

  8. Cooperative adhesion and friction of compliant nanohairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinojwala, Ali; Ge, Liehui; Ci, Lijie; Goyal, Anubha; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-03-01

    The adhesion and friction behavior of soft materials, including compliant brushes and hairs, depends on the temporal and spatial evolution of the interfaces in contact. For compliant nanofibrous materials, the actual contact area of individual fibers make with surfaces depends on the preload applied upon contact. Using in-situ microscopy observations of preloaded nanotube hairs, we show how nanotubes make cooperative contact with a surface by buckling and conforming to the surface topography. The overall adhesion of compliant nanohairs increases with increasing preload as nanotubes deform and continuously add new side-wall contacts with the surface. Electrical resistance measurements indicate significant hysteresis in the relative contact area. Contact area increases with preload (or stress) and decreases suddenly during unloading, consistent with strong adhesion observed for these complaint nanohairs. National Science Foundation.

  9. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  10. Water based adhesive primers on aluminum substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, J.P.; Mori, S.

    1996-12-31

    The number of aluminum alloy bonding applications has been increasing recently in the automobile industry. Primer coating of aluminum substrates is one of the main processes used to promote bond performance. Solvent based organic primers have been used for a long time but environmental regulations now require the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by alternate materials such as water based adhesive primers. However, the bond strengths obtained with many water based primers are generally lower than for solvent based ones. Water based primers which have some reactive functional groups have been proposed recently but such primers require special treatment. This paper describes a study conducted to optimize bond strength using a water based adhesive as a primer in the adhesive bonding of anodized aluminum.

  11. [Inhibition of neutrophil adhesion by pectic galacturonans].

    PubMed

    Popov, S V; Ovodova, R G; Popova, G Iu; Nikitina, I R; Ovodov, Iu S

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of the adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin by the fragments of the main galacturonan chain of the following pectins was demonstrated: comaruman from the marsh cinquefoil Comarum polustre, bergenan from the Siberian tea Bergenia crassifolia, lemnan from the duckweed Lemna minor, zosteran from the seagrass Zostera marina, and citrus pectin. The parent pectins, except for comaruman, did not affect the cell adhesion. Galacturonans prepared from the starting pectins by acidic hydrolysis were shown to reduce the neutrophil adhesion stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (1.625 microM) and dithiothreitol (0.5 mM) at a concentration of 50-200 microg/ml. The presence of carbohydrate chains with molecular masses higher than 300, from 100 to 300, and from 50 to 100 kDa in the galacturonan fractions was proved by membrane ultrafiltration. PMID:17375675

  12. Evaluation of polyimide films as adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available LARC-TPI film and an experimentally prepared film of LARC-TPI with 5 mol pct of 4,4-prime-oxydianiline (ODA), designated as LARC-TPI/ODA, were evaluated as thermoplastic adhesive films for bonding Ti-6Al-4V. Lap shear strength was used to evaluate the materials as adhesives. They were characterized after fracture by determining the glass transition temperature, T(g). The mode of failure is also reported. Thermal exposure at 240 C for 500 and 1000 h and a 72-h water-boil were conducted on lap shear specimens prepared with the two adhesive films. Lap shear tests were conducted at room temperature, 177 C, 204 C, and 232 C before and after exposures.

  13. Optimizing Scale Adhesion on Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    To improve scale adhesion, single crystal superalloys have been desulfurized to levels below 1 ppmw by hydrogen annealing. A transition to fully adherent behavior has been shown to occur at a sulfur level of about 0.2 ppmw, as demonstrated for PWA 1480, PWA 1484, and Rene N5 single crystal superalloys in 1100-1150 C cyclic oxidation tests up to 2000 h. Small additions of yttrium (15 ppmw) also have been effective in producing adhesion for sulfur contents of about 5 ppmw. Thus the critical Y/S ratio required for adhesion was on the order of 3-to-1 by weight (1-to-1 atomic), in agreement with values estimated from solubility products for yttrium sulfides. While hydrogen annealing greatly improved an undoped alloy, yielding <= 0.01 ppmw S, it also produced benefits for Y-doped alloys without measurably reducing the sulfur content.

  14. Differential adhesiveness between blood and marrow leukemic cells having similar pattern of VLA adhesion molecule expression.

    PubMed

    Thomas, X; Anglaret, B; Bailly, M; Maritaz, O; Magaud, J P; Archimbaud, E

    1998-10-01

    Functional adhesion of blood and marrow leukemic cells from 14 acute myeloid leukemia patients presenting with hyperleukocytosis was evaluated by performing cytoadhesion assays on purified (extracellular matrix proteins) and non-purified supports (MRC5 fibroblastic cell line). Results, in 30-min chromium release assay, show a mean +/- S.D. adhesion to fibronectin, collagen, and laminin respectively of 30 +/- 17%, 20 +/- 13%, 25 +/- 17% for blood leukemic cells and 18 +/- 11%, 11 +/- 10%, 11 +/- 8% for marrow leukemic cells. These differences between blood and marrow cells were statistically significant (respectively P = 0.005, P = 0.01 and P = 0.002), while no difference was noted regarding adhesion to non-purified supports. The higher adhesion of blood blast cells to purified supports was observed regardless of CD34 expression. No significant difference was observed in the expression of cell surface VLA-molecules (CD29, CD49b, CD49d, CD49e, CD49f) between blood and marrow blast cells. The addition of GM-CSF or G-CSF induced increased adhesion of marrow blasts and decreased adhesion of blood blasts leading to a loss of the difference between blood and marrow cells. In a 60-min chromium release assay, marrow blasts adhered even more than blood leukemic cells to fibronectin. In contrast, marrow blasts from 'aleukemic' acute myeloid leukemia patients did not show any modification regarding their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins when co-cultured with growth factors. PMID:9766756

  15. Beetle adhesive hairs differ in stiffness and stickiness: in vivo adhesion measurements on individual setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James M. R.; Federle, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Leaf beetles are able to climb on smooth and rough surfaces using arrays of micron-sized adhesive hairs (setae) of varying morphology. We report the first in vivo adhesive force measurements of individual setae in the beetle Gastrophysa viridula, using a smooth polystyrene substrate attached to a glass capillary micro-cantilever. The beetles possess three distinct adhesive pads on each leg which differ in function and setal morphology. Visualisation of pull-offs allowed forces to be measured for each tarsal hair type. Male discoidal hairs adhered with the highest forces (919 ± 104 nN, mean ± SE), followed by spatulate (582 ± 59 nN) and pointed (127 ± 19 nN) hairs. Discoidal hairs were stiffer in the normal direction (0.693 ± 0.111 N m-1) than spatulate (0.364 ± 0.039 N m-1) or pointed (0.192 ± 0.044 N m-1) hairs. The greater adhesion on smooth surfaces and the higher stability of discoidal hairs help male beetles to achieve strong adhesion on the elytra of females during copulation. A comparison of pull-off forces measured for single setae and whole pads (arrays) revealed comparable levels of adhesive stress. This suggests that beetles are able to achieve equal load sharing across their adhesive pads so that detachment through peeling is prevented.

  16. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  17. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis: a review

    PubMed Central

    D’Orsi, Giovanni Maria; Via, Alessio Giai; Frizziero, Antonio; Oliva, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesive capsulitis is a condition “difficult to define, difficult to treat and difficult to explain from the point of view of pathology”. This Codman’s assertion is still actual because of a variable nomenclature, an inconsistent reporting of disease staging and many types of treatment. There is no consensus on how the best way best to manage patients with this condition, so we want to provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat adhesive capsulitis. PMID:23738277

  18. Adhesion of organosilicon coatings to fiber optics

    SciTech Connect

    Tolchinskaya, R.E.; Alexaeva, E.I.; Gorbatkina, Yu.A.

    1995-12-01

    Adhesive properties of organosilicon polymer coatings to fiber optics were studied. The primary coatings of SIEL type provided high bonding with quartz fibers depending on rubber molecular mass, crosslinking agent amount, time and temperature of curing process. Optimum compositions PAC were based on secondary coatings. PAC contained methyl-vinylsiloxy units in the siloxane chain. The strength decreased as the content of siloxane in block copolymer increased. STYK adhesive properties were better than of SIEL. PAC and STYK were cured by accelerated electrons beam. It gave many advantages and was better than thermal treatment of joints. Some predictions are discussed.

  19. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  20. Adhesion of moving droplets in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haosheng; Dong, Enkai; Li, Jiang; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-09-01

    When oil drops in a continuous water phase move from the hydrophilic to the hydrophobic section of a microchannel, they can be controlled to either adhere or not adhere on the channel by changing the capillary number. Using experiments and a model for the thin film flow, we show that the critical capillary number for adhesion is approximately Ca ˜ D3/4/d3/2, where D and d is the length of the droplet and the inner dimension of the microchannel, respectively. As one application of these ideas, droplet adhesion is demonstrated as a promising technology for recycling of emulsions in droplet microfluidics.

  1. The energetics of adhesion in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Philip Hiram

    Composite materials are used throughout modern society, and often the most important parameter in determining their properties is the adhesion at material interfaces within the composite. A broad investigation is completed, the global objective of which is to develop understanding of the role of adhesion in composite materials. The scope of this study ranges from macroscopic effects of adhesion on filled polymer composites to microscopic adhesion measurements with engineered interfaces. The surface of a filler material is systematically modified and surface characterization techniques are used to quantify the influence of the surface treatments on surface energetics and wetting properties. Filled polymer composites are prepared and composite mechanical properties determined with beam deflection tests. Filler surface treatments significantly alter the composite yield stress for composites which fail interfacially and are observed to increase or decrease mechanical strength, depending on the chemical nature of the modification. Thermodynamic adhesion mechanisms active at the filler-matrix interfaces are then explored by making direct interfacial strength measurements whereby a single spherical particle is introduced into the polymeric matrix. Interfacial strength is determined by submitting the single-particle composite (SPC) to uni-axial tension and relating the macroscopic stress at interfacial failure to that experienced at the interface. The technique provides a measurement of interfacial strength between two elastic materials, one unaffected by frictional forces, viscoelasticity, and thermal stresses. The SPC measurements are used to verify proposed adhesion mechanisms at the various filler-polymer interfaces and establish the role of adhesion in the filled polymer composites. The SPC technique is then used to investigate the adhesion promotion mechanism of organofunctional silanes, which are shown to be controlled by the compatibility and penetration of the silane organofunctional group. The effects of thermal residual stresses on interfacial strength are also investigated using the SPC technique. Processing conditions, i.e., time-temperature profiles, are used to systematically vary the thermal residual stresses within the polymeric matrix. The interfaces studied are deleteriously affected by increases in thermal residual stresses.

  2. Superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) surfaces with micro/nanostructures or nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Alioune; Darmanin, Thierry; Dieng, Samba Yandé; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Controlling the water adhesion is extremely important for various applications such as for water harvesting. Here, superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) substrates are both obtained from hydrophilic polymers. We show in the work that a judicious choice in the monomer structure used for electropolymerization can lead to these two properties. Using a phenyl group, parahydrophobic properties are reached due to the formation of nanofilaments. By contrast, using a naphthalene or a biphenyl group, superhydrophobic properties are obtained due the formation of both micro- and nanostructures. PMID:25965431

  3. 76 FR 51925 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket...adhesives, sealants, adhesive primers, and sealant primers do not exceed 400 pounds per...adhesives, sealants, adhesive primers or sealant primers, in...

  4. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    High temperature stable adhesive systems were evaluated for potential Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) vehicle applications. The program was divided into two major phases: Phase I 'Adhesive Screening' evaluated eleven selected polyimide (PI) and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) adhesive resins using eight different titanium (6Al-4V) adherend surface preparations; Phase II 'Adhesive Optimization and Characterization' extensively evaluated two adhesive systems, selected from Phase I studies, for chemical characterization and environmental durability. The adhesive systems which exhibited superior thermal and environmental bond properties were LARC-TPI polyimide and polyphenylquinoxaline both developed at NASA Langley. The latter adhesive system did develop bond failures at extended thermal aging due primarily to incompatibility between the surface preparation and the polymer. However, this study did demonstrate that suitable adhesive systems are available for extended supersonic cruise vehicle design applications.

  5. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3750 External prosthesis adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive...

  6. A controllably adhesive climbing robot using magnetorheological fluid

    E-print Network

    Wiltsie, Nicholas Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the novel adhesive effects of magnetorheological fluid for use in climbing robotics were experimentally measured and compared to existing cohesive failure fluid models of yield stress adhesion. These models ...

  7. Chemo-mechanical characterization of phase-separated dentin adhesives

    E-print Network

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan

    2013-08-31

    . The adhesive is composed of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic monomer pair, which phase separates upon interaction with dentinal water, resulting in variable chemical composition and pore structure of the adhesive in the interface. The phase separation has been...

  8. Focal adhesions as mechanosensors: the two-spring model

    E-print Network

    Ulrich S. Schwarz; Thorsten Erdmann; Ilka B. Bischofs

    2006-08-03

    Adhesion-dependent cells actively sense the mechanical properties of their environment through mechanotransductory processes at focal adhesions, which are integrin-based contacts connecting the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. Here we present first steps towards a quantitative understanding of focal adhesions as mechanosensors. It has been shown experimentally that high levels of force are related to growth of and signaling at focal adhesions. In particular, activation of the small GTPase Rho through focal adhesions leads to the formation of stress fibers. Here we discuss one way in which force might regulate the internal state of focal adhesions, namely by modulating the internal rupture dynamics of focal adhesions. A simple two-spring model shows that the stiffer the environment, the more efficient cellular force is built up at focal adhesions by molecular motors interacting with the actin filaments.

  9. How do liquids confined at the nanoscale influence adhesion?

    E-print Network

    C. Yang; U. Tartaglino; B. N. J. Persson

    2006-12-06

    Liquids play an important role in adhesion and sliding friction. They behave as lubricants in human bodies especially in the joints. However, in many biological attachment systems they acts like adhesives, e.g. facilitating insects to move on ceilings or vertical walls. Here we use molecular dynamics to study how liquids confined at the nanoscale influence the adhesion between solid bodies with smooth and rough surfaces. We show that a monolayer of liquid may strongly affect the adhesion.

  10. Adhesion of epoxy binders to the surface of boron fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shul', G.S.; Shchukina, L.A.; Gorbatkina, Yu.A.; Ivanova-Mumzhieva, V.G; Shkirkova, L.M.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigate wetting and the adhesive strength in the interaction of boron fibers with a number of widely used epoxy matrices. Evaluating adhesion of boron fibers is done on monofilaments. The adhesion of some binders to steel wire was also studied. The physicomechanical characteristics of epoxy composites and their adhesive strength in interaction with boron fibers and steel wire are shown, as are the properties of epoxy resorcin composites hardened at lowered temperatures.

  11. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  12. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  13. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  14. An Adhesion Model for the Drag Force

    E-print Network

    Dan Comanescu

    2008-01-28

    The paper present a model for the drag force between a resistive medium and a solid body using the hypothesis that the drag force is created by the adhesion of some particles of the resistive medium on the solid body's surface. The study focus on the mass evolution of the solid body.

  15. Cure-rate data for silicone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C.; Fisher, A.

    1978-01-01

    Report describes work with concentrations down to 0.07 percent and is useful when applying adhesives in terrestrial and space applications. Cured Silicone retains low-outgassing properties as well as its snap, elongation, and resilience. Tests for hardness of silicone material also showed good results. No gross hysteresis observable on recovery from stretching nor was there any decrease in hardness.

  16. The role of material properties in adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  17. Discovery of low mucus adhesion surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Minghao; Yildiz, Hasan; Carrier, Rebecca; Belfort, Georges

    2013-02-01

    Mucus secretion from the body is ubiquitous, and finding materials that resist mucus adhesion is a major technological challenge. Here, using a high throughput platform with photo-induced graft polymerization, we first rapidly synthesized, screened and tested a library of 55 different surfaces from six functional monomer classes to discover porcine intestinal low mucus adhesion surfaces using a 1h static mucus adsorption protocol. From this preliminary screen, two chemistries, a zwitterionic ([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride) and a multiple hydroxyl (N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide) surface, exhibited significantly low mucus adhesion from a Langmuir-type isotherm when exposed to increasing concentrations of mucus for 24 h. Apolar or hydrophobic interactions were likely the dominant attractive forces during mucus binding since many polar or hydrophilic monomers reduced mucus adhesion. Hansen solubility parameters were used to illustrate the importance of monomer polarity and hydrogen bonding in reducing mucus adsorption. For a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) monomers with changing molecular weight from 144 g mol?¹ to 1100 g mol?¹, we observed an excellent linear correlation (R²=0.998) between relative amount adsorbed and the distance from a water point in a specialized Hansen solubility parameter plot, emphasizing the role of surface-water interactions for PEG modified surfaces. PMID:23072828

  18. Guest editorial, special issue on biobased adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a preface for a special issue that showcases significant developments on adhesives made with biorenewable materials, such as agricultural crops (soybean, corn), plant extractives (bark, tannins), and marine sources (mussels). This collection of pioneering studies and reviews on bioba...

  19. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

    1984-03-30

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

  20. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Janet A. (Richland, WA); Riemath, William F. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

  1. Adhesion of D. discoideum on Hydrophobic Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Ploscariu, Nicoleta

    2015-03-01

    Adhesion by amoeboid cells, such as D. discoideum, is poorly understood but critical for other behaviors such as phagocytosis and migration. Furthermore, both leucocytes and breast cancer cells employ the amoeboid mode of movement at various points in their life-cycles. Hence, improved knowledge of amoeboid adhesion may lead to be new strategies for controlling other important cellular processes. This study regards adhesion by D. discoideum on silanized glass substrates. Reflection interference contrast microscopy is used in conjunction with other methods to determine the contact angle, cell-medium interfacial energy, and adhesion energy of these cells. The contact angle of individual cells settling under gravity onto a substrate is observed to increase as the size of the contact patch increases. This behavior occurs on slower time-scales than expected for the settling of inert vesicles. The implications of this observation on the nature of the underlying forces will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-646966.

  2. Interfacial adhesion at the molecular level

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Michalske, T.A.; Crooks, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    Interfacial adhesion is of extraordinary technological importance and has long been of intense scientific interest. However, the study of the adhesive bond and its failure is made difficult by the complexity of the interfacial interaction and the problems involved with establishing carefully characterized and controlled interfacial surfaces and that of quantitatively evaluating the bonding after its formation. In the present work, we outline the results of studies using Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) to study the adhesive bond formation and failure between (1) differing end-group combinations on self-assembling monolayer (SAM) films covering Au surfaces and (2) between clean surfaces of a W probe and a Au single-crystal sample. The IFM is a scanning probe technique distinguished by its use of a mechanically stable, zero-compliance force sensor. This sensor permits the study of the interfacial force as a function of separation without the mechanical instability giving rise to the {open_quotes}jump-to-contact{close_quotes} seen in all presently used displacement-based sensors, such as the surface forces apparatus and the atomic force microscope. Thus, information can be obtained concerning the details of the adhesive bond formation and failure over the entire range of the interfacial interaction. We demonstrate that such measurements yield valuable quantitative information concerning the individual bond strengths between chemically distinct SAM end groups and show that the clean metal-surface interaction is dominated by surface roughness and plastic deformation.

  3. High-temperature adhesives for polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Slemp, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Linear condensation polyimides which are high-temperature polymers show promise as adhesives which form flexible film coatings compatible with polyimide films. Materials are advantageous since they can be supplied as flexible tape, already B-staged and ready for bonding.

  4. Adhesive transfer of thin viscoelastic films.

    PubMed

    Shull, Kenneth R; Martin, Elizabeth F; Drzal, Peter L; Hersam, Mark C; Markowitz, Alison R; McSwain, Rachel L

    2005-01-01

    Micellar suspensions of acrylic diblock copolymers are excellent model materials for studying the adhesive transfer of viscoelastic solids. The micellar structure is maintained in films with a variety of thicknesses, giving films with a well-defined structure and viscoelastic character. Thin films were cast onto elastomeric silicone substrates from micellar suspensions in butanol, and the adhesive interactions between these coated elastomeric substrates and a rigid indenter were quantified. By controlling the adhesive properties of the film/indenter and film/substrate interfaces we were able to obtain very clean transfer of the film from the substrate to the portion of the glass indenter with which the film was in contact. Adhesive failure at the film/substrate interface occurs when the film/indenter interface is able to support an applied energy release rate that is sufficient to result in cavity nucleation at the film/substrate interface. Cavity formation is rapidly followed by delamination of the entire region under the indenter. The final stage in the transfer process involves the failure of the film that bridges the indenter and the elastomeric substrate. This film is remarkably robust and is extended to three times its original width prior to failure. Failure of this film occurs at the periphery of the indenter, giving a transferred film that conforms to the original contact area between the indenter and the coated substrate. PMID:15620300

  5. Adhesive Transfer of Thin Viscoelastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Micellar suspensions of acrylic diblock copolymers are excellent model materials for studying the adhesive transfer of viscoelastic solids. The micellar structure is maintained in films with a variety of thicknesses, giving films with a well-defined structure and viscoelastic character. Thin films were cast onto elastomeric silicone substrates from micellar suspensions in butanol, and the adhesive interactions between these coated elastomeric substrates and a rigid indenter were quantified. By controlling the adhesive properties of the film/indenter and film/substrate interfaces we were able to obtain very clean transfer of the film from the substrate to the portion of the glass indenter with which the film was in contact. Adhesive failure at the film/substrate begins with the nucleation of a cavity at the film/substrate interface, followed by complete delamination of this interface. The final stage in the transfer process involves the failure of the film that bridges the indenter and the elastomeric substrate at the periphery of the contact area. This film is remarkably robust, and is extended to three times its original length prior to failure. Failure of this film occurs at the periphery of the indenter, giving a transferred film that conforms to the original contact area between the indenter and the coated substrate.

  6. Processing study of a polyimidesulfone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    An adhesive bonding process cycle study was performed for a polyimidesulfone (PISO2) recently developed as a promising structural adhesive. The high molecular weight, linear aromatic system possesses properties which make it attractive as a processable, low-cost material for elevated temperature applications. The results of a study to better understand the parameters that affect the adhesive properties of the polymer for titanium alloy adherends are detailed. These include the tape preparation, the use of a primer, and press and simulated autoclave processing conditions. The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, glass transition temperature determination, flow measurements, and weight loss measurements. The adhesive's strength determined by lap shear strength tests was used to evaluate the effects of the bonding process variations. Higher lap shear strengths were obtained at room temperature when a primer (PISO2) was used; however, the results were the same at 232 C (450 F) with or without a primer. The use of a vacuum (simulated autoclave cycle) during titanium bonding produced similar lap shear strengths to those specimens bonded without a vacuum.

  7. Bioinspired Multifunctional Au Nanostructures with Switchable Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiu; Wu, Yunwen; Zhang, Junhong; Hang, Tao; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning of cicada wings, well-aligned Au-coated Ni nanocone arrays (Au@Ni NAs) have been fabricated by a simple and cheap electrodeposition method. After surface modification of n-hexadecanethiol, self-cleaning can be realized on this long-lived superhydrophobic surface with extremely low adhesive force. Switchable adhesion is obtained on its complementary porous surface. The porous Au structure is fabricated by a geometric replica of the nanocone arrays. After the same surface modification, it shows superhydrophobicity with high adhesion. The different adhesive behaviors on the two lock-and-key Au structures are ascribed to their different contact modes with a water droplet. Combining the superhydrophobic properties of the two complementary structures, they can be used to transport precious microdroplets without any loss. The bioinspired periodic Au@Ni NAs can also be potentially employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates due to its electromagnetic enhancement effect, especially at the tips of the nanocones. Thus, superhydrophobic, SERS, long-lived, self-cleaning, microtransportation functions are realized on the basis of the two surfaces. PMID:26391725

  8. Improved adhesion for thermoplastic polymers using oxyfluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achereiner, F.; Münstedt, H.; Zeiler, T.

    2008-03-01

    Industrial applications of thermoplastic polymers are often limited by their poor adhesion properties. In this work the effect of surface oxyfluorination on the adhesion properties was investigated for polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyamide 6 (PA6). The adhesive joint strength was quantified using lap-shear tests. These results were correlated with the changes in the chemical composition of the surface, determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in the surface free energy, measured by the contact angle method, and in the topography, using white-light confocal microscopy. The adhesive strength is strongly improved for all four polymers, but the degree of this increase depends on the polymer type. The surface free energy shows a similar trend for all four polymers. A high surface free energy exceeding 50 mN/m was observed after oxy-fluorination, whereby the polar component was strongly predominant. Surface topography measurements show no significant increase of the surface roughness. So the effect of oxyfluorination results primarily in increased wettability and polarity, due to changes of the chemical composition of the surface. XPS measurements confirm the integration of fluorine and oxygen groups in the polymer chain, which correlates with the increased polarity.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  10. Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Maria Tereza; Nascimento, Antônio Galvão; Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified), Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204–1 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204–1. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation. PMID:24031246

  11. Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; Jorgenson, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90deg or 180deg and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are Lt1 N/mm. This is far below the normal ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

  12. Adhesion and cohesion in structures containing suspended microscopic polymeric films

    E-print Network

    Shan, Wanliang

    Adhesion and cohesion in structures containing suspended microscopic polymeric films W.L. Shan a 2011 Accepted 12 December 2011 Available online 16 December 2011 Keywords: Adhesive strength Cohesive presents a novel technique for the characterization of adhesion and cohesion in suspended micro

  13. Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems Hartmut Ehrig1 , Annegret Habel2 , Julia.habel@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract. Adhesive high-level replacement (HLR) categories and sys- tems are introduced as a new of HLR systems with the new concept of adhesive categories introduced by Lack and Soboci

  14. Adhesive contact delaminating at mixed mode, its thermodynamics and analysis

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Riccarda

    Adhesive contact delaminating at mixed mode, its thermodynamics and analysis Riccarda Rossi.roubicek@mff.cuni.cz Abstract An adhesive unilateral contact problem between visco-elastic heat-conductive bodies in lin- ear Kelvin-Voigt rheology is scrutinised. The flow-rule for debonding the adhesive is considered rate

  15. M, N -Adhesive Transformation Systems Annegret Habel1

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    M, N -Adhesive Transformation Systems Annegret Habel1 and Detlef Plump2 1 Carl von Ossietzky.plump@york.ac.uk Abstract. The categorical framework of M-adhesive transformation systems does not cover graph, and are commonly used in graph transformation languages. In this paper, we gen- eralise M-adhesive transformation

  16. Multi-scale Cohesive Failure Modeling of Heterogeneous Adhesives

    E-print Network

    Geubelle, Philippe H.

    Multi-scale Cohesive Failure Modeling of Heterogeneous Adhesives Philippe Geubelle, Mohan Kulkarni, Florida Support: National Science Foundation (CMMI 05-27965) #12;2 Motivation: High-Toughness Adhesives Adhesives are often the weak links in bonded structures Heterogeneities enhance mechanical and fracture

  17. 7 CFR 3201.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 3201.16 Section 3201.16... Designated Items § 3201.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue,...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 2902.16 Section 2902.16... Items § 2902.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue, tape, and...

  19. Adhesivity is not enough: Local Church-Rosser revisited

    E-print Network

    Baldan, Paolo

    Adhesivity is not enough: Local Church-Rosser revisited Paolo Baldan1 , Fabio Gadducci2 , and Pawel Abstract. Adhesive categories provide an abstract setting for the double- pushout approach to rewriting, including the local Church-Rosser theorem, can be proven in adhesive categories, provided that one restricts

  20. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 3201.16 Section 3201.16... Designated Items § 3201.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue,...

  2. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  3. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  4. Adhesive Categories Stephen Lack1 and Pawel Sobocinski2

    E-print Network

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    Adhesive Categories Stephen Lack1 and Pawel Soboci´nski2 1 School of Quantitative Methods. We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along on arbitrary adhesive categories. Introduction Recently there has been renewed interest in reasoning using

  5. Metallic adhesion and tunnelling at the atomic A Schirmeisen1

    E-print Network

    Grütter, Peter

    Metallic adhesion and tunnelling at the atomic scale A Schirmeisen1 , G Cross1 , A Stalder1 , P Gr scaling parameter of = 0.2 nm. We conclude that not only the apex atoms contribute to the adhesion forces are discussed. The study of metallic adhesion on the atomic scale lays the foundation for the understanding

  6. Adhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Adhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures Robert J. Hohlfelder; accepted 10 October 2000) Adhesion and subcritical debonding at interfaces between a silica-filled epoxy investigated. Adhesion was measured in terms of a critical value of the applied strain energy release rate, G

  7. 7 CFR 2902.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 2902.16 Section 2902.16... Items § 2902.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue, tape, and...

  8. Adhesion at Poly(Butylacrylate)Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Nicolas Amouroux

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    Adhesion at Poly(Butylacrylate)­Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Interfaces Nicolas Amouroux ARKEMA K. K of the adhesion modulation mechanisms of silica-like nanoparticles (MQ resins) incorporated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elasto- mers and acrylic adhesives. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) test has been used

  9. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  10. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  11. How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,,

    E-print Network

    Dinner, Aaron

    How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,, Ying Li,, and Aaron R. Dinner the thermodynamics and kinetics of integrin receptor binding and clustering impact the formation of focal adhesions in their environment. Cells on chemically well-defined surfaces were observed to have distributions of focal adhesions

  12. Adhesion and reinforcement in carbon nanotube polymer composite Chenyu Weia

    E-print Network

    Wei, Chenyu

    Adhesion and reinforcement in carbon nanotube polymer composite Chenyu Weia NASA Ames Research; published online 28 February 2006 Temperature dependent adhesion behavior and reinforcement in carbon investigated as multifunctional materials for electric and thermal applications.6­8 The adhesion behavior

  13. 7 CFR 3201.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 3201.16 Section 3201.16... Designated Items § 3201.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue,...

  14. Adhesion Science: Recent Developments and Prospects Wednesday September 15, 2010

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Frank

    Adhesion Science: Recent Developments and Prospects Wednesday September 15, 2010 Babbio 122, NOON Dr. Kash Mittal Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology The phenomenon of adhesion is of crucial importance in many nanotechnology areas (e.g., MEMS/NEMS devices, microfluidics, Lab

  15. Orientation angle and the adhesion of single gecko setae

    E-print Network

    Orientation angle and the adhesion of single gecko setae Ginel C. Hill1,*,, Daniel R. Soto1, Anne M on the adhesion of single gecko setae using dual-axis microelectromechanical systems force sensors and manufacture of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with anisotropic properties, an area of substantial recent

  16. Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    of material surfaces controlling adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and subsequent colony growth Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common agent of infection,1,3 exceeding the infection rate of methicillin mechanoselective adhesion of prokaryotes such as these bacteria. We find that adhesion of viable S. epidermidis

  17. Factors dominating adhesion of NaCl onto potato chips.

    PubMed

    Buck, V E; Barringer, S A

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the adhesion factors examined were time between frying and coating, surface oil content, chip temperature, oil composition, NaCl size, NaCl shape, and electrostatic coating. Three different surface oil content potato chips, high, low, and no, were produced. Oils used were soybean, olive, corn, peanut, and coconut. After frying, chips were coated immediately, after 1 d, and after 1 mo. NaCl crystals of 5 different particle sizes (24.7, 123, 259, 291, and 388 microm) were coated both electrostatically and nonelectrostatically. Adhesion of cubic, dendritic, and flake crystals was examined. Chips were coated at different temperatures. Chips with high surface oil had the highest adhesion of salt, making surface oil content the most important factor. Decreasing chip temperature decreased surface oil and adhesion. Increasing time between frying and coating reduced adhesion for low surface oil chips, but did not affect high and no surface oil chips. Changing oil composition did not affect adhesion. Increasing salt size decreased adhesion. Salt size had a greater effect on chips with lower surface oil content. When there were significant differences, cubic crystals gave the best adhesion followed by flake crystals then dendritic crystals. For high and low surface oil chips, electrostatic coating did not change adhesion of small size crystals but decreased adhesion of large salts. For no surface oil content chips, electrostatic coating improved adhesion for small salt sizes but did not affect adhesion of large crystals. PMID:17995602

  18. Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water

    E-print Network

    Klein, Jacob

    Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Wuge H. Briscoe Physical friction between two surfaces in adhesive contact with the loading­unloading adhesion hysteresis between them. We then examine in light of this model the observed low friction between two mica surfaces coated

  19. Mechanical properties of Hysol EA-9394 structural adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D.; Stavig, M.E.

    1995-02-01

    Dextor`s Hysol EA-9394 is a room temperature curable paste adhesive representative of the adhesives used in wind turbine blade joints. A mechanical testing program has been performed to characterize this adhesive. Tension, compression stress relaxation, flexural, butt tensile, and fracture toughness test results are reported.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in the fabrication and adhesion testing of biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-10-01

    In the past two years, there have been a large number of publications on the topic of biomimetic dry adhesives from modeling, fabrication and testing perspectives. We review and compare the most recent advances in fabrication and testing of these materials. While there is increased convergence and consensus as to what makes a good dry adhesive, the fabrication of these materials is still challenging, particularly for anisotropic or hierarchal designs. Although qualitative comparisons between different adhesive designs can be made, quantifying the exact performance and rating each design is significantly hampered by the lack of standardized testing methods. Manufacturing dry adhesives, which can reliably adhere to rough surfaces, show directional and self-cleaning behavior and are relatively simple to manufacture, is still very challenging—great strides by multiple research groups have however made these goals appear achievable within the next few years.

  1. Leptin-mediated regulation of ICAM-1 is Rho/ROCK dependent and enhances gastric cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Z; Fu, S; Xu, X; Yang, Y; Du, L; Li, W; Kan, S; Li, Z; Zhang, X; Wang, L; Li, J; Liu, H; Qu, X; Wang, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our previous study indicates that leptin enhances gastric cancer (GC) invasion. However, the exact effect of leptin on GC metastasis and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a major molecule in stabilising cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, is overexpressed and has crucial roles in tumour metastasis. Methods: Here, we investigated leptin and ICAM-1 expression in GC tissues. Furthermore, we characterised the influence of leptin on ICAM-1 expression in GC cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Results: Leptin and ICAM-1 were overexpressed in GC tissues, and a strong positive correlation was observed. They were also related with clinical stage or lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, leptin induced GC cell (AGS and MKN-45) migration by upregulating ICAM-1, and knockdown of ICAM-1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) blocked this process. Cell surface ICAM-1, as well as soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), was also enhanced by leptin. Moreover, leptin increased ICAM-1 expression through Rho/ROCK pathway, which was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Rho (C3 transferase) or its downstream effector kinase Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) (Y-27632). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that leptin enhances GC cell migration by increasing ICAM-1 through Rho/ROCK pathway, which might provide new insight into the significance of leptin in GC. PMID:24548863

  2. Assessment of piezoelectric sensor adhesive bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandowski, T.; Moll, J.; Malinowski, P.; Opoka, S.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are widely utilized in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). They are used both in guided wave-based and electromechanical impedance-based methods. Transducer debonding or unevenly distributed glue underneath the transducer reduce the performance and reliability of the SHM system. Therefore, quality assessment methods for glue layer need to be developed. In this paper, the authors present results obtained from two methods that allow the quality assessment of adhesive bonds of piezoelectric transducers. The electromechanical impedance method is utilized to analyze transducer adhesive bonding. An improperly prepared bonding layer is a source for changes in the electromechanical impedance characteristics in comparison to a perfectly bonded transducer. In the resistance characteristics of the properly bonded transducer the resonance peaks of the structure were clearly visible. In the case when adhesive layer is not equally distributed under sensor, the amplitudes of structural resonance peaks are reduced. In the case of completely detached transducer, the structural resonance peaks disappear and only resonance peaks of the transducer itself are visible. These peaks (peaks of free transducer hanging on wires) are significantly larger than the resonance peaks of the investigated structure in the considered frequency interval. The bonding layer shape is also analyzed using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy in reflection mode. This method allows to visualize the adhesive layer distribution based on C-scan analysis. C-scans of signals or envelope-detected signals can be used to estimate the area of proper adhesion between bonding agent and transducer and hence provides a more quantitative approach towards transducer inspection.

  3. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Erli, Hans J; Marx, Rudolf; Paar, Othmar; Niethard, Fritz U; Weber, Michael; Wirtz, Dieter C

    2003-01-01

    Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties) usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m). This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body. PMID:14561228

  4. Humidity-enhanced wet adhesion on insect-inspired fibrillar adhesive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Eichler-Volf, Anna; Steinhart, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-03-01

    Many insect species reversibly adhere to surfaces by combining contact splitting (contact formation via fibrillar contact elements) and wet adhesion (supply of liquid secretion via pores in the insects’ feet). Here, we fabricate insect-inspired fibrillar pads for wet adhesion containing continuous pore systems through which liquid is supplied to the contact interfaces. Synergistic interaction of capillarity and humidity-induced pad softening increases the pull-off force and the work of adhesion by two orders of magnitude. This increase and the independence of pull-off force on the applied load are caused by the capillarity-supported formation of solid-solid contact between pad and the surface. Solid-solid contact dominates adhesion at high humidity and capillarity at low humidity. At low humidity, the work of adhesion strongly depends on the amount of liquid deposited on the surface and, therefore, on contact duration. These results may pave the way for the design of insect-inspired adhesive pads.

  5. Hierarchical macroscopic fibrillar adhesives: in situ study of buckling and adhesion mechanisms on wavy substrates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina T; Kroner, Elmar; Fleck, Norman A; Arzt, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Nature uses hierarchical fibrillar structures to mediate temporary adhesion to arbitrary substrates. Such structures provide high compliance such that the flat fibril tips can be better positioned with respect to asperities of a wavy rough substrate. We investigated the buckling and adhesion of hierarchically structured adhesives in contact with flat smooth, flat rough and wavy rough substrates. A macroscopic model for the structural adhesive was fabricated by molding polydimethylsiloxane into pillars of diameter in the range of 0.3-4.8 mm, with up to three different hierarchy levels. Both flat-ended and mushroom-shaped hierarchical samples buckled at preloads one quarter that of the single level structures. We explain this behavior by a change in the buckling mode; buckling leads to a loss of contact and diminishes adhesion. Our results indicate that hierarchical structures can have a strong influence on the degree of adhesion on both flat and wavy substrates. Strategies are discussed that achieve highly compliant substrates which adhere to rough substrates. PMID:26496128

  6. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  7. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  8. Changes in elastic modulus of adhesive and adhesive-infiltrated dentin during storage in water.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Genta; Inage, Hirohiko; Kawamoto, Ryo; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takubo, Chikako; Tamura, Yukie; Koga, Kensaku; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic modulus of components at the resin-dentin interface with the use of an ultrasound device. Dentin slabs were obtained from freshly extracted bovine incisors shaped into a rectangular form. After demineralization, the dentin specimens were immersed in adhesives and polymerized. Adhesives were also polymerized and trimmed into the same shape as the dentin slabs. The specimens were then immersed in distilled water at 37 degrees C for up to one year. The ultrasound equipment employed in this study was a Pulser-Receiver, transducers and an oscilloscope. By measuring the longitudinal and shear wave sound velocities, the elastic modulus was determined. When the elastic modulus of adhesive resin-infiltrated demineralized dentin was compared with that of adhesives, slightly but significantly lower values were found for adhesives used in a self-etching primer system. On the other hand, a higher elastic modulus was observed for resin-infiltrated dentin than for an adhesive used in an etch and rinse system. The elastic modulus of the resin-infiltrated dentin prepared with the etch and rinse system was affected by long-term storage in distilled water. PMID:19106478

  9. Rheology and adhesion of poly(acrylic acid)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels as biocompatible adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shen, Muxian; Li, Li; Sun, Yimin; Xu, Jun; Guo, Xuhong; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2014-02-18

    Biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) consisting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and nanosized clay (Laponite) were successfully synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solutions of Laponite. The obtained NC gels were uniform and transparent. Their viscosity, storage modulus G', and loss modulus G? increased significantly upon increasing the content of Laponite and the dose of AA, while exhibiting a maximum with increasing the neutralization degree of AA. They showed tunable adhesion by changing the dose of Laponite and monomer as well as the neutralization degree of AA, as determined by 180° peel strength measurement. The maximal adhesion was shown when reaching a balance between cohesion and fluidity. A homemade Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) instrument was employed to study the surface adhesion behavior of the NC gels. The combination of peel strength, rheology, and JKR measurements offers the opportunity of insight into the mechanism of adhesion of hydrogels. The NC gels with tunable adhesion should be ideal candidates for dental adhesive, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. PMID:24460239

  10. Humidity-enhanced wet adhesion on insect-inspired fibrillar adhesive pads

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Eichler-Volf, Anna; Steinhart, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species reversibly adhere to surfaces by combining contact splitting (contact formation via fibrillar contact elements) and wet adhesion (supply of liquid secretion via pores in the insects’ feet). Here, we fabricate insect-inspired fibrillar pads for wet adhesion containing continuous pore systems through which liquid is supplied to the contact interfaces. Synergistic interaction of capillarity and humidity-induced pad softening increases the pull-off force and the work of adhesion by two orders of magnitude. This increase and the independence of pull-off force on the applied load are caused by the capillarity-supported formation of solid–solid contact between pad and the surface. Solid–solid contact dominates adhesion at high humidity and capillarity at low humidity. At low humidity, the work of adhesion strongly depends on the amount of liquid deposited on the surface and, therefore, on contact duration. These results may pave the way for the design of insect-inspired adhesive pads. PMID:25791574

  11. Microtubule-Dependent Modulation of Adhesion Complex Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Daniel H. J.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Byron, Adam; Millon-Frémillon, Angélique; Humphries, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule network regulates the turnover of integrin-containing adhesion complexes to stimulate cell migration. Disruption of the microtubule network results in an enlargement of adhesion complex size due to increased RhoA-stimulated actomyosin contractility, and inhibition of adhesion complex turnover; however, the microtubule-dependent changes in adhesion complex composition have not been studied in a global, unbiased manner. Here we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to determine adhesion complex changes that occur upon microtubule disruption with nocodazole. Nocodazole-treated cells displayed an increased abundance of the majority of known adhesion complex components, but no change in the levels of the fibronectin-binding ?5?1 integrin. Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed these findings, but revealed a change in localisation of adhesion complex components. Specifically, in untreated cells, ?5-integrin co-localised with vinculin at peripherally located focal adhesions and with tensin at centrally located fibrillar adhesions. In nocodazole-treated cells, however, ?5-integrin was found in both peripherally located and centrally located adhesion complexes that contained both vinculin and tensin, suggesting a switch in the maturation state of adhesion complexes to favour focal adhesions. Moreover, the switch to focal adhesions was confirmed to be force-dependent as inhibition of cell contractility with the Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, prevented the nocodazole-induced conversion. These results highlight a complex interplay between the microtubule cytoskeleton, adhesion complex maturation state and intracellular contractile force, and provide a resource for future adhesion signaling studies. The proteomics data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001183. PMID:25526367

  12. Green Tea minimally affects Biomarkers of Inflammation in Obese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J.; Betts, Nancy M.; Blevins, Steve; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has shown to exert cardio-protective benefits in observational studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of green tea on features of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in obese subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five subjects [age (mean±SE) 42.5±1.7 years, BMI 36.1±1.3 kg/m2] completed the 8-week study and were randomly assigned to receive green tea (4 cups/day), green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/day), or no treatment (4 cups water/day). Both the beverage and extract groups had similar dosing of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active green tea polyphenol. Fasting blood samples were collected at screening, four, and eight weeks of the study. Results Green tea beverage or extract supplementation did not significantly alter features of metabolic syndrome or biomarkers of inflammation including adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), leptin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio. However, both green tea beverage and extracts significantly reduced plasma serum amyloid alpha (SAA) versus no treatment (p<0.005). Conclusion This study suggests that the daily consumption of green tea beverage or extracts for 8 weeks was well tolerated but did not affect the features of metabolic syndrome. However, green tea significantly reduced plasma SAA, an independent CVD risk factor, in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20605696

  13. Universal adhesive (glue composition) for electrical porcelain products

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Belen'kaya, E.S.; Omel'chenko, Y.A.; Vinogradova, T.K.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an adhesive for porcelain insulators that exhibits high physicomechanical properties and increased resistance to the simultaneous action of heat and moisture. One method of solving this problem is to introduce special additives possessing hydrophobic (waterrepelling) properties into the adhesive composition during the process of its preparation. The adhesive based on the ED-20 epoxy resin and TEA hardened with 5 parts of AF-2 additive possesses higher resistance to the action of heat and moisture as compared to the adhesive used at the present time for assembling insulators. The improved and stable physiomechanical properties of the developed adhesive permit its use in any climactic conditions.

  14. The many faces of cell adhesion during Drosophila muscle development.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Aidan P; Brown, Nicholas H

    2015-05-01

    Muscle development involves a series of morphogenetic events including cell fusion, migration and epidermal attachment. At various points in this complex developmental program, regulation of muscle-muscle and muscle-epidermal adhesion is crucial. One of the best-characterised adhesion events is the formation of stable, integrin-based adhesions at the attachment sites formed between the ends of muscles and epidermal cells, but other adhesion mechanisms are involved in earlier stages. Here we review recent work from Drosophila on the role of adhesion during muscle development, situating integrin function within the wider developmental program. PMID:25596335

  15. Quantitative methods for analyzing cell-cell adhesion in development.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Franz, Clemens M

    2015-05-01

    During development cell-cell adhesion is not only crucial to maintain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, it also activates signalling pathways important for the regulation of different cellular processes including cell survival, gene expression, collective cell migration and differentiation. Importantly, gene mutations of adhesion receptors can cause developmental disorders and different diseases. Quantitative methods to measure cell adhesion are therefore necessary to understand how cells regulate cell-cell adhesion during development and how aberrations in cell-cell adhesion contribute to disease. Different in vitro adhesion assays have been developed in the past, but not all of them are suitable to study developmentally-related cell-cell adhesion processes, which usually requires working with low numbers of primary cells. In this review, we provide an overview of different in vitro techniques to study cell-cell adhesion during development, including a semi-quantitative cell flipping assay, and quantitative single-cell methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) or dual micropipette aspiration (DPA). Furthermore, we review applications of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular tension sensors to visualize intracellular mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion sites. Finally, we describe a recently introduced method to quantitate cell-generated forces directly in living tissues based on the deformation of oil microdroplets functionalized with adhesion receptor ligands. Together, these techniques provide a comprehensive toolbox to characterize different cell-cell adhesion phenomena during development. PMID:25448695

  16. The Effects of Leaf Roughness, Surface Free Energy and Work of Adhesion on Leaf Water Drop Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion of water droplets to leaves is important in controlling rainfall interception, and affects a variety of hydrological processes. Leaf water drop adhesion (hereinafter, adhesion) depends not only on droplet formulation and parameters but also on the physical (leaf roughness) and physico-chemical (surface free energy, its components, and work-of-adhesion) properties of the leaf surface. We selected 60 plant species from Shaanxi Province, NW China, as experimental materials with the goal of gaining insight into leaf physical and physico-chemical properties in relation to the adhesion of water droplets on leaves. Adhesion covered a wide range of area, from 4.09 to 88.87 g/m2 on adaxial surfaces and 0.72 to 93.35 g/m2 on abaxial surfaces. Distinct patterns of adhesion were observed among species, between adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and between leaves with wax films and wax crystals. Adhesion decreased as leaf roughness increased (r?=? ?0.615, p?=?0.000), but there were some outliers, such as Salix psammophila and Populus simonii with low roughness and low adhesion, and the abaxial surface of Hyoscyamus pusillus and the adaxial surface of Vitex negundo with high roughness and high adhesion. Meanwhile, adhesion was positively correlated with surface free energy (r?=?0.535, p?=?0.000), its dispersive component (r?=?0.526, p?=?0.000), and work of adhesion for water (r?=?0.698, p?=?0.000). However, a significant power correlation was observed between adhesion and the polar component of surface free energy (p?=?0.000). These results indicated that leaf roughness, surface free energy, its components, and work-of-adhesion for water played important roles in hydrological characteristics, especially work-of-adhesion for water. PMID:25198355

  17. A novel region of the alpha4 integrin subunit with a modulatory role in VLA-4-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M; Serrador, J; Nieto, M; Luque, A; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Teixidó, J

    1997-01-01

    The integrin VLA-4 (alpha4 beta1) is a receptor for fibronectin and vascular cell-adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Four functionally different epitopes, designated A, B1, B2 and C, have previously been defined on the alpha4 subunit. Using K562 alpha4 mutant transfectants we found that alpha4 amino acids Tyr151, Gln152, Asp153, Tyr154 and Val155 are important for the structure of the epitope B2. Mutations at alpha4 Gln152 substantially impaired the transfectant adhesion to a CS-1-containing fragment of fibronectin (FN-H89), whereas this adhesion was not affected on the other alpha4 mutant transfectants. None of the alpha4 mutations significantly altered the adhesion of the different alpha4 transfectants to VCAM-1. In addition, we have identified residues Gln152, Asp153 and Tyr154 as part of the alpha4 epitope B2 involved in homotypic cell aggregation. The decrease in adhesion to FN-H89 shown by Gln152 alpha4 mutant transfectants was the result of an inefficient binding of FN-H89 by VLA-4 mutated at this residue. Also, mutant VLA-4 displayed an altered reactivity with HUTS-21, an anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody that reacts with functionally active VLA integrins. Adhesion to FN-H89 was not restored unless stimuli that increase the ligand-binding affinity of VLA heterodimers were added, suggesting that cell adhesion was affected in the initial phases. These results indicate that alpha4 Gln152 modulates cell adhesion to FN-H89 by playing important roles in the maintenance and/or the acquisition of an active state of VLA-4, an integrin that is normally expressed on the cell surface in a range of multiple activation states. The location of the alpha4 Gln152 residue on a loop of the upper surface of the proposed beta-propeller structure suggests a close association with potential ligand-binding sites. PMID:9581549

  18. Intrinsic Surface-Drying Properties of Bio-adhesive Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Akdogan, Yasar; Wei, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Danner, Eric W.; Miller, Dusty R.; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Herbert Waite, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sessile marine mussels must “dry” underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bio-inspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces but these are poor predictors of an adhesive’s ability to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction via the surface water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were found to have differential abilities to evict hydration layers from the surfaces—a necessary step for adsorption and adhesion. It was anticipated that Dopa would mediate dehydration given its efficacy forbio-inspired wet adhesion. Instead, hydrophobic side-chains are found to be a critical component in bringing about protein-surface intimacy. This is the first direct measurement of interfacial water dynamics during force-free adsorptive interactions at solid surfaces, and offers guidance for engineering wet adhesives and coatings. PMID:25168789

  19. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (?50?mJ?m?2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4?nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule. PMID:26478273

  20. Isolation and biochemical characterization of underwater adhesives from diatoms.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Nicole; Kröger, Nils; Harrington, Matthew J; Brunner, Eike; Paasch, Silvia; Buhmann, Matthias T

    2014-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms are able to colonize surfaces through the secretion of underwater adhesives. Diatoms are unicellular algae that have the capability to colonize any natural and man-made submerged surfaces. There is great technological interest in both mimicking and preventing diatom adhesion, yet the biomolecules responsible have so far remained unidentified. A new method for the isolation of diatom adhesive material is described and its amino acid and carbohydrate composition determined. The adhesive materials from two model diatoms show differences in their amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, but also share characteristic features including a high content of uronic acids, the predominance of hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyproline, an extremely rare amino acid. Proteins containing dihydroxyphenylalanine, which mediate underwater adhesion of mussels, are absent. The data on the composition of diatom adhesives are consistent with an adhesion mechanism based on complex coacervation of polyelectrolyte-like biomolecules. PMID:24689803

  1. Toughening and asymmetry in peeling of heterogeneous adhesives

    E-print Network

    Shuman Xia; Laurent Ponson; Guruswami Ravichandran; Kaushik Bhattacharya

    2012-03-16

    The effective adhesive properties of heterogeneous thin films are characterized through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation. By bridging scales, we show how variations of elastic or adhesive properties at the microscale can significantly affect the effective peeling behavior of the adhesive at the macroscale. Our study reveals three elementary mechanisms in heterogeneous systems involving front propagation: (i) patterning the elastic bending stiffness of the film produces fluctuations of the driving force resulting in dramatically enhanced resistance to peeling; (ii) optimized arrangements of pinning sites with large adhesion energy are shown to control the effective system resistance, allowing the design of highly anisotropic and asymmetric adhesives; (iii) heterogeneities of both types result in front motion instabilities producing sudden energy releases that increase the overall adhesion energy. These findings open potentially new avenues for the design of thin films with improved adhesion properties, and motivate new investigation of other phenomena involving front propagation.

  2. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (?50?mJ?m(-2)) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4?nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule. PMID:26478273

  3. Prevention of peritoneal adhesions: A promising role for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Hussein M

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominopelvic surgery, yet the extent of the problem, and its serious consequences, has not been adequately recognized. Adhesions evolved as a life-saving mechanism to limit the spread of intraperitoneal inflammatory conditions. Three different pathophysiological mechanisms can independently trigger adhesion formation. Mesothelial cell injury and loss during operations, tissue hypoxia and inflammation each promotes adhesion formation separately, and potentiate the effect of each other. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that interruption of a single pathway does not completely prevent adhesion formation. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of adhesion formation and the results of single gene therapy interventions. It explores the promising role of combinatorial gene therapy and vector modifications for the prevention of adhesion formation in order to stimulate new ideas and encourage rapid advancements in this field. PMID:22171139

  4. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (~50 mJ m-2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  5. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  6. Universal aspects of brittle fracture, adhesion, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    This universal relation between binding energy and interatomic separation was originally discovered for adhesion at bimetallic interfaces involving the simple metals Al, Zn, Mg, and Na. It is shown here that the same universal relation extends to adhesion at transition-metal interfaces. Adhesive energies have been computed for the low-index interfaces of Al, Ni, Cu, Ag, Fe, and W, using the equivalent-crystal theory (ECT) and keeping the atoms in each semiinfinite slab fixed rigidly in their equilibrium positions. These adhesive energy curves can be scaled onto each other and onto the universal adhesion curve. The effect of tip shape on the adhesive forces in the atomic-force microscope (AFM) is studied by computing energies and forces using the ECT. While the details of the energy-distance and force-distance curves are sensitive to tip shape, all of these curves can be scaled onto the universal adhesion curve.

  7. Recycle polymer characterization and adhesion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbery, James David

    Contaminants from paper product producers that adversely affect fiber yield have been collected from mills located in three North American geographic regions. Samples have been fractionated using a modified solvent extraction process and subsequently quantitatively characterized and it was found that agglomerates were comprised of the following: approximately 30% extractable polymeric material, 25--35% fiber, 12--15% inorganic material, 15% non-extractable high molecular-weight polyethylene or cross-linked polymers, and 2--4% starch residue. Three representative polymers, paraffin, low-molecular weight polyethylene, and a commercial hot-melt adhesive were selected for further analysis to model the attractive and repulsive behavior using Scanning Probe Microscopy in an aqueous cell. Scanning force probes were characterized using an original technique utilizing a nano-indentation apparatus that is non-destructive and is accurate to within 10% for probes with force constants as low as 1 N/m. Surface force measurements were performed between a Poly (Styrene/30% Butyl Methacrylate) sphere and substrates produced from paraffin, polyethylene, and a commercial hot-melt adhesive in solutions ranging in NaF ionic concentrations from 0.001M to 1M. Reasonable theoretical agreement with experimental data has been shown between a combined model applying van der Waals force contributions using the Derjaguin approximation and electrostatic contributions as predicted by a Debye-Huckel linearization of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation utilizing Hamaker constants derived from critical surface energies determined from Zisman and Lifshitz-van der Waals energy approaches. This model has been applied to measured data and indicates the strength of adhesion for the hot-melt to be 0.14 nN while that of paraffin is 1.9 nN and polyethylene 2.8 nN. Paraffin and polyethylene are 13.5 and 20 times greater in attraction than the hot-melt adhesive. Hot-melt adhesive repulsion is predicted to be 220 pN while for paraffin it is 9.1 nN and polyethylene 12.2 nN, a factor of 41 and 55 greater for paraffin and polyethylene, respectively. Decay lengths for repulsion is fit to be 2.3 nm for hotmelt indicating, approximately one-third that of paraffin and polyethylene. Johnson-Kendall-Roberts contact mechanic theory for viscoelastic materials has been applied with reasonable accuracy, particularly in experiments performed in solutions, to model the approach snap-in magnitude and detachment forces between sphere and substrate. Two representative commercial agglomeration formulations have been analyzed to determine the impact on adhesion and detachment forces although at room temperature, no measurable effect was identified.

  8. A Chemokine Expressed in Lymphoid High Endothelial Venules Promotes the Adhesion and Chemotaxis of Naive T Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Michael D.; Tangemann, Kirsten; Tam, Carmen; Cyster, Jason G.; Rosen, Steven D.; Williams, Lewis T.

    1998-01-01

    Preferential homing of naive lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs is thought to involve the action of chemokines, yet no chemokine has been shown to have either the expression pattern or the activities required to mediate this process. Here we show that a chemokine represented in the EST database, secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), is expressed in the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, in the T cell areas of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, and in the lymphatic endothelium of multiple organs. SLC is a highly efficacious chemoattractant for lymphocytes with preferential activity toward naive T cells. Moreover, SLC induces firm adhesion of naive T lymphocytes via ? 2 integrin binding to the counter receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, a necessary step for lymphocyte recruitment. SLC is the first chemokine demonstrated to have the characteristics required to mediate homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, the expression of SLC in lymphatic endothelium suggests that the migration of lymphocytes from tissues into efferent lymphatics may be an active process mediated by this molecule.

  9. PM2.5 -induced oxidative stress increases adhesion molecules expression in human endothelial cells through the ERK/AKT/NF-?B-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wei; Guan, Longfei; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the intracellular mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular toxicity of air particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5?µm (PM2.5 ) in a human umbilical vein cell line, EA.hy926. We found that PM2.5 exposure triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, resulting in a significant decrease in cell viability. Data from Western blots showed that PM2.5 induced phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal regulatory kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). We further observed a significant increase in expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of PM2.5 . However, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS, prevented the increase of ROS generation, attenuated the phosphorylation of the above kinases, and decreased the NF-?B activation as well as the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Furthermore, ERK inhibitor (U0126), AKT inhibitor (LY294002) and NF-?B inhibitor (BAY11-7082) significantly down-regulated PM2.5 -induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as adhesion of THP-1 cells, but not JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), indicating that ERK/AKT/NF-?B is involved in the signaling pathway that leads to PM2.5 -induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. These findings suggest PM2.5 -induced ROS may function as signaling molecules triggering ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions through activating the ERK/AKT/NF-?B-dependent pathway, and further promoting monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25876056

  10. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (<50 nm), it is challenging to characterize their material properties for correlation to adhesive performance. We circumvent this problem by estimating the elastic modulus of the silane-based coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated within the framework of the unresolved problem of how to best characterize rough surfaces. Initially, the fractal dimension is used to characterize grit-blasted and sanded surfaces. It is found that, contrary to what has been suggested in the literature, the fractal dimension is independent of the roughening mechanism. Instead, the use of an anomalous diffusion coefficient is proposed as a more effective way to characterize a rough surface. Surface modification by preparation of surface energy gradients is then investigated. Materials with gradients in surface energy are useful in the areas of microfluidics, heat transfer and protein adsorption, to name a few. Gradients are prepared by vapor deposition of a reactive silane from a filter paper source. The technique gives control over the size and shape of the gradient. This surface modification is then used to induce droplet motion through repeated stretching and compression of a water drop between two gradient surfaces. This inchworm type motion is studied in detail and offers an alternative method to surface vibration for moving drops in microfluidic devices. The final surface modification considered is the application of a thin layer of rubber to a rigid surface. While this technique has many practical uses, such as easy release coatings in marine environments, it is applied herein to enable spontaneous healing between a rubber surface and a glass cover slip. Study of the diffusion controlled healing of a blister can be made by trapping an air filled blister between a glass cover slip and a rubber film. Through this study we find evidence for an interfacial diffusion process. This mechanism of diffusion is likely to be important in many biological systems.

  11. Development of Surface Adhesion in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Bodenmiller, Diane; Toh, Evelyn; Brun, Yves V.

    2004-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus has a dimorphic life cycle composed of a motile stage and a sessile stage. In the sessile stage, C. crescentus is often found tightly attached to a surface through its adhesive holdfast. In this study, we examined the contribution of growth and external structures to the attachment of C. crescentus to abiotic surfaces. We show that the holdfast is essential but not sufficient for optimal attachment. Rather, adhesion in C. crescentus is a complex developmental process. We found that the attachment of C. crescentus to surfaces is cell cycle regulated and that growth or energy or both are essential for this process. The initial stage of attachment occurs in swarmer cells and is facilitated by flagellar motility and pili. Our results suggest that strong attachment is mediated by the synthesis of a holdfast as the swarmer cell differentiates into a stalked cell. PMID:14973013

  12. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  13. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  14. On coating adhesion during impulse plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafal; Okrasa, Sebastian; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Sk?adnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The impulse plasma deposition (IPD) technique is the only method of plasma surface engineering (among plasma-based technologies) that allows a synthesis of layers upon a cold unheated substrate and which ensures a good adhesion. This paper presents a study of plasma impacts upon a copper substrate surface during the IPD process. The substrate was exposed to pulsed N2/Al plasma streams during the synthesis of AlN layers. For plasma-material interaction diagnostics, the optical emission spectroscopy method was used. Our results show that interactions of plasma lead to sputtering of the substrate material. It seems that the obtained adhesion of the layers is the result of a complex surface mechanism combined with the effects of pulsed plasma energy impacts upon the unheated substrate. An example of such a result is the value of the critical load for the Al2O3 layer, which was measured by the scratch-test method to be above 40 N.

  15. Polyimide adhesives for weld-bonding titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Baucom, R.

    1976-01-01

    Two weld bonding processes were developed for joining titanium alloy; one process utilizes a weld-through technique and the other a capillary-flow technique. The adhesive used for the weld-through process is similar to the P4/A5F system and a new adhesive system, CP/CFA, was used in the capillary-flow process. Static property information was generated for weld-bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F) and fatigue strength information was generated at room temperature. Significant improvement in fatigue strength was demonstrated for weld-bonded joints over spot-welded joints. A demonstration was made of the applicability of weld-bonding for fabricating stringer stiffened skin panels.

  16. Repeatability of mixed-mode adhesive debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    The repeatability of debond growth rates in adhesively bonded subjected to constant-amplitude cyclic loading was studied. Debond growth rates were compared from two sets of cracked-lap-shear specimens that were fabricated by two different manufacturers and tested in different laboratories. The fabrication method and testing procedures were identical for both sets of specimens. The specimens consisted of aluminum adherends bonded with FM-73 adhesive. Critical values of strain-energy-release rate were also determined from specimens that were monotonically loaded to failure. The test results showed that the debond growth rates for the two sets of specimens were within a scatter band which is similar to that observed in fatigue crack growth in metals. Cyclic debonding occurred at strain-energy-release rates that were more than an order of magnitude less than the critical strain-energy-release rate in static tests.

  17. Verification of surface preparation for adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Rodney S.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of solid rocket booster (SRB) production operations identified potential contaminants which might adversely affect bonding operations. Lap shear tests quantified these contaminants' effects on adhesive strength. The most potent contaminants were selected for additional studies on SRB thermal protection system (TPS) bonding processes. Test panels were prepared with predetermined levels of contamination, visually inspected using white and black light, then bonded with three different TPS materials over the unremoved contamination. Bond test data showed that white and black light inspections are adequate inspection methods for TPS bonding operations. Extreme levels of contamination (higher than expected on flight hardware) had an insignificant effect on TPS bond strengths because of the apparent insensitivity of the adhesive system to contamination effects, and the comparatively weak cohesive strength of the TPS materials.

  18. Cyclic debonding of adhesively bonded composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of a simple composite to composite bonded joint was analyzed. The cracked lap shear specimen subjected to constant amplitude cyclic loading was studied. Two specimen geometries were tested for each bonded system: (1) a strap adherend of 16 plies bonded to a lap adherend of 8 plies; and (2) a strap adherend of 8 plies bonded to a lap adherend of 16 plies. In all specimens the fatigue failure was in the form of cyclic debonding with some 0 deg fiber pull off from the strap adherend. The debond always grew in the region of adhesive that had the highest mode (peel) loading and that region was close to the adhesive strap interface.

  19. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  20. Universal binding energy relations in metallic adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Scaling relations which map metallic adhesive binding energy onto a single universal binding energy curve are discussed in relation to adhesion, friction, and wear in metals. The scaling involved normalizing the energy to the maximum binding energy and normalizing distances by a suitable combination of Thomas-Fermi screening lengths. The universal curve was found to be accurately represented by E*(A*)= -(1+beta A) exp (-Beta A*) where E* is the normalized binding energy, A* is the normalized separation, and beta is the normalized decay constant. The calculated cohesive energies of potassium, barium, copper, molybdenum, and samarium were also found to scale by similar relations, suggesting that the universal relation may be more general than for the simple free electron metals.

  1. An MRI Study of Symptomatic Adhesive Capsulitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuying; Yang, Wenlu; Amirbekian, Vardan; Diaz, Luis E.; Huang, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Background Appilication of MR imaging to diagnose Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) has previously been described. However, there is insufficient information available for the MRI analysis of AC. This study is to describe and evaluate the pathomorphology of the shoulder in Asian patients with AC compared to healthy volunteers. Methodology/Principal Findings 60 Asian patients with clinically diagnosed AC and 60 healthy volunteers without frozen shoulder underwent MRI of the shoulder joint. All subjects who were age- and sex-matched control ones underwent routine MRI scans of the affected shoulder, including axial, oblique coronal, oblique sagittal T1WI SE and coronal oblique T2WI FSE sequences. Significant abnormal findings were observed on MRI, especially at the rotator cuff interval. The coracohumeral ligament (CHL), articular capsule thickness in the rotator cuff interval as well as the fat space under coracoid process were evaluated. MRI showed that patients with adhesive capsulitis had a significantly thickened coracohumeral ligament and articular capsule in the rotator cuff interval compared to the control subjects (4.2 vs. 2.4 mm, 7.2 vs. 4.4 mm; p<0.05). Partial or complete obliteration of the subcoracoid fat triangle was significantly more frequent in patients with adhesive capsulitis compared with control subjects (73% vs. 13%, 26% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001). Synovitis-like abnormality around the long biceps tendon was significantly more common in patients with adhesive capsulitis than in control subjects. With regards to the inter-observer variability, two MR radiologists had an excellent kappa value of 0.86. Conclusions/Significance MRI can be used to show characteristic findings in diagnosing AC. Thickening of the CHL and the capsule at the rotator cuff interval and complete obliteration of the fat triangle under the coracoid process have been shown to be the most characteristic MR findings seen with AC. PMID:23082152

  2. Contact electrification and the work of adhesion

    E-print Network

    B. N. J. Persson; M. Scaraggi; A. I. Volokitin

    2013-05-13

    We present a general theory for the contribution from contact electrification to the work necessary to separate two solid bodies. The theory depends on the surface charge density correlation function, which we deduce from Kelvin Force Microscopy (KFM) maps of the surface electrostatic potential. For silicon rubber (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) we discuss in detail the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed work of adhesion.

  3. Polyenamines for Films, Coatings, and Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.; Sinsky, Mark S.; Connell, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Easy process makes polymers with good mechanical properties. Synthesis involves Michael-type addition polymerization of two diacetylenic diketones, with various aromatic diamines in m-cresol at 60 to 130 degrees C. Technique provides synthetic route to high-molecular-weight polyenamines with moderate thermal stability and good mechanical properties. Polyenamines produced exhibit potential for use as films, coatings, adhesives, molding compounds, and composite matrices.

  4. Aluminum ion-containing polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; Taylor, L. T.; St.clair, T. L. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    A meta-oriented aromatic diamine is reacted with an aromatic dianhydride and an aluminum compound in the presence of a water or lower alkanol miscible ether solvent to produce an intermediate polyamic acid. The polyamic acid is then converted to the thermally stable, metal ion-filled polyimide by heating in the temperature range of 300 C to produce a flexible, high temperature adhesive.

  5. Metal interfaces - Adhesive energies and electronic barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    We report a fully self-consistent calculation of the electron number density, barrier height and adhesive energy as a function of separation in an aluminum-aluminum (100) contact. The local density approximation is used for exchange and correlation. The electron number density and barrier heights are strong functions of the separation. The range of strong chemical bonding is about 0.2 nm.

  6. The dendritic cell cytoskeleton promotes T cell adhesion and activation by constraining ICAM-1 mobility

    PubMed Central

    Comrie, William A.; Li, Shuixing; Boyle, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the dendritic cell (DC) actin cytoskeleton is essential for T cell priming, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We show that the DC F-actin network regulates the lateral mobility of intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), but not MHCII. ICAM-1 mobility and clustering are regulated by maturation-induced changes in the expression and activation of moesin and ?-actinin-1, which associate with actin filaments and the ICAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. Constrained ICAM-1 mobility is important for DC function, as DCs expressing a high-mobility ICAM-1 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain exhibit diminished antigen-dependent conjugate formation and T cell priming. These defects are associated with inefficient induction of leukocyte functional antigen 1 (LFA-1) affinity maturation, which is consistent with a model in which constrained ICAM-1 mobility opposes forces on LFA-1 exerted by the T cell cytoskeleton, whereas ICAM-1 clustering enhances valency and further promotes ligand-dependent LFA-1 activation. Our results reveal an important new mechanism through which the DC cytoskeleton regulates receptor activation at the immunological synapse. PMID:25666808

  7. Low-Level Laser Therapy Attenuates LPS-Induced Rats Mastitis by Inhibiting Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yueqiang; HE, Xianjing; HAO, Dandan; YU, Debin; LIANG, Jianbin; QU, Yanpeng; SUN, Dongbo; YANG, Bin; YANG, Keli; WU, Rui; WANG, Jianfa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1? and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm2). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection. PMID:25452258

  8. Targeting Focal Adhesion Assembly by Ethoxyfagaronine Prevents Lymphoblastic Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Ouchani, F.; Devy, J.; Rusciani, A.; Helesbeux, J. J.; Salesse, S.; Letinois, I.; Gras-Billart, D.; Duca, L.; Duval, O.; Martiny, L.; Charpentier, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leukemic cell adhesion to proteins of the bone marrow microenvironment provides signals which control morphology, motility and cell survival. We described herein the ability of ethoxyfagaronine (etxfag), a soluble synthetic derivative of fagaronine, to prevent leukemic cell adhesion to fibronectin peptide (FN/V). Methods: Phosphorylation of fak and pyk2 were evaluated by immunoblotting. Labelled proteins were localized by confocal microscopy. PI 3-kinase activity was evaluated by in vitro kinase assay. Results: Subtoxic concentration of etxfag reduced L1210 cell adhesion to FN/V dependently of ?1 integrin engagement. Etxfag impaired FN-dependent formation of ?1 clustering without modifying ?1 expression at the cell membrane. This was accompanied by a decrease of focal adhesion number, a diminution of fak and pyk2 phosphorylation at Tyr-576, Tyr-861 and Tyr-579, respectively leading to their dissociations from ?1 integrin and inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity. Etxfag also induced a cell retraction accompanied by a redistribution of phosphorylated fak and pyk2 in the perinuclear region and lipid raft relocalization. Conclusion: Through its anti-adhesive potential, etxfag, combined with conventional cytotoxic drugs could be potentially designed as a new anti-leukemic drug. PMID:22407353

  9. Contact lines for fluid surface adhesion

    E-print Network

    Markus Deserno; Martin M. Mueller; Jemal Guven

    2007-03-01

    When a fluid surface adheres to a substrate, the location of the contact line adjusts in order to minimize the overall energy. This adhesion balance implies boundary conditions which depend on the characteristic surface deformation energies. We develop a general geometrical framework within which these conditions can be systematically derived. We treat both adhesion to a rigid substrate as well as adhesion between two fluid surfaces, and illustrate our general results for several important Hamiltonians involving both curvature and curvature gradients. Some of these have previously been studied using very different techniques, others are to our knowledge new. What becomes clear in our approach is that, except for capillary phenomena, these boundary conditions are not the manifestation of a local force balance, even if the concept of surface stress is properly generalized. Hamiltonians containing higher order surface derivatives are not just sensitive to boundary translations but also notice changes in slope or even curvature. Both the necessity and the functional form of the corresponding additional contributions follow readily from our treatment.

  10. Wetting and phase separation in soft adhesion

    E-print Network

    K. E. Jensen; R. Sarfati; R. W. Style; R. Boltyanskiy; A. Chakrabarti; M. K. Chaudhury; E. R. Dufresne

    2015-07-22

    In the classic theory of solid adhesion, surface energy drives deformation to increase contact area while bulk elasticity opposes it. Recently, solid surface stress has been shown also to play an important role in opposing deformation of soft materials. This suggests that the contact line in soft adhesion should mimic that of a liquid droplet, with a contact angle determined by surface tensions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe a contact angle of a soft silicone substrate on rigid silica spheres that depends on the surface functionalization but not the sphere size. However, to satisfy this wetting condition without a divergent elastic stress, the gel separates from its solvent near the contact line. This creates a four-phase contact zone with two additional contact lines hidden below the surface of the substrate. While the geometries of these contact lines are independent of the size of the sphere, the volume of the phase-separated region is not, but rather depends on the indentation volume. These results indicate that theories of adhesion of soft gels need to account for both the compressibility of the gel network and a non-zero surface stress between the gel and its solvent.

  11. Molecularly smooth cellulose surfaces for adhesion studies.

    PubMed

    Sczech, Ronny; Riegler, Hans

    2006-09-15

    Cellulose is deposited on silicon wafer surfaces via spin coating from a solution of cellulose in dimethylacetamide (+7% lithium chloride). The resulting cellulose layers were analyzed by ellipsometry, AFM, FTIR, ICP-MS, X-ray reflectivity, and contact angle measurements. For cellulose concentrations below 0.07 wt% the wafer surfaces are covered with a network of cellulose fibrils. For concentrations between 0.07 and 0.5 wt%, closed films with thicknesses between 1.5 and approximately 10 nm are obtained. These films are molecularly smooth (rms roughness<2 nm). Higher concentrations result in thicker films with significantly rougher surfaces (rms roughness>2 nm). The cellulose layers were used to investigate cellulose/cellulose adhesion and their modification by polyelectrolytes. To this end the sticking behavior of cellulose beads was analyzed. It is demonstrated that the sticking of the beads depends on the type, amount, and adsorption symmetry of adsorbed polyelectrolyte. Low, incomplete polyelectrolyte coverage always enhances sticking, whereas for high coverage the symmetry of the polyelectrolyte coating is very important. In this case, sticking (adhesion) is enhanced if only one surface is covered with polyelectrolyte prior to contact. If both surfaces were fully covered with polyelectrolytes before contact, sticking (adhesion) is decreased. PMID:16782120

  12. Switchable adhesion of liquid crystalline elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, James; Brown, Andrew; University of Surrey Team

    2014-03-01

    Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are rubbery materials that composed of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) crosslinked into a network. The rod-like mesogens incorporated into the LCPs are have random orientations in the high temperature isotropic phase, but can adopt the canonical liquid crystalline phases as the temperature is lowered. LCEs have not yet found a key application, however, these materials are highly dissipative. I will describe a proposed application of reversibly switchable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The quality of their adhesion can be measured by the tack energy. To investigate their performance as switchable PSAs we compare the tack energy for the director aligned parallel, and perpendicular to the substrate normal, with that for the isotropic state using a finite element model that incorporates cavitation within the adhesive layer. The constitutive properties of the LCE are modelled using the nematic dumbbell model. We find that the tack energy depends on the director orientation, with parallel orientation of the nematic having higher tack energy than both the isotropic and the perpendicular director orientation. I will report on how this model compares with recent experiments on LCE PSAs.

  13. Functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1995-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop novel functionalized block copolymers to promote adhesion at inorganic substrate/polymer interfaces. We envision several potential advantages of functionalized block copolymers over small molecule coupling agents. Greater control over the structure of the interphase region should result through careful design of the backbone of the copolymer. The number of chains per area, the degree of entanglement between the copolymer and the polymer matrix, the number of sites per chain able to attach to the substrate, and the hydrophobicity of the interphase region can all be strongly affected by the choice of block lengths and the monomer sequence. In addition, entanglement between the copolymer and the polymer matrix, if achieved, should contribute significantly to adhesive strength. Our program involves four key elements: the synthesis of suitable functionalized block copolymers, characterization of the conformation of the copolymers at the interface by neutron reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, characterization of the degree of bonding by spectroscopy, and measurement of the mechanical properties of the interface. In this paper we discuss block copolymers designed as adhesion promoters for the copper/epoxy interface. We have synthesized a diblock with one block containing imidazole groups to bond to copper and a second block containing secondary amines to react with the epoxy matrix. We have also prepared a triblock copolymer containing a hydrophobic middle block. Below we describe the synthesis of the block copolymers by living, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and the first characterization data obtained by neutron reflectivity.

  14. Wetting and phase separation in soft adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Katharine E; Sarfati, Raphael; Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Dufresne, Eric R

    2015-11-24

    In the classic theory of solid adhesion, surface energy drives deformation to increase contact area whereas bulk elasticity opposes it. Recently, solid surface stress has been shown also to play an important role in opposing deformation of soft materials. This suggests that the contact line in soft adhesion should mimic that of a liquid droplet, with a contact angle determined by surface tensions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe a contact angle of a soft silicone substrate on rigid silica spheres that depends on the surface functionalization but not the sphere size. However, to satisfy this wetting condition without a divergent elastic stress, the gel phase separates from its solvent near the contact line. This creates a four-phase contact zone with two additional contact lines hidden below the surface of the substrate. Whereas the geometries of these contact lines are independent of the size of the sphere, the volume of the phase-separated region is not, but rather depends on the indentation volume. These results indicate that theories of adhesion of soft gels need to account for both the compressibility of the gel network and a nonzero surface stress between the gel and its solvent. PMID:26553989

  15. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  16. Low-temperature full wafer adhesive bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklaus, Frank; Enoksson, Peter; Kälvesten, Edvard; Stemme, Göran

    2001-03-01

    We have systematically investigated the influence of different bonding parameters on void formation in a low-temperature adhesive bonding process. As a result of these studies we present guidelines for void free adhesive bonding of 10 cm diameter wafers. We have focused on polymer coatings with layer thicknesses between 1 µm and 18 µm. The tested polymer materials were benzocyclobutene (BCB) from Dow Chemical, a negative photoresist (ULTRA-i 300) and a positive photoresist (S1818) from Shipley, a polyimide (HTR3) from Arch Chemical and two different polyimides (PI2555 and PI2610) from DuPont. The polymer material, the bonding pressure and the pre-curing time and temperature for the polymer significantly influence void formation at the bond interface. High bonding pressure and optimum pre-curing times/temperatures counteract void formation. We present the process parameters to achieve void-free bonding with the BCB coating and with the ULTRA-i 300 photoresist coating as adhesive materials. Excellent void-free and strong bonds have been achieved by using BCB as the bonding material which requires a minimum bonding temperature of 180 °C.

  17. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  18. Development of Screenable Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Severtson

    2003-11-29

    An industrial research area of high activity in recent years has been the development of pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) products that do not interfere with the processing of post-consumer waste. The problem of PSA contamination is arguably the most important technical challenge in expanding the use of recycled fiber. The presence of PSAs in recovered paper creates problems that reduce the efficiency of recycling and papermaking operations and diminish product quality. The widespread use of PSAs engineered to avoid these problems, often referred to as environmentally benign PSAs, could greatly increase the commercial viability of utilizing secondary fiber. Much of the research efforts in this area have focused on the development of PSAs that are designed for enhanced removal with cleaning equipment currently utilized by recycling plants. Most removal occurs at the pressure screens with the size and shape of residual contaminants in the process being the primary criteria for their separation. A viable approach for developing environmentally benign PSAs is their reformulation to inhibit fragmentation. The reduction of adhesives to small particles occurs almost exclusively during repulping; a process in which water and mechanical energy are used to swell and reduce paper products to their constituent fiber. Engineering PSA products to promote the formation of larger adhesive particles during repulping will greatly enhance their removal and reduce or eliminate their impact on the recycling process.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kupchak, Brian R; Volk, Brittanie M; Kawiecki, Diana M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Seip, Richard L; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Statins positively impact plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inflammation and vascular endothelial function (VEF). Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) improve atherogenic dyslipidemia, and similar to statins, have been shown to favorably affect markers of inflammation and VEF. No studies have examined whether a CRD provides additional benefit beyond that achieved by habitual statin use. We hypothesized that a CRD (<50 g carbohydrate/d) for 6 weeks would improve lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity, reduce blood pressure, decrease cellular adhesion and inflammatory biomarkers, and augment VEF (flow-mediated dilation and forearm blood flow) in statin users. Participants (n = 21; 59.3 ± 9.3 y, 29.5 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)) decreased total caloric intake by approximately 415 kcal at 6 weeks (P < .001). Daily nutrient intakes at baseline (46/36/17% carb/fat/pro) and averaged across the intervention (11/58/28% carb/fat/pro) demonstrated dietary compliance, with carbohydrate intake at baseline nearly 5-fold greater than during the intervention (P < .001). Compared to baseline, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased after 3 and 6 weeks (P < .01). Peak forearm blood flow, but not flow-mediated dilation, increased at week 6 compared to baseline and week 3 (P ? .03). Serum triglyceride, insulin, soluble E-Selectin and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased (P < .01) from baseline at week 3, and this effect was maintained at week 6. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that individuals undergoing statin therapy experience additional improvements in metabolic and vascular health from a 6 weeks CRD as evidenced by increased insulin sensitivity and resistance vessel endothelial function, and decreased blood pressure, triglycerides, and adhesion molecules. PMID:24176230

  20. Mechanical behavior of adhesive joints subjected to cyclic thermal loading

    SciTech Connect

    Humfeld, G.R.; Dillard, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stresses induced in bimaterial systems due to changing temperature has been the subject of much study since the publication of Timoshenko`s classic paper of 1925. An adhesive bond is one example of a bimaterial system in which thermal stress can play an important role. However, adhesives are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanical behavior is dictated by the temperature- and time-dependence of their material properties; analytical solutions for elastic materials do not adequately describe their true behavior. The effect of the adhesive`s viscoelasticity on stress in an adhesive bond subjected to changing temperature is therefore of compelling interest and importance for the adhesives industry. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the viscoelastic effect in an adhesive bond subjected to cycling temperature, particularly when the temperature range spans a transition temperature of the adhesive. Numerical modeling of a simplified geometry was first undertaken to isolate the influence of viscoelasticity on the stress state from any particular specimen geometry effect. Finite element modeling was then undertaken to examine the mechanical behavior of the adhesive in a layered geometry. Both solution methods predicted development of residual tensile stresses in the adhesive. For the layered geometry this was found to correspond with residual tensile peel stresses, which are thought to be the cause of interfacial debonding.