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Sample records for adhesion molecule-1 sicam-1

  1. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) production by cytokine-activated human aortic endothelial cells: a possible role for ICAM-1 and sICAM-1 in atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Szekanecz, Z; Shah, M R; Pearce, W H; Koch, A E

    1994-01-01

    The interactions of inflammatory cells, cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), in which inflammation plays a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of ICAM-1, a molecule involved in leucocyte-endothelial interactions, in vascular inflammation. ELISA of human explant culture supernatants revealed a four-fold increase in sICAM-1 production by AAA (n = 9) versus normal (n = 8) aortic explants. Human aortic endothelial cell (hAEC) culture was used for further studies as an in vitro model for aortic inflammatory conditions. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1 beta treatment of hAEC resulted in an up to 1.8-fold significant increase in sICAM-1 production compared with resting cells. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1 on cytokine-stimulated versus resting hAEC was measured by radioimmunoassay. TNF-alpha significantly induced ICAM-1 expression on these cells. These results suggest that different forms of ICAM-1, present on or released by the activated aortic endothelium, may be involved in leucocyte adhesion to and migration into the vessel wall. PMID:7955542

  2. Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

  3. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Progression of Percent Emphysema: The MESA Lung Study

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Carrie P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Austin, John H. M.; Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Donohue, Kathleen M.; Kalhan, Ravi; Berardi, Cecilia; Kaufman, Joel D.; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R.Graham

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 binds neutrophils and facilitates their transmigration into the lung; E-selectin facilitates leukocyte rolling. As neutrophils contribute to tissue destruction in emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we hypothesized that soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) would be associated with longitudinal progression of emphysema and lung function decline. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants 45-84 years old without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. The MESA Lung Study assessed percent emphysema (<-950 Hounsfield units) on cardiac (2000-07) and full-lung CT scans (2010-12), and spirometry was assessed twice over five years. sICAM-1 and sE-selectin were measured at baseline. Mixed-effect models adjusted for demographics, anthropometry, smoking, C-reactive protein, sphingomyelin and scanner factors. Among 1,865 MESA Lung participants with measurement of sICAM-1 and percent emphysema the mean log-sICAM-1 was 5.5±0.3 ng/mL and percent emphysema increased 0.73 percentage points (95% CI: 0.34, 1.12; P<0.001) over ten years. A one SD increase in sICAM-1 was associated with an accelerated increase in percent emphysema of 0.23 percentage points over ten years (95% CI: 0.06, 0.39; P=0.007). No significant association was found for sE-selectin, or between any adhesion molecule and lung function. Higher levels of sICAM-1 were independently associated with progression of percent emphysema in a general population sample. PMID:25457724

  4. A Comparative Study of Serum Level of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) and High Sensitive C - reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Normal and Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Farzadnia, Mehdi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Hasan-zade, Maliheh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased systemic inflammatory response and has been associated with an increased maternal risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in pre-eclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to determine the level of plasma serum level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pre-eclampsia and to compare hs-CRP levels between normal pregnant women, mild and severe pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1, ICAM-1 and hs-CRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant women (n=40), mild pre-eclampsia (n=37) and severe pre-eclampsia (n=38). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There were significant difference in the means serum hs-CRP between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women (P<0.05). Serum concentration of hs-CRP, sVCAM-1(ng.ml) and sICAM-1(ng.ml) were significantly higher in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hs-CRP, s ICAM- 1 and in sVCAM- 1 levels between mild and severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean plasma log sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women. Conclusion: We have determined the serum concentration of soluble adhesion molecule ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Adhesion molecule is elevated in severe pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, hsCRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy and may be useful in predicting the severity of pre-eclampsia. PMID:23826490

  5. Inverse correlation between coronary blood flow velocity and sICAM-1 level observed in ischemic heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Jusztina; Kiss, Robert Gabor; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Vargova, Katarina; Kerecsen, Gabor; Korda, Andras; Molnar, Ferenc; Preda, Istvan

    2006-09-01

    Systemic factors and blood flow velocity related to atherosclerosis have been examined mainly separately or by in vitro studies. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between local coronary blood flow (corrected TIMI frame count, CTFC) and systemic atherosclerosis-related inflammatory parameters such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (Il-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in humans. We enrolled the following groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients: patients with coronary stenosis and stable (CAD, n = 96) or unstable angina (ACS, n = 27), patients with documented myocardial ischemia and normal coronary angiogram (NEG, n = 68). Patient groups showed only marginal differences in CTFC or sICAM-1 levels. In contrast, when IHD patients were studied individually, general positive correlation was found between CTFC and sICAM-1 level (r = 0.33; in NEG r = 0.25; in CAD r = 0.37; in ACS r = 0.61), being the strongest in ACS. The relation was independent from age, gender, BMI, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of IHD, medication, hsCRP, IL-6 and vWF levels. (odds ratio, OR = 6.4; CI 95%: 2.43-16.84; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, correlation between CTFC and IL-6, hsCRP, vWF levels was not found. These results indicate inverse correlation between coronary blood flow and adhesion molecule production independently from conventional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers. PMID:16297392

  6. Adhesion Between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Endothelial Ligand Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1: Divalent Ion Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lomakina, Elena B.; Waugh, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Integrin-mediated adhesion of circulating neutrophils to endothelium during inflammation involves multiple adhesion molecules on both neutrophils and endothelium. Most studies of neutrophil adhesion have focused on adhesion to ICAM-1 (mediated by β2 integrins), but interaction with the endothelial ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) may also play a role in neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelium. In this study we demonstrate significant adhesion between neutrophils and VCAM-1 mediated by β1 integrins, principally via α4β1 (VLA-4). We characterize the dynamics of adhesion in terms of rate constants for a two-step bond formation process, the first involving juxtaposition of active molecules with substrate and the second involving bond formation. The results indicate that the first step is rate limiting for VLA-4-VCAM-1 interactions. Changing divalent cation composition affects these coefficients, implicating molecular conformational changes as a key step in the process. PMID:19134480

  7. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediates murine colon adenocarcinoma invasion

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kenton; Lo, Karen K.; Ao, Lihua; Gamboni, Fabia; Edil, Barish H.; Schulick, Richard; Barnett, Carlton C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) modulates cell–cell adhesion and is a receptor for cognate ligands on leukocytes. Upregulation of ICAM-1 has been demonstrated in malignant transformation of adenomas and is associated with poor prognosis for many malignancies. ICAM-1 is upregulated on the invasive front of pancreatic metastases and melanomas. These data suggest that the upregulated ICAM-1 expression promotes malignant progression. We hypothesize that the downregulation of ICAM-1 will mitigate tumor progression. Methods Mouse colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) were evaluated for the expression of ICAM-1 using Western immunoblot analysis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transduction was used to downregulate ICAM-1. Tumor invasion determined via a modified Boyden chamber was used as a surrogate of tumor progression examining MC38 cells, MC38 ICAM-1 knockdowns, and MC38 transduced with vehicle control. The cells were cultured in full media for 24 h and serum-starved for 24 h. A total of 5 × 104 cells were plated and allowed to migrate for 24 h using full media with 10% fetal bovine serum as a chemoattractant. Inserts were fixed and stained with crystal violet. Blinded investigators counted the cells using a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance with Fischer protected least significant difference and a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results ICAM-1 was constitutively expressed on MC38 cells. Transduction with anti–ICAM-1 shRNA vector downregulated ICAM-1 protein expression by 30% according to the Western blot analysis (P < 0.03) and decreased ICAM-1 messenger RNA expression by 70% according to the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. shRNA knockdown cells had a significant reduction in invasion >45% (P < 0.03). There were no significant differences between the invasion rates of MC38 and MC38 vehicle controls. Conclusions Downregulation of ICAM-1 mitigates MC38 invasion. These data suggest that targeted downregulation of tumor ICAM-1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24360118

  9. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung.

  10. Impact of celecoxib on soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble e-cadherin concentrations in human colon cancer cell line cultures exposed to phytic acid and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Parfiniewicz, Beata; Pendzich, Joanna; Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Hollek, Andrzej; Weglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    Soluble adhesion molecules such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin) play important role in tumor invasion and the development of metastasis. It was observed that their concentrations in body fluids of patients with colon cancer were elevated. Celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) besides its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity is able to inhibit development of colon cancer and reduce risk of metastasis. The additional factors, e.g., dietary components in colon cancer, may influence therapeutic effect of drugs, such as cytokines. TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor - alpha) is a cytokine, which concentration significantly increases in serum of patients with inflammatory and cancer diseases. The latest studies demonstrate, that phytic acid (IP6), a myo-inositol derivative, abundantly present in high-fiber diets could substantially reduce colon cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of celecoxib on sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin concentrations in transformed epithelial colon cell cultures simultaneously exposed to IP6 and TNF-alpha. Additionally, the adhesion of the exposed cells to collagen I was assessed. HT-29 and Caco-2 cells were cultured in the presence of 50 ng/mL celecoxib, 1.0 mM IP6, and 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha, and their combination: TNF-alpha plus IP6, TNF-alpha plus celecoxib, IP6 plus celecoxib, and TNF-alpha with celecoxib plus IP6, for 96 h. Nonexposed cell line cultures served as controls. Concentrations of sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin were measured in the culture medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Quantikine - Human sICAM-1/CD54 Immunoassay and Quantikine-Human sE-Cadherin Immunoassay. All the results obtained were expressed as ng per mL. In the adhesion assay, the cells were incubated with IP6 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL), celecoxib (50 ng/mL) and their combination for 90 min. Fluorescence values 480 nm/530 nm reflected concentrations of DNA in cells attached to collagen I. The obtained results indicate that celecoxib (50 ng/mL), the selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduces significantly sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin concentrations in HT-29 and Caco-2 transformed human epithelial colorectal cell line cultures co-treated with IP6 (1.0 mM) and TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL). A decrease of cells adhesion property to collagen I was observed under the influence of 50 ng/mL celecoxib on cell cultures exposed to 1.0 or 2.0 mM IP6 and 1.0 or 2.0 mM IP6 plus 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha. PMID:23285691

  11. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  12. A translational consideration of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 biology in the perioperative setting

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Emily; Yuki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a critical adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte recruitment. Since its discovery in 1986, a large number of studies have been performed to elucidate its role in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review its role in leukocyte recruitment and consider future steps to take that will enhance our understanding of ICAM-1 biology and its translational application in the perioperative setting.

  13. Pathogenic Actions of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in Pulmonary Emphysema and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Fujita, Mitsugu; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion mediated by adhesion molecules is of central importance in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, altered expression of adhesion molecules leads to the development of various tissue disorders involving cell activation, degeneration, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear what initiates the altered expression of adhesion molecules and how the subsequent pathological cascades proceed. In this regard, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is one of the candidates that is involved in the development of pathological lesions; it is an intercellular adhesion molecule that is expressed in various types of cells such as pulmonary cells, neurons, and mast cells. Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expressions of CADM1 correlate with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and allergic diseases. In this review, we specifically focus on how CADM1 is involved in the development of pathological lesions in pulmonary emphysema and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26636084

  14. Increased binding of synovial T lymphocytes from rheumatoid arthritis to endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed Central

    Postigo, A A; Garcia-Vicua, R; Diaz-Gonzalez, F; Arroyo, A G; De Landzuri, M O; Chi-Rosso, G; Lobb, R R; Laffon, A; Snchez-Madrid, F

    1992-01-01

    The infiltration of the synovial membrane (SM) by mononuclear cells, mostly T cells, is a typical histopathological feature associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The entry of T lymphocytes into the SM is believed to be mediated by a number of molecules in the endothelium that are induced in response to a series of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we have investigated the adhesion of synovial T cells from RA patients to two endothelial ligands: endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), the only selectin known to function as a vascular addressin for T cells, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the cellular ligand of VLA-4. Our results clearly demonstrate that synovial T cells isolated from both SM and synovial fluid (SF), bearing an activated and memory phenotype, displayed an enhanced capacity to interact with these two endothelial molecules as compared with T cells from peripheral blood (PB) either of the same RA patients or healthy donors. A further enhancement of VLA-4-mediated T cell binding to VCAM-1 and fibronectin could be observed when already in vivo-activated synovial T cells were stimulated in vitro with phorbol esters, suggesting the existence of several cellular affinity levels for both very late activation-4 (VLA-4) ligands. Moreover, both PB and synovial T cells from RA patients exhibited strong proliferative responses when they were cultured with either fibronectin or VCAM-1 in combination with submitogenic doses of anti-CD3 mAb. This increased endothelial binding ability of synovial T lymphocytes together with their proliferation in response to the interaction with VCAM-1 and fibronectin may represent important mechanisms in the regulation of T cell penetration and persistence in the chronically inflamed SM of RA. Images PMID:1373738

  15. Regulation of bovine intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on cultured aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, C; Mallard, B A

    2001-05-10

    Endothelial cell adhesion molecules (AM) intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) are important mediators of cell migration from blood into tissue. The kinetics of ICAM-1 mRNA and VCAM-1 protein expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Stimulation of BAEC with recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha (rbTNF-alpha) resulted in protein expression of VCAM-1 on less than 5% of all cultured BAECs at 1h post-stimulation, followed by a significant increase at 3h that was maintained until 48h when the proportion of VCAM-1 positive (+) cells decreased significantly, but not to baseline proportions. The expression kinetics for VCAM-1 were similar on cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) except at 24h, when there was a significantly higher proportion of BAEC expressing VCAM-1 than at any other time. The expression of ICAM-1 mRNA differed significantly between stimuli. Expression of ICAM-1 mRNA peaked at 12-18h and then diminished but remained at amounts above baseline up to 72h after stimulation. Stimulation with LPS induced a significant increase in ICAM-1 mRNA expression between 1 and 12h after which the amounts rapidly decreased to baseline. In summary, different stimuli produced similar expression kinetics of VCAM-1 surface protein but different kinetics of ICAM-1 mRNA expression. PMID:11356255

  16. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesgner, Craig D.; Gundel, Robert H.; Reilly, Patricia; Haynes, Nancy; Letts, L. Gordon; Rothlein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Airway eosinophilia, epithelial desquamation, and hyperresponsiveness are characteristics of the airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma. The contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to eosinophil migration and airway responsiveness was studied. ICAM-1 partially mediated eosinophil adhesion to endothelium in vitro and was upregulated on inflamed bronchial endothelium in vivo. ICAM-1 expression was also upregulated on inflamed airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In a primate model of asthma, a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 attenuated airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Thus, antagonism of ICAM-1 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and asthma symptoms.

  17. Association between two single base polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Manijeh; Naderi, Nosratllah; Farnood, Alma; Balaii, Hedieh; Dadaei, Tahereh; Almasi, Shohreh; Zojaji, Homayoun; Asadzadeh Aghdae, Hamid; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study evaluated the association between G241R and K469E polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and inflammatory bowel disease in Iranian population. Background: Inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. There are two single base polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1gene, G241R and K469E, reported to be associated with inflammatory disorders. Patients and methods: In this case-control study, 156 inflammatory bowel disease patients (110 ulcerative colitis and 46 Crohn’s disease patients) and 131 healthy controls were enrolled. Two polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene, including G241R and K469E, were assessed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The E469 allele of K469E polymorphism was significantly more frequent in Crohn’s disease patients compared to controls (P< 0.05, OR= 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.96). The mutant homozygote genotype of K469E polymorphism (E/E) was also significantly more frequent in Crohn’s disease patients compared to controls (P< 0.05, OR= 4.23; 95% CI: 1.42 to 12.59). No difference was observed in the frequency of K469E polymorphism among ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of G241R polymorphism among ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease patients compared to control subjects. Conclusion: According to our findings, K469E polymorphism of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene may probably participate in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease in Iran. PMID:27099667

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cellular immune reactions in the human central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, R. A.; Mitchell, M. E.; Fondren, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cryostat sections of human central nervous system (CNS) tissue samples from 10 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 cases with inflammation and necrosis, and 24 normal controls were immunostained with antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its integrin ligand lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1). In 18 controls, small numbers of CNS microvessels were ICAM-1-positive. There were more numerous ICAM-1-positive vessels in active MS plaque edges, viral encephalitis lesions, infarcts, and in six controls. Within active MS plaques and in viral infections, mononuclear cells and some glia also were ICAM-1-positive. Mononuclear but not CNS resident cells were LFA-1-positive. Thus, CNS vessel ICAM-1 expression is variable in amount in postmortem samples of normal human CNS tissue, may increase early and focally in cellular immune reactions, and, via binding of LFA-1, may promote leukocyte influx into the CNS. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on parenchymal cells may indicate additional interactions with LFA-1 on inflammatory cells in diverse CNS lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1972610

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through mechanisms involving its adhesive and signaling functions.

  1. CCN4 induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts and promotes monocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Huang, Chun-Yin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-05-01

    CCN4 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov family of matricellular proteins. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in CCN4-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts. Stimulation of OASFs with CCN4 induced VCAM-1 expression. CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression was attenuated by αvβ5 or α6β1 integrin antibody, Syk inhibitor, PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone). Stimulation of cells with CCN4 increased Syk, PKCδ, and JNK activation. Treatment of OASFs with CCN4 also increased c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element in the VCAM-1 promoter. Moreover, up-regulation of VCAM-1 increased the adhesion of monocytes to OASF monolayers, and this adhesion was attenuated by transfection with a VCAM-1 siRNA. Our results suggest that CCN4 increases VCAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the Syk, PKCδ, JNK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathways. The CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression promoted monocyte adhesion to human OASFs. PMID:23313051

  2. Molecular architecture of a complex between an adhesion protein from the malaria parasite and intracellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G; Higgins, Matthew K

    2013-02-22

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ∼300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBLβ domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  3. Testicular cell adhesion molecule 1 (TCAM1) is not essential for fertility.

    PubMed

    Nalam, Roopa L; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M

    2010-02-01

    Testicular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Tcam1) is a testis-expressed gene that is evolutionarily conserved in most mammalian species. The putative location of TCAM1 on the cell surface makes it an attractive contraceptive target to study. We found that Tcam1 transcription is enriched in the adult testis, and in situ hybridization revealed that Tcam1 is expressed in pachytene to secondary spermatocytes. Immunofluorescence for TCAM1 protein showed strong expression along cell membranes of spermatocytes and weak localization to round spermatids. In light of this evidence, we hypothesized that TCAM1 interacts with an unknown receptor on the surface of Sertoli cells and that this interaction is important for germ cell-Sertoli cell interactions. However, Tcam1 knockout mice that we generated are fertile, and testis weights and sperm counts were not significantly altered. Therefore, we conclude that TCAM1 is not essential for male fertility or germ cell function in Mus musculus. PMID:19766163

  4. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression. PMID:26503469

  5. Immunohistochemical localisation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in follicle associated epithelium of Peyer's patches.

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Y; Kihara, T

    1994-01-01

    The epithelium covering domes of lymphoid follicles in Peyer's patches includes membranous cells, which are sites of entry for various macromolecules, absorptive cells, a few goblet cells, and many migrating lymphoid cells. The mechanism of migration of lymphoid cells into the follicle associated epithelium of lymphoid follicles in Peyer's patches is still unknown. This study investigated the relation between localisation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the follicle associated epithelium of Peyer's patches immunohistochemically. It was found that subepithelial fibroblasts expressed ICAM beneath the follicle associated epithelium on lymphoid follicles, but not on surrounding villi. The results show that the massive lymphocytic traffic between follicle associated epithelium and lymphoid follicles may be related to ICAM-1 expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7905847

  6. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression. PMID:26503469

  7. Host-related carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, A; Chan, C; Nouvion, A-L; Breton, V; Benlolo, S; DeMarte, L; Turbide, C; Brodt, P; Ferri, L; Beauchemin, N

    2013-02-14

    Liver metastasis is the predominant cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related mortality in developed countries. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell adhesion molecule with reduced expression in early phases of CRC development and thus functions as a tumor growth inhibitor. However, CEACAM1 is upregulated in metastatic colon cancer, suggesting a bimodal role in CRC progression. To investigate the role of this protein in the host metastatic environment, Ceacam1(-/-) mice were injected intrasplenically with metastatic MC38 mouse CRC cells. A significant reduction in metastatic burden was observed in Ceacam1(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) livers. Intravital microscopy showed decreased early survival of MC38 cells in Ceacam1(-/-) endothelial environment. Metastatic cell proliferation within the Ceacam1(-/-) livers was also diminished. Bone marrow-derived cell recruitment, attenuation of immune infiltrates and diminished CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 chemokine production participated in the reduced Ceacam1(-/-) metastatic phenotype. Transplantations of WT bone marrow (BM) into Ceacam1(-/-) mice fully rescued metastatic development, whereas Ceacam1(-/-) BM transfer into WT mice showed reduced metastatic burden. Chimeric immune cell profiling revealed diminished recruitment of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to Ceacam1(-/-) metastatic livers and adoptive transfer of MDSCs confirmed the involvement of these immune cells in reduction of liver metastasis. CEACAM1 may represent a novel metastatic CRC target for treatment. PMID:22469976

  8. Poly I:C-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Omagari, D; Mikami, Y; Suguro, H; Sunagawa, K; Asano, M; Sanuki, E; Moro, I; Komiyama, K

    2009-05-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecul-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and plays perdominant roles in recruitment and trafficking of leucocytes to sites of inflammation. ICAM-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is enhanced by several stimuli, such as proinflammatory cytokines, bacterial infections or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. One of these stimuli, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is a by-product of viral replication and can be recognized by its cognate receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3). In spite of expression of both TLR-3 and ICAM-1 in IECs, correlation between TLR-3-signalling and ICAM-1 expression has never been examined in IECs. In the present study, we investigated whether poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA, can stimulate the expression of ICAM-1 in IEC line, HT-29. Poly I:C-stimulation up-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Enhanced expression of ICAM-1 was confirmed in protein level by immunofluoresense cell staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by measuring the released soluble ICAM-1 in culture supernatant. As the stimulation effect was reduced by pre-treatment of the cells with anti-TLR-3 antibody, poly I:C-binding signal was thought to be sensed by TLR-3 on the surface of HT-29. The results of luciferase assay and nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-kappaB) inhibitor treatment experiments indicated that the downstream signal was mainly transduced by transcription factor, NF-kappaB. All these results demonstrated the connection between TLR-3 signalling and ICAM-1 expression in HT-29 cells and indicated the importance of coordinated function of both innate and adaptive immunity against viral infections. PMID:19284409

  9. Poly I:C-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Omagari, D; Mikami, Y; Suguro, H; Sunagawa, K; Asano, M; Sanuki, E; Moro, I; Komiyama, K

    2009-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecul-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and plays perdominant roles in recruitment and trafficking of leucocytes to sites of inflammation. ICAM-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is enhanced by several stimuli, such as proinflammatory cytokines, bacterial infections or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. One of these stimuli, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is a by-product of viral replication and can be recognized by its cognate receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3). In spite of expression of both TLR-3 and ICAM-1 in IECs, correlation between TLR-3-signalling and ICAM-1 expression has never been examined in IECs. In the present study, we investigated whether poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA, can stimulate the expression of ICAM-1 in IEC line, HT-29. Poly I:C-stimulation up-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Enhanced expression of ICAM-1 was confirmed in protein level by immunofluoresense cell staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by measuring the released soluble ICAM-1 in culture supernatant. As the stimulation effect was reduced by pre-treatment of the cells with anti-TLR-3 antibody, poly I:C-binding signal was thought to be sensed by TLR-3 on the surface of HT-29. The results of luciferase assay and nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-kB) inhibitor treatment experiments indicated that the downstream signal was mainly transduced by transcription factor, NF-kB. All these results demonstrated the connection between TLR-3 signalling and ICAM-1 expression in HT-29 cells and indicated the importance of coordinated function of both innate and adaptive immunity against viral infections. PMID:19284409

  10. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  11. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  12. Increased Osteoclastogenesis in Mice Lacking the Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Anke; Seitz, Sebastian; Schulze, Jochen; Ito, Wulf D.; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten; Horst, Andrea Kristina; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in bone remodeling are a major public health issue, as therapeutic options for widespread bone disorders such as osteoporosis and tumor-induced osteolysis are still limited. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the regulatory mechanism governing bone cell differentiation in health and disease are of utmost clinical importance. Here we report a novel function of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in inflammation and tumorigenesis, in the physiologic regulation of bone remodeling. Assessing the expression of all members of the murine Ceacam family in bone tissue and marrow, we found CEACAM1 and CEACAM10 to be differentially expressed in both bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. While Ceacam10-deficient mice displayed no alteration in structural bone parameters, static histomorphometry demonstrated a reduced trabecular bone mass in mice lacking CEACAM1. Furthermore, cellular and dynamic histomorphometry revealed an increased osteoclast formation in Ceacam1-deficient mice, while osteoblast parameters and the bone formation rate remained unchanged. In line with these findings, we detected accelerated osteoclastogenesis in Ceacam1-deficient bone marrow cells, while osteoblast differentiation, as determined by mineralization and alkaline phosphatase assays, was not affected. Therefore, our results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a physiologic role of CEACAM1 in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25490771

  13. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  14. Escherichia coli induces transuroepithelial neutrophil migration by an intercellular adhesion molecule-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Agace, W W; Patarroyo, M; Svensson, M; Carlemalm, E; Svanborg, C

    1995-01-01

    During bacterial infections at mucosal sites, neutrophils migrate to the mucosa and cross the epithelial barrier. We have examined neutrophil migration across Escherichia coli-stimulated uroepithelial cell layers in an attempt to more fully understand this process. Stimulation of uroepithelial cells with E. coli or interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) induced transepithelial neutrophil migration in a time- and stimulant dose-dependent manner. Uroepithelial cell lines and nontransformed uroepithelial cells expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not ICAM-2, E-selectin, or P-selectin. Epithelial ICAM-1 expression was enhanced after stimulation with E. coli or IL-1 alpha. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced transepithelial neutrophil migration by 61 to 85%, indicating that neutrophils bound ICAM-1 on the epithelial surface. Antibodies to CD18 and CD11b reduced migration by 70 to 79%, suggesting that CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) was acting as the neutrophil receptor for ICAM-1 in this process. Anti-CD11a antibodies had no effect on neutrophil migration. In conclusion, E. coli induced ICAM-1- and Mac-1-dependent transepithelial neutrophil migration. Previous studies have shown that urinary tract epithelial cells secrete IL-8 when exposed to E. coli or IL-1 alpha. These observations suggest that epithelial cells play an active role in neutrophil migration during urinary tract infections. PMID:7558319

  15. Inflammatory cytokine-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mesenchymal stem cells are critical for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangwen; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Jimin; L'Huillier, Andrew; Ling, Weifang; Roberts, Arthur I; Le, Anh D; Shi, Songtao; Shao, Changshun; Shi, Yufang

    2010-03-01

    Cell-cell adhesion mediated by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is critical for T cell activation and leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation site and, therefore, plays an important role in evoking effective immune responses. However, we found that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were critical for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosuppression. When MSCs were cocultured with T cells in the presence of T cell Ag receptor activation, they significantly upregulated the adhesive capability of T cells due to the increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. By comparing the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs toward various subtypes of T cells and the expression of these adhesion molecules, we found that the greater expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by MSCs, the greater the immunosuppressive capacity that they exhibited. Furthermore, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were found to be inducible by the concomitant presence of IFN-gamma and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha or IL-1). Finally, MSC-mediated immunosuppression was significantly reversed in vitro and in vivo when the adhesion molecules were genetically deleted or functionally blocked, which corroborated the importance of cell-cell contact in immunosuppression by MSCs. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function of adhesion molecules in immunoregulation by MSCs and provide new insights for the clinical studies of antiadhesion therapies in various immune disorders. PMID:20130212

  16. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in rat heart with ischemia/reperfusion and limitation of infarct size by treatment with antibodies against cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, T.; Seko, Y.; Tamatani, T.; Miyasaka, M.; Yagita, H.; Okumura, K.; Nagai, R.; Yazaki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of myocardial reperfusion injury, we investigated the roles of cell adhesion molecules on both leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells in the reperfused myocardia. We found that within 2 hours after reperfusion leukocytes began to infiltrate into the rat myocardia subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and clarified, for the first time, that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was enhanced on the capillary and venous endothelial cells from 8 to 96 hours after the start of reperfusion. Furthermore, pretreatment with individual monoclonal antibodies against cell adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11bc, CD18, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) reduced not only the infiltration of leukocytes but also the area of infarction in the reperfused hearts. These observations suggest that cell adhesion molecules play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8102030

  17. Active Site Formation, Not Bond Kinetics, Limits Adhesion Rate between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Richard E.; Lomakina, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The formation of receptor ligand bonds at the interface between different cells and between cells and substrates is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Physical measurements of bond formation rates between cells and substrates have been exploited to increase our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that regulate bond formation at interfaces. Heretofore, these measurements have been interpreted in terms of simple bimolecular reaction kinetics. Discrepancies between this simple framework and the behavior of neutrophils adhering to surfaces expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) motivated the development of a new kinetic framework in which the explicit formation of active bond formation sites (reaction zones) are a prerequisite for bond formation to occur. Measurements of cells interacting with surfaces having a wide range of VCAM-1 concentrations, and for different durations of contact, enabled the determination of novel kinetic rate constants for the formation of reaction zones and for the intrinsic bond kinetics. Comparison of these rates with rates determined previously for other receptor-ligand pairs points to a predominant role of extrinsic factors such as surface topography and accessibility of active molecules to regions of close contact in determining forward rates of bond formation at cell interfaces. PMID:19134479

  18. Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the lungs of silica-exposed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nario, R C; Hubbard, A K

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells including endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. Endothelial/epithelial cell ICAM-1 participates in the migration of leukocytes out of the blood in response to pulmonary inflammation, whereas alveolar macrophage ICAM-1 may represent cell activation. Our previous studies have shown that there is increased expression of ICAM-1 in lung tissue during acute inflammation following intratracheal injection with silica particles (2 mg/mouse). This increased expression was shown to play a role, in part, in the migration of neutrophils from the circulation into the tissue parenchyma. The aim of the current work is to localize expression of ICAM-1 during acute inflammation in lungs of mice exposed to either silica or the nuisance dust, titanium dioxide. In silica-exposed mice, a significant increase in ICAM-1 was detected on day-1 and localized by immunohistochemistry to aggregates of pulmonary macrophages and to type II epithelial cells. Areas of the lung with increased ICAM-1 expression also showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Immunocytochemical staining of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells demonstrated increased ICAM-1 expression associated with alveolar macrophages 3, 5, and 7 days following silica exposure. Finally, soluble ICAM-1 levels in the BAL fluid were significantly increased in mice exposed to silica on the same days. Titanium dioxide exposure elicited a minimal increase in expression of ICAM-1 in the lungs. These data demonstrate that exposure to the toxic particle silica specifically increases ICAM-1 expression localized to pulmonary macrophages and type II epithelial cells. Images Figure 2. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. D Figure 2. C Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 5. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. C PMID:9400721

  19. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in activated eosinophils is associated with mucosal remodeling in nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    XIN, JINGWEI; SUN, HUI; KONG, HONG; LI, LIN; ZHENG, JUN; YIN, CHUNXIA; CAO, YANG; JIA, YUNXIAO; LI, CHAOXU

    2015-01-01

    Nasal polyposis (NP) is characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation with infiltrating eosinophils. Eosinophil-mediated tissue remodeling may be involved in NP pathogenesis; therefore, improved understanding of tissue remodeling may result the identification of novel pathways and therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological changes occurring during tissue remodeling in NP, in order to assess the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in localized tissue remodeling and the potential association between ICAM-1 expression and markers of eosinophil activation. A total of 28 eligible patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the current study. Nasal mucosal tissues of these subjects were retrospectively evaluated for mucosal remodeling using histopathological staining. ICAM-1 and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Compared with the healthy controls, all the specimens from NP patients presented substantial epithelial damage, skewed cellular distribution with a reduced density of goblet cells, an increased density of subepithelial gland and increased subepithelial collagen deposition. In addition, the NP specimens exhibited significantly higher eosinophil infiltration and ICAM-1 expression compared with the controls. Positive correlations were observed between ICAM-1 and ECP expression levels (P=0.010), as well as between extracellular collagen deposition and ICAM-1 (P=0.010) and ECP (P=0.012) expression levels in the NP specimens, but not in the control specimens. Morphological evidence demonstrated eosinophil-mediated tissue remodeling in NP tissues. ICAM-1 expression in activated eosinophils was associated with NP remodeling, indicating the possibility that ICAM-1 may regulate NP remodeling. PMID:25573100

  1. Role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LAIFANG; DING, YANJIE; GUO, XIAQING; ZHAO, QING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and twenty patients with RA who had been admitted to the Huaihe Hospital of Henan University between January and December 2013 were enrolled in the study as the observation group, while, in the corresponding period, 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. The serum levels of VCAM-1 and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using ELISA. The patients underwent conventional treatment and their serum VCAM-1 and RF levels were detected at different time-points to determine their correlation. The observation group exhibited significantly higher serum VCAM-1 and RF levels than the control group (P<0.01). Twenty-four hours after treatment, the serum VCAM-1 levels of the patients peaked (1,269.47±128.76 µg/l); 36 h after treatment, the serum RF levels peaked (34.42±8.45 U/ml); 1 month after treatment, the VCAM-1 and serum RF levels of the patients were lower than those prior to treatment (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant, positive correlation between the serum VCAM-1 and RF levels in the patients with RA (r=0.852, P<0.01). In conclusion, the serum VCAM-1 levels of patients with RA increased and subsequently decreased as the condition was relieved, which could possibly be associated with the autoimmune and inflammatory reactions found in RA. Serum VCAM-1 levels can therefore reflect the disease condition and curative effects of treatment. PMID:26622470

  2. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-directed immunotargeting to cardiopulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud; Rome, Jonathan J; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Watkins, Simon C; Harshaw, David Winslow; Alder, Sean; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Haut, Elliott; Murciano, Juan-Carlos; Nakada, Marian; Albelda, Steven M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2002-03-01

    Therapeutic molecules conjugated with antibodies to the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) accumulate in the pulmonary endothelium after i.v. injection in mice. In this study, we characterized PECAM-directed targeting to the lung and heart after local versus systemic intravascular administration in a large animal model, pigs. Radiolabel tracing showed that 1 h post-i.v. injection, 35% of anti-PECAM versus 2.5% of control IgG had accumulated in the lungs. Infusion of anti-PECAM via a catheter placed in the right pulmonary artery (RPA) resulted in a 3-fold elevation of the uptake in the right lower lobe and 2-fold reduction of uptake in the left lobes in the lung. Cardiac uptake of anti-PECAM was negligible after i.v. and RPA infusion. In contrast, delivery with a catheter placed in the right coronary artery (RCA) resulted in a 4-fold elevation of cardiac uptake of anti-PECAM, but not IgG, compared with i.v. injection. To estimate the targeting of an active reporter enzyme, streptavidin-conjugated beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) was coupled to anti-PECAM or IgG (anti-PECAM/beta-Gal and IgG/beta-Gal) and injected into the RCA. Beta-Gal activity was markedly elevated in the heart and lungs (5- and 25-fold increased, respectively) after injection of anti-PECAM/beta-Gal, but not IgG/beta-Gal. Image analysis confirmed endothelial targeting of anti-PECAM/beta-Gal in the heart and lung. In summary, anti-PECAM antibody conjugates deliver agents to the pulmonary endothelium regardless of injection route, whereas local arterial infusion permits targeting to the cardiac vasculature. This paradigm may be useful for drug targeting to endothelium in lungs, heart, and possibly other organs. PMID:11861781

  3. Association of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Po; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Huang, Yu-Hui; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a human protein encoded by the ICAM-1 gene and is typically expressed on endothelial cells and immune cells. ICAM-1 is associated with episode, growth, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between ICAM-1 genetic variants and the risk of HCC is undetermined. In this study, we investigated the potential associations of ICAM-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to HCC and its clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 918 participants, including 613 controls participants and 305 patients with HCC, were selected for the analysis of ICAM-1 SNPs (rs3093030, rs5491, rs281432, and rs5498) by using real-time PCR genotyping. After adjusting for covariants of age, sex, and alcohol consumption, 125 smoker patients with HCC carrying at least one G genotype (AG and GG) in rs5498 were observed to have a higher HCC risk compared with 231 smoker control participants carrying the wild-type allele AA (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.713; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.091-2.690; P = 0.019). However, patients who possess at least one polymorphic allele of rs5498 are less prone to develop vascular invasive (AOR, 0.309; 95 % CI, 0.103-0.926; P = 0.036). The results suggest that the genetic polymorphism in ICAM-1 rs5498 SNPs with genotype AG and GG is associated with HCC risk among smokers. Moreover, gene and environment interactions of ICAM-1 rs5498 polymorphisms might alter susceptibility to liver cancer. Therefore, ICAM-1 rs5498 may serve as a marker to predict the vascular invasion risk in smoker patients with HCC. PMID:26341495

  4. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 long isoform modulates malignancy of poorly differentiated colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Dupaul-Chicoine, Jeremy; Breton, Valérie; Haftchenary, Sina; Yumeen, Sara; Turbide, Claire; Saleh, Maya; McGregor, Kevin; Greenwood, Celia M T; Akavia, Uri David; Blumberg, Richard S; Gunning, Patrick T; Beauchemin, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nearly 20%–29% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) succumb to liver or lung metastasis and there is a dire need for novel targets to improve the survival of patients with metastasis. The long isoform of the Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1-L or CC1-L) is a key regulator of immune surveillance in primary CRC, but its role in metastasis remains largely unexplored. We have examined how CC1-L expression impacts on colon cancer liver metastasis. Design Murine MC38 transfected with CC1-L were evaluated in vitro for proliferation, migration and invasion, and for in vivo experimental liver metastasis. Using shRNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition, we delineated the role in liver metastasis of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) downstream of CC1-L. We further assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in a cohort of patients with CRC. Results MC38-CC1-L-expressing cells exhibited significantly reduced in vivo liver metastasis and displayed decreased CCL2 chemokine secretion and reduced STAT3 activity. Down-modulation of CCL2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activity in MC38 cells led to reduced cell invasion capacity and decreased liver metastasis. The clinical relevance of our findings is illustrated by the fact that high CC1 expression in patients with CRC combined with some inflammation-regulated and STAT3-regulated genes correlate with improved 10-year survival. Conclusions CC1-L regulates inflammation and STAT3 signalling and contributes to the maintenance of a less-invasive CRC metastatic phenotype of poorly differentiated carcinomas. PMID:25666195

  5. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Daye; LIANG, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup. Conclusion: ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. PMID:26284202

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and function on cultured human glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, C M; Richards, G M; Adu, D; Pall, A A; Taylor, C M; Richards, N T; Michael, J

    1994-01-01

    Glomerular epithelial cells are involved in extracapillary inflammation (crescents) but the mechanisms of this extracapillary accumulation of macrophages, epithelial cells and occasional lymphocytes are unknown. Human glomerular parietal epithelial cells express ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on immunohistological stains of renal biopsies. We studied the expression of these cell adhesion molecules on cultured human glomerular epithelial cells (HGEC), their regulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their role in mediating the adhesion of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Human glomerular epithelial cells in culture constitutively express ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. The expression of ICAM-1 was not significantly altered by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P = 0.32), IL-1 beta (P = 0.24), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (P = 0.66) or IL-4 (P = 0.85). VCAM-1 expression was increased by all four cytokines, but only significantly so by IL-4 (P = 0.0001). Con A-stimulated, monocyte-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes bound to human glomerular epithelial cells, median 28.9% (range 14.5-37.9%). This adherence was significantly inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 (P = 0.03) and anti-LFA-1 (P = 0.02), but not by anti-VCAM-1 (P = 0.13) or by antibody to von Willebrand factor (P = NS). The interaction between ICAM-1 on HGEC and LFA-1 on mononuclear cells may be important in the pathogenesis of extracapillary inflammation in glomerulonephritis. PMID:7508348

  7. High level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 affects prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Peng-Peng; Yuan, Sheng-Guang; Liao, Yan; Qin, Li-Ling; Liao, Wei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the cut-off value of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and assess the correlation of ICAM-1 with clinicopathological features and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent surgical resection. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinicopathological data from 236 HCC patients who had undergone successful hepatectomy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cut-off value of ICAM-1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the concentration of ICAM-1 in 236 serum samples isolated from HCC patients and the stratified analysis was used to compare the serum level of ICAM-1 in different HCC subgroups. Immunohistochemistry was performed to test the expression level of the ICAM-1 protein in 76 cases of HCC tissues and their adjacent normal liver tissues (ANLT). The survival probability of HCC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots and differences between the groups were obtained using the log-rank test. Furthermore, independent indicators of the prognosis were acquired using a stepwise Cox proportional hazard model to analyze a series of predictors that were associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in HCC patients. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that ICAM-1 promotes HCC metastasis and high serum ICAM-1 is significantly associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (P = 0.022), clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage (P < 0.001), portal vein tumor thrombus (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.016) and recurrence (P = 0.034). We further detected the ICAM-1 protein in HCC specimens and found that 56 of 76 (73.7%) HCC tissues had ICAM-1 positive staining while only 23 of 76 (30.3%) ANLT were positively stained (P < 0.0001). Survival analysis indicated that HCC patients with increased ICAM-1 concentrations had significantly shorter DFS and OS after resection. A multivariate analysis showed that ICAM-1 > 684 ng/mL was an independent factor for DFS (HR = 1.643; 95%CI: 1.125-2.401; P = 0.010) and OS (HR = 1.692; 95%CI: 1.152-2.486; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: ICAM-1 may be a promising serological biomarker for HCC diagnosis and an independent predictor of DFS and OS after surgical resection and may provide a useful reference for the prediction of intra- and extrahepatic metastasis. PMID:26109813

  8. Soluble platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, a biomarker of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endothelial cell injury is an important component of acute lung injury. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) is a transmembrane protein that connects endothelial cells to one another and can be detected as a soluble, truncated protein (sPECAM1) in serum. We hypothesized that injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) leads to shedding of PECAM1 from lung endothelial cells resulting in increasing sPECAM1 levels in the systemic circulation. Methods We studied 36 Sprague–Dawley rats in two prospective, randomized, controlled studies (healthy and septic) using established animal models of ventilator-induced lung injury. Animals (n = 6 in each group) were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two MV strategies: low tidal volume (VT) (6 ml/kg) and high-VT (20 ml/kg) on 2 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In low-VT septic animals, 10 cmH2O of PEEP was applied. We performed pulmonary histological and physiological evaluation and measured lung PECAM1 protein content and serum sPECAM1 levels after four hours ventilation period. Results High-VT MV caused severe lung injury in healthy and septic animals, and decreased lung PECAM1 protein content (P < 0.001). Animals on high-VT had a four- to six-fold increase of mean sPECAM1 serum levels than the unventilated counterpart (35.4 ± 10.4 versus 5.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml in healthy rats; 156.8 ± 47.6 versus 35.6 ± 12.6 ng/ml in septic rats) (P < 0.0001). Low-VT MV prevented these changes. Levels of sPECAM1 in healthy animals on high-VT MV paralleled the sPECAM1 levels of non-ventilated septic animals. Conclusions Our findings suggest that circulating sPECAM1 may represent a promising biomarker for the detection and monitoring of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:24588994

  9. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble selectins and endothelial adhesion molecules in Sicilian patients with Boutonneuse fever

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, G; Mansueto, S; Gambino, G; Mocciaro, C; La Russa, C; Mansueto, P; Zambito, M A L; Ferlazzo, V; Barbera, C; La Rosa, M; Milano, S; Cillari, E

    1999-01-01

    In 150 patients with Boutonneuse fever (BF), caused by Rickettsia conorii, we studied the plasma levels of soluble l-selectin (sl-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) in various phases of disease to clarify their role in disease evolution. Results indicate that during the acute phase of BF there is a significant increase in the serum levels of sl-selectin, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1. sl-selectin and sVCAM-1 returned to normal levels in the third week of disease, whereas sE-selectin and sICAM-1 persisted at significantly high levels even after the third week. The secretion of these soluble CAMs in BF is mainly the result of leucocyte expression and endothelial cell activation, but secretion also appears to mediate anti-inflammatory activities, moderating leucocyte adhesion and reducing in particular lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration. Only sl-selectin serum levels were found to correlate with the acute phase of infection characterized by fever. PMID:10444262

  10. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecules in human schistosomiasis: correlations with disease severity and decreased responsiveness to egg antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Secor, W E; dos Reis, M G; Ramos, E A; Matos, E P; Reis, E A; do Carmo, T M; Harn, D A

    1994-01-01

    Granuloma formation, the principal pathologic consequence of infection with Schistosoma mansoni, is a complex process involving intricate cell-cell interactions in which intercellular adhesion molecules are likely to participate. To examine this possibility, sera of schistosomiasis patients in various clinical groups were assayed for the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin). Comparisons were made between groups with different infection intensities (as predicted by fecal egg count) as well as between groups with severe (hepatosplenic) or milder (intestinal) pathology. All groups had elevated levels of sICAM-1 compared with controls. Also, patients in the high egg-excreting and hepatosplenic groups had significantly higher levels of serum sICAM-1 than patients in the low-egg-excreting and intestinal groups, respectively. The levels of sE-selectin were significantly elevated in the sera of all patients except those in the hepatosplenic group compared with controls. Patients in the intestinal group had significantly higher levels of sE-selectin in their sera than did hepatosplenic group patients, but serum sE-selectin levels of high- and low-egg-excreting patients were comparable. A striking finding of this study was the inverse correlation observed between sICAM-1 levels and peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to schistosome soluble egg antigens (SEA) but not with responses to other schistosome antigens, purified protein derivative, or mitogen. Because ICAM-1 can perform a costimulatory function in antigen-presenting cell-T cell interactions, it is possible that shedding of ICAM-1 in the granuloma microenvironment interrupts proper costimulation, leading to unresponsive SEA-specific T cells. In this way, sICAM-1 could be one factor contributing to the observed modulation of cellular responses to SEA in chronic human schistosomiasis. PMID:7516309

  11. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule and Endogenous NOS Inhibitor: Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Poniedziałek-Czajkowska, Elżbieta; Mierzyński, Radzisław; Szymula, Dariusz; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) and endogenous NOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), as markers of endothelium dysfunction in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and Methods. The levels of s-ICAM-1 and ADMA were analysed in the group of 56 patients with GDM and compared to 25 healthy pregnant women. The concentrations of s-ICAM-1 and ADMA were measured in serum using ELISA tests. Results. The groups did not differ by baseline descriptors: age (30.75 ± 6.32 versus 28.50 ± 4.95 years, NS) and gestational age (28.96 ± 2.85 versus 29.12 ± 2.96 hbd, NS). The patients with GDM were more obese (BMI 27.93 ± 7.02 versus 22.34 ± 4.21 kg/m2, p = 0.032) and had higher concentration of C-reactive protein (6.46 ± 6.03 versus 3.18 ± 3.83 mg/L, p = 0.029). In the GDM group the level of ADMA was lower (0.38 ± 0.17 versus 0.60 ± 0.28 μmol/L, p = 0.001) and the level of s-ICAM-1 was significantly higher (289.95 ± 118.12 versus 232.56 ± 43.31 ng/mL, p = 0.036) compared to controls. Conclusions. The pregnant women with GDM are characterized by higher concentration of s-ICAM-1 that reflects the activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The decreased ADMA level in GDM patients seems to be preventive in the limitation of NO synthesis caused by the impaired insulin action and the endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26981539

  12. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  13. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1: recent findings and new concepts involved in mammalian spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D.; Xiao, Xiang; Lydka, Marta; Li, Michelle W.M.; Bilinska, Barbara; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, the process of spermatozoa production, is regulated by several endocrine factors, including testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol 17β. For spermatogenesis to reach completion, developing germ cells must traverse the seminiferous epithelium while remaining transiently attached to Sertoli cells. If germ cell adhesion were to be compromised for a period of time longer than usual, germ cells would slough the seminiferous epithelium and infertility would result. Presently, Sertoli-germ cell adhesion is known to be mediated largely by classical and desmosomal cadherins. More recent studies, however, have begun to expand long-standing concepts and to examine the roles of other proteins such as intercellular adhesion molecules. In this review, we focus on the biology of intercellular adhesion molecules in the mammalian testis, hoping that this information is useful in the design of future studies. PMID:23942142

  14. Dual role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating cell adhesion mediated by the integrin lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Lub, M; van Kooyk, Y; van Vliet, S J; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular signals are required to activate the leukocyte-specific adhesion receptor lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) to bind its ligand, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In this study, we investigated the role of the cytoskeleton in LFA-1 activation and demonstrate that filamentous actin (F-actin) can both enhance and inhibit LFA-1-mediated adhesion, depending on the distribution of LFA-1 on the cell surface. We observed that LFA-1 is already clustered on the cell surface of interleukin-2/phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes. These cells bind strongly ICAM-1 and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton inhibits adhesion. In contrast to interleukin-2/phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, resting lymphocytes, which display a homogenous cell surface distribution of LFA-1, respond poorly to intracellular signals to bind ICAM-1, unless the actin cytoskeleton is disrupted. On resting peripheral blood lymphocytes, uncoupling of LFA-1 from the actin cytoskeleton induces clustering of LFA-1 and this, along with induction of a high-affinity form of LFA-1, via "inside-out" signaling, results in enhanced binding to ICAM-1, which is dependent on intact intermediate filaments, microtubules, and metabolic energy. We hypothesize that linkage of LFA-1 to cytoskeletal elements prevents movement of LFA-1 over the cell surface, thus inhibiting clustering and strong ligand binding. Release from these cytoskeletal elements allows lateral movement and activation of LFA-1, resulting in ligand binding and "outside-in" signaling, that subsequently stimulates actin polymerization and stabilizes cell adhesion. Images PMID:9190212

  15. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  16. Detection of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the effusion of otitis media with effusion

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, K.-I.; Inoue, H.; Kikushima, K.; Mizukoshi, A.; Murakami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We measured sIL-2R, TNF-α and sICAM-1 in the sera and middle ear effusions (MEEs) of patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). Although there was no signmcant difference between the sIL-2R levels of the serous and mucoid MEEs, they were significantly higher than serum sIL-2R levels of OME patients and healthy controls. TNF-α levels of the mucoid MEEs were significantly higher than those of the serous type. However, TNF-α was rarely detected in the sera of OME patients or healthy controls. We observed significant differences between the serous and mucoid MEEs with respect to their sICAM-1 levels, which were also higher than serum slCAM-1 levels of OME patients and healthy controls. Our findings suggested that IL-2, TNF-α and ICAM-1 could be significantly involved in the pathogenesis of OME through the cytokine network. PMID:18475663

  17. S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bind to primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells but do not induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, B; Placzek, M; Doehn, C; Hacker, J; Schmidt, G; Wasenauer, G; Daha, M R; van der Woude, F J; Sack, K

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported an increase of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by renal carcinoma cells in response to S fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Now we demonstrate that E. coli expressing S and P fimbriae strongly binds to human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, in primary and simian virus 40-transfected renal tubular epithelial cells S fimbriae do not enhance the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. PMID:7622256

  18. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Goring, Harald H.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Mahaney, Michael C.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Glahn, David C.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) with incident T2D. Methods Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indexes. Results Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment—insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. The results were similar in women in reproductive age group and the remainder of the cohort. Inclusion of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in predictive models significantly improved reclassification and discrimination. The majority of these results were seen even when the analyses were restricted to NGT individuals. Conclusion Serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 independently and additively predict future T2D and represent important candidate biomarkers of T2D. PMID:27007680

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  20. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  1. Determining beta2-integrin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 binding kinetics in tumor cell adhesion to leukocytes and endothelial cells by a gas-driven micropipette assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Changliang; Tong, Chunfang; Wang, Manliu; Gao, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Lü, Shouqin; Liang, Shile; Dong, Cheng; Long, Mian

    2011-10-01

    Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and tumor cells have been reported to facilitate the adhesion and subsequent extravasation of tumor cells through the endothelium under blood flow, both of which are mediated by binding β(2)-integrin to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Here the adhesions between human WM9 metastatic melanoma cells, PMNs, and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were quantified by a gas-driven micropipette aspiration technique (GDMAT). Our data indicated that the cellular binding affinity of PMN-WM9 pair was 3.9-fold higher than that of the PMN-HPMEC pair. However, the effective binding affinities per molecular pair were comparable between the two cell pairs no matter whether WM9 cells or HPMECs were quiescent or cytokine-activated, indicating that the stronger adhesion between PMN-WM9 pair is mainly attributed to the high expression of ICAM-1 on WM9 cells. These results proposed an alternative mechanism, where WM9 melanoma cells adhere first with PMNs near vessel-wall regions and then bind to endothelial cells via PMNs under blood flow. In contrast, the adhesions between human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast carcinoma cells and PMNs showed a comparable cellular binding affinity to PMN-HPMEC pair because the ICAM-1 expressions on MDA-MB-231 cells and HPMECs are similar. Furthermore, differences were observed in the intrinsic forward and reverse rates of the β(2)-integrin-ICAM-1 bond between PMN-TC and PMN-EC pairs. This GDMAT assay enables us to quantify the binding kinetics of cell adhesion molecules physiologically expressed on nucleated cells. The findings also further the understanding of leukocyte-facilitated tumor cell adhesion from the viewpoint of molecular binding kinetics. PMID:21840991

  2. Regulated Expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Human Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jonjic, Nives; Martìn-Padura, Inés; Pollicino, Teresa; Bernasconi, Sergio; Jílek, Petr; Bigotti, Aldo; Mortarini, Roberta; Anichini, Andrea; Parmiani, Giorgio; Colotta, Francesco; Dejana, Elisabetta; Mantovani, Alberto; Natali, Pier Giorgio

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the endothelial adhesion molecule VCAM-1 was studied in human malignant melanoma lines by flow cytometry. Clones 2/4 and 2/14(derived from the same lesion) had appreciable levels of VCAM-1 expression, whereas clone 2/21 and thelines A2058, Mel24, and A375 were negative. Clone 2/14 was selected for further analysis. Exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) markedly augmented VCAM-1 on melanoma cells. Surface VCAM-1 was associated with expression of specific transcripts that were augmented by TNF. Analysis by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction using appropriate primers revealed that TNF-stimulated melanoma cells expressed both 7 and 6 immunoglobulin domain transcripts with predominance of the longer species. Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated melanoma cells bound more VLA-4-expressing cells (melanoma and monocytes) than resting tumor cells and anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies significantly inhibited binding, thus suggesting that surface VCAM-1 on melanoma is functional. Analysis of melanoma tissue sections demonstrated that VCAM-1 is not a marker of transformation of melanocytes because it can be detected in benign nevi. Although, unlike ICAM-1, VCAM-1 is not correlated with tumor progression, its expression in a fraction of primary melanomas indicates that it may play a role in regulating host immune response and homotypic interactions in some malignant melanomas ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:1281617

  3. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Adheres to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Upregulates ICAM-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Rodriguez, Carina A.; Ulett, Glen C.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2006-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an important respiratory pathogen. NTHI initiates infection by adhering to the airway epithelium. Here, we report that NTHI interacts with intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressed by respiratory epithelial cells. A fourfold-higher number of NTHI bacteria adhered to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human ICAM-1 (CHO-ICAM-1) than to control CHO cells (P ≤ 0.005). Blocking cell surface ICAM-1 with specific antibody reduced the adhesion of NTHI to A549 respiratory epithelial cells by 37% (P = 0.001) and to CHO-ICAM-1 cells by 69% (P = 0.005). Preincubating the bacteria with recombinant ICAM-1 reduced adhesion by 69% (P = 0.003). The adherence to CHO-ICAM-1 cells of NTHI strains deficient in the adhesins P5, P2, HMW1/2, and Hap or expressing a truncated lipooligosaccharide was compared to that of parental strains. Only strain 1128f−, which lacks the outer membrane protein (OMP) P5-homologous adhesin (P5 fimbriae), adhered less well than its parental strain. The numbers of NTHI cells adhering to CHO-ICAM-1 cells were reduced by 67% (P = 0.009) following preincubation with anti-P5 antisera. Furthermore, recombinant ICAM bound to an OMP preparation from strain 1128f+, which expresses P5, but not to that from its P5-deficient mutant, confirming a specific interaction between ICAM-1 and P5 fimbriae. Incubation of respiratory epithelial cells with NTHI increased ICAM-1 expression fourfold (P = 0.001). Adhesion of NTHI to the respiratory epithelium, therefore, upregulates the expression of its own receptor. Blocking interactions between NTHI P5 fimbriae and ICAM-1 may reduce respiratory colonization by NTHI and limit the frequency and severity of NTHI infection. PMID:16428725

  4. Organization, regulatory sequences, and alternatively spliced transcripts of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, S.O.; Mei, C.; Butcher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is expressed selectively at venular sites of lymphocyte extravasation into mucosal lymphoid tissues and lamina propria, where it directs local lymphocyte trafficking. MAdCAM-1 is a multifunctional type I transmembrane adhesion molecule comprising two distal Ig domains involved in {alpha}4{beta}7 integrin binding, a mucin-like region able to display L-selectin-binding carbohydrates, and a membrane-proximal Ig domain homologous to IgA. We show in this work that the MAdCAM-1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and contains five exons. The signal peptide and each one of the three Ig domains are encoded by a distinct exon, whereas the transmembrane, cytoplasmic tail, and 3{prime}-untranslated region of MAdCAM-1 are combined on a single exon. The mucin-like region and the third Ig domain are encoded together on exon 4. An alternatively spliced MAdCAM-1 mRNA is identified that lacks the mucin/IgA-homologous exon 4-encoded sequences. This short variant of MAdCAM-1 may be specialized to support {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesion strengthening, independent of carbohydrate-presenting function. Sequences 5{prime} of the transcription start site include tandem nuclear factor-KB sites; AP-1, AP-2, and signal peptide-1 binding sites; and an estrogen response element. Our findings reinforce the correspondence between the multidomain structure and versatile functions of this vascular addressin, and suggest an additional level of regulation of carbohydrate-presenting capability, and thus of its importance in lectin-mediated vs. {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesive events in lymphocyte trafficking. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pre-diagnostic levels of adiponectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are associated with colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Charnaux, Nathalie; Sutton, Angela; Méjean, Caroline; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationships between pre-diagnostic biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk and assess their relevance in predictive models. METHODS: A nested case-control study was designed to include all first primary incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed between inclusion in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort in 1994 and the end of follow-up in 2007. Cases (n = 50) were matched with two randomly selected controls (n = 100). Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between pre-diagnostic levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin, leptin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and colorectal cancer risk. Area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) and relative integrated discrimination improvement (RIDI) statistics were used to assess the discriminatory potential of the models. RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin level was associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend = 0.03). Quartiles of sVCAM-1 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend = 0.02). No association was observed with any of the other biomarkers. Compared to standard models with known risk factors, those including both adiponectin and sVCAM-1 had substantially improved performance for colorectal cancer risk prediction (P for AUC improvement = 0.01, RIDI = 26.5%). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that pre-diagnostic plasma adiponectin and sVCAM-1 levels are associated with decreased and increased colorectal cancer risk, respectively. These relationships must be confirmed in large validation studies. PMID:22719189

  6. The role of haem oxygenase-1 in the decrease of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Olszanecki, Rafal; Gebska, Anna; Korbut, Ryszard

    2007-12-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in neutrophil transmigration across endothelium during sepsis-induced acute lung injury and anti-ICAM-1 interventions may represent new strategy of pulmonary protection. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory actions via decrease of expression of adhesion molecules. We investigated the role of HO-1 in the action of curcumin, a naturally occurring yellow pigment isolated from plant Curcuma longa L., on ICAM-1 expression in tumour necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated EA.hy926 cells and lungs of lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Both, in vitro and in vivo curcumin induced HO-1 and curcumin-elicited induction of HO-1 was associated with inhibition ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited pulmonary sequestration of leucocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide as evidenced by decrease of myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of curcumin were reversed by an inhibitor of HO activity, chromium (III) mesoporphyrin IX chloride. We conclude that induction of HO-1, via decrease of endothelial ICAM-1, plays a pivotal role in curcumin-dependent prevention of pulmonary sequestration of neutrophils in a mouse model of endotoxaemia. PMID:17973899

  7. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Emiko; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Nagai, Kei; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Shibuya, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation contributes considerably to immune responses, such as host protection and allergy. Cell surface immunoreceptors expressed on MCs play an important role in MC activation. Although various immunoreceptors on MCs have been identified, the regulatory mechanism of MC activation is not fully understood. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of MC activation, we used gene expression analyses of human and mouse MCs to identify a novel immunoreceptor expressed on MCs. We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice. However, Tie2 was not detected on the cell surface of the mouse MCs of the peritoneal cavity, ear skin, or colon lamina propria. In contrast, it was expressed on mouse bone marrow–derived MCs and bone marrow MC progenitors (BM-MCps). Stimulation of Tie2 by its ligand angiopoietin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 in MEDMC-BRC6, a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived mast cell line, and enhanced MEDMC-BRC6 and mouse BM-MCp adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 integrin. These results suggest that Tie2 signaling induces α4β1 integrin activation on BM-MCps for adhesion to VCAM-1. PMID:26659448

  8. Expression of a Soluble Isoform of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in the Brain and Its Involvement in Directional Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Hagiyama, Man; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Kimura, Keiko B.; Murakami, Yoshinori; Ito, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is expressed on superior cervical ganglion neurites and mediates cell–cell adhesion by trans-homophilic binding. In addition to the membrane-bound form, we have previously shown that a soluble form (sCADM1) generated by alternative splicing possesses a stop codon immediately downstream of the immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we demonstrate the presence of sCADM1 in vivo and its possible role in neurite extension. sCADM1 appears to be a stromal protein because extracellular-restricted, but not intracellular-restricted, anti-CADM1 antibody stained stromal protein-rich extract from mouse brains. Murine plasmacytoma cells, P3U1, were modified to secrete sCADM1 fused with either immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc portion (sCADM1-Fc) or its deletion form that lacks the immunoglobulin-like domain (ΔsCADM1-Fc). When P3U1 derivatives expressing sCADM1-Fc or ΔsCADM1-Fc were implanted into collagen gels, Fc-fused proteins were present more abundantly around the cells. Superior cervical ganglion neurons, parental P3U1, and either derivative were implanted into collagen gels separately, and co-cultured for 4 days. Bodian staining of the gel sections revealed that most superior cervical ganglion neurites turned toward the source of sCADM1-Fc, but not ΔsCADM1-Fc. Furthermore, immunofluorescence signals for sCADM1-Fc and membrane-bound CADM1 were co-localized on the neurite surface. These results show that sCADM1 appears to be involved in directional neurite extension by serving as an anchor to which membrane-bound CADM1 on the neurites can bind. PMID:19435791

  9. The CO donor CORM-2 inhibits LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Pei-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Infection with Gram-negative bacteria has been recognized as an initiator of rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and infiltration of immune cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here we have investigated the detailed mechanisms of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression induced by LPS and if CO inhibited LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts by suppressing VCAM-1 expression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) were incubated with LPS and/or the CO-releasing compound CORM-2. Effects of LPS on VCAM-1 levels were determined by analysing mRNA expression, promoter activity, protein expression, and immunohistochemical staining. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by determining the expression, activation, and binding activity of transcriptional factors using target signal antagonists. KEY RESULTS CORM-2 significantly inhibited inflammatory responses in LPS-treated RASFs by down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and leukocyte infiltration. The down-regulation of LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involved inhibition of the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (p-c-Jun, c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA levels). These results were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to detect NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS LPS-mediated formation of the TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6/c-Src complex regulated NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 activation leading to VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion. CORM-2, which liberates CO to elicit direct biological activities, attenuated LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression by interfering with NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and significantly reduced LPS-induced immune cell infiltration of the synovium. PMID:24628691

  10. Accumulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in senile plaques in brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, M. M.; Otte-Höller, I.; Westphal, J. R.; Wesseling, P.; Ruiter, D. J.; de Waal, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The still unsolved pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of extensive speculation. Some years ago, a local acute phase reaction involving production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 was proposed as the triggering event in AD. Since it has been reported that these cytokines induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we analyzed AD brain tissue cryosections for the presence of ICAM-1 by immunostaining and for ICAM-2 expression as a control. In senile plaques a marked diffuse or granular staining for the ICAM-1 domains 1, 4, and 5 was observed, whereas ICAM-2 expression was observed in microglial cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the presence of a 85 kd ICAM-1 molecule in AD frontal cortex. Our findings indicate that ICAM-1 accumulates in senile plaques as a complete 5-domain molecule at a relatively early stage of senile plaque formation. Our results are in support of a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of senile plaque formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7904796

  11. Downregulation of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 attenuates the metastatic ability in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Di, Dalin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Lina; Sun, Ping; Liu, Yanfei; Xu, Zhiwei; Ju, Jiyu

    2016-03-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in tumor cell expansion or metastasis. However, the detailed mechanisms of ICAM-1 in breast cancer remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression level of ICAM-1 in breast cancer using tissue microarray and clinical tissue specimens by immunohistochemical method, and the results revealed that ICAM-1 is highly expressed in the breast cancer tissues. To investigate whether ICAM-1 can affect the metastasis ability in breast cancer, we knocked down ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). As a result, we stably silenced ICAM-1 expression in MCF-7 cells by infection with lentivirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), the change of metastatic ability of MCF-7 cells was assessed by wound-healing assay, Transwell assay or clone formation assay. Our results showed that silencing of ICAM-1 can inhibit the metastatic ability of MCF-7 cell lines in vitro significantly, and the decreased migration and invasion was accompanied by a reduction of MMP-14. These results implying that ICAM-1 might be involved in the progression of breast cancer metastasis and lentivirus-mediated silencing of ICAM-1 might be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26751847

  12. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Uterine Cervical Carcinogenesis in Taiwanese Women.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Liu, Yu-Fan; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Tzu-Fan; Wang, Po-Hui

    2016-03-01

    The association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) genetic polymorphisms with uterine cervical carcinogenesis has seldom been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of ICAM-1 with cervical tumorigenesis in Taiwanese women. Four hundred forty four women, including 91 with cervical invasive cancer, 63 with precancerous lesions, and 290 normal controls, were recruited. The genotypic distribution of 4 SNPs of ICAM-1, rs5498 (A1548G), rs5491 (K56M), rs281432 (C8823G), and rs3093030 (C-286T) was determined using real-time polymerase chain reactions and genotyping. Compared to homozygous wild CC, heterozygous CG, homozygous mutant GG, or genotypes with CG/GG display increased risks or a tendency of precancerous lesions or invasive cancer with strong power in rs281432. The homozygotic mutant alleles TT in rs3093030 and homozygotic mutant alleles GG in rs5498 were associated with a higher risk of invasive cancer and precancerous lesions, respectively, but with lower power. The CG/TA/TG haplotypes of ICAM-1 SNPs rs3093030 and rs5498 exhibited a tendency to increase susceptibility to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. In conclusion, Taiwanese women with ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 and haplotypes CG/TA/TG of rs3093030 and rs5498 are associated with uterine cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:26377999

  13. Identification of Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) as a Hypoglycosylation Marker in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Cells*

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Ng, Bobby G.; Losfeld, Marie-Estelle; Zhu, Wenhong; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2012-01-01

    Many human inherited disorders cause protein N-glycosylation defects, but there are few cellular markers to test gene complementation for such defects. Plasma membrane glycoproteins are potential biomarkers because they may be reduced or even absent in plasma membranes of glycosylation-deficient cells. We combined stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LTQ OrbitrapTM) to identify and quantify membrane proteins from wild-type CHO and glycosylation-deficient CHO (Lec9) cells. We identified 165 underrepresented proteins from 1447 unique quantified proteins, including 18 N-glycosylated plasma membrane proteins. Using various methods, we found that intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was reduced in Lec9 cells and in fibroblasts from 31 congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) patients compared with normal controls. Mannose supplementation of phosphomannose isomerase-deficient CDG-Ib (MPI-CDG) cells and complementation with PMM2 in PMM2-deficient CDG-Ia (PMM2-CDG) cells partially corrected hypoglycosylation based on increased ICAM-1 presence on the plasma membrane. These data indicate that ICAM-1 could be a useful hypoglycosylation biomarker to assess gene complementation of CDG-I patient cells and to monitor improved glycosylation in response to therapeutic drugs. PMID:22496445

  14. Involvement of interferon-gamma genetic variants and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in onset and progression of generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Laddha, Naresh C; Shah, Kriti; Shah, Bela J; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2013-11-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes and genetic variability due to intron 1 polymorphisms in IFNG has been reported to be associated with increased risk for several autoimmune diseases. The aim of present study was to determine whether intron 1 +874A/T (rs2430561) and CA microsatellite (rs3138557) polymorphisms in IFNG are associated with generalized vitiligo (GV) susceptibility and expression of IFNG and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) affects the disease onset and progression. Here we report that IFNG CA microsatellite but not +874A/T may be a genetic risk factor for GV; however, +874T allele plays a crucial role in increased expression of IFNG mRNA and protein levels which could affect the onset and progression of the disease. Active GV patients showed increased IFNG levels compared to stable GV patients. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that IFNG expression levels were higher in patients with +874 TT genotypes and 12 CA repeats. Patients with the early age of onset showed higher IFNG expression and female GV patients showed higher IFNG and ICAM1 expression implicating gender biasness and involvement of IFN-? in early onset of the disease. Moreover, the increased IFN-? levels in patients lead to increased ICAM1 expression, which could be a probable link between cytokines and T-cell involvement in pathogenesis of GV. PMID:23777204

  15. Involvement of Interferon-Gamma Genetic Variants and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Onset and Progression of Generalized Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Laddha, Naresh C.; Shah, Kriti; Shah, Bela J.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes and genetic variability due to intron 1 polymorphisms in IFNG has been reported to be associated with increased risk for several autoimmune diseases. The aim of present study was to determine whether intron 1 +874A/T (rs2430561) and CA microsatellite (rs3138557) polymorphisms in IFNG are associated with generalized vitiligo (GV) susceptibility and expression of IFNG and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) affects the disease onset and progression. Here we report that IFNG CA microsatellite but not +874A/T may be a genetic risk factor for GV; however, +874T allele plays a crucial role in increased expression of IFNG mRNA and protein levels which could affect the onset and progression of the disease. Active GV patients showed increased IFNG levels compared to stable GV patients. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that IFNG expression levels were higher in patients with +874 TT genotypes and 12 CA repeats. Patients with the early age of onset showed higher IFNG expression and female GV patients showed higher IFNG and ICAM1 expression implicating gender biasness and involvement of IFN-γ in early onset of the disease. Moreover, the increased IFN-γ levels in patients lead to increased ICAM1 expression, which could be a probable link between cytokines and T-cell involvement in pathogenesis of GV. PMID:23777204

  16. Adhesion molecules on the plasma membrane of epidermal cells. II. The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is constitutively present on the cell surface of human resting Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    De Panfilis, G; Manara, G C; Ferrari, C; Torresani, C

    1990-03-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed on many cell types, including a variety of cells showing accessory/antigen-presenting capacities and belonging to the monocyte/macrophage or dendritic lineages. Here it is shown that human freshly isolated Langerhans cells (LC) constitutively express ICAM-1, as expected. It seems likely that the amounts of ICAM-1 moieties expressed on the plasma membrane of resting LC are only limited, since they virtually escaped detection by conventional immunofluorescence procedures on epidermal sheets. However, all the observed Birbeck granule-bearing LC showed their clear, although relatively weak, ICAM-1 positivity when more sensitive techniques were employed, such as colloidal gold-immunoelectronmicroscopy using gold particles 15nm in size and, to an even higher extent, using gold particles 5 nm in size. Because ICAM-1 is a ligand for the adhesive molecule LFA-1, which is expressed on the surface of leukocytes and, especially, lymphocytes, the ICAM-1 (LC)/LFA-1 (T-lymphocytes) interactions might, enabling these cells to adhere together, deliver activation signals to T cells, thus constituting the initial event in the generation of a cutaneous immune response. PMID:1968494

  17. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene 125C/G polymorphism is associated with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Han, Zong-Lin; Dong, He-Gui; Zhang, Xia; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Jin, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common disorder that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors have been suggested to influence the predisposition towards thrombosis and the incidence of DVT. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is a key adhesion molecule that is involved in platelet function and maintenance of endothelial cell junctions. To date, no studies have examined the association between polymorphisms in PECAM-1 and DVT. The present study analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PECAM-1, namely Leu125Val (C373G), Asn563Ser (T1688C) and Gly670Arg (C2008T), in Chinese patients with DVT and age-and gender-matched controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Furthermore, plasma soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were quantified by ELISA. The results of the present study demonstrated significantly higher genotype and allele frequencies of the Leu125Val polymorphism in PECAM-1 in the DVT group as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). The plasma levels of sPECAM-1 in the DVT group (83.4 ± 23.5 ng/ml) were also significantly higher as compared with those in the control group (60.4 ± 19.4 ng/ml, P<0.01). In the patients with DVT, plasma levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in those with the Leu/Val and Val/Val genotypes as compared with those possessing the Leu/Leu genotype (P<0.05). The PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism was shown to be associated with an increased risk of DVT and PECAM-1 protein expression levels in venous vessels. In patients with DVT, the PECAM-1 Leu/Val and Val/Val genotypes were associated with delayed thrombus resolution, as determined by thrombus scoring, as compared with that in patients possessing the Leu/Val genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and sPECAM-1 levels may be associated with DVT. PMID:25846278

  18. Photocarcinogenesis and inhibition of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in cells of DNA-repair-defective individuals.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, C; Grewe, M; Berneburg, M; Grether-Beck, S; Quilliet, X; Mezzina, M; Sarasin, A; Lehmann, A R; Arlett, C F; Krutmann, J

    1997-06-24

    Cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XP-D) and most patients with trichothiodystrophy (TTD) are deficient in excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced DNA damage. Although in both syndromes this defect is based on mutations in the same gene, XPD, only XP-D, not TTD, individuals have an increased risk of skin cancer. Since the reduction in DNA repair capacity is similar in XP-D and TTD patients, it cannot account for the difference in skin cancer risk. The features of XP-D and TTD might therefore be attributable to differences in the immune response following UV-irradiation, a factor which is presumed to be important for photocarcinogenesis. We have measured the capacity of UVB radiation to inhibit expression of the immunological key molecule intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in cells from three healthy individuals in comparison to cells from three XP-D and three TTD patients. Cells from XP-D patients, but not from TTD patients, exhibited an increased susceptibility to UVB radiation-induced inhibition of ICAM-1 expression. Transfection of XP-D cells with the wild-type XPD cDNA, but not with XPC cDNA, corrected this abnormal phenotype. Thus, the skin cancer risk in DNA repair-defective individuals correlated with the susceptibility of their cells to UVB radiation-induced inhibition of ICAM-1 expression, rather than with their defect in DNA repair. The XPD protein has dual roles: in DNA repair and transcription. The transcriptional role might be important for the control of expression of immunologically relevant genes and thereby contribute to the skin cancer risk of a DNA-repair-deficient individual. PMID:9192652

  19. Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 Is a Transcriptional Activator in Muscle Where It Regulates Expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Traci L.; LaChance, Rhonda; Iademarco, Michael F.; Dean, Douglas C.

    1998-01-01

    Previously, we have suggested that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and its integrin receptor α4β1 mediate cell–cell interactions important for skeletal myogenesis. Expression of the receptors subsequently subsides in muscle after birth. Here, we examine the mechanism regulating VCAM-1 gene expression in muscle. An enhancer located between the TATA box and the transcriptional start site is responsible for VCAM-1 gene expression in muscle—this element is inactive in endothelial cells where VCAM-1 expression is dependent on nuclear factor κB sites and inflammatory cytokines. We identify interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2), a member of the interferon regulatory factor family, as the enhancer-binding transcription factor and show that expression of IRF-2 parallels that of VCAM-1 during mouse skeletal myogenesis. IRF-2 is not dependent upon cytokines for expression or activity, and it has been shown to act as a repressor in other nonmuscle cell types. We show that the basic repressor motif located near the COOH-terminal of IRF-2 is not active in muscle cells, but instead an acidic region in the center of the molecule functions as a transactivating domain. Although IRF-2 and VCAM-1 expression diminishes on adult muscle fiber, they are retained on myogenic stem cells (satellite cells). These satellite cells proliferate and fuse to regenerate muscle fiber after injury or disease. We present evidence that VCAM-1 on satellite cells mediates their interaction with α4β1(+) leukocytes that invade the muscle after injury or disease. We propose that VCAM-1 on endothelium generally recruits leukocytes to muscle after injury, whereas subsequent interaction with VCAM-1 on regenerating muscle cells focuses the invading leukocytes specifically to the sites of regeneration. PMID:9490737

  20. Immunologic changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in pediatric patients treated for psoriasis with the Goeckerman regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.; Andrys, C.; Vokurkova, D.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Ettler, K.

    2007-11-15

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is often manifested during childhood. The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1 decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Inside-out Signaling Promotes Dynamic Changes in the Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1) Oligomeric State to Control Its Cell Adhesion Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prerna C.; Lee, Hannah S. W.; Ming, Aaron Y. K.; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M.; Yip, Christopher M.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Gray-Owen, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell contacts are fundamental to multicellular organisms and are subject to exquisite levels of control. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) can engage in both cis-homophilic (parallel) oligomerization and trans-homophilic (anti-parallel) binding. In this study, we establish that the CEACAM1 transmembrane domain has a propensity to form cis-dimers via the transmembrane-embedded 432GXXXG436 motif and that this basal state is overcome when activated calmodulin binds to the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Although mutation of the 432GXXXG436 motif reduced CEACAM1 oligomerization, it did not affect surface localization of the receptor or influence CEACAM1-dependent cellular invasion by the pathogenic Neisseria. The mutation did, however, have a striking effect on CEACAM1-dependent cellular aggregation, increasing both the kinetics of cell-cell association and the size of cellular aggregates formed. CEACAM1 association with tyrosine kinase c-Src and tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 was not affected by the 432GXXXG436 mutation, consistent with their association with the monomeric form of wild type CEACAM1. Collectively, our results establish that a dynamic oligomer-to-monomer shift in surface-expressed CEACAM1 facilitates trans-homophilic binding and downstream effector signaling. PMID:24005674

  2. Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is associated with cerebral blood flow dysregulation, mobility impairment, and falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tchalla, Achille E; Wellenius, Gregory A; Travison, Thomas G; Gagnon, Margaret; Iloputaife, Ikechukwu; Dantoine, Thierry; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) is associated with hypertension, vascular inflammation, and systemic endothelial dysfunction. We evaluated whether elevated plasma sVCAM-1 is associated with impaired cerebrovascular function and mobility impairments in elderly people. We studied the cross-sectional relationships between plasma sVCAM-1 level, gait speed, and cerebrovascular hemodynamics, and its longitudinal relationship with falls in 680 community-dwelling participants aged ≥65 years in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Falls were recorded prospectively for 1 year on daily calendars. sVCAM-1 was measured by ELISA assay and beat-to-beat blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery during rest and in response to changes in end-tidal CO2 was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. sVCAM-1 concentration was 1094±340 ng/mL in normotensives, 1195±438 ng/mL in controlled hypertensives, and 1250±445 ng/mL in uncontrolled hypertensives (P=0.008). The mean resting blood flow velocity and cerebral vasomotor range were, respectively, 41.0±10.3 cm/s and 1.3±0.4 cm/s per millimeter of mercury. Elevated sVCAM-1 levels indicative of endothelial dysfunction were associated with reduced resting blood flow velocity (P=0.017) and cerebral vasomotor range (P=0.0048). Elevated sVCAM-1 levels were associated with slower gait speed (<0.8 m/s; odds ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.83; P=0.0011) and an increased odds of injurious falls (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.2; P=0.0028). An elevated sVCAM-1 level may be a marker of cerebral blood flow dysregulation because of endothelial damage from hypertension. It may also signal the presence of cerebral microvascular disease and its clinical consequences, including slow gait speed and falls. PMID:26056332

  3. Up-regulation of intestinal nuclear factor kappa B and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Chun-Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Wei-Qin; Yin, Hong-Xia

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates a large number of genes involved in the inflammatory response to critical illnesses, but it is not known if and how NF-κB is activated and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressed in the gut following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of current study was to investigate the temporal pattern of intestinal NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression following TBI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (6 rats in each group) including controls with sham operation and TBI groups at hours 3, 12, 24, and 72, and on d 7. Parietal brain contusion was adopted using weight-dropping method. All rats were decapitated at corresponding time point and mid-jejunum samples were taken. NF-κB binding activity in jejunal tissue was measured using EMSA. Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of ICAM-1 expression in jejunal samples. RESULTS: There was a very low NF-κB binding activity and little ICAM-1 expression in the gut of control rats after sham surgery. NF-κB binding activity in jejunum significantly increased by 160% at 3 h following TBI (P<0.05 vs control), peaked at 72 h (500% increase) and remained elevated on d 7 post-injury by 390% increase. Compared to controls, ICAM-1 was significantly up-regulated on the endothelia of microvessels in villous interstitium and lamina propria by 24 h following TBI and maximally expressed at 72 h post-injury (P<0.001). The endothelial ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in jejunal mucosa still remained strong on d 7 post-injury. The peak of NF-κB activation and endothelial ICAM-1 expression coincided in time with the period during which secondary mucosal injury of the gut was also at their culmination following TBI. CONCLUSION: TBI could induce an immediate and persistent up-regulation of NF-κB activity and subsequent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in the intestine. Inflammatory response mediated by increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute gut mucosal injury following TBI. PMID:15754395

  4. The diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic role of serum epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, S; Tas, F; Tastekin, D; Karabulut, M; Yasasever, C T; Ciftci, R; Güveli, M; Fayda, M; Vatansever, S; Serilmez, M; Disci, R; Aydıner, A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in breast cancer (BC) patients. Ninety-six BC patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)). The median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range 29-80 years). Majority of the patients (71 %) had luminal subtype, and 38.5 % had metastatic disease. Twenty-nine (30 %) patients showed tumor progression, and 20 (21 %) patients died during follow-up. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.6 ± 1.7 and 35.5 ± 1.5 months, respectively. The baseline serum EpCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of VCAM-1 between the patients and controls (p = 0.47). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p > 0.05). Patients with HER-2-positive and triple-negative tumors had significantly poorer PFS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively), while metastatic disease and chemotherapy unresponsiveness had significantly adverse effect on OS analysis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Neither serum VCAM-1 levels nor serum EpCAM levels were identified to have a prognostic role on either PFS or OS (VCAM-1 p = 0.76 and p = 0.32; EpCAM p = 0.16 and p = 0.69, respectively). Even though any predictive or prognostic role could not be determined for both markers, serum levels of EpCAM were found to have diagnostic value in BC patients. PMID:24891186

  5. Clinical significance of alpha(v)beta3 integrin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma lesions.

    PubMed

    Natali, P G; Hamby, C V; Felding-Habermann, B; Liang, B; Nicotra, M R; Di Filippo, F; Giannarelli, D; Temponi, M; Ferrone, S

    1997-04-15

    Several lines of experimental evidence in in vitro and animal model systems suggest that the integrin alpha(v)beta3 plays a role in the tumorigenicity of human melanoma cells and that the blocking of alpha(v)beta3 ligand binding can inhibit tumor progression. However, there is only scanty information about the role of alpha(v)beta3 in malignant melanoma in a clinical setting. Therefore, in the present study, we have analyzed the distribution in lesions of melanocyte origin and in normal tissues of the alpha(v) integrin subunit and of the alpha(v)beta3 complex and their association with histopathological and clinical parameters of malignant melanoma. We have used as probes the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) TP36.1 and VF27.263.15, which we have shown with a combination of serological and immunochemical assays to be specific for the alpha(v) subunit and for the alpha(v)beta3 complex, respectively. In immunohistochemical assays, mAb TP36.1 stained both benign and malignant lesions of melanocyte origin. In contrast, the reactivity of mAb VF27.263.15 was restricted to malignant lesions. Both mAbs displayed differential reactivity with primary melanoma lesions of different histotypes because they stained about 50% of acral lentiginous melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma lesions, at least 80% of nodular melanoma lesions, and none of the uveal melanoma lesions tested. Both mAbs TP36.1 and VF27.263.15 stained about 60% of lymph node metastases and 80% of cutaneous metastases. Expression of the alpha(v)beta3 complex in melanocytic lesions resembles that of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in several respects: (a) both are expressed in a significantly (P < 0.004) larger proportion of malignant than of benign lesions; (b) expression of both molecules in primary melanoma lesions is significantly (P < 0.05) associated with lesion thickness; and (c) expression of both molecules in primary lesions from patients with stage I melanoma is significantly (P < 0.05) associated with an increased probability of disease recurrence following surgical excision. alpha(v)beta3 and ICAM-1 in primary melanoma lesions complement each other in predicting the outcome of the disease, because the association with prognosis was enhanced when primary lesions were stained by both anti-alpha(v)beta3 mAb VF27.263.15 and anti-ICAM-1 mAb CL203.4 or by neither mAb. Because alpha(v)beta3 has been suggested as a potential target of immunotherapy, its distribution in normal tissues was investigated. alpha(v)beta3 expression is restricted because it was only detected in ductal epithelium of parotid glands, thyrocytes, basal glands of the stomach, colonic and rectal epithelium glomeruli, Bowman's capsules and proximal and distal tubules of kidneys, and endometrial epithelium. These findings suggest that renal function will be a critical clinical parameter to monitor in therapies of malignant diseases relying on systemic administration of anti-alpha(v)beta3 mAb. PMID:9108459

  6. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  7. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of acute vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyte, Lisa C; Brooks, Keith J; Nagel, Simon; Akhtar, Asim; Chen, Ruoli; Mardiguian, Sylvie; McAteer, Martina A; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Buchan, Alastair M; Sibson, Nicola R

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of stroke is multifactorial, and inflammation is thought to have a critical function in lesion progression at early time points. Detection of inflammatory processes associated with cerebral ischemia would be greatly beneficial in both designing individual therapeutic strategies and monitoring outcome. We have recently developed a new approach to imaging components of the inflammatory response, namely endovascular adhesion molecule expression on the brain endothelium. In this study, we show specific imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and a reduction in this inflammatory response, associated with improved behavioral outcome, as a result of preconditioning. The spatial extent of VCAM-1 expression is considerably greater than the detectable lesion using diffusion-weighted imaging (25% versus 3% total brain volume), which is generally taken to reflect the core of the lesion at early time points. Thus, VCAM-1 imaging seems to reveal both core and penumbral regions, and our data implicate VCAM-1 upregulation and associated inflammatory processes in the progression of penumbral tissue to infarction. Our findings indicate that such molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches could be important clinical tools for patient evaluation, acute monitoring of therapy, and design of specific treatment strategies. PMID:20087364

  8. Dileucine and PDZ-binding motifs mediate synaptic adhesion-like molecule 1 (SALM1) trafficking in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Seabold, Gail K; Wang, Philip Y; Petralia, Ronald S; Chang, Kai; Zhou, Arthur; McDermott, Mark I; Wang, Ya-Xian; Milgram, Sharon L; Wenthold, Robert J

    2012-02-10

    Synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALMs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules involved in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Of the five family members, only SALM1, -2, and -3 contain a cytoplasmic C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We have found that SALM1 is unique among the SALMs because deletion of its PDZ-binding motif (SALM1ΔPDZ) blocks its surface expression in heterologous cells. When expressed in hippocampal neurons, SALM1ΔPDZ had decreased surface expression in dendrites and the cell soma but not in axons, suggesting that the PDZ-binding domain may influence cellular trafficking of SALMs to specific neuronal locations. Endoglycosidase H digestion assays indicated that SALM1ΔPDZ is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in heterologous cells. However, when the entire C-terminal tail of SALM1 was deleted, SALM1 was detected on the cell surface. Using serial deletions, we identified a region of SALM1 that contains a putative dileucine ER retention motif, which is not present in the other SALMs. Mutation of this DXXXLL motif allowed SALM1 to leave the ER and enhanced its surface expression in heterologous cells and neurons. An increase in the number of protrusions at the dendrites and cell body was observed when this SALM1 mutant was expressed in hippocampal neurons. With electron microscopy, these protrusions appeared to be irregular, enlarged spines and filopodia. Thus, enrichment of SALM1 on the cell surface affects dendritic arborization, and intracellular motifs regulate its dendritic versus axonal localization. PMID:22174418

  9. The Interaction of Activated Integrin Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1 with Ligand Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Induces Activation and Redistribution of Focal Adhesion Kinase and Proline-rich Tyrosine Kinase 2 in T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis; Gómez, Manuel; Luque, Alfonso; Hogg, Nancy; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Cabañas, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Integrin receptors play a central role in the biology of lymphocytes, mediating crucial functional aspects of these cells, including adhesion, activation, polarization, migration, and signaling. Here we report that induction of activation of the β2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in T lymphocytes with divalent cations, phorbol esters, or stimulatory antibodies is followed by a dramatic polarization, resulting in a characteristic elongated morphology of the cells and the arrest of migrating lymphoblasts. This cellular polarization was prevented by treatment of cells with the specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Furthermore, the interaction of the activated integrin LFA-1 with its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1 induced the activation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK-2). FAK activation reached a maximum after 45 min of stimulation; in contrast, PYK-2 activation peaked at 30 min, declining after 60 min. Upon polarization of lymphoblasts, FAK and PYK-2 redistributed from a diffuse localization in the cytoplasm to a region close to the microtubule-organizing center in these cells. FAK and PYK-2 activation was blocked when lymphoblasts were pretreated with actin and tubulin cytoskeleton-interfering agents, indicating its cytoskeletal dependence. Our results demonstrate that interaction of the β2-integrin LFA-1 with its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1 induces remodeling of T lymphocyte morphology and activation and redistribution of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases FAK and PYK-2. PMID:10359604

  10. Regulation of local and metastatic host-mediated anti-tumour mechanisms by l-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, M; Yanaba, K; Hasegawa, M; Matsushita, Y; Horikawa, M; Komura, K; Matsushita, T; Kawasuji, A; Fujita, T; Takehara, K; Steeber, D A; Tedder, T F; Sato, S

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is often accompanied by a host response of inflammatory cell infiltration that is highly regulated by multiple adhesion molecules. To assess the role of adhesion molecules, including l-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in this process, subcutaneous primary growth and metastasis to the lung of B16 melanoma cells not expressing l-selectin, ICAM-1 or their ligands were examined in mice lacking l-selectin, ICAM-1 or both. Primary subcutaneous growth of B16 melanoma was augmented by loss of l-selectin, ICAM-1 or both, while pulmonary metastasis was enhanced by the loss of l-selectin or combined loss of l-selectin and ICAM-1. In both situations, the combined loss of l-selectin and ICAM-1 exhibited the greatest effect. This enhancement was associated generally with a reduced accumulation of natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and also with a diminished release of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α but not interleukin (IL)-6. Cytotoxicity against melanoma was not defective by the absence of ICAM-1, l-selectin or both, suggesting that the enhancement of tumour growth and metastasis caused by the loss of adhesion molecules results from an impaired migration of effector cells into the tissue rather than from a suppression of the cytotoxic response. The results indicate that l-selectin and ICAM-1 contribute co-operatively to the anti-tumour reaction by regulating lymphocyte infiltration to the tumour. PMID:16412045

  11. Regulation of endothelial and mesothelial cell function by interleukin-13: selective induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and amplification of interleukin-6 production.

    PubMed

    Sironi, M; Sciacca, F L; Matteucci, C; Conni, M; Vecchi, A; Bernasconi, S; Minty, A; Caput, D; Ferrara, P; Colotta, F

    1994-09-15

    The present study was designed to explore the interaction of interleukin-13 (IL-13) with vascular endothelial cells (EC). In vitro exposure to IL-13 of human umbilical vein EC induced surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). At optimal concentrations (10 to 50 ng/mL) and exposure times (24 hours), IL-13 was a twofold to threefold less effective inducer of VCAM-1 than IL-1, which was used as reference EC activator. When IL-13 was combined with IL-1, an almost additive induction of VCAM-1 was observed. Induction of VCAM-1 by IL-13 was selective in that E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were unaffected. IL-13 caused a modest reduction of IL-1 induction of E-selectin and ICAM-1. Surface expression of VCAM-1 on IL-13-treated cells was associated with mRNA induction (as assessed by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction), with predominance of transcripts encoding the 7 Ig domain form of this molecule. In agreement with previous reports, IL-13 inhibited cytokine production in human monocytes. In contrast, IL-13 was a weak inducer and an amplifier (in concert with IL-1) of IL-6 expression in EC. Mesothelial cells, which share properties with EC and regulate the traffic and function of leukocytes in serosal cavities, were stimulated to express VCAM-1 and IL-6 by IL-13. Thus, IL-13 elicits a spectrum of responses in vascular endothelium remarkably similar to that of IL-4 and IL-10. Interaction of these cytokines with vascular endothelium may play an important role in the induction and expression of Th2-dependent responses. PMID:7521694

  12. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNF?-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-?B activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-?-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-?B transcription factor activation in TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-?B activation in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:21213354

  13. Calcium mobilization and Rac1 activation are required for VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Mills, Joan M; Johnson, Jacob D; Deem, Tracy L; Ochi, Atsuo; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yi

    2004-01-01

    VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation in atherosclerosis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and transplantation. VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, and this oxidase activity is required for VCAM-1-dependent lymphocyte migration. We reported previously that a mouse microvascular endothelial cell line promotes lymphocyte migration that is dependent on VCAM-1, but not on other known adhesion molecules. Here we have investigated the signalling mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 function. Lymphocyte binding to VCAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface activated an endothelial cell calcium flux that could be inhibited with anti-alpha4-integrin and mimicked by anti-VCAM-1-coated beads. VCAM-1 stimulation of calcium responses could be blocked by an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, a calcium channel inhibitor or a calcium chelator, resulting in the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Addition of ionomycin overcame the calcium channel blocker suppression of VCAM-1-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity, but could not reverse the inhibitory effect imposed by intracellular calcium blockage, indicating that both intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization are required for VCAM-1-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, VCAM-1 specifically activated the Rho-family GTPase Rac1, and VCAM-1 activation of NADPH oxidase was blocked by a dominant negative Rac1. Thus VCAM-1 stimulates the mobilization of intracellular and extracellular calcium and Rac1 activity that are required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:14594451

  14. Characterization and functional analysis of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human papillomavirus-related disease of cervical keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, N.; Greenfield, I. M.; Hare, J.; Kruger-Gray, H.; Chain, B. M.; Stanley, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in squamous neoplasia of the cervix and have noted a significant induction of the molecule in high-grade intra-epithelial lesions. Using monolayer and organotypic in vitro tissue culture systems, we have shown that there is no constitutive ICAM-1 expression on cervical keratinocytes immortalized but not transformed by human papillomavirus type 16, whereas two human papillomaviruses type 16 containing and fully transformed cervical keratinocyte lines do constitutively express the molecule. All cell types, including human papillomavirus-negative normal cervical keratinocytes, can be induced to up-regulate their expression of ICAM-1 by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. In addition, we have used an in vitro adhesion assay to show that ICAM-1:lymphocyte function antigen-1 interaction is functionally important in lymphocyte binding to cervical keratinocytes, suggesting a role for ICAM-1 in retaining and enabling functional activity of lymphocytes in the cervix in intraepithelial neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:8102029

  15. FRET based quantification and screening technology platform for the interactions of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Núñez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, María Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple 'in solution' steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  16. FRET Based Quantification and Screening Technology Platform for the Interactions of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) with InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, Mara Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple in solution steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.931.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  17. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  18. Change in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus in gerbils fed a folate-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Won, Moo Ho

    2008-02-01

    Folate deficiency increases stroke risk. We examined whether folate deficiency affects platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), which is an immunoglobulin-associated cell adhesion molecule and mediates the final common pathway of neutrophil transendothelial migration, in blood vessels in the gerbil dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia. Gerbils were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to common carotid artery occlusion for 5 min. In the control diet (CD)- and FAD-treated sham-operated groups, weak PECAM-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the blood vessels located in the dentate gyrus. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in both groups was increased by 4 days after ischemic insult. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in the FAD-treated group was twice as high that in the CD-treated-sham-operated group 4 days after ischemic insult. Western blot analyses showed that the change patterns in PECAM-1 protein levels in the dentate gyrus in both groups after ischemic insult were similar to changes in PECAM-1 immunohistochemistry in the ischemic dentate gyrus. Our results suggest that folate deficiency enhances PECAM-1 in the dentate gyrus induced by transient ischemia. PMID:18850227

  19. GroEL1, from Chlamydia pneumoniae, induces vascular adhesion molecule 1 expression by p37(AUF1) in endothelial cells and hypercholesterolemic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Nen-Chung; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Yen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Nien, Chih-Hao; Lin, Feng-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by endothelial cells may play a major role in atherogenesis. The actual mechanisms of chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) relate to atherogenesis are unclear. We investigate the influence of VCAM-1 expression in the GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae-administered human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In this study, we constructed the recombinant GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae. The HCAECs/THP-1 adhesion assay, tube formation assay, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, actinomycin D chase experiment, luciferase reporter assay, and immunohistochemical stainings were performed. The results show that GroEL1 increased both VCAM-1 expression and THP-1 cell adhesives, and impaired tube-formation capacity in the HCAECs. GroEL1 significantly increased the VCAM-1 mRNA stability and cytosolic AU-binding factor 1 (AUF1) level. Overexpression of the p37(AUF1) significantly increased VCAM-1 gene expression in GroEL1-induced bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). GroEL1 prolonged the stability of VCAM-1 mRNA by increasing both p37(AUF1) and the regulation of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the VCAM-1 mRNA in BAECs. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, GroEL1 administration enhanced fatty-streak and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic lesions, which may be mediated by elevated VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, GroEL1 induces VCAM-1 expression by p37(AUF1) in endothelial cells and enhances atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:22900050

  20. Effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on levels of adhesion molecules in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Ruprecht, Zofia; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Gadomska, Grażyna; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled diabetes has become a major cause of mortality and morbidity by reason of vascular angiopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble forms of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), E-selectin, and thrombomodulin in patients with well-controlled and uncontrolled diabetes type 2. Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 35 patients with well-controlled diabetes. The second group included 27 patients with uncontrolled diabetes with micro-albuminuria. A control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and soluble thrombomodulin were assayed in plasma. Serum concentration of creatinine was measured and the plasma concentrations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) determined. Results: Lower concentrations of ICAM-1 were found in the group of uncontrolled diabetes patients compared with those with well-controlled disease. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher compared with the group with well-controlled diabetes. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes a positive correlation was obtained between glomerular filtration rate and sE-selectin and a negative correlation between the levels of creatinine and ICAM-1, although there was a positive correlation between (HbA1c) and ICAM-1. Conclusions: The study confirmed the participation of the inflammatory process associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The opposite effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on adhesion molecules suggests different functions of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in complications of diabetes. PMID:25990052

  1. The Interaction Affinity between Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) Analyzed by Quantitative FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Han; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), a member of integrin superfamily, interacts with its major counter ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and immunological synapse formation. However, irregular expressions of these proteins may also lead to several autoimmune diseases and metastasis cancer. Thus, quantifying the interaction affinity of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction is of fundamental importance in further understanding the nature of this interaction and drug discovery. In this study, we report an in solution steady state organic fluorophore based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to quantify this interaction in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd). We have used, in our FRET assay, the Alexa Fluor 488-VLA-4 conjugate as the donor, and Alexa Fluor 546-VCAM-1 as the acceptor. From the FRET signal analysis, Kd of this interaction was determined to be 41.82 2.36 nM. To further confirm our estimation, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to obtain Kd = 39.60 1.78 nM, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by FRET. This is the first reported work which applies organic fluorophore based in solution simple quantitative FRET assay to obtain the dissociation constant of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction, and is also the first quantification of this interaction. Moreover, the value of Kd can serve as an indicator of abnormal protein-protein interactions; hence, this assay can potentially be further developed into a drug screening platform of VLA-4/VCAM-1 as well as other protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25793408

  2. A comparative study of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Farzadnia, Mehdi; Hasan-Zade, Maliheh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the level of serum level of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in preeclampsia and to compare normal pregnant, mild preeclamptic, and severe preeclamptic women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and hsCRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant (n = 40), mild preeclamptic (n = 37), and severe preeclamptic women (n = 38). A concentration of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hsCRP was measured with immunoturbidometric. Results There was significant difference in the means serum hsCRP between normal pregnant women and mild preeclamptic women (P < 0.05). Serum concentration of hsCRP and sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia (P < 0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hsCRP and sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean sVCAM-1 between normal pregnant and mild preeclamptic women. Conclusion We have determined the serum concentration of VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. sVCAM-1 is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, and hsCRP is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. PMID:24265885

  3. Expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non-small cell lung carcinomas: frequency and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Passlick, B; Izbicki, J R; Simmel, S; Kubuschok, B; Karg, O; Habekost, M; Thetter, O; Schweiberer, L; Pantel, K

    1994-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and adhesion molecules, such as the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), appear to play an important role in the immunological recognition and destruction of tumour cells. We, therefore, examined the expression patterns of these proteins on primary tumours of 91 patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Applying immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody (MAb) W6/32 against a common framework determinant of HLA class I antigens revealed a deficient expression in 33.0% of the cases analysed, while neo-expression of either HLA class II antigens (MAb TAL.1B5) or ICAM-1 (MAb PA3.58-14) was observed in 26.4 or 29.7% of tumours, respectively. Analysis of consecutive tumour specimens indicated that HLA antigens and ICAM-1 were frequently coexpressed. With regard to clinicopathological risk factors, we could demonstrate a preferential expression of those markers in patients with locally restricted and well-differentiated tumours or no lymph node metastases, which was more pronounced in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, the presence versus the absence of HLA antigens and ICAM-1 was not correlated with the rate of tumour recurrence or overall survival in patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, the co-ordinated expression of immunologically relevant cell surface molecules on primary NSCLC is a frequent event that correlates with distinct parameters of favourable prognosis. However, we have no evidence that the immune response facilitated by these molecules can effectively influence the clinical course of the disease. PMID:8204362

  4. EOLA1 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Association with MT2A in ECV304 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weiling; Lei, Xiaotian; Meng, Hao; Ouyang, Xinshou; Liang, Ziwen

    2015-01-01

    Our research group firstly discovered endothelial-overexpressed lipopolysaccharide-associated factor 1 (EOLA1, GenBank number AY074889) as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsive gene in ECV304 cells. The previous studies have further demonstrated the association of EOLA1 with metallothionein 2A (MT2A), while the role of EOLA1 during LPS-induced inflammatory response in ECV304 cells is unknown. In this report, we determined the subcellular localization of EOLA1 and the regulatory capacity of EOLA1 on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in response to LPS in ECV304 cells. Our results show that EOLA1 is broadly diffuse in the cells, and EOLA1 expression is dramatically induced by LPS. EOLA1 knockdown results in significant enhancement of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Consistent with this, overexpression of EOLA1 leads to the reduction of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Furthermore, MT2A knockdown reduces LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Collectively, our results demonstrate a negative regulatory role of EOLA1 on LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involving its association with MT2A in ECV304 cells. PMID:26881174

  5. Activation of transcription factor AP-2 mediates UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-induced expression of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Grether-Beck, S.; Olaizola-Horn, S.; Schmitt, H.; Grewe, M.

    1996-12-10

    UVA radiation is the major component of the UV solar spectrum that reaches the earth, and the therapeutic application of UVA radiation is increasing in medicine. Analysis of the cellular effects of UVA radiation has revealed that exposure of human cells to UVA radiation at physiological doses leads to increased gene expression and that this UVA response is primarily mediated through the generation of singlet oxygen. In this study, the mechanisms by which UVA radiation induces transcriptional activation of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were examined. UVA radiation was capable of inducing activation of the human ICAM-1 promoter and increasing OCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression. These UVA radiation effects were inhibited by singlet oxygen quenchers, augmented by enhancement of singlet oxygen life-time, and mimicked in unirradiated cells by a singlet oxygen-generating system. UVA radiation as well as singlet oxygen-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation required activation of the transcription factor AP-2. Accordingly, both stimuli activated AP-2, and deletion of the putative AP-2-binding site abrogated ICAM-1 promoter activation in this system. This study identified the AP-2 site as the UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-responsive element of the human ICAM-1 gene. The capacity of UVA radiation and/or singlet oxygen to induce human gene expression through activation of AP-2 indicates a previously unrecognized role of this transcription factor in the mammalian stress response. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae kills carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD66a)-expressing human B cells and inhibits antibody production.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, Milica; Kim, Young-June; Bolland, Silvia; Chen, Ines; Shively, John; Chen, Tie

    2005-07-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae cells (gonococci [GC]), the etiological agents for gonorrhea, can cause repeated infections. During and after gonococcal infection, local and systemic antigonococcal antibody levels are low. These clinical data indicate the possibility that GC may suppress immune responses during infection. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1 or CD66a), a receptor for GC opacity (Opa) proteins, was shown to mediate inhibitory signals. In the present study, human B cells were activated by interleukin-2 to express CEACAM1 and then stimulated to secrete antibodies and simultaneously coincubated with Opa- and OpaI GC of strain MS11. Our results show that this OpaI GC has the ability to inhibit antibody production. The interaction of GC and CEACAM1 with human peripheral B cells also results in induction of cell death. The same findings were observed in DT40 B cells. This CEACAM1-promoted cell death pathway does not involve the inhibitory signals or the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 but depends on Bruton's tyrosine kinase in DT40 cells. Our results suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possesses the ability to suppress antibody production by killing CEACAM1-expressing B cells. PMID:15972507

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Kills Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (CD66a)-Expressing Human B Cells and Inhibits Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Pantelic, Milica; Kim, Young-June; Bolland, Silvia; Chen, Ines; Shively, John; Chen, Tie

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae cells (gonococci [GC]), the etiological agents for gonorrhea, can cause repeated infections. During and after gonococcal infection, local and systemic antigonococcal antibody levels are low. These clinical data indicate the possibility that GC may suppress immune responses during infection. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1 or CD66a), a receptor for GC opacity (Opa) proteins, was shown to mediate inhibitory signals. In the present study, human B cells were activated by interleukin-2 to express CEACAM1 and then stimulated to secrete antibodies and simultaneously coincubated with Opa− and OpaI GC of strain MS11. Our results show that this OpaI GC has the ability to inhibit antibody production. The interaction of GC and CEACAM1 with human peripheral B cells also results in induction of cell death. The same findings were observed in DT40 B cells. This CEACAM1-promoted cell death pathway does not involve the inhibitory signals or the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 but depends on Bruton's tyrosine kinase in DT40 cells. Our results suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possesses the ability to suppress antibody production by killing CEACAM1-expressing B cells. PMID:15972507

  8. Molecular cloning of a cell-surface glycoprotein that can potentially discriminate mesothelium from epithelium: its identification as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T.; Jiping, J.; Endo, R.; Gotoh, M.; Shimosato, Y.; Hirohashi, S.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been a practical problem for surgical pathologists to distinguish mesothelium from epithelium in order to make a positive diagnosis of mesothelioma. In this study, we developed a new monoclonal antibody, designated MS-2761 (IgG1, k), against cultured non-neoplastic mesothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry and slot-blot analysis revealed that this monoclonal antibody reacted with 100% (12/12) of benign and malignant mesothelioma tissues and a mesothelioma cell line, but not with 99% (77/78) of epithelial tumour tissues and 97% (33/34) of epithelial tumour cell lines. A gene encoding the cell-surface antigen defined by this monoclonal antibody was isolated from a mesothelial cell cDNA library constructed with a mammalian cell expression vector through transfection of Cos-7 cells and immunoselection by panning. DNA sequencing and a database search revealed that the gene was identical to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1, also referred to as INCAM110). The prominent VCAM1 transcript in mesothelium was 3.2 kb in size with seven Ig-like domains, in addition to a minor transcripts with six Ig-like domains. This monoclonal antibody potentially discriminates mesothelium from epithelium and may become a tool for differential diagnosis of mesothelioma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7533516

  9. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Implications for the mode of progression of advanced coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, K D; Allen, M D; McDonald, T O; Chait, A; Harlan, J M; Fishbein, D; McCarty, J; Ferguson, M; Hudkins, K; Benjamin, C D

    1993-01-01

    Endothelial attachment is the initial step in leukocyte recruitment into developing atherosclerotic lesions. To determine whether vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression may play a role in inflammatory cell recruitment into human atherosclerotic lesions, immunohistochemistry was performed with a polyclonal rabbit antisera, raised against recombinant human VCAM-1, on 24 atherosclerotic coronary plaques and 11 control coronary segments with nonatherosclerotic diffuse intimal thickening from 10 patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on adjacent sections to identify smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. To confirm VCAM-1-expressing cell types, double immunostaining with VCAM-1 antisera and each of the cell-specific markers and in situ hybridization were performed. All atherosclerotic plaques contained some VCAM-1, compared to 45% of control segments. VCAM-1 was found infrequently on endothelial cells at the arterial lumen din both plaques (21%) and in control segments (27%), but was prevalent in areas of neovascularization and inflammatory infiltrate in the base of plaques. Double immunostaining and in situ hybridization confirmed that most VCAM-1 was expressed by subsets of plaque smooth muscle cells and macrophages. The results document the presence of VCAM-1 in human atherosclerosis, demonstrate VCAM-1 expression by human smooth muscle cells in vivo, and suggest that intimal neovasculature may be an important site of inflammatory cell recruitment into advanced coronary lesions. Images PMID:7688768

  10. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Is Required for the Early Formation of Granulomas and Participates in the Resistance of Mice to the Infection with the Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana P.; Campanelli, Ana P.; Cavassani, Karen A.; Souto, Janeusa T.; Ferreira, Beatriz R.; Martinez, Roberto; Rossi, Marcos A.; Silva, João S.

    2006-01-01

    The migration of leukocytes to inflammatory sites elicited by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is supposed to be coordinated by cytokines and chemokines. Here, we investigated the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in recruiting inflammatory cells to lungs of mice infected with P. brasiliensis and in determining the outcome of the disease. Expression of ICAM-1 was up-regulated on T lymphocytes after infection with the fungus, and its expression was dependent on interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-12. Moreover, the absence of ICAM-1 resulted in high susceptibility to the infection and delayed formation of granulomatous lesions. In addition, the absence of ICAM-1 resulted in increased growth and dissemination of fungus, decreased number of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells, and increased production of interleukin-4 in the inflammatory site. The organization of a granulomatous reaction in mice deficient of ICAM-1 was delayed, starting only on day 60 after infection, whereas in wild-type mice it was complete on day 30 of infection. These data show that ICAM-1 is effectively involved in cellular migration and in the organization of the granulomatous lesion caused by the fungus P. brasiliensis. PMID:17003484

  11. The influence of TNF-alpha on concentration of soluble adhesion molecules in cultures of HT-29 cells exposed to inositol hexaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Parfiniewicz, Beata; Pendzich, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Bednarek, Ilona; Weglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    The latest studies suggest that adhesion molecules are involved in the arising of malignant changes and in distant metastasis induction. The soluble forms of several adhesion molecules, have recently emerged as novel and potentially useful tumor markers. Among a number of identified, high interest wake soluble molecules similar to the immunoglobulin -- soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin). In the present work, the authors concentrate on one tumor type, colorectal carcinoma, in which distant metastases, are the main cause of failure, in spite of surgical curing of the primary tumor. It is known that TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor - alpha) serum concentration of patients with cancer is raised. The changes in soluble adhesion molecules concentrations in serum and others fluids, could be modulated by many different factors affecting cancer cells. In the case of colon cancer one of the factors is a high-fiber diet, containing an anti-cancer chemical, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of TNF-alpha on the concentration of sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin in the microenvironment of HT-29 malignant epithelial colorectal cells stimulated with IP6. Additonally, adhesive property of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line to collagen I was estimated. The HT-29 cells were treated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL - estimation of sICAM and sE-cadherin concentration; 100 ng/mL - adhesion assay), IP6 (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM) and TNF-alpha in combination with IP6. The level of sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin in cultures of HT-29 cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems), and adhesion of the cells to collagen I was investigated by Cyquant Proliferation Assay Kit. The present findings demonstrate that TNF-alpha and inositol hexaphosphate have an effect on the sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin concentration in cultures of HT-29 cells. IP6 at a concentration of 2.0 mM induced a decrease of sE-cadherin concentration in cultures of these cells and significantly reduced their adhesion to collagen I. TNF-alpha at concentration of 100 ng/mL caused the significant increase in the sICAM-1 level, but to a lesser degree in the presence of higher concentrations of IP6. However, TNF-alpha did not cause such a significant increase in sE-cadherin level. The sE-cadherin concentration was most likely associated with inositol hexaphosphate activity. PMID:23285692

  12. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  13. Osteogenic protein-1 reduces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression, infarct size and TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes in ischemia/reperfusion rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Junichi; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Miyoshi, Tohru; Nakamura, Keigo; Koten, Kazuya; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteogenic protein, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, has been reported to decrease the expression of intercellular adhesive molecules and prevent neutrophil accumulation and activity in tissue injury. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of osteogenic protein on ischemia/reperfusion in rat hearts. METHODS: Reperfusion was established after a 90 min ligation of the proximal left coronary artery in rats. Recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (200 μg/kg) was administered via the femoral vein just before reperfusion. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and infarct size were evaluated using Northern blotting and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated biotin-16-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was also performed. RESULTS: In osteogenic protein-1 treated rats, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in ischemia/reperfusion hearts rapidly increased 4 h after reperfusion, although, the increase was lower than that observed in the vehicle-treated hearts (7.4±1.6-fold versus 14.6±3.7-fold increase compared to the increase observed in preligation control hearts, respectively). Similarly, in day 1 and day 7 hearts, the increase in ICAM-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in ischemia/reperfusion hearts from rats treated with osteogenic protein-1 than in vehicle-treated rats (2.5±0.1-fold versus 5.8±2.3-fold and 1.5±0.3-fold versus 3.5±0.2-fold, respectively). Infarct size in rats treated with osteogenic protein-1 was significantly smaller than that observed in rats treated with vehicle (13.1±1.2% versus 28.5±5.7% of the left ventricle, P<0.01). The percentage of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes in ischemia/reperfusion hearts in rats treated with osteogenic protein-1 was significantly lower than in rats treated with vehicle (17.1±5.3% versus 31.1±4.5%, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 suppressed ICAM-1 mRNA expression, reduced infarct size and decreased TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes in ischemic/reperfused rat hearts. PMID:19649220

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Bio-Scaffold-Mediated Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen-Fen; Li, Xi-Mei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Ji-De; Tang, Bo; Sun, Hong-Guang; Chu, Ya-Nan; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Liu, Yuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor ?, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-?B pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-?B pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments. PMID:24702024

  15. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia. PMID:18335523

  16. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) blockade in collagen-induced arthritis reduces joint involvement and alters B cell trafficking.

    PubMed

    Carter, R A; Campbell, I K; O'Donnel, K L; Wicks, I P

    2002-04-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 or CD106) is important in leucocyte trafficking and its increased expression is associated with a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (M/K-2.7) to investigate the role of VCAM-1 in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an autoimmune model of RA. A single injection of M/K-2.7 (0.5 mg) into naive mice caused leucocytosis within 20 h, due to increased numbers of circulating B cells and macrophages, as well as neutrophils. The most marked effect was on the numbers of immature B cells (B220loIgM+) which were increased approximately fourfold. CIA was elicited in DBA/1 mice by immunization with chick type II collagen (CII) in Freund's complete adjuvant, followed by a repeat injection 21 days later. Repeated M/K-2.7 administration from the time of primary CII immunization reduced the clinical severity, but not the incidence, of CIA compared to isotype-control monoclonal antibody-treated mice. Histological assessment showed fewer arthritic joints in M/K-2.7-treated mice; however, affected joints showed the same range of severity as those of control mice. Anti-CII IgG1 levels were reduced in anti-VCAM-1-treated mice but the cellular immune response to CII was unaffected. In contrast, VCAM-1 blockade from the onset of clinical features of CIA did not prevent disease progression. These results establish a role for VCAM-1 in promoting polyarticular involvement in CIA, most probably via an effect on B cells. PMID:11982589

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and of PTC-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, KE; GE, SHU-JIAN; LIN, XIAO-YAN; LV, BEI-BEI; CAO, ZHI-XIN; LI, JIA-MEI; XU, JIA-WEN; WANG, QIANG-XIU

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is important in the progression of inflammatory responses. Recently, increased levels of ICAM-1 have been reported in a number of types of malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate ICAM-1 expression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with PTC-like nuclear alterations, and to assess the predictive value of ICAM-1 in thyroid lesions. ICAM-1 expression was retrospectively investigated in 132 consecutive cases of PTC, 72 cases of HT, 10 of follicular cancer, 15 of follicular adenoma, 16 of nodular goiter and 8 samples of normal thyroid tissue using immunohistochemical analyses, and in 42 PTC patients using western blotting. ICAM-1 expression was not detected in normal follicular cells, follicular lesions (adenoma and cancer) and benign nodular hyperplasia, but was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells. ICAM-1 overexpression was associated with extra-thyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis; no association was found with age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, pathological stage, recurrence or distant metastasis. ICAM-1 expression in HT patients with PTC-like nuclear alterations was significantly higher than that in HT cases with non-PTC-like features. Compared with antibodies against cytokeratin 19, galectin-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, ICAM-1 was the most sensitive marker for the detection of PTC-like features in HT. These findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in PTC and in HT with PTC-like nuclear alterations. This feature may be an important factor in the progression of cancer of the thyroid gland. PMID:26998068

  18. Regulatory T-cell development and function are impaired in mice lacking membrane expression of full length intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Gottrand, Gaëlle; Courau, Tristan; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Prevel, Nicolas; Vazquez, Thomas; Ruocco, Maria Grazia; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Bellier, Bertrand; Colombo, Bruno M; Klatzmann, David

    2015-12-01

    To further investigate the contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to adaptive immune responses, we analysed T-cell development and function in mice lacking full-length ICAM-1 (ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) ). Compared with wild-type (ICAM-1(WT) ) mice, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have impaired thymocyte development. Proportions and numbers of double negative, double positive, mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes, as well as of regulatory T (Treg) cells were also significantly decreased. In the periphery, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice had significantly decreased proportions and numbers of naive and activated/memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, as well as of Treg cells, in lymph nodes but not in the spleen. In vitro activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice with anti-CD3 antibodies and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) resulted in a significantly weaker proliferation, whereas proliferation induced with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody-coated beads was normal. In vivo immunization of ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice resulted in normal generation of specific effector and memory immune responses that protect against a viral challenge. However, contrary to ICAM-1(WT) mice, immunization-induced specific effectors could not eradicate immunogen-expressing tumours. Treg cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have abnormal activation and proliferation induced by anti-CD3 antibody and APCs, and have markedly decreased suppressive activity in vitro. In contrast to ICAM-1(WT) mice, they were unable to control experimentally induced colitis in vivo. Hence, our results further highlight the pleiotropic role of ICAM-1 in T-cell-dependent immune responses, with a major role in Treg cell development and suppressive function. PMID:26370005

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on synovial cells attenuated interleukin-6-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Hashizume, M; Yoshida, H; Shiina, M; Mihara, M

    2011-01-01

    In a co-culture of osteoclast precursor cells and synovial cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces osteoclast formation. In contrast, in a monoculture of osteoclast precursor cells, IL-6 directly suppresses receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells into osteoclasts. In the present study, we explored why the effect of IL-6 differed between the monoculture and the co-culture systems. In the monoculture, mouse osteoclast precursor cell line, RAW 264·7 (RAW) cells were cultured with soluble RANKL (sRANKL) for 24 h or 3 days. sRANKL increased both expression of osteoclastogenesis marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), whereas the co-addition of IL-6 decreased them both in a dose-dependent manner. In the co-culture, RAW cells and human synovial cell line, SW982 cells were cultured with IL-6 + soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) for 3 days. TRAP5b and NFATc1 expression reduced by IL-6 was increased by the addition of SW982 cells in a manner dependent upon the number of added cells. IL-6 + sIL-6R treatment significantly induced RANKL production in SW982 cells, and anti-RANKL antibody inhibited IL-6 + sIL-6R-induced osteoclastogenesis. SW982 cells expressed high levels of ICAM-1 originally, and ICAM-1 expression was increased significantly by IL-6 + sIL-6R. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody suppressed IL-6-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, in the monoculture system, addition of sICAM-1 dose-dependently restored the expression of TRAP5b reduced by IL-6. Similar results were obtained when the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nuclear cells were examined using mouse bone marrow cells. In conclusion, IL-6 gave different results in the co-culture and monoculture systems because in the co-culture, ICAM-1 from the synovial cells restored osteoclastogenesis suppressed by IL-6. PMID:21039424

  20. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  1. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) Is Elevated in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Kristina; Schnapp, Lynn M.; Liles, W. Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary vascular endothelial activation has been implicated in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), yet little is known about the presence and role of endothelial activation markers in the alveolar space in ARDS. We hypothesized that endothelial activation biomarkers would be differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with ARDS compared with healthy volunteers, and that biomarker concentrations would be associated with ARDS severity. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 26 intubated patients with ARDS undergoing evaluation for clinically suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia and five healthy volunteers. Patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage a median of five days after intubation. Healthy volunteers also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Endothelial activation biomarkers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1], soluble endothelial selectin [sESEL], angiopoietin-1 [Ang-1] and angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2]) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Clinically suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia was confirmed with microbiologic culture data. Results Patients with ARDS had significantly higher median sVCAM-1 concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with healthy volunteers (985 vs 119 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Additionally, there was a trend toward greater bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sVCAM-1 concentrations among patients with moderate/severe compared to mild ARDS (1395 vs 209 pg/mL, p = 0.06). We did not detect significant differences in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of sESEL, Ang-1 or Ang-2 between patients with ARDS and healthy volunteers. Median bronchoalveolar lavage fluid biomarker levels did not differ between patients with and without microbiologically-confirmed ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusions sVCAM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with ARDS compared to healthy controls, and tended to be higher in moderate/severe ARDS compared to mild ARDS. Our findings add to the growing evidence supporting the concept that endothelial activation plays an important mechanistic role in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Further studies are necessary to characterize the role and/or clinical significance of sVCAM-1 and other endothelial activation markers present in the alveolar space in ARDS. PMID:26919714

  2. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation. PMID:17294835

  3. Arrangement of domains, and amino acid residues required for binding of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to its counter-receptor VLA-4 (alpha 4 beta 1)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) with its counter-receptor very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) (integrin alpha 4 beta 1) is important for a number of developmental pathways and inflammatory functions. We are investigating the molecular mechanism of this binding, in the interest of developing new anti-inflammatory drugs that block it. In a previous report, we showed that the predominant form of VCAM-1 on stimulated endothelial cells, seven-domain VCAM (VCAM-7D), is a functionally bivalent molecule. One binding site requires the first and the other requires the homologous immunoglobulin-like domain. Rotary shadowing and electron microscopy of recombinant soluble VCAM-7D molecules suggests that the seven Ig-like domains are extended in a slightly bent linear array, rather than compactly folded together. We have systematically mutagenized the first domain of VCAM-6D (a monovalent, alternately spliced version mission domain 4) by replacing 3-4 amino acids of the VCAM sequence with corresponding portions of the related ICAM-1 molecule. Specific amino acids, important for binding VLA-4 include aspartate 40 (D40), which corresponds to the acidic ICAM- 1 residue glutamate 34 (E34) previously reported to be essential for binding of ICAM-1 to its integrin counter-receptor LFA-1. A small region of VCAM including D40, QIDS, can be replaced by the similar ICAM- 1 sequence, GIET, without affecting function or epitopes, indicating that this region is part of a general integrin-binding structure rather than a determinant of binding specificity for a particular integrin. The VCAM-1 sequence G65NEH also appears to be involved in binding VLA-4. PMID:7508942

  4. Potential of mZD7349-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for selective targeting of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 in inflamed endothelium.

    PubMed

    Imanparast, Fatemeh; Paknejad, Maliheh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Kobarfard, Farzad; Amani, Amir; Doosti, Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis and restoring normal function of dysfunctional endothelium is an attractive strategy for prevention of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Inhibition of cell adhesion in the process of atherosclerosis plaque formation, mediated by peptide antagonists of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) has already been developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, for the first time, modified ZD7349 (mZD7349) peptide, as an antagonist for VLA-4, was used for targeting fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (FITC-PLGA NPs). Rate of binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs to activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were compared with that of untargeted. Effects of temperature reduction and clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor (0.45M sucrose) were also studied on the binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs and NPs. Results showed that binding of the conjugated NPs could be significantly blocked by pre-incubating cells with the free peptide, suggesting that the binding of NPs is mediated by attaching the surface peptide to VCAM-1 on HUVECs. Also, conjugated FITC-loaded NPs were shown to be rapidly endocytosized to a greater extent than the unconjugated ones. The binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs and NPs were slowed down at low temperature and in the presence of sucrose with greater reductions for mZD7349-NPs. To conclude, the peptide-NPs targeting the VCAM-1 is suggested as a theranostic carrier for lesions upregulating VCAM-1. PMID:27105996

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) attenuation of subchronic cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary neutrophilia is associated with retention of nuclear RelB and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Angela Rico; Zago, Michela; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoke is associated with chronic and enhanced pulmonary inflammation characterized by increased cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known to mediate toxic effects of manmade environmental contaminants, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of acute cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia by a mechanism involving the NF-?B protein RelB. Yet individuals who smoke often smoke for many years and vary in their cigarette consumption. As there is currently no information on the AhR prevention of lung inflammation, including neutrophilia, due to varied and prolonged exposure regimes, we exposed control and AhR(-/-) mice to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks (subchronic exposure) utilizing low and high exposure protocols and evaluated pulmonary inflammation. Subchronic cigarette smoke exposure significantly increased pulmonary neutrophilia dose-dependently in AhR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference between smoke-exposed AhR(+/-) and AhR(-/-) mice in the expression of cytokines associated with neutrophil recruitment. Expression of pulmonary intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an adhesion molecule involved in neutrophil migration and retention, was higher in pulmonary endothelial cells from AhR(-/-) mice. Although total lung RelB expression was increased by cigarette smoke, nuclear RelB was significantly lower in subchronically exposed AhR(-/-) mice. Inhibition of AhR activity by CH-223191 in endothelial cells potentiated ICAM-1 expression and prevented RelB nuclear translocation but had no effect on neutrophil adhesion. These data support that genetic absence of the AhR contributes to heightened pulmonary neutrophilia in response to ongoing cigarette smoke exposure. Interindividual variations in AhR expression may enhance the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced diseases. PMID:24752502

  6. Betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, natural pentacyclic triterpenoids, interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Reiko; Fukuhara, Sayuri; Mitsuda, Satoshi; Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Kataoka, Takao

    2015-11-15

    Betulinic acid (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-oic acid), oleanolic acid (3β-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid), and ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are close structural isomers of natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acids. We recently identified a unique biological effect of ursolic acid, its inhibition of the intracellular trafficking of glycoproteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid did not inhibit the interleukin-1α-induced expression of cell-surface intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Nevertheless, betulinic acid and, to a lesser extent, oleanolic acid interfered with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1 in a similar manner to castanospermine (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidases I and II), but not swainsonine (an inhibitor of Golgi α-mannosidase II). Consistent with these results, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid inhibited yeast α-glucosidase activity, but not Jack bean α-mannosidase activity. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that betulinic acid and oleanolic acid interfere with N-linked glycan modifications to ICAM-1, but not its intracellular transport to the cell surface. PMID:26460147

  7. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  8. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction induces a novel genetic signature resulting in T-cells refractory to transforming growth factor-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Verma, Navin K; Dempsey, Eugene; Long, Aideen; Davies, Anthony; Barry, Sean P; Fallon, Padraic G; Volkov, Yuri; Kelleher, Dermot

    2012-08-01

    The immunesuppressive cytokine TGF-β plays crucial regulatory roles in the induction and maintenance of immunologic tolerance and prevention of immunopathologies. However, it remains unclear how circulating T-cells can escape from the quiescent state maintained by TGF-β. Here, we report that the T-cell integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) interaction with its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induces a genetic signature associated with reduced TGF-β responsiveness via up-regulation of SKI, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2, and SMAD7 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7) genes and proteins. We confirmed that the expression of these TGF-β inhibitory molecules was dependent on STAT3 and/or JNK activation. Increased expression of SMAD7 and SMURF2 in LFA-1/ICAM-1 cross-linked T-cells resulted in impaired TGF-β-mediated phosphorylation of SMAD2 and suppression of IL-2 secretion. Expression of SKI caused resistance to TGF-β-mediated suppression of IL-2, but SMAD2 phosphorylation was unaffected. Blocking LFA-1 by neutralizing antibody or specific knockdown of TGF-β inhibitory molecules by siRNA substantially restored LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated alteration in TGF-β signaling. LFA-1/ICAM-1-stimulated human and mouse T-cells were refractory to TGF-β-mediated induction of FOXP3(+) (forkhead box P3) and RORγt(+) (retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt) Th17 differentiation. These mechanistic data suggest an important role for LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions in immunoregulation concurrent with lymphocyte migration that may have implications at the level of local inflammatory response and for anti-LFA-1-based therapies. PMID:22707713

  9. Mononuclear cell retention in rheumatoid synovial tissue engrafted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice is up-regulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and mediated through intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, C; Couret, I; Canovas, F; Bologna, C; Brochier, J; Reme, T; Lipsky, P; Sany, J

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regulation of mononuclear cell (MNC) traffic to human synovial tissue by TNF-alpha and IL-1 and the involvement of ICAM-1 in MNC retention in rheumatoid synovial tissue. Human rheumatoid arthritis synovium was engrafted subcutaneously in 6-8 week-old SCID/CB17 mice. Three weeks later, we injected 20 x 10(6) human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) previously labelled with 111indium intraperitoneally into mice containing control or cytokine-injected grafts. Total body scintigraphy was performed 72 h postinjection. The graft was removed and immunochemical analysis carried out to assess ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression. In some experiments, mice were treated intravenously with 500 micrograms MoAb anti-ICAM-1 (BIRR-1) or an isotype-matched control MoAb before introduction of MNC. TNF-alpha, but not IL-1 alpha, enhanced MNC retention in the rheumatoid synovial graft 72 h post-injection (graft activity 989 +/- 1227 ct/min per 200 pixels or 3.36 +/- 4.16% of initial injected activity versus 411 +/- 157 ct/min per 200 pixels or 1.13 +/- 0.45% in controls; P < 0.03). TNF-alpha enhanced ICAM-1 expression by synovial cells and endothelial cells, whereas VCAM-1 or E-selectin expression was not enhanced on either cell type. After MoAb treatment of ICAM-1, synovial lymphocyte recruitment of TNF-alpha-treated mice decreased significantly to levels below that of control mice (160 +/- 97 ct/min per 200 pixels, 0.54 +/- 0.33%; P < 0.01). Mononuclear cell retention in rheumatoid synovial tissue engrafted into SCID mice was up-regulated by TNF-alpha and blocked by MoAb to ICAM-1. These results suggest that ICAM-1 is involved in mononuclear cell retention in rheumatoid synovium. PMID:8870693

  10. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function by modulating the association of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with Grb-2-associated binding protein-1 and linker for activation of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, L A; Barrett, N E; Jones, C I; Holbrook, L M; Spyridon, M; Sage, T; Newman, D K; Gibbins, J M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Platelet activation by collagen depends on signals transduced by the glycoprotein (GP)VI–Fc receptor (FcR)γ-chain collagen receptor complex, which involves recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to phosphorylated tyrosines in the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). An interaction between the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and the scaffolding molecule Grb-2-associated binding protein-1 (Gab1), which is regulated by binding of the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) to Gab1, has been shown in other cell types to sustain PI3K activity to elicit cellular responses. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) functions as a negative regulator of platelet reactivity and thrombosis, at least in part by inhibiting GPVI–FcRγ-chain signaling via recruitment of SHP-2 to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in PECAM-1. Objective: To investigate the possibility that PECAM-1 regulates the formation of the Gab1–p85 signaling complexes, and the potential effect of such interactions on GPVI-mediated platelet activation in platelets. Methods: The ability of PECAM-1 signaling to modulate the LAT signalosome was investigated with immunoblotting assays on human platelets and knockout mouse platelets. Results: PECAM-1-associated SHP-2 in collagen-stimulated platelets binds to p85, which results in diminished levels of association with both Gab1 and LAT and reduced collagen-stimulated PI3K signaling. We therefore propose that PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of GPVI-dependent platelet responses result, at least in part, from recruitment of SHP-2–p85 complexes to tyrosine-phosphorylated PECAM-1, which diminishes the association of PI3K with activatory signaling molecules, such as Gab1 and LAT. PMID:20723025

  11. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  12. Oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL1) protein is necessary for the efficient mediation of murine MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoko; Hasebe, Ai; Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Ting, Kang; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2014-04-01

    NELL1 is a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein that functions as an osteoinductive factor. NELL1 contains several conserved domains, has structural similarities to thrombospondin 1, and supports osteoblastic cell adhesion through integrins. To define the structural requirements for NELL1-mediated cell adhesion, we prepared a series of recombinant NELL1 proteins (intact, deleted, and cysteine-mutant) from a mammalian expression system and tested their activities. A deletion analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of NELL1 is critical for the cell adhesion activity of NELL1. Reducing agent treatment decreased the cell adhesion activity of full-length NELL1 but not of its C-terminal fragments, suggesting that the intramolecular disulfide bonds within this region are not functionally necessary but that other disulfide linkages in the N-terminal region of NELL1 may be involved in cell adhesion activity. By replacing cysteine residues with serines around the coiled-coil domain of NELL1, which is responsible for oligomerization, we created a mutant NELL1 protein that was unable to form homo-oligomers, and this monomeric mutant showed substantially lower cell adhesion activity than intact NELL1. These results suggest that an oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of NELL1 is important for the efficient mediation of cell adhesion and spreading by NELL1. PMID:24563467

  13. Oligomerization-induced Conformational Change in the C-terminal Region of Nel-like Molecule 1 (NELL1) Protein Is Necessary for the Efficient Mediation of Murine MC3T3-E1 Cell Adhesion and Spreading*

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoko; Hasebe, Ai; Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D.; Ting, Kang; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    NELL1 is a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein that functions as an osteoinductive factor. NELL1 contains several conserved domains, has structural similarities to thrombospondin 1, and supports osteoblastic cell adhesion through integrins. To define the structural requirements for NELL1-mediated cell adhesion, we prepared a series of recombinant NELL1 proteins (intact, deleted, and cysteine-mutant) from a mammalian expression system and tested their activities. A deletion analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of NELL1 is critical for the cell adhesion activity of NELL1. Reducing agent treatment decreased the cell adhesion activity of full-length NELL1 but not of its C-terminal fragments, suggesting that the intramolecular disulfide bonds within this region are not functionally necessary but that other disulfide linkages in the N-terminal region of NELL1 may be involved in cell adhesion activity. By replacing cysteine residues with serines around the coiled-coil domain of NELL1, which is responsible for oligomerization, we created a mutant NELL1 protein that was unable to form homo-oligomers, and this monomeric mutant showed substantially lower cell adhesion activity than intact NELL1. These results suggest that an oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of NELL1 is important for the efficient mediation of cell adhesion and spreading by NELL1. PMID:24563467

  14. Immunocompetence of human microvascular brain endothelial cells: cytokine regulation of IL-1beta, MCP-1, IL-10, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, S; Gelati, M; Ciusani, E; Corsini, E; Dufour, A; Massa, G; Salmaggi, A

    1998-11-01

    Endothelia from the brains of four patients undergoing neurosurgery, including one multiple sclerosis (MS) patient, were studied in vitro to determine cytokine and chemokine production; the release of soluble adhesion molecules was also investigated. The same procedure was repeated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in order to detect possible district-specific differences. After isolation, the endothelium was cultured and stimulated with gamma-interferon (IFN), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and LPS. The results showed that brain endothelium, in our experimental conditions, does not produce interleukin (IL)-10 and produces lower amounts of IL-1beta and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-(sICAM-1) than HUVECs do; no differences were detected in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-(sVCAM-1) production. MCP-1 mRNA was detected both without and after stimulation with TNF-alpha and gamma-IFN in HUVECs and MS human brain endothelial cells (HBECs), while in non-MS-HBECs it was found only after gamma-IFN stimulation. PMID:9808241

  15. Prevention of adoptive transfer of murine Sjögren's syndrome into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1).

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y; Haneji, N; Yanagi, K; Higashiyama, H; Yagita, H; Hamano, H

    1995-01-01

    We have analysed the role of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 during development of autoimmune sialadenitis in MRL/lpr mice by direct analysis of RNA obtained from the salivary gland tissues, and the therapeutic effects with antibody administration on adoptive transfer system into SCID mice. The expression of cell adhesion molecules was assessed by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis. Up-regulated expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was observed before the onset of inflammatory lesions in the salivary glands at 1 month and 2 months old, and thereafter LFA-1 mRNA was expressed within the typical inflammatory lesions, resembling human Sjögren's syndrome in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemically, ICAM-1 was localized exclusively in the endothelial cells of varying sized blood vessels before the onset of disease, and LFA-1 expressing inflammatory cells were found within these lesions. When the therapeutic effects in vivo were examined, antibodies to ICAM-1 in combination with anti-LFA-1 prevented adoptive transfer of Sjögren's syndrome in MRL/lpr mice into SCID mice, while no significant effect was found when treated with either antibody. These findings indicate that in Sjögren's syndrome-like autoimmune lesions in MRL/lpr mice the ICAM-1/LFA-1 pathway may play a crucial role in the initiation and subsequent progression of T cell-mediated autoimmunity in the salivary and lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7586691

  16. Luteolin protects against vascular inflammation in mice and TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via suppressing IΚBα/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenquan; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Liu, Dongmin; Shah, Halley; Li, Jason Z; Chitrakar, Rojin; Si, Hongwei; McCormick, John; Zhu, Hong; Zhen, Wei; Li, Yunbo

    2015-03-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid present in many medicinal plants and some commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of luteolin at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that luteolin as low as 0.5 μM significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells, a key event in triggering vascular inflammation. Luteolin potently suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), key mediators involved in enhancing endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcriptional activity, IκBα degradation, expression of IκB kinase β and subsequent NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that luteolin can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling. In an animal study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0% or 0.6% luteolin for 3 weeks, and luteolin supplementation greatly suppressed TNF-α-induced increase in circulating levels of MCP-1/JE, CXCL1/KC and sICAM-1 in C57BL/6 mice. Consistently, dietary intake of luteolin significantly reduced TNF-α-stimulated adhesion of monocytes to aortic endothelial cells ex vivo. Histology shows that luteolin treatment prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers' delicate organization as shown by Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies further show that luteolin treatment also reduced VCAM-1 and monocyte-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice. In conclusion, luteolin protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin may be mediated via inhibition of the NF-κB-mediated pathway. PMID:25577468

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the SertoliSertoli and Sertoligerm cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move up and down the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the bloodtestis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)BTBbasement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial regulatory molecules of spermatogenesis. The proposed hypothetical model serves as a framework in designing functional experiments for future studies. PMID:23287428

  18. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein. PMID:19570245

  19. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  20. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels (β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 (β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 (β = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  1. Association of ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Paliwal, Vimal K; Gupta, Rakesh K; Prasad, Kashi N

    2014-11-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a central nervous system (CNS) disease is caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. The disease is heterogeneous in clinical presentation; some infected individuals develop symptoms and others may remain symptom free. Impaired blood brain barrier allows recruitment of immune cells in the CNS during infection and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) plays an important role in the recruitment of immune cells. We studied ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism among symptomatic and asymptomatic NCC patients. The study revealed that individuals with variant (EE) genotype were more susceptible to symptomatic NCC and also had an elevated level of sICAM-1. PMID:25128351

  2. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokesová, L; Tucková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  3. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokešová, L; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  4. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation. PMID:24302679

  5. Adhesion molecules and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, U W; Tullius, S G; Azuma, H; Kupiec-Weglinsky, J; Tilney, N L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accessory adhesion molecules are thought to influence the first interaction between host leukocytes and graft vascular endothelial cells. Their role in transplantation is reviewed. SUMMARY: Adhesion molecules have been divided into three major families: the selectins, the integrins, and the immunoglobulin superfamily. Selectins are small proteins that mediate the first contact between stimulated endothelial cells and leukocytes. Integrins interact with cytoskeletal components of cells, presumably coordinating extracellular stimuli with cytoskeleton dependent actions, such as motility, shape change, and phagocytic responses. Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are structurally homologous, although they do not necessarily share similar functions. They are involved in T-cell proliferation and intracellular events. METHODS: Various groups of investigators have studied the influence and expression of adhesion molecules following transplantation. The authors of this article have reviewed and summarized the available literature. RESULTS: Many different adhesion molecules are up-regulated during the rejection event. Treatment of transplant recipients with monoclonal antibodies against accessory molecules, such as leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), has resulted in either a prolongation of transplant survival or the induction of tolerance in some models. Other interventions are under study. CONCLUSION: By mediating the initial leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions, adhesion molecules may play an important role in graft rejection, mediation of infiltration into the graft, and dissemination of the antigenic message to the lymphoid tissues of the host. Future studies will have to deal not only with conceptualizing their function and mechanisms of action, but also with manipulating their interrelationships to the benefit of the graft recipient. PMID:8297174

  6. Temporal Patterns of Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with the Acute Brain Infraction

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Vesna; Raicevic, Ranko; Radenovic, Lidija

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define concentration changes of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-Selectin) in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, as well as, number of peripheral blood leukocytes and the albumin coefficient in the patients with the acute brain infarction. We also, analyzed the correlation between the measured levels, the infarct volume and the degree of neurological and the functional deficit. The study included 50 patients with the acute cerebral infarction and the control group consisted of 16 patients, age and sex matched. Obtained results showed significant increase in number of leukocytes, the albumin coefficient and the level of soluble adhesion molecules within the first seven days in patients. The highest values of measured parameters were noted within the third and the fourth day after the insult, which is the suggested period of maximal intensity of inflammatory reactions. Significant correlation was found between measured parameters and the infarct volume, the degree of neurological and the functional deficit. The results suggest that investigated parameters in CSF and blood represent a dynamic index of inflammatory events as one of the fundametal mechanisms responsible for neuron damage during acute phase of brain infarction. PMID:19407361

  7. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... body moves. However, abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. What is the abdominal cavity? ... tissues and organs. Abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. • Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  8. Intrauterine Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommend temporarily placing a device, such as a plastic catheter, inside the uterus to keep the walls of the uterus apart and to prevent adhesions from reforming. Hormonal treatment with estrogen and NSAIDs are frequently prescribed after surgery to lessen the chance of reformation of adhesions. ...

  9. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Saintclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of preparing aromatic polyamide-acids for use as adhesives is described. An equimolar quantity of an aromatic dianhydride is added to a stirred solution of an aromatic diamine in a water or alcohol-miscible ether solvent to obtain a viscous polymer solution. The polymeric-acid intermediate polymer does not become insoluble but directly forms a smooth viscous polymer solution. These polyamic-acid polymers are converted, by heating in the range of 200-300 C and with pressure, to form polyimides with excellent adhesive properties.

  10. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue that can form between abdominal tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of ... tissues and organs. Abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  11. Selective cell adhesion inhibitors: Barbituric acid based alpha4beta7--MAdCAM inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Geraldine C; Brewer, Matthias; Bennett, Robert; Kuhn, Cyrille; Bazin, Marc; Larosa, Greg; Skerker, Paul; Cochran, Nancy; Gallant, Debra; Baxter, Deborah; Picarella, Dominic; Jaffee, Bruce; Luly, Jay R; Briskin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    A novel series of barbituric acid derivatives were identified as selective inhibitors of alpha4beta7 MAdCAM (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) interactions via a high throughput screening exercise. These inhibitors were optimized to submicromolar potencies in whole cell adhesion assays, retaining their selectivity over alpha4beta1 VCAM. PMID:18331794

  12. Adhesive plasters

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Swain, Ronald L.; Banker, John G.; Edwards, Charlene C.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 or Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions have been found to spontaneously harden into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure.

  13. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Stclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process was developed for preparing aromatic polyamide acids for use as adhesives by reacting an aromatic dianhydride to an approximately equimolar amount of an aromatic diamine in a water or lower alkanol miscible ether solvent. The polyamide acids are converted to polyimides by heating to the temperature range of 200 - 300 C. The polyimides are thermally stable and insoluble in ethers and other organic solvents.

  14. MicroRNA-572 Improves Early Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction by Down-Regulating Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiya; Liu, Shupeng; Li, Jinbao; Fan, Xiaohua; Chen, Yuanjie; Bi, Xiaoying; Liu, Shanrong; Deng, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a commonly-seen postoperative complication in elderly patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. miRNAs, which are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system diseases, may also affect POCD. In this study, miRNA microarray technology was used to analyze the circulating miRNA expression profile of POCD patients. Among the altered miRNAs, miR-572 had the greatest decrease, which was also verified in vivo in rat POCD model. Further analysis found that miR-572 could regulate the expression of NCAM1 in the hippocampal neurons and interfering miR-572 expression could facilitate the restoration of cognitive function in vivo. Moreover, clinical correlation analysis found that the miR-572 expression was associated with the incidence of POCD. Collectively, miR-572 is involved in the development and restoration of POCD and it may serve as a biological marker for early diagnosis of POCD. PMID:25680004

  15. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  16. Serological tests for diagnosis and staging of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).

    PubMed

    Kao, Dennis S; Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Kaplan, Rachel E; Riley, Danny A; Matloub, Hani S

    2008-06-01

    The current gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is the Stockholm workshop scale, which is subjective and relies on the patient's recalling ability and honesty. Therefore, great potentials exist for diagnostic and staging errors. The purpose of this study is to determine if objective serum tests, such as levels of soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), may be used in the diagnosis and staging of HAVS. Twenty two nonsmokers were divided into a control group (n = 11) and a vibration group (n = 11). The control group included subjects without history of frequent vibrating tool use. The vibration group included construction workers with average vibrating tool use of 12.2 years. All were classified according to the Stockholm workshop scale (SN, sensorineural symptoms; V, vascular symptoms. SN0, no numbness; SN1, intermittent numbness; SN2, reduced sensory perception; SN3, reduced tactile discrimination; V0, no vasospasmic attacks; V1, intermittent vasospasm involving distal phalanges; V2, intermittent vasospasm extending to middle phalanges; V3, intermittent vasospasm extending to proximal phalanges; V4, skin atrophy/necrosis). All control subjects were SN0 V0. Seven out of 11 vibration subjects were SN1 V1, and 4 out of 11 were SN1 V2. A 10-cm(3) sample of venous blood was collected from each subject. The sTM and sICAM-1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean plasma sTM levels were as follows: control group = 2.93 +/- 0.47 ng/ml, and vibration group = 3.61 +/- 0.24 ng/ml. The mean plasma sICAM-1 levels were as follows: control group = 218.8 +/- 54.1 ng/ml, and vibration group = 300.3 +/- 53.2 ng/ml. The sTM and sICAM-1 differences between control and vibration groups were statistically significant (p < 0.0002 and p < 0.001, respectively). When reference ranges provided by Hemostasis Reference Lab were used as cut-off values, all sTM and sICAM-1 levels were within range, except three vibration individuals (27%) who had sICAM-1 levels greater than the reference range. This was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). When subjects were compared based on the Stockholm workshop scale, mean plasma sTM levels were SN0 V0 group = 2.93 +/- 0.47 ng/ml, SN1 V1 group = 3.59 +/- 0.25 ng/ml, and SN1 V2 group = 3.65 +/- 0.27 ng/ml, and mean plasma sICAM-1 levels were SN0 V0 = 219 +/- 54.1 ng/ml, SN1 V1 = 275 +/- 33.5 ng/ml, and SN1 V2 = 345 +/- 54.6 ng/ml. The difference in sTM level among the three groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The difference in sICAM-1 level among the three groups was also statistically significant (p < 0.002). The sTM and sICAM-1 levels are statistically higher in subjects with HAVS, with levels proportional to the disease severity. However, large population studies are needed to determine the "real-life" standard reference ranges for sTM and sICAM-1. PMID:18780088

  17. Adhesion and Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    von Fraunhofer, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed. PMID:22505913

  18. Heterogeneous Vascular Responses to Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Justin R.; Vega-López, Sonia; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Buman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstarct Background/Objectives: Among adolescents, obesity may increase the risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle interventions may prevent or delay the onset of CVD through improvements in vascular health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week lifestyle intervention on markers of vascular health in obese Latino youth. Subjects/Methods: Fifteen obese Latino adolescents [body mass index (BMI) percentile=96.3±1.1%, 15.0±1.0 year, 8 females and 7 males] participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention consisting of nutrition education and physical activity. Markers of vascular health included oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (sE-Selectin). Results: Relative to baseline data, the intervention resulted in lower oxLDL (−21.8%, P=0.001) and sE-Selectin (−13.3%, P=0.008) concentrations; sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 did not change significantly. When examining overall responsiveness to change for each marker, oxLDL was reduced in 93.3%, sE-Selectin was reduced in 78.6%, and sICAM-1 was reduced in 71.4% of participants, respectively, whereas sVCAM-1 was reduced in only 42.9% of participants following lifestyle. Using a composite change score (summed change in four markers) for each participant there was an improvement in at least three of four markers among 64% of participants; this was confirmed by principal component analysis. Conclusions: Therefore, although improvements in the vascular health of obese youth were observed, the vascular response to lifestyle intervention may be heterogeneous. Further investigation into the mechanisms mediating the heterogeneity in vascular response to lifestyle intervention is warranted. PMID:25162989

  19. The antioxidant effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamper, Maria; Tsimpoukidi, Olia; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Lymberi, Maria; Kamper, Elli F

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effect of a short-term angiotensin II signaling blockade on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (index of lipid peroxidation) levels in the systemic circulation and on peroxynitrite generation and insulitis development in the streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats' pancreas. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal STZ injection. Diabetic rats were treated for 1 week with losartan (20 mg/kg/body weight/day in the drinking water), and pancreas and blood were collected for histochemical, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies. Diabetic rats showed greater VEGF, sICAM-1, NO, and MDA levels, a high score of insulitis, increased nitrotyrosine staining, and markedly reduced pancreatic insulin content when compared with controls. Losartan treatment suppressed the excessive NO and lipid peroxidation production systemically without restoring them to that of healthy subjects and reduced VEGF levels while leaving sICAM-1 levels unchanged. The insulitis score and nitrotyrosine staining were reduced, whereas the pancreatic islets and the beta-cell area were increased significantly in the treated group, indicating the reduction of inflammation and nitrosative stress and an early regeneration of beta-cell mass in the pancreas. Conclusively, in the STZ diabetic rat model, even a short-term losartan treatment improves oxidative and nitrosative stress systemically and locally, improving the islets' environment and accelerating beta-cell regeneration. PMID:20621034

  20. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced early atherogenic events in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zuraini; Ng, Chin Theng; Fong, Lai Yen; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Hussain, Nor Hayuti Mohd; Ang, Kok Pian; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been effectively used to treat cardiovascular disease. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major lipophilic compound isolated from S. miltiorrhiza, has been reported to possess cardioprotective effects. However, the anti-atherogenic effects of CTS, particularly on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial cell activation, are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of CTS on TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and impaired nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), all of which are early events occurring in atherogenesis. We showed that CTS significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1, and restored nitric oxide production. These observations suggest that CTS possesses anti-inflammatory properties and could be a promising treatment for the prevention of cytokine-induced early atherogenesis. PMID:26732386

  1. Does endothelium agree with the concept of idiopathic hepatic vessel thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Harmanci, Ozgur; Buyukasik, Yahya; Kirazli, Serafettin; Balkanci, Ferhun; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the major steps of thrombogenesis and to identify the differences in these steps between idiopathic patient group and control group. METHODS: Fibrinogenesis was studied by measuring the activated factor VII, total and free levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The fibrinolysis step was investigated by determining the global fibrinolytic capacity. The endothelial function was assessed by measuring the levels of soluble adhesion molecules, namely soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble E-selectin molecule. The exclusion criteria from “idiopathic” patient group were abdominal surgery, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, anti-phospholipid syndrome, Behçet’s disease, cancer, myeloproliferative diseases. The congenital factors like mutations of factor-V Leiden and prothrombin, deficiencies of proteins C and S, antithrombin, hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperfibrinogenemia were ruled out. The total number of patients was reduced from 96 to 9 (7 with portal vein thrombosis, 2 Budd Chiari syndrome) by exclusion criteria. RESULTS: The levels of adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, free TFPI levels and global fibrinolytic capacity were significantly different (P < 0.05) in the patient group indicating an endothelial dysfunction and a lower fibrinolytic activity. CONCLUSION: These results show that this patient group should be tested by means of endothelial dysfunction and managed differently. PMID:16534884

  2. Temperature Modulation of Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Félix; Chu, Calvin; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Qin, Yujing; Moy, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells modulate their adhesive state by regulating the number and intrinsic affinity of receptor/ligand bonds. A number of studies have shown that cell adhesion is dramatically reduced at room or lower temperatures as compared with physiological temperature. However, the underlying mechanism that modulates adhesion is still unclear. Here, we investigated the adhesion of the monocytic cell line THP-1 to a surface coated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a function of temperature. THP-1 cells express the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a receptor for ICAM-1. Direct force measurements of cell adhesion and cell elasticity were carried out by atomic force microscopy. Force measurements revealed an increase of the work of de-adhesion with temperature that was coupled to a gradual decrease in cellular stiffness. Of interest, single-molecule measurements revealed that the rupture force of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex decreased with temperature. A detailed analysis of the force curves indicated that temperature-modulated cell adhesion was mainly due to the enhanced ability of cells to deform and to form a greater number of longer membrane tethers at physiological temperatures. Together, these results emphasize the importance of cell mechanics and membrane-cytoskeleton interaction on the modulation of cell adhesion. PMID:20816050

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Up-Regulates ICAM-1 Expression and Release in Intestinal Myofibroblasts by Redox-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fontani, Filippo; Domazetovic, Vladana; Marcucci, Tommaso; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa; Iantomasi, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNFα stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNFα, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNFα stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNFα may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism. PMID:26177712

  4. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia. PMID:23514230

  5. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  6. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  7. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  8. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  9. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  10. Association Between Prediagnostic Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function and Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Charnaux, Nathalie; Sutton, Angela; Méjean, Caroline; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and prevalent case-control studies suggest an association between biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial function, and adiposity and cancer risk, but results from prospective studies have been limited. The authors’ objective was to prospectively examine the relations between these biomarkers and cancer risk. A nested case-control study was designed within the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) Study, a nationwide French cohort study, to include all first primary incident cancers diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (n = 512). Cases were matched with randomly selected controls (n = 1,024) on sex, age (in 2-year strata), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2; <25 vs. ≥25), and SU.VI.MAX intervention group. Conditional logistic regression was used to study the associations between prediagnostic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, leptin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and cancer risk. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Plasma sICAM-1 level was positively associated with breast cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 3.26; Ptrend = 0.048). Plasma hs-CRP level was positively associated with prostate cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, multivariate OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.28, 7.23; Ptrend = 0.03). These results suggest that prediagnostic hs-CRP and sICAM-1 levels are associated with increased prostate and breast cancer risk, respectively. PMID:23171880

  11. Association between prediagnostic biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial function and cancer risk: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Charnaux, Nathalie; Sutton, Angela; Méjean, Caroline; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and prevalent case-control studies suggest an association between biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial function, and adiposity and cancer risk, but results from prospective studies have been limited. The authors' objective was to prospectively examine the relations between these biomarkers and cancer risk. A nested case-control study was designed within the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) Study, a nationwide French cohort study, to include all first primary incident cancers diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (n = 512). Cases were matched with randomly selected controls (n = 1,024) on sex, age (in 2-year strata), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2); <25 vs. ≥25), and SU.VI.MAX intervention group. Conditional logistic regression was used to study the associations between prediagnostic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, leptin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and cancer risk. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Plasma sICAM-1 level was positively associated with breast cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 3.26; P(trend) = 0.048). Plasma hs-CRP level was positively associated with prostate cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, multivariate OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.28, 7.23; P(trend) = 0.03). These results suggest that prediagnostic hs-CRP and sICAM-1 levels are associated with increased prostate and breast cancer risk, respectively. PMID:23171880

  12. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering. PMID:23802872

  13. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  14. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  15. Rolling cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Rolling adhesion on vascular surfaces is the first step in recruiting circulating leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, or platelets to specific organs or to sites of infection or injury. Rolling requires the rapid yet balanced formation and dissociation of adhesive bonds in the challenging environment of blood flow. This review explores how structurally distinct adhesion receptors interact through mechanically regulated kinetics with their ligands to meet these challenges. Remarkably, increasing force applied to adhesive bonds first prolongs their lifetimes (catch bonds) and then shortens their lifetimes (slip bonds). Catch bonds mediate the counterintuitive phenomenon of flow-enhanced rolling adhesion. Force-regulated disruptions of receptor interdomain or intradomain interactions remote from the ligand-binding surface generate catch bonds. Adhesion receptor dimerization, clustering in membrane domains, and interactions with the cytoskeleton modulate the forces applied to bonds. Both inside-out and outside-in cell signals regulate these processes. PMID:19575676

  16. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-01-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  17. [Prevention of peritoneal adhesions].

    PubMed

    Canis, M; Botchorishvili, R; Wattiez, A; Rabischong, B; Houlle, C; Mage, G; Pouly, J L; Manhes, H; Bruhat, M A

    2001-06-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are a major problem for health and economy. An adequate and atraumatic surgical technique is essential in the prevention of peritoneal adhesions. Laparoscopic microsurgery should be developed and promoted. The following conclusions can be proposed about the treatments available Adequately designed clinical studies are too rare. Future studies are necessary to obtain information on pregnancy and pain as primary outcomes. Cost implications of adhesion prevention treatments also have to be addressed. PMID:11431609

  18. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample. PMID:22397643

  19. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  20. The adhesion molecule and cytokine profile of multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Cannella, B; Raine, C S

    1995-04-01

    The expression of the adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and their respective receptors on leukocytes, very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), together with a selection of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta], and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma] was examined by immunocytochemistry in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions of different ages and compared with central nervous system (CNS) tissue from other neurological diseases, both inflammatory and noninflammatory, and normal CNS tissue. These molecules play key roles in lymphocytic infiltration and interactions during tissue inflammation and are in large part normally not expressed by CNS cells. High levels of expression of all the molecules tested were found in MS, particularly in chronic active lesions. Positivity for all molecules was also seen in other neurological diseases, even in noninflammatory conditions. There was some suggestion that the VCAM-1/VLA-4 adhesion pathway was expressed at higher levels in chronic MS lesions, while ICAM-1/LEA-1 was used more uniformly in lesions of all ages. Of the cytokines examined, there was increased expression of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in MS; this was found to be statistically significant when compared with noninflammatory neurological diseases. The expression of most adhesion molecules and some cytokines was negligible in normal CNS tissue although low-level reactivity for ICAM-1 TGF-beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 was detected, perhaps indicative of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Microglial cells and astrocytes were the major CNS cell types expressing cytokines. The results indicate a potential in the CNS for widespread induced expression of molecules involved in the inflammatory cascade. No adhesion or cytokine molecule or pattern of expression unusual for MS was apparent. PMID:7536402

  1. Nuclear factor kappaB-mediated down-regulation of adhesion molecules: possible mechanism for inhibitory activity of bigelovin against inflammatory monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Oh, Goo Taeg; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Koo, Uk; Lee, Sung-Jin; Mar, Woongchon

    2009-06-22

    The flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis (Rupr.) Reg. (Compositae) are used in traditional medicine to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and acute pleurisy in China and Korea. However, the pharmacological actions of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis on endothelial cells and inflammatory monocytes are not clear. In this study, we investigated whether bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis, inhibits monocyte adhesion and adhesion molecule expression in brain endothelial cells. We measured tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-enhanced Raw264.7 monocyte binding to brain endothelial cells and the levels of cell adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial-selectin (E-selectin) on the surface of brain endothelial cells. Bigelovin significantly inhibited these in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, bigelovin suppressed the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) promoter-driven luciferase activity, NF-kappaB activation, and degradation of NF-kappaB inhibitor protein alpha (IkappaBalpha). These results indicate that bigelovin inhibits inflammatory monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin by blocking IkappaBalpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. PMID:19429369

  2. Neuron adhesion and strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Aracely; Jian, Kuihuan; Ko, Gladys; Liang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the neuron/material adhesion is important for neuron stimulation and growth. The current challenges remain in the lack of precision of measuring techniques and understanding the behavior of neuron. Here, we report a fluid shear method to investigate adhesion at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface. In this study, the adhesion of 12-day-old chick embryo-retina neurons cultured on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips was measured via parallel disk rotational flow. The shear stress experienced by the cells increases with the disk radius. There is a critical point along the radius (Rc) where the stress experienced by the neurons equals their adhesion. The measured Rc can be used to calculate the neuron adhesion. Our results demonstrate that neurons adhered to the poly-D-lysine had a strain hardening effect. The adhesive shear stress of the neuron-material increased with applied shear (τa). When the τa reached or exceeded the value of 40 dyn/cm2, the adhesion remained constant at approximately 30 dyn/cm2. The present work allowed us not only to quantify the adhesive strength and force but also to evaluate the value of strain hardening at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface.

  3. LARC-13 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.; Sheppard, C. H.; Johnson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A LARC-13 type adhesive system was developed and property data obtained that demonstrated improved thermomechanical properties superior to base LARC-13 adhesive. An improved adhesive for 589 K (600 F) use was developed by physical or chemical modification of LARC-13. The adhesive was optimized for titanium and composite bonding, and a compatible surface preparation for titanium and composite substrates was identified. The data obtained with the improved adhesive system indicated it would meet the 589 K (600 F) properties desired for application on space shuttle components. Average titanium lap shear data were: (1) 21.1 MPa (3355 psi) at RT, (2) 13.0 MPa (1881 psi) at 600 F, and (3) 16.4 MPa (2335) after aging 125 hours at 600 F and tested at 600 F.

  4. Adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, E.W.; Shannon, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The topics concerned with the European chromic acid anodize process, the sealed chromic acid anodize, the phosphoric acid anodize, surface analysis, and adhesive selection are discussed. Consideration is given to epoxy adhesives, elevated-temperature-resistant adhesives, the mechanical properties of adhesives, environmental/durability testing, and coatings. Data on the use of chemical analysis for control, the structural analysis of adhesive-bonded joints, tooling design and inspection, nondestructive inspection, and adhesive-bonded aluminum structure repair are presented.

  5. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor-ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  6. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is a thyroid hormone-dependent early-response marker in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Smallridge, R C; Tsokos, G C; Burman, K D; Porter, L; Cranston, T; Sfikakis, P P; Solomon, B L

    1997-01-01

    Thyrotoxic patients exhibit increased levels of immune activation molecules (soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 [ELAM-1]) in serum, although the clinical significance of these measurements remains unclear. In a randomized 4-week study, we have recently shown that in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, the combination of cholestyramine and methimazole (MMI) resulted in faster lowering of serum thyroid-hormone levels than did MMI alone. Stored serial serum samples from patients participating in this randomized treatment trial were analyzed for sIL-2R, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble ELAM-1 (sELAM-1). The levels of all three molecules were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the levels of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 remained elevated through the 4-week follow-up period in both groups of patients, the sIL-2R levels (normal levels, 1.0 to 4.2 ng/ml) decreased significantly in the 10 patients who received cholestyramine in addition to MMI (week 0, 14.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; week 2, 10.8 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; week 4, 8.9 +/- 1.5 ng/ml). In eight patients who received MMI alone, sIL-2R decreased less rapidly (week 0, 12.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml; week 2, 12.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; week 4, 10.9 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 were elevated at baseline but did not decrease during therapy. In the former group, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine decreased faster. These data show that levels of sIL-2R in serum, but not those of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1, may be of clinical use in the early follow-up evaluation of medically treated patients. PMID:9302209

  7. Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.

    PubMed

    Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

    2011-04-01

    Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

  8. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  9. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  10. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

  11. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  12. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  13. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  14. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  15. Expression of adhesion molecules, platelet-activating factor, and chemokines by Kaposi's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, F L; Stürzl, M; Bussolino, F; Sironi, M; Brandstetter, H; Zietz, C; Zhou, D; Matteucci, C; Peri, G; Sozzani, S

    1994-11-15

    The present study was designed to investigate whether cells cultured from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor with a prominent leukocyte infiltration, express molecules important for the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. KS cells expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which was augmented by exposure to IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. Unlike endothelial cells, resting or cytokine-activated KS cells did not express appreciable levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-2, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin on their surface. Weak expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA was detectable by Northern blot analysis and, most clearly, by PCR analysis. Upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines, KS cells produced the attractant/activating lipid platelet-activating factor. KS cells expressed appreciable levels of the chemotactic cytokines, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8, as determined by Northern blot analysis, immunoassay, or bioassay. Chemokine production was augmented by IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. MCP-1 expression was also detected in KS lesions by in situ hybridization. The set of molecules identified in the present study is probably important in determining the prominent leukocyte infiltration observed in KS. Tumor-associated leukocytes may amplify autocrine/paracrine circuits that sustain KS proliferation and contribute to recruitment of host vascular cells. PMID:7963547

  16. High temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace and electronics industries have an ever increasing need for higher performance materials. In recent years, linear aromatic polyimides have been proven to be a superior class of materials for various applications in these industries. The use of this class of polymers as adhesives is continuing to increase. Several NASA Langley developed polyimides show considerable promise as adhesives because of their high glass transition temperatures, thermal stability, resistance to solvents/water, and their potential for cost effective manufacture.

  17. Soluble adhesion molecules as markers for sepsis and the potential pathophysiological discrepancy in neonates, children and adults.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Martinelli, Roberta; Shapiro, Nathan I; Kuijpers, Taco W; Plötz, Frans B; Carman, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response to infection that affects all populations and age groups. The pathophysiology of sepsis is associated with aberrant interaction between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. As inflammation progresses, the adhesion molecules that mediate these interactions become shed from cell surfaces and accumulate in the blood as soluble isoforms that are being explored as potential prognostic disease biomarkers. We critically review the studies that have tested the predictive value of soluble adhesion molecules in sepsis pathophysiology with emphasis on age, as well as the underlying mechanisms and potential roles for inflammatory shedding. Five soluble adhesion molecules are associated with sepsis, specifically, E-selectin, L-selectin and P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. While increased levels of these soluble adhesion molecules generally correlate well with the presence of sepsis, their degree of elevation is still poorly predictive of sepsis severity scores, outcome and mortality. Separate analyses of neonates, children and adults demonstrate significant age-dependent discrepancies in both basal and septic levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules. Additionally, a range of both clinical and experimental studies suggests protective roles for adhesion molecule shedding that raise important questions about whether these should positively or negatively correlate with mortality. In conclusion, while predictive properties of soluble adhesion molecules have been researched intensively, their levels are still poorly predictive of sepsis outcome and mortality. We propose two novel directions for improving clinical utility of soluble adhesion molecules: the combined simultaneous analysis of levels of adhesion molecules and their sheddases; and taking age-related discrepancies into account. Further attention to these issues may provide better understanding of sepsis pathophysiology and increase the usefulness of soluble adhesion molecules as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers. PMID:24602331

  18. Adhesion at ceramic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.; Houston, J.E.; Joyce, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the properties associated with ceramic materials such as high hardness, high dielectric constant, refractoriness, and good optical properties will play a critical role in the development of devices for new and emerging technologies. In many cases, the combination of properties that is required demands that a composite material be designed to fulfill these complex materials needs. The increasing emphasis upon composite materials design and performance necessarily focuses greater attention upon the structure and properties of interfaces in ceramic materials. One on the most important aspects of interfacial behavior is the adhesive stability. As an example, high hardness ceramic coatings for tribological applications require a high degree of interfacial adhesion with the underlying substate material. Alternatively it has been shown that fiber reinforced ceramic composites that are designed for high fracture toughness must contain weak interfaces that allow for fiber pull-out to toughen the instrinsically brittle ceramic matrix. Our ability to design ceramic interfaces for specific interfacial adhesive behavior dictates that we develop a full understanding of the factors that control the adhesive bond in these systems. We report on the use of continuum fracture mechanics techniques to identify the molecular source of adhesion between oxide surfaces and introduce a new approach to measuring interfacial adhesive forces using an Interfacial Force Microscope.

  19. LUTEOLIN PROTECTS AGAINST VASCULAR INFLAMMATION IN MICE AND TNF-ALPHA-INDUCED MONOCYTE ADHESION TO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS VIA SUPPRESSING IΚBα/NF-κB SIGNALING PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenquan; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Liu, Dongmin; Shah, Halley; Li, Jason Z.; Chitrakar, Rojin; Si, Hongwei; McCormick, John; Zhu, Hong; Zhen, Wei; Li, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Luteolin, a naturally-occurring flavanoid, present in many medicinal plants as well as in some commonly consumed fruits and vegetables has received wide attention for its potential to improve vascular function in vitro. However, its effect in vivo and the molecular mechanism of luteolin at physiological concentrations remain unclear. Here, we report that luteolin as low as 0.5 μM significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells, a key event in triggering vascular inflammation. Luteolin potently suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, key mediators involved in enhancing endothelial cell-monocyte interaction. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity, IκBα degradation, expression of IκB kinase ß (IKKß), and subsequent NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells, suggesting that luteolin can inhibit inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling. In an animal study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0% or 0.6% luteolin for three weeks and luteolin supplementation greatly suppressed TNF-α-induced increases in circulating levels of MCP-1/JE, CXCL1/KC, and sICAM-1 in C57BL/6 mice. Consistently, dietary intake of luteolin significantly reduced TNF-α-stimulated adhesion of monocytes to aortic endothelial cells ex vivo. Histology shows that luteolin treatment prevented the eruption of endothelial lining in the intima layer of the aorta and preserved elastin fibers’ delicate organization as shown by Verhoeff-van Gieson staining. Immunohistochemistry studies further show that luteolin treatment also reduced VCAM-1 and monocyte-derived F4/80-positive macrophages in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice. In conclusion, luteolin protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation, in both in vitro and in vivo models. This anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin may be mediated via inhibition of the NF-κB-mediated pathway. PMID:25577468

  20. Iron Sucrose Accelerates Early Atherogenesis by Increasing Superoxide Production and Upregulating Adhesion Molecules in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte–endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-κB signaling. We then measured mononuclear–endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE−/− mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear–endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-κB/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear–endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  1. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  2. Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, WC; Vaidya, VS; Liu, J; Waalkes, MP; Edwards, JR; Lamar, PC; Bernard, AM; Dumont, X; Bonventre, JV

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in injury to the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein not normally detected in the mature kidney, but is upregulated and shed into the urine following nephrotoxic injury. In this study, we determine if Kim-1 might be a useful early biomarker of Cd nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily injections of Cd for up to 12 weeks. Weekly urine samples were analyzed for Kim-1, protein, creatinine, metallothionein, and Clara cell protein CC-16. Significant levels of Kim-1 were detected in the urine by 6 weeks and continued to increase throughout the treatment period. This appearance of Kim-1 occurred 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria, and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of metallothionein and CC-16. Higher doses of Cd gave rise to higher Kim-1 excretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis showed that Kim-1 transcript levels were increased after 6 weeks at the low dose of Cd. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Kim-1 was present in proximal tubule cells of the Cd-treated rats. Our results suggest that Kim-1 may be a useful biomarker of early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. PMID:17687258

  3. Visualizing and quantifying adhesive signals

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Wu, Yi; Hahn, Klaus; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the structural adaptation and signaling of adhesion sites in response to mechanical stimuli requires in situ characterization of the dynamic activation of a large number of adhesion components. Here, we review high resolution live cell imaging approaches to measure forces, assembly and interaction of adhesion components, and the activation of adhesion-mediated signals. We conclude by outlining computational multiplexing as a framework for the integration of these data into comprehensive models of adhesion signaling pathways. PMID:18586481

  4. Cytokine production and expression of adhesion molecules and integrins in tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Vitolo, D.; Palmieri, M. B.; Ruco, L. P.; Rendina, E.; Bonsignore, G.; Baroni, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and of their ligands, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and very late activation antigen-4, was determined in non-small cell lung carcinomas and tumor-free lung. Messenger RNA expression for interleukins (IL) IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor, and human perforin-1 was assessed by in situ hybridization on the same tissues. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was expressed in all blood vessels, whereas only a low number of vessels displayed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity. Tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells consisted of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-positive cells and of a lower number of very late activation antigen-4-positive cells. All squamous cell carcinomas consisted of intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive neoplastic cells infiltrated by lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-positive tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear and CD-la-positive Langerhans cells, whereas only a minor number of adenocarcinomas displayed a consistent number of intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive neoplastic cells. Tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells showed a wider production of cytokines when compared to bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue of tumor-free lung. Moreover, cells producing interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 were more numerous in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas. These findings indicate that the lung squamous cell carcinoma might represent a neoplastic microenvironment able to induce activation of tumor infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells more efficiently than the adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 1 PMID:7519825

  5. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is associated with a naïve B-cell phenotype in human tonsils.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D E; Gully, L M; Henshall, T L; Mardell, C E; Macardle, P J

    2000-08-01

    In B cells, signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is negatively modulated by the co-ligation of immunoglobulin (Ig)-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing molecules such as FcgammaRIIB1, B-cell transmembrane protein CD72, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor PIR-B, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), Ig-like transcript ILT2, biliary glycoprotein BGP-1 and B-cell co-receptor CD22. The co-expression of multiple Ig-ITIM receptors may provide B cells with different mechanisms of regulating inhibitory pathways at different stages of differentiation. In this study, we have examined the expression of a newly defined Ig-ITIM receptor, PECAM-1 (CD31) on human B-cells. Human tonsillar B cells were purified using negative selection by depleting T cells with a combination of monoclonal antibodies and magnetic bead separation. Following purification, the pattern of PECAM-1 expression was analyzed in B-cell subpopulations using two- and three-colour fluorescence. To complement this work, PECAM-1 localization in the context of distinct areas of human tonsil was defined by immunohistochemical analysis of tonsil sections. Finally to investigate somatic mutation, Ig variable (V) region genes belonging to the nonpolymorphic VH6 family were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), subcloned and sequenced from sort-purified CD19+ PECAM-1+ and CD19+ PECAM-1- B cells. Our results demonstrate that PECAM-1 is associated with an unstimulated resting B-cell phenotype, localization to the follicular mantle and marginal zones of human tonsil and expression of unmutated Ig V region genes. These studies suggest that PECAM-1 appears on the cell surface at the naive B-cell stage and is lost as B cells differentiate into memory cells, indicating that PECAM-1 is primarily involved in naive or immature B-cell function. PMID:11019910

  6. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. RESULTS We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288-2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398-2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373-2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234-2.421, p=0.787). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  7. AB060. Lost expression of cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) associated with bladder cancer progression and recurrence and its overexpression inhibited tumor cell malignant behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yegang; Liu, Li; Yang, Yongjiao; Guo, Zhanjun; Wang, Shangren; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the function of CADM1 in bladder cancer malignant behaviors Methods This study assessed CADM1 expression in 84 cases of bladder tissues for association with clinicopathological parameters from bladder cancer patients and then investigated the effects of CADM1 overexpression on bladder cancer cells in vitro. Results Expression of CADM1 protein was significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues (0.26±0.14) than in normal bladder mucosa (0.69±0.092; P<0.01), and methylation of CADM1 promoter was responsible for silence of CADM1 protein expression and significantly associated with tumor size, recurrence, pathology classification, and clinical stage (P<0.05). Overexpression of CADM1 protein inhibited tumor cell proliferation, but reduced tumor cell invasion capacity and induced tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. At the gene level, CADM1 expression upregulated caspase-3 activity and expression of Bax and p27 protein and downregulated levels of bcl-2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, and CDK2 proteins. Moreover, overexpression of CADM1 regulated expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, including increased expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, whereas decreased the levels of Vimentin. Conclusions This study demonstrated that lost expression of CADM1 protein could exert an essential role in development and progression of bladder cancer and suggests that CADM1 may be a novel molecular target for control of this disease in clinic.

  8. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288–2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398–2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373–2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234–2.421, p=0.787). Conclusions Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  9. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1−/− mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1−/− mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1−/− mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(I·C) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1−/− macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  10. Genetic variants in Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1): a validation study of a novel endothelial cell venous thrombosis risk factor

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Hugoline G.; Bezemer, Irene D.; Vossen, Carla Y.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Behringer, Stefan; Hasstedt, Sandra J.; Levy, Samuel; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Bovill, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a protein C deficient family, we recently identified a candidate gene, CADM1, which interacted with protein C deficiency in increasing the risk of venous thrombosis (VT). This study aimed to determine whether CADM1 variants also interact with protein C pathway abnormalities in increasing VT risk outside this family. Materials and methods We genotyped over 300 CADM1 variants in the population-based MEGA case-control study. We compared VT risks between cases with low protein C activity (n=194), low protein S levels (n=23), high factor VIII activity (n=165) or factor V Leiden carriers (n=580), and all 4004 controls. Positive associations were repeated in all 3496 cases and 4004 controls. Results We found 22 variants which were associated with VT in one of the protein C pathway risk groups. After mutual adjustment, six variants remained associated with VT. The strongest evidence was found for rs220842 and rs11608105. For rs220842, the odds ratio (OR) for VT was 3.2 (95% CI 1.29.0) for cases with high factor VIII activity compared with controls. In addition, this variant was associated with an increased risk of VT in the overall study population (OR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.02.2). The other variant, rs11608105, was not associated with VT in the overall study population (OR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.81.1), but showed a strong effect on VT risk (OR: 21, 95% CI 5.188) when combined with low protein C or S levels. Conclusions In a population-based association study, we confirm a role for CADM1 variants in increasing the risk of VT by interaction with protein C pathway abnormalities. PMID:25306186

  11. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  12. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J.; de Leij, Lou M.F.H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of ?40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally lower level than carcinoma cells. In early studies, EpCAM was proposed to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule. However, recent insights revealed a more versatile role for EpCAM that is not limited only to cell adhesion but includes diverse processes such as signaling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Cell surface expression of EpCAM may actually prevent cell-cell adhesion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on EpCAM biology in relation to other cell adhesion molecules. We discuss the implications of the newly identified functions of EpCAM in view of its prognostic relevance in carcinoma, inflammatory pathophysiology, and tissue development and regeneration as well as its role in normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17600130

  13. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 for Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijia; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Chunlin; Qi, Chaojun; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a proximal tubular injury biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), with variable performance characteristics depending on clinical and population settings. Methods Meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of urinary KIM-1 in AKI. Relevant studies were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Results A total of 2979 patients from 11 eligible studies were enrolled in the analysis. Five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and four case-control studies were identified for meta-analysis. The estimated sensitivity of urinary KIM-1 for the diagnosis of AKI was 74.0% (95% CI, 61.0%–84.0%), and specificity was 86.0% (95% CI, 74.0%–93.0%). The SROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.86(0.83–0.89). Subgroup analysis suggested that population settings and detection time were the key factors affecting the efficiency of KIM-1 for AKI diagnosis. Limitation Various population settings, different definition of AKI and Serum creatinine level used as the standard might have influence on AKI diagnosis. The relatively small number of studies and heterogeneity between them also affected the evaluation. Conclusion Urinary KIM-1 may be a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI with considerable predictive value, especially for cardiac surgery patients, and its potential value needs to be validated in large studies and across a broader scope of clinical settings. PMID:24404151

  14. Alpha4beta1 integrin affinity changes govern cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chigaev, Alexandre; Zwartz, Gordon; Graves, Steven W; Dwyer, Denise C; Tsuji, Hisashi; Foutz, Terry D; Edwards, Bruce S; Prossnitz, Eric R; Larson, Richard S; Sklar, Larry A

    2003-10-01

    Integrin alpha4beta1 is a receptor for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin. It is important in lymphopoiesis, inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes, and other situations that require cell adhesion to the vascular endothelium. The avidity of the cells expressing alpha4beta1 integrin can be rapidly changed by chemokines and chemoattractants. Different mechanisms, including changes in the number of interacting molecules due to the alteration of the receptor topology or changes in the affinity of the individual bonds, have been proposed to explain the nature of these fast changes in avidity. Recently, we described a fluorescent LDV-containing small molecule, which we used to monitor the affinity changes on live cells in real time (Chigaev, A., Blenc, A. M., Braaten, J. V., Kumaraswamy, N., Kepley, C. L., Andrews, R. P., Oliver, J. M., Edwards, B. S., Prossnitz, E. R., Larson, R. S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48670-48678). Here we show that the affinity of the small molecule probe as well as the native ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 varies in parallel when the integrin is modulated with divalent cations and that the affinity modulation leads to the changes in cell avidity. Using formyl peptide receptor-transfected U937 cells, we further show that the time course of avidity changes in response to the receptor activation coincides with the time course of the affinity changes. Taken together, these data are consistent with the idea that affinity regulation is a major factor that governs the avidity of cell adhesion mediated by the alpha4 integrin. PMID:12844491

  15. Adhesion and wetting: Similarities and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, M.E.R. )

    1991-10-01

    This article examines what is understood about adhesion and wetting both from the historical and scientific perspectives. Topics covered include mechanical adhesion, specific adhesion, chemical adhesion, adhesion by diffusion, the adsorption or wetting theory, bulk adhesion, the rheological theory, hysteresis effects in rubber adhesion, and hysteresis of wetting.

  16. Antithrombin can modulate coagulation, cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Tomoki

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the effects of antithrombin on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and production of cytokines and adhesion molecules in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair surgery. Sixteen patients for Y-shaped graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysm were divided into an antithrombin group and a control group. In the antithrombin group, 3000 U antithrombin was infused over 30 min before heparin administration and 24 h later. White blood cell counts, platelet counts, prothrombin time ratio, and serum concentrations of antithrombin, polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and adhesion molecules, and variables of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured before surgery, at the end of surgery, and 1 and 2 days after surgery. The antithrombin concentration decreased in the control group, whereas it increased in the antithrombin group with significant differences between the groups. Prothrombin time ratio, concentrations of d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 increased only in the control group and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 increased in both groups. They were significantly less in the antithrombin group except for intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In conclusion, antithrombin could decrease hypercoagulation and inflammatory activation during abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery, which may decrease adverse events. PMID:16551889

  17. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  18. Adhesion in Nanodiamond Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lutkus, Luke; Legum, Benjamin; Clarion Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Due to their excellent mechanical properties and biologically non-toxic nature, nanodiamonds show great promise for applications in tribology, lubrication, drug delivery, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. In order to design effective nanocomposites and other biomedical systems exploiting these properties, it is important to understand the properties and mechanisms by which nanodiamonds adhere to other materials, and how they behave at interfaces. In this article, the adhesive force between nanodiamond particles and the silicon scanning probe microscope tip are reported. The adhesive force can be correlated to the purity and functionalization of nanodiamond surface, and the values range from 0.1nN to 2.0nN for the samples studied. It is observed that the lateral forces applied by the scanning probe tip can cause the adhesive forces to increase by an order of magnitude from 0.1 to 2.0nN at regions where the tip experiences maximum contact force.

  19. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John; Walton, Christopher; Folta, James

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  20. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  1. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function. PMID:26758574

  2. Dietary patterns are associated with biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)2

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Jenny, Nancy S; Jiang, Rui; Herrington, David M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns may influence cardiovascular disease risk through effects on inflammation and endothelial activation. Objective We examined relations between dietary patterns and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Design At baseline, diet (food-frequency questionnaire) and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), homocysteine, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin were assessed in 5089 nondiabetic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results Four dietary patterns were derived by using factor analysis. The fats and processed meats pattern (fats, oils, processed meats, fried potatoes, salty snacks, and desserts) was positively associated with CRP (P for trend < 0.001), IL-6 (P for trend < 0.001), and homocysteine (P for trend = 0.002). The beans, tomatoes, and refined grains pattern (beans, tomatoes, refined grains, and high-fat dairy products) was positively related to sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.007). In contrast, the whole grains and fruit pattern (whole grains, fruit, nuts, and green leafy vegetables) was inversely associated with CRP, IL-6, homocysteine (P for trend ≤ 0.001), and sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.034), and the vegetables and fish pattern (fish and dark-yellow, cruciferous, and other vegetables) was inversely related to IL-6 (P for trend = 0.009). CRP, IL-6, and homocysteine relations across the fats and processed meats and whole grains and fruit patterns were independent of demographics and lifestyle factors and were not modified by race-ethnicity. CRP and homocysteine relations were independent of waist circumference. Conclusions These results corroborate previous findings that empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with inflammation and show that these relations in an ethnically diverse population with unique dietary habits are similar to findings in more homogeneous populations. PMID:16762949

  3. Inhibitory effects of red wine extracts on endothelial-dependent adhesive interactions with monocytes induced by oxysterols.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Shimozawa, Makoto; Manabe, Hiroki; Kuroda, Masaaki; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshida, Norimasa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    Red wine polyphenolic compounds have been demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties, and several studies have suggested that they might constitute a relevant dietary factor in the protection from coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study is to examine whether red wine extracts (RWE) can ameliorate oxysterol-induced endothelial response, and whether inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is involved in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Surface expression and mRNA levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR performed on human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) monolayers stimulated with 7beta-hydroxycholesterol or 25-hydroxycholesterol. Incubation of HAEC with oxysterols (10 microM) increased expression of adhesion molecules in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of HAEC with RWE at final concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml significantly inhibited the increase of surface protein expression and mRNA levels. Adherence of monocytes to oxysterol-stimulated HAEC was increased compared to that of unstimulated cells. Treatment of HAEC with RWE significantly inhibited adherence of monocytes. These results suggest that RWE works as an anti-atherogenic agent through the inhibition of endothelial-dependent adhesive interactions with monocytes induced by oxysterols. PMID:15455652

  4. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

  5. Natural Underwater Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Russell J; Ransom, Todd C; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)(3) coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

  6. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  7. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  8. Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and the Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Axel C.; Larsson, Anders; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Larsson, Tobias E.; Bottai, Matteo; Sundström, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been suggested as a clinically relevant highly specific biomarker of acute kidney tubular damage. However, community-based data on the association between urinary levels of KIM-1 and the risk for cardiovascular mortality are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the association between urinary KIM-1 and cardiovascular mortality. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a prospective study, using the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (N=590; mean age 77 years; baseline period, 1997–2001; median follow-up 8.1 years; end of follow-up, 2008). Results During follow-up, 89 participants died of cardiovascular causes (incidence rate, 2.07 per 100 person-years at risk). Models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic BP, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, aspirin treatment, and history of cardiovascular disease) and for markers of kidney dysfunction and damage (cystatin C–based eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). Higher urinary KIM-1/creatinine (from 24-hour urine collections) was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio per SD increase, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.54; P=0.01). Participants with a combination of high KIM-1/creatinine (upper quintile, ≥175 ng/mmol), low eGFR (≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio≥3 g/mol) had a >8-fold increased risk compared with participants with low KIM-1/creatinine (<175 ng/mmol), normal eGFR (>60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and normoalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio<3 g/mol) (hazard ratio, 8.56; 95% CI, 4.17 to 17.56; P<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that higher urinary KIM-1 may predispose to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, eGFR, and albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess the utility of measuring KIM-1 in the clinical setting. PMID:24923577

  9. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  10. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  11. Variant antigens and endothelial receptor adhesion in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J P; Pinches, R A; Roberts, D J; Newbold, C I

    1996-01-01

    Parasite-derived proteins expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum are important virulence factors, since they mediate binding of infected cells to diverse receptors on vascular endothelium and are targets of a protective immune response. They are difficult to study because they undergo rapid clonal antigenic variation in vitro, which precludes the derivation of phenotypically homogeneous cultures. Here we have utilized sequence-specific proteases to dissect the role of defined antigenic variants in binding to particular receptors. By selection of protease-resistant subpopulations of parasites on defined receptors we (i) confirm the high rate of antigenic variation in vitro; (ii) demonstrate that a single infected erythrocyte can bind to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD36, and thrombospondin; (iii) show that binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and CD36 are functions of the variant antigen; and (iv) suggest that binding to thrombospondin may be mediated by other components of the infected erythrocyte surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622966

  12. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  13. Adhesion of explosives.

    PubMed

    Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2013-06-01

    It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

  14. Adept Adhesion Reduction Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... icodextrin. The fluid is used during or after laparoscopic gynecological surgery to separate and protect tissues and decrease the number of new adhesions after surgery. Adept® is supplied sterile, in a single-use bag. How does it work? During surgery, ...

  15. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  16. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  17. Adhesion Mechanics of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddeti, Narasimha

    Graphene, being an atomically thin two dimensional crystalline material with a very low mass and high elastic strength, has great potential in next generation nano-mechanical devices. Additionally, it has attractive electronic, thermal and optical properties. In spite of possessing a high Young's modulus, graphene is highly bendable and ultra-floppy due to its atomic thickness. At the nano-scale the surface forces are very strong and being very flexible makes graphene membranes interact and adhere strongly to materials and structures in its vicinity. The effect of these interactions needs to be understood at different length scales---micro, nano and atomistic level to be able to design efficient and reliable graphene based nano-devices like electromechanical switches and resonators. Through this work, in the first step, we measure the strength of the adhesion of graphene membranes to a substrate using modified blister tests with the help of a detailed model accounting for the non-linear mechanics of graphene and the thermodynamics of the blister test. We also demonstrate, along the way, graphene nano-mechanical devices that can switch shapes depending on the applied pressure, adhesion strength, geometry etc. In the second step, an attempt is made to characterize the surface forces through a novel experimental setup involving pull-in of graphene membranes. The experimental observations are satisfactorily explained with the help of an analytical model. Finally, we investigate the atomistic mechanisms of adhesion and de-adhesion of graphene membranes. We used molecular mechanics simulations to investigate the effect of topography on graphene adhesion energy. The analytical model we developed captures the basic physics involved in these simulations quite well. We also study, using the same methodology, the peeling of graphene membranes on 1D sinusoidal corrugated substrates. The results reveal that the peel mechanics involves periodic instabilities due to the corrugated nature of the substrate and sliding of the graphene atoms on the substrate.

  18. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  19. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  20. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  1. Ceramic Adhesive for High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Everett G.

    1987-01-01

    Fused-silica/magnesium-phosphate adhesive resists high temperatures and vibrations. New adhesive unaffected by extreme temperatures and vibrations. Assuring direct bonding of gap filters to tile sidewalls, adhesive obviates expensive and time-consuming task of removal, treatment, and replacement of tiles.

  2. Aluminum ions enhance polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.; Taylor, L. T.

    1981-01-01

    Adding complexed aluminum ions raises useful temperature of polyimide adhesive without embrittling it or reducing long term stability. Adhesives may be applied to prepared substrate surface without supports. Possible substrates are metal, composite, or polymeric film. Adhesive is excellent where bond flexibility is required.

  3. Double filtration plasmapheresis benefits myasthenia gravis patients through an immunomodulatory action.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Hongna; Zhao, Chongbo; Lu, Jiahong; Xue, Jun; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuanming; Lin, Shanyan; Lv, Chuanzheng

    2014-09-01

    Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) is used to treat myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the definite mechanism is unclear. This study investigated whether DFPP improves MG through an immunomodulatory action. Thirty-five MG patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups: Group A (DFPP combined with oral methylprednisolone) and Group B (oral methylprednisolone alone). Their antibody levels, clinical scores, cytokine levels, and CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) (regulatory T cell [Treg]) levels were then determined. Anti-titin antibody levels were significantly lower in Group A compared with Group B after treatment. The clinical remission rate in Group A was significantly higher than in Group B. The changes in cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ) in sera and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants did not significantly differ before and after the treatments in both groups (p<0.05). The soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels were lower in Group A than in Group B (p<0.05). MG patients exhibited a lower percentage of Treg cells than normal patients. DFPP combined with methylprednisolone treatment increased the Treg cell percentage more than treatment with methylprednisolone alone (p<0.05). DFPP treatment more effectively lowers sICAM-1 and increases Treg cell expression, consequently benefiting MG patients. PMID:24814857

  4. Genetic variants in ABO blood group region, plasma soluble E-selectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Kraft, Peter; Jensen, Majken; van Dam, Rob M.; Sun, Qi; Girman, Cynthia J.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Hunter, David J.; Rimm, Eric; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) levels have been related to various conditions such as type 2 diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study among women of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study, and identified genome-wide significant associations between a cluster of markers at the ABO locus (9q34) and plasma sE-selectin concentration. The strongest association was with rs651007, which explained ?9.71% of the variation in sE-selectin concentrations. SNP rs651007 was also nominally associated with soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) (P = 0.026) and TNF-R2 levels (P = 0.018), independent of sE-selectin. In addition, the genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes were associated with sE-selectin concentrations (P = 3.55 10?47). Moreover, we found that the genetic-inferred blood group B was associated with a decreased risk (OR = 0.44, 0.270.70) of type 2 diabetes compared with blood group O, adjusting for sE-selectin, sICAM-1, TNF-R2 and other covariates. Our findings indicate that the genetic variants at ABO locus affect plasma sE-selectin levels and diabetes risk. The genetic associations with diabetes risk were independent of sE-selectin levels. PMID:20147318

  5. Association between Endothelial Biomarkers and Arterial Elasticity in Young Adults – The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Valappil, Narayanan I.; Jacobs, David R.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Gross, Myron D.; Arnett, Donna K.; Glasser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background Reduced arterial elasticity and endothelial dysfunction both may indicate early cardiovascular (CV) disease in young adults. Pulse waveform analysis estimates large (LAE) and small (SAE) artery elasticity noninvasively. We assessed the associations between LAE and SAE and markers of endothelial dysfunction and CV risk factors. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) assessed arterial elasticity and other characteristics cross-sectionally in 389 men and 381 women aged 27–42 years in 1995 (CARDIA year 10) and circulating levels of P-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) in 2000. We adjusted for variables included in the estimation of arterial elasticity (year 10 height, body mass index, age, heart rate, and blood pressure) and other year 10 characteristics. Results Mean adjusted SAE was 8.5 vs. 7.6 ml/mmHg ×100 in those with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≤4 vs. microalbuminuria (ratio > 25; ptrend =0.008). Mean LAE was 25.6 vs. 24.2 ml/mmHg ×10 in the lowest vs. highest quintile of P-selectin (ptrend =0.004). sICAM-1 was unrelated to either LAE or SAE. Plasma triglycerides were inversely related to LAE (ptrend =0.029). Cigarette smokers had lower SAE than nonsmokers (ptrend = 0.009). Conclusion In addition to smoking and triglycerides, biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction were associated with impaired LAE and SAE in young adults. PMID:19343081

  6. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  7. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  8. Adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2014-04-18

    The adhesion behaviors of superhydrophobic surfaces have become an emerging topic to researchers in various fields as a vital step in the interactions between materials and organisms/materials. Controlling the chemical compositions and topological structures via various methods or technologies is essential to fabricate and modulate different adhesion properties, such as low-adhesion, high-adhesion and anisotropic adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces. We summarize the recent developments in both natural superhydrophobic surfaces and artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with various adhesions and also pay attention to superhydrophobic surfaces switching between low- and high-adhesion. The methods to regulate or translate the adhesion of superhydrophobic surfaces can be considered from two perspectives. One is to control the chemical composition and change the surface geometric structure on the surfaces, respectively or simultaneously. The other is to provide external stimulations to induce transitions, which is the most common method for obtaining switchable adhesions. Additionally, adhesion behaviors on solid-solid interfaces, such as the behaviors of cells, bacteria, biomolecules and icing on superhydrophobic surfaces are also noticeable and controversial. This review is aimed at giving a brief and crucial overview of adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24575424

  9. Clinical Recommendation: Labial Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Janice L; Romano, Mary E; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Labial adhesions, also known as labial agglutination, are a common finding in prepubertal adolescents. They are defined as fusion of the labia minora in the midline or are termed vulvar adhesions when they occur below the labia minora (inner labia). Patients are often asymptomatic but might present with genitourinary complaints. The decision for treatment is based on symptoms. The mainstay of treatment in asymptomatic patients is conservative, with careful attention to vulvar hygiene and reassurance to parents. In symptomatic patients, topical treatment with estrogen and/or steroid cream is often curative. Less often, corrective surgery is necessary. Recurrence is common until a patient goes through puberty. These recommendations are intended for pediatric and gynecologic health care providers who care for pediatric and adolescent girls to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26162697

  10. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  11. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  12. [Fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis].

    PubMed

    Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; St?pie?, Adam; Staszewski, Jacek; Sadowska, Marta; Bogus?awska-Walecka, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare disease with insidious course. It causes damage of the spinal cord and nerve roots. The causes of adhesive arachnoiditis include earlier traumatic injury of the spinal cord, surgery, intrathecal administration of therapeutic substances (e.g. anaesthetics, chemotherapy) or contrast media, bleeding, and inflammation. It can also be idiopathic or iatrogenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old patient with fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis which was provoked by spinal surgery and caused severe neurological disability with profound, progressive, flaccid paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. The electromyography (EMG) showed serious damage of nerves of both lower limbs at the level of motor roots L2-S2 and damage of the motor neuron at the level of Th11-Th12 on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral and thoracic part of the spinal cord demonstrated cystic liquid spaces in the lumen of the dural sac in the bottom part of the cervical spine and at the Th2-Th10 level, modelling the lateral and anterior surface of the cord. Because of the vast lesions, surgery could not be performed. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation brought only a small clinical improvement. PMID:23023442

  13. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  14. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers may diminish human macrophages adhesion to endothelial surface.

    PubMed

    Stachowska, Ewa; Siennicka, Aldona; Baśkiewcz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Bober, Joanna; Machalinski, Boguslaw; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-02-01

    Dysfunction of endothelial cells and activation of monocytes in the vascular wall are important pathogenetic factors of atherosclerosis. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) can modulate the function of immune system in humans: reduce the concentration of atherogenic lipoproteins, and the intensity of inflammatory processes in the plasma. In this paper, we focus on macrophage's surface integrins (β1 integrin CD49d/CD29-(VLA4); Mac-1 as well as endothelial human vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) surface adhesins: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) expression in relation to CLA isomer used during cell culture. Both CLA isomers decreased expression of VLA-4 and Mac-1 on macrophages compared with control cells (cultured with bovine serum albumine (BSA) or oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins). cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the endothelium surface. Strong tendency to reduce of adhesion of macrophages to HUVEC in the cells cultured with CLA isomers was observed. The potential role of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the reduction of adhesion of macrophages to the HUVEC--one of the important steps in the inflammatory process, can be considerate. These mechanisms may contribute to the potent anti-atherosclerotic effects of CLA in vivo. PMID:21721848

  16. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has been shown to be unreliable. The safest, most effective, and successful therapy is surgical intervention to remove the GI foreign body. If performed early enough, complete recovery of the animal can be expected. Differential diagnoses for polyurethane adhesive ingestion include any potential cause of GI obstruction. The public is largely unaware of the hazards that ingestion of this product may produce. Public education efforts are needed to inform pet owners about the hazards of these glues and the overall importance of providing our companion animals with safe, poison-free environments. PMID:23796486

  17. Elastomer-toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the effects of added elastomers on the Tg, thermal stability, adhesive strength, and fracture toughness of LARC-13, a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive. Various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicone elastomers were incorporated into the polyimide resin (1) as physical polyblends, and (2) by chemically reacting the elastomers with the polyimide backbone. Adhesive single lap-shear and T-peel strengths were measured before and after aging at elevated temperature. A tapered double-cantilever beam specimen was used to determine the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified polyimide adhesives.

  18. JKR adhesion in cylindrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Narayan; Farris, T. N.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Planar JKR adhesive solutions use the half-plane assumption and do not permit calculation of indenter approach or visualization of adhesive force-displacement curves unless the contact is periodic. By considering a conforming cylindrical contact and using an arc crack analogy, we obtain closed-form indenter approach and load-contact size relations for a planar adhesive problem. The contact pressure distribution is also obtained in closed-form. The solutions reduce to known cases in both the adhesion-free and small-contact solution ( Barquins, 1988) limits. The cylindrical system shows two distinct regimes of adhesive behavior; in particular, contact sizes exceeding the critical (maximum) size seen in adhesionless contacts are possible. The effects of contact confinement on adhesive behavior are investigated. Some special cases are considered, including contact with an initial neat-fit and the detachment of a rubbery cylinder from a rigid cradle. A comparison of the cylindrical solution with the half-plane adhesive solution is carried out, and it indicates that the latter typically underestimates the adherence force. The cylindrical adhesive system is novel in that it possesses stable contact states that may not be attained even on applying an infinite load in the absence of adhesion.

  19. Hot melt adhesive attachment pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzill, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Gleason, J. R.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hot melt adhesive attachment pad for releasably securing distinct elements together is described which is particularly useful in the construction industry or a spatial vacuum environment. The attachment pad consists primarily of a cloth selectively impregnated with a charge of hot melt adhesive, a thermo-foil heater, and a thermo-cooler. These components are securely mounted in a mounting assembly. In operation, the operator activates the heating cycle transforming the hot melt adhesive to a substantially liquid state, positions the pad against the attachment surface, and activates the cooling cycle solidifying the adhesive and forming a strong, releasable bond.

  20. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-α-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. PMID:23422838

  1. Leishmania lipophosphoglycan reduces monocyte transendothelial migration: modulation of cell adhesion molecules, intercellular junctional proteins, and chemoattractants.

    PubMed

    Lo, S K; Bovis, L; Matura, R; Zhu, B; He, S; Lum, H; Turco, S J; Ho, J L

    1998-02-15

    We previously identified the structural requirement for the inhibitory activity of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) to block endothelial adhesion to monocytes. Here we showed that LPG reduces transendothelial migration of monocytes. LPG pretreatment of endothelial cells (2 microM, 1 h) reduced monocyte migration across endothelial cells activated by bacterial endotoxin (LPS) or IL-1beta (60 and 46%, respectively). A fragment of LPG (i.e., repeating phosphodisaccharide (consisting of galactosyl-mannose)) and LPG coincubated with LPG-neutralizing mAb lacks inhibitory activity on monocyte migration. Pretreatment of monocytes with LPG (2 microM, 1 h) also did not affect monocyte migration through control or LPS-activated endothelial cells. FACS analysis reveals that LPG treatment blocked the LPS-mediated expression of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells and monocyte adhesion without altering the integrity of the endothelial monolayer. LPG (2 microM, 1 h) alone was capable of altering the expression and distribution of two junctional adhesion molecules, CD31 and vascular endothelium cadherin, as well as reversing the effects of LPS on these proteins. The induction of endothelial cells by LPS to transcribe and release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly reduced by LPG (40-65%). LPG treatment of nonactivated endothelial cells also suppressed by 55 to 75% the monocyte migration triggered by a MCP-1 chemoattractant gradient, and coincubation of LPG with neutralizing mAb abrogated the inhibitory activity. Together, these data point to a novel anti-inflammatory function of LPG in reducing monocyte migration across endothelial cells via a mechanism of inhibition of endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules, modulation of intercellular junctional proteins, and synthesis of MCP-1. PMID:9469447

  2. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Won Hee; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Because we hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis, the present study focused on the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin consumption on high-cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. During our study, New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a normal diet, a normal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HCD), or an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin. At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to determine the levels of serum lipids, cytokines, and soluble adhesion molecule levels. Gene expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortas were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Compared with the HCD group, rabbits fed an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin had significantly less aortic lesion areas and neointima thickening. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression. PMID:25282128

  3. Impairment of selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to venular endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Suematsu, M; Suzuki, H; Tamatani, T; Iigou, Y; DeLano, F A; Miyasaka, M; Forrest, M J; Kannagi, R; Zweifach, B W; Ishimura, Y

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate whether molecular mechanisms for leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium may differ between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion were investigated while monitoring venular wall shear rates in the mesenteric microcirculation stimulated with histamine or tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the two strains. In Wistar Kyoto rats, 10 microM histamine as well as 500 microM tertbutyl hydroperoxide promoted a significant reduction of venular leukocyte rolling velocity and subsequent adhesion. These changes in leukocyte behavior were blocked by monoclonal antibodies against P-selectin (PB 1.3) and against sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates (2H5). However, spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited a blunted response of the stimulus-elicited leukocyte rolling, which was associated with impairment of venular P-selectin expression as well as a decrease in the expression of sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates on circulating neutrophils. No significant differences were detected between the two strains not only in the surface CD11b/CD18 expression but also in the CD18-mediated adhesivity of neutrophils to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 transfectants in vitro. These results suggest that impairment of selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion is an event responsible for disorders of inflammatory responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Images PMID:7560094

  4. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  5. Biomarkers and neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected or exposed youth: a structural equation model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Griner, Ray; Zeldow, Bret; Nichols, Sharon; Leister, Erin; Gelbard, Harris A.; Miller, Tracie L.; Hazra, Rohan; Mendez, Armando J.; Malee, Kathleen; Kammerer, Betsy; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between markers of vascular dysfunction and neurodevelopmental outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. Design Cross-sectional design within a prospective, 15-site US-based cohort study. Methods Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated in relation to nine selected vascular biomarkers in 342 youth (212 PHIV+, 130 PHEU). Serum levels were assessed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-selectin), monocyte chemoattractant protein (sMCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and P-selectin (sP-selectin). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was administered at entry, yielding a Full-Scale IQ score, and four index scores. Factor analysis was conducted to reduce the biomarkers to fewer factors with related biological roles. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to measure associations between resulting factors and WISC-IV scores. Results Mean participant age was 11.4 years, 54% were female, 70% black. The nine biomarkers were clustered into three factor groups: F1 (fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6); F2 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1); and F3 (MCP-1, sP-selectin, and sE-selectin). Adiponectin showed little correlation with any factor. SEMs revealed significant negative association of F1 with WISC-IV processing speed score in the total cohort. This effect remained significant after adjusting for HIV status and other potential confounders. A similar association was observed when restricted to PHIV+ participants in both unadjusted and adjusted SEMs. Conclusion Aggregate measures of fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 may serve as a latent biomarker associated with relatively decreased processing speed in both PHIV+ and PHEU youth. PMID:24670521

  6. Elastomer-Toughened Polyimide Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    T-Peel strengths of adhesive/Titanium bonds are compared for LARC-13 with and without elastomer additives. Elastomer toughening (incorporation of small amounts of rubber into polymer matrix) has been one of the most successful methods for modifying polymer toughness. Addition polyimides are currently under consideration as high-temperature adhesives for bonding composite materials such as titanium.

  7. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  12. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  13. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis. PMID:21885699

  14. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  15. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  16. Epidural Lysis of Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  17. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  18. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, No; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (?-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  19. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications. PMID:25841348

  20. A randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effects of a nutraceutical combination of red yeast rice, silybum marianum and octasonol on lipid profile, endothelial and inflammatory parameters.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; D'Angelo, A; Fogari, E; Maffioli, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of red yeast rice, Silybum marianum and octasonol compared to placebo on lipid profile, endothelial, and inflammatory parameters in low risk dislipidemic patients. One hundred and thirty-four dislipidemic patients were randomised to take placebo or a patented nutraceutical association in tablet form (Zeta ColestRT), 1 tablet /day (immediately after the dinner), for three months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. At baseline and after 3 months the following were evaluated: body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), metalloprotineases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The nutraceutical combination decreased total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to baseline (p = 0.042, and p = 0.041, respectively) and to placebo (p = 0.039, and p = 0.037, respectively). Triglycerides were reduced by the active treatment (p = 0.039), but not by placebo, even if, in group to group comparison, no differences were recorded (p = 0.061). All adipocytokines were reduced by the nutraceutical combination, in particular p = 0.044 for sICAM-1, p = 0.045 for sVCAM-1, p = 0.040 for sE-selectin, p = 0.035 for MMP-2, p = 0.039 for MMP-9, p = 0.038 for Hs-CRP, p = 0.036 for TNF-α, and p = 0.036 for IL-6 compared to baseline, and p = 0.042 for sICAM-1, p = 0.043 for sVCAM-1, p = 0.042 for sE-selectin, p = 0.031 for MMP-2, p = 0.038 for MMP-9, p =0.038 for Hs-CRP, and p = 0.043 for TNF-alpha, espectively, compared to placebo. We can conclude that a combination of red yeast rice, Silybum marianum and octasonol was effective in improving lipid profile, endothelial, and inflammatory parameters in low risk dislipidemic patients. PMID:25001663

  1. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  2. CD40 on human endothelial cells: inducibility by cytokines and functional regulation of adhesion molecule expression.

    PubMed Central

    Karmann, K; Hughes, C C; Schechner, J; Fanslow, W C; Pober, J S

    1995-01-01

    Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) constitutively express a low level of CD40 antigen as detected by monoclonal antibody binding and fluorescence flow cytometric quantitation. The level of expression on EC is increased about 3-fold following 24 h treatment with optimal concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, interferon beta, or interferon gamma; both interferons show greater than additive induction of CD40 when combined with tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 1. Expression of CD40 increases within 8 h of cytokine treatment and continues to increase through 72 h. A trimeric form of recombinant murine CD40 ligand acts on human EC to increase expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. CD40 may be detected immunocytochemically on human microvascular EC in normal skin. We conclude that endothelial CD40 may play a role as a signaling receptor in the development of T-cell-mediated inflammatory reactions. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7538666

  3. Serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Velikova, G.; Banks, R. E.; Gearing, A.; Hemingway, I.; Forbes, M. A.; Preston, S. R.; Hall, N. R.; Jones, M.; Wyatt, J.; Miller, K.; Ward, U.; Al-Maskatti, J.; Singh, S. M.; Finan, P. J.; Ambrose, N. S.; Primrose, J. N.; Selby, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of the soluble adhesion molecules E-cadherin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were investigated in 48 patients with colorectal cancer before treatment, and their relation to clinical, histological and routine laboratory parameters was examined. Data were collected on tumour stage at presentation, presence and sites of metastatic disease, tumour pathology and results of routine laboratory tests. Serum concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly elevated in the patients with colorectal cancer in comparison with a group of healthy subjects (P < 0.00001). Levels of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were increased both in patients with local and those with metastatic disease. Although elevated in some patients soluble E-cadherin and E-selectin concentrations were not significantly elevated compared with the control group (P = 0.71 and P = 0.052 respectively). The levels of circulating ICAM-1 were significantly correlated with those of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. A correlation was also found between the serum concentrations of E-selectin and ICAM-1 and alkaline phosphatase, total white cell count and platelet count. VCAM-1 was positively correlated with age and negatively with degree of tumour differentiation and haemoglobin concentration. The biological implications and possible clinical relevance of these findings are discussed. PMID:9667659

  4. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-01

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications. PMID:27046671

  5. Chlorophyll-Related Compounds Inhibit Cell Adhesion and Inflammation in Human Aortic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Huang, Ya-Ping; Lai, Jun-You; Hsieh, Wen-Bin; Huang, Meng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of chlorophyll-related compounds (CRCs) and chlorophyll (Chl) a+b on inflammation in human aortic endothelial cells. Adhesion molecule expression and interleukin (IL)-8, nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 protein, and NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding were assessed. The effects of CRCs on inflammatory signaling pathways of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, respectively induced by IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, in human aortic smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro were also investigated. HAECs were pretreated with 10 ?M of CRCs, Chl a+b, and aspirin (Asp) for 18?h followed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (2?ng/mL) for 6?h, and U937 cell adhesion was determined. TNF-?induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly inhibited by CRCs. Moreover, CRCs and Chl a+b significantly attenuated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and IL-8 expressions. Treatments also significantly decreased in NF-?B expression, DNA binding, and AP-1 DNA binding by CRCs and Asp. Thus, CRCs exert anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-?B and AP-1 signaling. Ten micromoles of CRCs and Asp upregulated the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Drosophila) (SMAD4) in the TGF-? receptor signaling pathway, and SMAD3/4 transcription activity was also increased. Ten micromoles of CRCs were able to potently inhibit STAT3-binding activity by repressing IL-6induced STAT3 expression. Our results provide a potential mechanism that explains the anti-inflammatory activities of these CRCs. PMID:24066944

  6. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Bashkarev, A. Ya.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. A.; Sytov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    The time dependence of the potential difference that appears between two VT6 titanium alloy plates separated by a mixture of epoxy resin with an epoxy hardener is studied. One of the plates is placed in epoxy resin until equilibrium is established, and the second plate is coated with an as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Ti2+ ions through epoxy resin. Photoluminescence and infrared absorption spectra of epoxy adhesive on the VT6 alloy surface are recorded. Their analysis shows that the Ti2+ ions having penetrated into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin and a hardener interact with CN groups in adhesive molecules to form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated with coordination compounds forms at the alloy/adhesive interface, which leads to an increase in the strength of the adhesive.

  7. Adhesive Performance of Biomimetic Adhesive-Coated Biologic Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John L.; Vollenweider, Laura; Xu, Fangmin; Lee, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical repair of a discontinuity in traumatized or degenerated soft tissues is traditionally accomplished using sutures. A current trend is to reinforce this primary repair with surgical grafts, meshes, or patches secured with perforating mechanical devices (i.e., sutures, staples, or tacks). These fixation methods frequently lead to chronic pain and mesh detachment. We developed a series of biodegradable adhesive polymers that are synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), composed of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derivatives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL). These polymers can be cast into films, and their mechanical properties, extent of swelling, and degradation rate can be tailored through the composition of the polymers as well as blending with additives. When coated onto a biologic mesh used for hernia repair, these adhesive constructs demonstrated adhesive strengths significantly higher than fibrin glue. With further development, a pre-coated bioadhesive mesh may represent a new surgical option for soft tissue repair. PMID:20919699

  8. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  9. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  10. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  11. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  12. Cutting edge: DNAX accessory molecule 1-deficient CD8+ T cells display immunological synapse defects that impair antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shimoni, Raz; McGrath, Mairi; Chan, Christopher J; Russell, Sarah M; Smyth, Mark J; Oliaro, Jane

    2014-01-15

    DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) is expressed on all CD8(+) T cells and promotes their activation and effector function. DNAM-1 interacts with LFA-1, a critical molecule for immunological synapse formation between T cells and APCs, and for cytotoxic killing of target cells. Mice that lack DNAM-1 display abnormal T cell responses and antitumor activity; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. In this article, we show that DNAM-1 deficiency results in reduced proliferation of CD8(+) T cells after Ag presentation and impaired cytotoxic activity. We also demonstrate that DNAM-1-deficient T cells show reduced conjugations with tumor cells and decreased recruitment of both LFA-1 and lipid rafts to the immunological synapse, which correlates with reduced tumor cell killing in vitro. This synapse defect may explain why DNAM-1-deficient mice cannot clear tumors in vivo, and highlights the importance of DNAM-1 and the immunological synapse in T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. PMID:24337740

  13. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  14. Artemisinin inhibits monocyte adhesion to HUVECs through the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Cao, Jiatian; Fan, Yuqi; Xie, Yushui; Xu, Zuojun; Yin, Zhaofang; Gao, Lin; Wang, Changqian

    2016-06-01

    The adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) plays a crucial role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are two important molecules involved in the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Previous studies have suggested that artemisinin, apart from an anti-malarial agent, also has other effects. In the present study, we found that artemisinin significantly decreased the adhesion of monocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the mRNA and protein level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. In addition, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126) respectively reduced the adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs, and suppressed ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in TNF-α stimulated HUVECs. Moreover, artemisinin impeded the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, Bay 11-7082 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of levels extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, the findings of our study indicated that artemisinin blocked monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated to HUVECs by downregulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Artemisinin may thus have potential for use in the protection against the early development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27122190

  15. Artemisinin inhibits monocyte adhesion to HUVECs through the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in vitro

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUE; CAO, JIATIAN; FAN, YUQI; XIE, YUSHUI; XU, ZUOJUN; YIN, ZHAOFANG; GAO, LIN; WANG, CHANGQIAN

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) plays a crucial role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are two important molecules involved in the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Previous studies have suggested that artemisinin, apart from an anti-malarial agent, also has other effects. In the present study, we found that artemisinin significantly decreased the adhesion of monocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the mRNA and protein level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. In addition, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126) respectively reduced the adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs, and suppressed ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in TNF-α stimulated HUVECs. Moreover, artemisinin impeded the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, Bay 11-7082 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of levels extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, the findings of our study indicated that artemisinin blocked monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated to HUVECs by downregulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Artemisinin may thus have potential for use in the protection against the early development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27122190

  16. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells by the saponins derived from roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Chung, Young Chul; Roh, Seong Hwan; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-01-15

    Adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis and are produced by endothelial cells after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. This study examined the effect of saponins that were isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (Campanulaceae), Changkil saponins (CKS), on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. CKS significantly inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced increase in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells as well as decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells. Furthermore, CKS significantly inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of NF-{kappa}B by preventing I{kappa}B degradation and inhibiting I{kappa}B kinase activity. Overall, CKS has anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory activity, which is least in part the result of it reducing the cytokine-induced endothelial adhesion to monocytes by inhibiting intracellular ROS production, NF-{kappa}B activation, and cell adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells.

  17. Structural specializations of α4β7, an integrin that mediates rolling adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yamei; Zhu, Jianghai; Mi, Li-Zhi; Walz, Thomas; Sun, Hao; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    The lymphocyte homing receptor integrin α4β7 is unusual for its ability to mediate both rolling and firm adhesion. α4β1 and α4β7 are targeted by therapeutics approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Here, we show by electron microscopy and crystallography how two therapeutic Fabs, a small molecule (RO0505376), and mucosal adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) bind α4β7. A long binding groove at the α4–β7 interface for immunoglobulin superfamily domains differs in shape from integrin pockets that bind Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. RO0505376 mimics an Ile/Leu-Asp motif in α4 ligands, and orients differently from Arg-Gly-Asp mimics. A novel auxiliary residue at the metal ion–dependent adhesion site in α4β7 is essential for binding to MAdCAM-1 in Mg2+ yet swings away when RO0505376 binds. A novel intermediate conformation of the α4β7 headpiece binds MAdCAM-1 and supports rolling adhesion. Lack of induction of the open headpiece conformation by ligand binding enables rolling adhesion to persist until integrin activation is signaled. PMID:22232704

  18. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  19. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  20. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  1. Adhesive secretions in the Platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Whittington, I D; Cribb, B W

    2001-01-01

    This review is the first to draw together knowledge about bioadhesives secreted by a group of parasites. Mechanisms of mechanical attachment are well known among parasites, but some can also attach to host surfaces by chemical means using a thin layer of adhesive material secreted at the parasite-host interface. Attachment by adhesives to living surfaces has not been studied in detail previously. A significant volume of research has determined much about the chemistry and nature of bioadhesives secreted by various marine macroinvertebrates from different phyla for attachment to inert substrates. Mussels and barnacles are sessile and adhere permanently, whereas starfish display temporary but firm adhesion during locomotion, feeding and burrowing. We focus on the Platyhelminthes that comprises the largely free-living Turbellaria and the wholly parasitic Monogenea, Cestoda, Digenea and Aspidogastrea. The term tissue adhesion is introduced to describe attachment by adhesives to epithelial surfaces such as fish epidermis and the lining of the vertebrate gut. These living layers regenerate rapidly, secrete mucus, are a site for immune activity and are therefore especially hostile environments for organisms that inhabit them, presenting a significant challenge for adhesion. Not all platyhelminths adhere to living surfaces and types of adhesion to inert substrates by the free-living turbellarians are also reviewed. Tissue adhesion is particularly well exemplified by monopisthocotylean monogeneans, parasites that are especially mobile as larvae, juveniles and adults on the epidermis of the body and gill surfaces of fish. These monogeneans secrete adhesives from the anterior end when they move from site to site, but some have secondarily developed adhesives at the posterior end to supplement or replace mechanical attachment by hooks and/or by suction. The temporary but tenacious anterior adhesives of monogeneans display remarkable properties of instant attachment to and detachment from their host fish surfaces. In contrast to the mobility of turbellarians and monopisthocotylean monogeneans and the simplicity of their direct life cycles, the largely endoparasitic Cestoda and Digenea are considered to be less mobile as adults. The complex cestode and digenean life cycles, involving intermediate hosts, place different demands on their various stages. Diverse, mostly anterior, gland cells in larvae, metacestodes and adults of the true tapeworms (Eucestoda), and in larval and adult Gyrocotylidea and Amphilinidea are reviewed. Conspicuous gland cells, mostly but not exclusively at the anterior end, in miracidia, cercariae and adults of digeneans and in cotylocidia and adults of aspidogastreans are also reviewed. Unlike turbellarians and monogeneans, accounts of unequivocal adhesive secretions in the Cestoda, but especially in the Digenea and Aspidogastrea, are relatively rare. The primary purpose of many conspicuous glands in the different stages of these mostly endoparasitic flatworms is for penetration into, or escape from, different hosts in their life cycle. We provide a detailed review of current knowledge about adhesion (in the sense of a thin layer of chemical material) in the Platyhelminthes including uses among eggs, larval, juvenile and adult stages. Information on structure, morphology and ultrastructure of the various adhesive systems that have been described is reviewed. Application of the 'duo gland' model is discussed. Comparisons are made between the little that is known about the chemistry of flatworm adhesives and the significant knowledge of the chemical nature of other invertebrate bioadhesives, especially those from marine macroinvertebrates. The potential importance of adhesives in parasitism is discussed. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:11013756

  2. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H; Leal, L Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force−distance or energy−distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope, and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g., mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that, in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus, k(b), the area expansion modulus, k(a), and the adhesive minimum, W(P)(0), and separation, D(P)(0), in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force−distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between nondeforming bilayers such as |W(P)(0)| 5 × 10(−4) mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in the colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence of an osmotically active solute is also taken into account, the vesicles can undergo additional deformation (flattening), which further enhances the adhesive interaction between them. Finally, equilibration of ions and solutes due to the concentration differences created by the osmotic exchange of water can lead to further enhancement of the adhesion energy. Our result of the progressively increasing adhesive interaction energy between vesicles in the above regimes could explain why suspensions of very weakly attractive vesicles may undergo flocculation and eventual instability due to separation of vesicles from the suspending fluid by gravity. The possibility of such an instability is an extremely important issue for concentrated vesicle-based products and applications such as fabric softeners, hair therapeutics and drug delivery. PMID:21128653

  3. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  6. Silorane adhesive system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro Jnior, Sylvio; Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira de

    2014-01-01

    Silorane-based composite resin requires a specific adhesive system: a 2-step self-etching adhesive. Clinical protocols are well established and are based on the principles of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. In this paper, we present a clinical application of the silorane adhesive system in a class-II restoration using silorane-based composite resin. PMID:25055233

  7. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  8. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  9. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  10. Loss of Reelin protects against atherosclerosis by reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and lesion macrophage accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yinyuan; Huang, Linzhang; Xian, Xunde; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Wasser, Catherine R; Frotscher, Michael; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The multimodular glycoprotein Reelin controls neuronal migration and synaptic transmission by binding to apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) on neurons. In the periphery, Reelin is produced by the liver, circulates in blood, and promotes thrombosis and hemostasis. To investigate if Reelin influences atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice in which we inducibly deleted Reelin either ubiquitously or only in the liver, thus preventing the production of circulating Reelin. In both types of Reelin-deficient mice, atherosclerosis progression was markedly attenuated, and macrophage content and endothelial cell staining for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were reduced at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions. Intravital microscopy revealed decreased leukocyte-endothelial adhesion in the Reelin-deficient mice. In cultured human endothelial cells, Reelin enhanced monocyte adhesion and increased ICAM1, VCAM1, and E-selectin expression by suppressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increasing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in an Apoer2-dependent manner. These findings suggest that circulating Reelin promotes atherosclerosis by increasing vascular inflammation, and that reducing or inhibiting circulating Reelin may present a novel approach for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26980442

  11. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  12. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  13. RAPL, a Rap1-binding molecule that mediates Rap1-induced adhesion through spatial regulation of LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Koko; Maeda, Akito; Shimonaka, Mika; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2003-08-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 is a potent activator of leukocyte integrin. However, the regulatory mechanism involved is unknown. Here, we identify the Rap1 effector, RAPL, as an essential regulator in this activation. RAPL was enriched in mouse lymphoid tissues and associated with Rap1 after stimulation by the T cell receptor and with chemokine CXCL12. Human RAPL stimulated lymphocyte polarization and the patch-like redistribution of lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to the leading edge, resulting in enhanced adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Triggered by activated Rap1, RAPL associated with LFA-1 and rapidly relocated to the leading edge and accumulated at immunological synapses. Thus, RAPL regulates lymphocyte adhesion through the spatial distribution of LFA-1. PMID:12845325

  14. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  15. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development has demonstrated that EA can function effectively in space, even in the presence of strong ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and free electrons. We created a test setup in an existing vacuum chamber to simulate low-Earth-orbit conditions. An EA mechanism was fabricated and installed in the chamber, instrumented, operated in a vacuum, and subjected to ultraviolet photons and free electrons generated by an in-chamber multipactor electron emitter. Extensions to EA that can add value include proximity and contact sensing and transverse motion or rotation, both of which could enhance docking or assembly applications. Possible next steps include development of targeted applications for ground investigation or on-orbit subsystem performance demonstrations using low cost access to space such as CubeSats.

  16. Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  17. Correlation of clinical features and genetic profiles of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-01-01

    STIM1 overexpression has been observed in a portion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and associated with cancer cell invasion and migration. To characterize the distinctive expression profiles associated with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) overexpression/low-expression between CRC subtypes, and further assess the divergence transcription regulation impact of STIM1 between colon (COADs) and rectum (READs) adenocarcinomas in order to depict the role of SOCE pathway in CRCs, we have conducted a comprehensive phenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis to clarify underlying molecular differences of COADs/READs contributed by STIM1. Results demonstrated that a number of novel STIM1-associated signatures have been identified in COADs but not READs. Specifically, the presence of STIM1 overexpression in COADs, which represented a disturbance of the SOCE pathway, was associated with cell migration and cell motility properties. We identified 11 prognostic mRNA/miRNA predictors associated with the overall survival of COAD patients, suggesting the correlation of STIM1-associated features to clinicopathological outcomes. These findings enhance our understanding on differences between CRC subtypes in panoramic view, and suggested STIM1 as a promising therapeutic biomarker in COADs. PMID:26543234

  18. A stromal interaction molecule 1 variant up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by strengthening nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengrong; Zhu, Liping; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Jiwei; Zeng, Xianqin; Li, Jiansha; Su, Yuan; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Very recent studies hold promise to reveal the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in non-store-operated Ca2+ entry. Here we showed that in contrast to cytoplasmic membrane redistribution as previously noted, human umbilical vein endothelial STIM1 with a T-to-C nucleotide transition resulting in an amino acid substitution of leucine by proline in the signal peptide sequence translocated to perinuclear membrane upon intracellular Ca2+ depletion, amplified nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling through ryanodine receptor-dependent pathway, and enhanced the subsequent cAMP responsive element binding protein activity, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene expression, and endothelial tube forming. The abundance of mutated STIM1 and the MMP-2 expression were higher in native human umbilical vein endothelial cells of patients with gestational hypertension than controls and were significantly correlated with blood pressure. These findings broaden our understanding about structure-function bias of STIM1 and offer unique insights into its application in nucleoplasmic Ca2+, MMP-2 expression, endothelial dysfunction, and pathophysiological mechanism(s) of gestational hypertension. PMID:26775216

  19. Urinary Measurement of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Helps Diagnose Acute Pyelonephritis in a Preclinical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hahn-Ey; Lee, Sun Hee; Baek, Minki; Choi, Hwang; Park, Kwanjin

    2013-01-01

    Background. The study assessed whether measurement of urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury could be helpful in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and subsequent scarring. Method. Escherichia coli J96 (0.3 mL inoculum containing 1 × 109/mL) was directly injected into the renal cortex of 3-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 20), with saline substituted in a control group (n = 10). Following the injection, urine was collected 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after injection. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and interleukin-18 were quantitatively measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of the biomarkers were adjusted for creatinine. Time course changes within a group or between the groups were compared. Correlation analysis was performed to understand the relationship between urinary levels and histological scarring. Results. Significantly elevated urinary NGAL was evident at two and seven days after injection, and Kim-1 was elevated at two days after injection. Receiver operating characteristic analyses confirmed the sensitivity of these markers at these times. No urinary marker at acute stage of APN was correlated with the amount of future scarring, negating their predictive value. Conclusion. Urinary NGAL and Kim-1 could be helpful in diagnosing febrile urinary tract infection in children. PMID:26317016

  20. MicroRNA-185 inhibits angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells through targeting stromal interaction molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiayin; Liu, Liang; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Yingbiao; Tian, Bei; Cui, Li; Liu, Ying; Li, Xinming

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a vital biological mechanism representing the adaptive response to a variety of pathological stimuli such as hypoxia. It is regulated by several pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic microRNAs. Studies have demonstrated an altered microRNA-185 (miR-185) expression in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions; however, its role in angiogenesis has not been elucidated. We investigated the role of miR-185 in angiogenesis and found that miR-185 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) appeared to be a direct target of miR-185 by computational prediction; this was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Silencing of the STIM1 gene was found to mimic miR-185-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis. STIM1 overexpression eliminated the anti-angiogenic effect of miR-185. Our study results suggest a direct interaction between miR-185 and STIM1 mRNA in microvascular endothelial cells. MicroRNA-185 acted as a negative regulator of angiogenesis in microvascular endothelial cells through downregulation of the STIM1 protein. PMID:26694763

  1. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Outperforms Traditional Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Multi-site Preclinical Biomarker Qualification Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Vishal S.; Ozer, Josef S.; Frank, Dieterle; Collings, Fitz B.; Ramirez, Victoria; Troth, Sean; Muniappa, Nagaraja; Thudium, Douglas; Gerhold, David; Holder, Daniel J.; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Marrer, Estelle; Perentes, Elias; Cordier, André; Vonderscher, Jacky; Maurer, Gérard; Goering, Peter L.; Sistare, Frank D.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    Kidney toxicity accounts for a significant percentage of morbidity and drug candidate failure. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been used to monitor kidney dysfunction for over a century but these markers are insensitive and non-specific. In multi-site preclinical rat toxicology studies the diagnostic performance of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was compared to traditional biomarkers as predictors of kidney tubular histopathologic changes, currently considered the “gold standard” of nephrotoxicity. In multiple models of kidney injury, urinary Kim-1 significantly outperformed SCr and BUN. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Kim-1 was between 0.91 and 0.99 as compared to 0.79 to 0.9 for BUN and 0.73 to 0.85 for SCr. Thus urinary Kim-1 is the first injury biomarker of kidney toxicity qualified by the FDA and EMEA and is expected to significantly improve kidney safety monitoring. PMID:20458318

  2. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  4. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  5. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  6. Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, P; Hermosilla, C; Kleinertz, S; Hirzmann, J; Taubert, A

    2016-05-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular and emerging coccidian parasite of cattle that mainly infects host endothelial cells during acute infection. We here analyzed early innate immune reactions of B. besnoiti-infected primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). B. besnoiti infections significantly activated BUVEC since the gene transcripts of several adhesion molecules (P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1)), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL5), and of COX-2 were significantly upregulated during in vitro infection. Overall, the highest upregulation of most transcripts was observed at 24 or 48 h post infection (p.i.). Enhanced adhesion molecule expression in infected host cells was confirmed by PMN adhesion assays being performed under physiological flow conditions revealing a significantly increased PMN adhesion on B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers at 24 h p.i. Furthermore, we were able to illustrate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) being released by PMN under physiological flow conditions after adhesion to B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers. The present study shows that B. besnoiti infections of primary BUVEC induce a cascade of pro-inflammatory reactions and triggers early innate immune responses. PMID:26847631

  7. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by arsenite inhibits cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xi; Pi Jingbo; Liu Wenlan; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian; Feng Changjian

    2009-04-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. Arsenite, as an oxidative stressor, is a potent inducer of HO-1 in human and rodent cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of arsenite-induced HO-1 in modulating tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Arsenite pretreatment, which upregulated HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 protein expression by 50% and 40%, respectively. Importantly, knockdown of HO-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the arsenite-induced inhibitory effects. These results indicate that induction of HO-1 by arsenite inhibits the cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC by suppressing adhesion molecule expression. These findings established an important mechanistic link between the functional monocyte adhesion properties of HUVEC and the induction of HO-1 by arsenite.

  8. Modulation of Sickle Red Blood Cell Adhesion and its Associated Changes in Biomarkers by Sulfated Nonanticoagulant Heparin Derivative.

    PubMed

    Alshaiban, Abdulelah; Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Nepo, Anne; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal cellular adhesion is one of the primary causes of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD). Levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin are upregulated, resulting in increased adhesion of leukocytes and sickle red blood cells (RBCs) to endothelium. This study compares the inhibitory effect of a sulfated nonanticoagulant heparin (S-NACH) derivative with a low-molecular-weight heparin, tinzaparin, on the adhesion of sickle RBCs to endothelium. The S-NACH exhibits minimum effects on hemostasis and bleeding and interferes with the binding of pancreatic cancer cells to endothelial cells via P-selectin. We show by static binding assay that pretreatment of both erythrocytes and endothelial cells with S-NACH significantly inhibits the increased adhesion of sickle RBCs to endothelial cells. The S-NACH treatment also decreases the higher plasma levels of (adhesion biomarkers) ICAM-1 and P-selectin in SCD mice. This investigation signals further research into the potential use of S-NACH in treating vaso-occlusions with minimal bleeding events in patients with SCD. PMID:25601897

  9. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Huiwen; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee; Wang, Lei; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wu, Shiyong; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  10. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  11. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  12. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphaël; Joanny, Jean-François; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Cécile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  13. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  14. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  15. Adhesion between highly stretchable materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingda; Li, Jianyu; Vlassak, Joost J; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-01-20

    Recently developed high-speed ionic devices require adherent laminates of stretchable and dissimilar materials, such as gels and elastomers. Adhesion between stretchable and dissimilar materials also plays important roles in medicine, stretchable electronics, and soft robots. Here we develop a method to characterize adhesion between materials capable of large, elastic deformation. We apply the method to measure the debond energy of elastomer-hydrogel bilayers. The debond energy between an acrylic elastomer and a polyacrylamide hydrogel is found to be about 0.5 J m(-2), independent of the thickness and the crosslink density of the hydrogel. This low debond energy, however, allows the bilayer to be adherent and highly stretchable, provided that the hydrogel is thin and compliant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nanoparticles applied at the interface can improve adhesion between the elastomer and the hydrogel. PMID:26573427

  16. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  17. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  18. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  19. Inhibition of Monocyte Adhesion to Brain-Derived Endothelial Cells by Dual Functional RNA Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Hao, Xin; Bai, Shuhua; Hao, Jiukuan

    2014-01-01

    Because adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is the first step of vascular-neuronal inflammation, inhibition of adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells will have a beneficial effect on neuroinflammatory diseases. In this study, we used the pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor to construct a novel RNA nanoparticle for specific targeting to transferrin receptor (TfR) on the murine brain-derived endothelial cells (bEND5) to deliver ICAM-1 siRNA. This RNA nanoparticle (FRS-NPs) contained a FB4 aptamer targeting to TfR and a siRNA moiety for silencing the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our data indicated that this RNA nanoparticle was delivered into murine brain-derived endothelial cells. Furthermore, the siRNA was released from the FRS-NPs in the cells and knocked down ICAM-1 expression in the TNF-α–stimulated cells and in the cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition. The functional end points of the study indicated that FRS-NPs significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion to the bEND5 cells induced by TNF-α and OGD/R. In conclusion, our approach using RNA nanotechnology for siRNA delivery could be potentially applied for inhibition of inflammation in ischemic stroke and other neuroinflammatory diseases, or diseases affecting endothelium of vasculature. PMID:25368913

  20. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals.

    PubMed

    Dodou, D; Breedveld, P; de Winter, J C F; Dankelman, J; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compared to the biochemical content of the adhesives. We address temporary adhesion of benthic animals from the following three structural levels: (a) the biochemical content of the adhesive secretions, (b) the micro- and mesoscopic surface geometry and material properties of the adhesive organs, and (c) the macroscopic external morphology of the adhesive organs. We show that temporary adhesion of benthic animals is affected by three structural levels: the adhesive secretions provide binding to the substratum at a molecular scale, whereas surface geometry and external morphology increase the contact area with the irregular and unpredictable profile of the substratum from micro- to macroscales. The biochemical content of the adhesive secretions differs between abiotic and biotic substrata. The biochemistry of the adhesives suitable for biotic substrata differentiates further according to whether adhesion must be activated quickly (e.g. as a defensive mechanism) or more slowly (e.g. during adhesion of parasites). De-adhesion is controlled by additional secretions, enzymes, or mechanically. Due to deformability, the adhesive organs achieve intimate contact by adapting their surface profile to the roughness of the substratum. Surface projections, namely cilia, cuticular villi, papillae, and papulae increase the contact area or penetrate through the secreted adhesive to provide direct contact with the substratum. We expect that the same three structural levels investigated here will also affect the performance of artificial adhesive systems. PMID:20233167

  1. Impairment of lymphocyte adhesion to cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells by [gamma]-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Piela-Smith, T.H.; Aneiro, L.; Nuveen, E.; Korn, J.H. ); Aune, T. )

    1992-01-01

    A critical component of immune responsiveness is the localization of effector cells at sites of inflammatory lesions. Adhesive molecules that may play a role in this process have been described on the surfaces of both lymphocytes and connective tissue cells. Adhesive interactions of T lymphocytes with fibroblasts or endothelial cells can be inhibited by preincubation of the fibroblasts or endothelial cells with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) or by preincubation of the T cells with antibody to lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 (CD11a/CD18), molecules shown to be important in several other cell-cell adhesion interactions. Here the authors show that [gamma]-irradiation of human T lymphocytes impaired their ability to adhere to both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This impairment was not associated with a loss of cell viability or of cell surface lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 expression. [gamma]-Irradiation of T cells is known to result in the activation of ADP-ribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in DNA strand-break repair, causing subsequent depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pools by increasing NAD consumption for poly(ADP-ribose) formation. Preincubation of T cells with either nicotinamide or 3-aminobenzamide, both known inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferase, completely reversed the suppressive effects of [gamma]-irradiation on T cell adhesion. The maintenance of adhesion was accompanied by inhibition of irradiation-induced depletion of cellular NAD. These experiments suggest that the impairment of cellular immune function after irradiation in vivo may be caused, in part, by defective T cell emigration and localization at inflammatory sites. 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  3. Fluorescence Reveals Contamination From Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolia, William

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of nearby surfaces from ingredients in some adhesive materials detected by ultraviolet illumination and observation of resulting fluorescence. Identification of contaminants via telltale fluorescence not new; rather, significance lies in method of implementation and potential extension to wider variety of materials and applications.

  4. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  5. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  6. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  7. Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang-Polagruto, Janice F; Villablanca, Amparo C; Polagruto, John A; Lee, Luke; Holt, Roberta R; Schrader, Heather R; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Steinberg, Francene M; Schmitz, Harold H; Keen, Carl L

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction characterizes many disease states including subclinical atherosclerosis. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and cocoa-based products has been shown to improve endothelial function in both compromised and otherwise normal, healthy individuals when administered either acutely or over a period of several days, or weeks. Women experience increased risk for cardiovascular disease after menopause, which can be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Whether a flavanol-rich cocoa-based product can improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women is not known. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic dietary administration of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular health in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Thirty-two postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women were randomly assigned to consume a high-flavanol cocoa beverage (high cocoa flavanols (CF)--446 mg of total flavanols), or a low-flavanol cocoa beverage (low CF--43 mg of total flavanols) for 6 weeks in a double-blind study (n=16 per group). Endothelial function was determined by brachial artery-reactive hyperemia. Plasma was analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone), total nitrate/nitrite, activation of cellular adhesion markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin), and platelet function and reactivity. Changes in these plasma markers were then correlated to brachial reactivity. Brachial artery hyperemic blood flow increased significantly by 76% (P<0.05 vs. baseline) after the 6-week cocoa intervention in the high CF group, compared with 32% in the low CF cocoa group (P=ns vs. baseline). The 2.4-fold increase in hyperemic blood flow with high CF cocoa closely correlated (r2=0.8) with a significant decrease (11%) in plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Similar responses were not observed after chronic use of low CF. There were no significant differences between high and low CF in other biochemical markers and parameters measured. This study is the first to identify beneficial vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa consumption in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. In addition, our results suggest that reductions in plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 after chronic consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa may be mechanistically linked to improved vascular reactivity. PMID:16794456

  8. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  9. Tape-Smoothing Tool For Adhesion Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1992-01-01

    Small tool smoothes adhesive tape uniformly to ensure consistency and repeatability of tape-peel tests of adhesion of paint to substrate. Includes resilient pad covered with tough, smooth fabric. Internal spring regulates force applied to tape.

  10. Nucleation and Growth of Integrin Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Erdin; Ovryn, Ben

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that govern the formation of the earliest integrin adhesions ex novo from an approximately planar plasma membrane. Using an analytic analysis of the free energy of a dynamically deformable membrane containing freely diffusing receptors molecules and long repeller molecules that inhibit integrins from binding with ligands on the extracellular matrix, we predict that a coalescence of polymerizing actin filaments can deform the membrane toward the extracellular matrix and facilitate integrin binding. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show that thermally induced membrane fluctuations can either zip-up and increase the radius of a nucleated adhesion orunzip and shrink an adhesion, but the fluctuations cannot bend the ventral membrane to nucleate an adhesion. To distinguish this integrin adhesion from more mature adhesions, we refer to this early adhesion as a nouveau adhesion. PMID:19413961

  11. Microfluidic adhesion induced by subsurface microstructures.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Abhijit; Ghatak, Animangsu; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2007-10-12

    Natural adhesives in the feet of different arthropods and vertebrates show strong adhesion as well as excellent reusability. Whereas the hierarchical structures on the surface are known to have a substantial effect on adhesion, the role of subsurface structures such as the network of microchannels has not been studied. Inspired by these bioadhesives, we generated elastomeric layers with embedded air- or oil-filled microchannels. These adhesives showed remarkable enhancement of adhesion ( approximately 30 times), which results from the crack-arresting properties of the microchannels, together with the surface stresses caused by the capillary force. The importance of the thickness of the adhesive layer, channel diameter, interchannel spacing, and vertical position within the adhesive has been examined for developing an optimal design of this microfluidic adhesive. PMID:17932295

  12. Microfluidic Adhesion Induced by Subsurface Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Abhijit; Ghatak, Animangsu; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2007-10-01

    Natural adhesives in the feet of different arthropods and vertebrates show strong adhesion as well as excellent reusability. Whereas the hierarchical structures on the surface are known to have a substantial effect on adhesion, the role of subsurface structures such as the network of microchannels has not been studied. Inspired by these bioadhesives, we generated elastomeric layers with embedded air- or oil-filled microchannels. These adhesives showed remarkable enhancement of adhesion (~30 times), which results from the crack-arresting properties of the microchannels, together with the surface stresses caused by the capillary force. The importance of the thickness of the adhesive layer, channel diameter, interchannel spacing, and vertical position within the adhesive has been examined for developing an optimal design of this microfluidic adhesive.

  13. Labial Adhesions: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... labial adhesions? It is not clear why some young girls develop labial adhesions. It is thought that low ... an educational entity that exists to provide teen girls and young women with carefully researched health information, health education ...

  14. [AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism].

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and underlying molecular mechanism. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with different concentrations of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) or AMPK inhibitor compound C. And other HAECs were overexpressed with constitutive active or dominant negative AMPK protein and then treated with TNFα. The rates of monocytes adhering to endothelial cells were detected by fluorescent staining. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA levels and protein secretions were detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Acetylation of NF-κB p65 at lysine 221 site was assessed by Western blot. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by an ELISA-based method. By using small interfering RNA based strategy, p300 expression in HAECs was down-regulated and then cells were incubated with TNFα. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions and adhesion rates were detected, respectively. The activity of p300 was also detected by ELISA. The results showed that AICAR treatment significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion rate, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels and protein secretions, in TNFα-activated HAECs. Moreover, transfection of constitutive active AMPKα but not dominant negative AMPKα strongly diminished TNFα-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions and secretions, as well as monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Furthermore, AMPK activation decreased TNFα-mediated acetylation of NF-κB p65 at Lys221 site and reduced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Silencing p300 by siRNA significantly abolished the effect of TNFα- induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Blocking AMPK activation by compound C almost completely reversed the effect of AICAR exerted on HAECs. These results suggest AMPK activation suppresses monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and the underlying mechanism is relevant to the inhibition of p300 activity and NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity. PMID:26915321

  15. Alterations in cell adhesion proteins and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifen

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesive junction is specialized intercellular structure composed of cell adhesion proteins. They are essential to connect adjacent heart muscle cell and make heart contraction effectively and properly. Clinical and genetic studies have revealed close relationship between cell adhesive proteins and the occurrence of various cardiomyopathies. Here we will review recent development on the disease phenotype, potential cellular and molecular mechanism related to cell adhesion molecules, with particular disease pathogenesis learned from genetic manipulated murine models. PMID:24944760

  16. Cellular response to low adhesion nanotopographies

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on how cells respond to low-adhesion nanotopographies. In order to do this, fabrication techniques, how cells may locate nanofeatures through the use of filopodia and possible mechanotransductive mechanisms are discussed. From this, examples of low-adhesion topographies and sizes and arrangements that may lead to low-adhesion are discussed. Finally, it is hypothesized as to how specifically low-adhesion materials may fit into the outlined mechanotransductive mechanisms. PMID:18019836

  17. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  18. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adhesives. 175.105 Section 175.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives §...

  19. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adhesives. 175.105 Section 175.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives §...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  1. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  2. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  3. Current dental adhesives systems. A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Milia, Egle; Cumbo, Enzo; Cardoso, Rielson Jose A; Gallina, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry is based on the development of materials which establish an effective bond with the tooth tissues. In this context, adhesive systems have attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Successful adhesive bonding depends on the chemistry of the adhesive, on appropriate clinical handling of the material as well as on the knowledge of the morphological changes caused on dental tissue by different bonding procedures. This paper outlines the status of contemporary adhesive systems, with particular emphasis on chemical characteristics and mode of interaction of the adhesives with enamel and dentinal tissues. Dental adhesives are used for several clinical applications and they can be classified based on the clinical regimen in "etch-and-rinse adhesives" and "self-etch adhesives". Other important considerations concern the different anatomical characteristics of enamel and dentine which are involved in the bonding procedures that have also implications for the technique used as well as for the quality of the bond. Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems generally perform better on enamel than self-etching systems which may be more suitable for bonding to dentine. In order to avoid a possible loss of the restoration, secondary caries or pulp damage due to bacteria penetration or due to cytotoxicity effects of eluted adhesive components, careful consideration of several factors is essential in selecting the suitable bonding procedure and adhesive system for the individual patient situation. PMID:22632386

  4. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  5. Molecular determinants mediating gating of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Seok; Hong, Jeong Hee; Ahuja, Malini; Graham, Sarabeth; Ma, Rong; So, Insuk; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel; Yuan, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate a critical part of the receptor-evoked Ca(2+) influx. TRPCs are gated open by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor STIM1. Here we asked which stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and TRPC domains mediate the interaction between them and how this interaction is used to open the channels. We report that the STIM1 Orai1-activating region domain of STIM1 interacts with the TRPC channel coiled coil domains (CCDs) and that this interaction is essential for opening the channels by STIM1. Thus, disruption of the N-terminal (NT) CCDs by triple mutations eliminated TRPC surface localization and reduced binding of STIM1 to TRPC1 and TRPC5 while increasing binding to TRPC3 and TRPC6. Single mutations in TRPC1 NT or C-terminal (CT) CCDs reduced interaction and activation of TRPC1 by STIM1. Remarkably, single mutations in the TRPC3 NT CCD enhanced interaction and regulation by STIM1. Disruption in the TRPC3 CT CCD eliminated regulation by STIM1 and the enhanced interaction caused by NT CCD mutations. The NT CCD mutations converted TRPC3 from a TRPC1-dependent to a TRPC1-independent, STIM1-regulated channel. TRPC1 reduced the FRET between BFP-TRPC3 and TRPC3-YFP and between CFP-TRPC3-YFP upon stimulation. Accordingly, knockdown of TRPC1 made TRPC3 STIM1-independent. STIM1 dependence of TRPC3 was reconstituted by the TRPC1 CT CCD alone. Knockout of Trpc1 and Trpc3 similarly inhibited Ca(2+) influx, and inhibition of Trpc3 had no further effect on Ca(2+) influx in Trpc1(-/-) cells. Cell stimulation enhanced the formation of Trpc1-Stim1-Trpc3 complexes. These findings support a model in which the TRPC3 NT and CT CCDs interact to shield the CT CCD from interaction with STIM1. The TRPC1 CT CCD dissociates this interaction to allow the STIM1 Orai1-activating region within STIM1 access to the TRPC3 CT CCD and regulation of TRPC3 by STIM1. These studies provide evidence that the TRPC channel CCDs participate in channel gating. PMID:24464579

  6. Molecular Determinants Mediating Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) Channels by Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1)*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Seok; Hong, Jeong Hee; Ahuja, Malini; Graham, Sarabeth; Ma, Rong; So, Insuk; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel; Yuan, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate a critical part of the receptor-evoked Ca2+ influx. TRPCs are gated open by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Here we asked which stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and TRPC domains mediate the interaction between them and how this interaction is used to open the channels. We report that the STIM1 Orai1-activating region domain of STIM1 interacts with the TRPC channel coiled coil domains (CCDs) and that this interaction is essential for opening the channels by STIM1. Thus, disruption of the N-terminal (NT) CCDs by triple mutations eliminated TRPC surface localization and reduced binding of STIM1 to TRPC1 and TRPC5 while increasing binding to TRPC3 and TRPC6. Single mutations in TRPC1 NT or C-terminal (CT) CCDs reduced interaction and activation of TRPC1 by STIM1. Remarkably, single mutations in the TRPC3 NT CCD enhanced interaction and regulation by STIM1. Disruption in the TRPC3 CT CCD eliminated regulation by STIM1 and the enhanced interaction caused by NT CCD mutations. The NT CCD mutations converted TRPC3 from a TRPC1-dependent to a TRPC1-independent, STIM1-regulated channel. TRPC1 reduced the FRET between BFP-TRPC3 and TRPC3-YFP and between CFP-TRPC3-YFP upon stimulation. Accordingly, knockdown of TRPC1 made TRPC3 STIM1-independent. STIM1 dependence of TRPC3 was reconstituted by the TRPC1 CT CCD alone. Knockout of Trpc1 and Trpc3 similarly inhibited Ca2+ influx, and inhibition of Trpc3 had no further effect on Ca2+ influx in Trpc1−/− cells. Cell stimulation enhanced the formation of Trpc1-Stim1-Trpc3 complexes. These findings support a model in which the TRPC3 NT and CT CCDs interact to shield the CT CCD from interaction with STIM1. The TRPC1 CT CCD dissociates this interaction to allow the STIM1 Orai1-activating region within STIM1 access to the TRPC3 CT CCD and regulation of TRPC3 by STIM1. These studies provide evidence that the TRPC channel CCDs participate in channel gating. PMID:24464579

  7. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  8. Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-02-01

    Independent association between legume intake and systemic inflammation is not well documented. The traditional Iranian diet provides an opportunity to assess the association between legume intake and health outcomes. This study was carried out to examine legume consumption in relation to serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 486 Tehrani female teachers were investigated. A trained dietitian administered a validated semiquantitative FFQ for assessment of usual dietary intakes. Legume intake was calculated by summing up the consumption of lentils, peas, chickpeas, different kinds of beans including broad beans, and chickling vetch. To measure serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers, a fasting blood sample was taken. After statistically controlling for potential confounders, individuals in the highest tertile of legume intake had lower serum concentrations of E-selectin (percent difference between the lowest and highest tertile: -14.1%; P = 0.04), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (-20.3%; P < 0.01), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (-15.6%; P = 0.01) compared with those in the lowest tertile. Legume intake was inversely associated with serum concentrations of high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), TNFα, and IL-6, even after controlling for potential confounders and dietary variables (percent difference between the lowest and highest tertile for hs-CRP: -39.2%, P < 0.001; for TNFα: -15.9%, P = 0.04; and for IL-6: -39.5%, P < 0.01). Legume intake and concentrations of serum amyloid A were not correlated. Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women. PMID:22190025

  9. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  10. Bio-inspired adhesion: local chemical environments impact adhesive stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Rapp, Michael V.; Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2014-03-01

    3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized by marine mussels and exhibits the unique ability to strongly bind to surfaces in aqueous environments. However, the Dopa functional group undergoes auto-oxidation to a non-adhesive quinone form in neutral to basic pH conditions, limiting the utilization of Dopa in biomedical applications. In this work, we performed direct surface force measurements with in situ electrochemical control across a Dopa-rich native mussel foot protein (mfp-5), as well as three simplified model peptide sequences. We find that the neighboring peptide residues can significantly impact the redox stability of Dopa functional groups, with lysine residues imparting a substantial degree of Dopa redox stabilization. Surprisingly, the local chemical environments only minimally impact the magnitude of the adhesion forces measured between molecularly-smooth mica and gold surfaces. Our results provide molecular level insight into approaches that can be used to mitigate the detrimental impact of Dopa auto-oxidation, thus suggesting new molecular design strategies for improving the performance of Dopa-based underwater adhesives.

  11. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hlne; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  12. The effects of heparin and related molecules upon the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes to vascular endothelium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Rebecca; Hoult, J Robin S; Page, Clive P

    2000-01-01

    The effects of an unfractionated heparin preparation (Multiparin), a low molecular weight heparin preparation (Fragmin) and a selectively O-desulphated derivative of heparin lacking anticoagulant activity, have been investigated for their effects on the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The effect of poly-L-glutamic acid, a large, polyanionic molecule was also studied. Unfractionated heparin (50–1000 U ml−1), the O-desulphated derivative (0.3–6 mg ml−1) and the low molecular weight heparin (50 U–1000 U ml−1) all inhibited significantly the adhesion of 51Cr labelled PMNs to HUVECs stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β; 10 U ml−1), bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5 μg ml−1) or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 125 U ml−1) for 6 h, whereas poly-L-glutamic acid had no effect. In addition, the three heparin preparations in the same concentration range inhibited significantly the adhesion of f-met-leu-phe-stimulated PMNs to resting HUVECs. The effects of unfractionated heparin upon the expression of adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selection were also investigated, as were the effects of unfractionated heparin upon adhesion of human PMNs to previously stimulated HUVECs. Heparin had little effect upon levels of expression of these adhesion molecules on stimulated HUVECs. However, a profound effect upon PMN adhesion to previously stimulated HUVECs was demonstrated using the same preparation, suggesting that inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is not a major component of the described inhibitory effects of heparin. Pre-incubation of PMNs with heparin followed by washing inhibited their adhesion to HUVECs, under different conditions of cellular activation, implying that heparin can bind to these cells and exert its anti-adhesive effects even when not directly present in the system. These observations would suggest that both heparin and a low molecular weight heparin are capable of inhibiting adhesion of human PMNs to endothelial cells, an effect not dependent solely upon the polyanionic nature of these molecules, nor dependent upon their ability to act as anticoagulants. PMID:10711352

  13. Viscoelastic analysis of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1980-01-01

    An adhesively bonded lap joint is analyzed by assuming that the adherends are elastic and the adhesive is linearly viscoelastic. After formulating the general problem a specific example for two identical adherends bonded through a three parameter viscoelastic solid adhesive is considered. The standard Laplace transform technique is used to solve the problem. The stress distribution in the adhesive layer is calculated for three different external loads, namely, membrane loading, bending, and transverse shear loading. The results indicate that the peak value of the normal stress in the adhesive is not only consistently higher than the corresponding shear stress but also decays slower.

  14. Adhesives for the composite wood panel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.S.; Klareich, F.; Exstrum, B.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a market and technology analysis of current fossil-fuel-based adhesives for the composite wood panel industry. It is also a study of the potential for, and technology of, less-energy-intensive biomass-derived adhesives for use in the industry. Adhesives manufacturer and production account for a significant portion of overall wood panel industry energy use as well as overall production costs, and the wood panel industry consumes about 25% of the total U.S. adhesives production. Significant savings might be realized if current fossil-fuel-based resins could be replaced with alternative biomass-derived adhesives.

  15. A review of high-temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  16. Glossogyne tenuifolia Extract Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Blocking the NF-kB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Lee, Thung-Lip; Wei, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Wu, Chau-Chung; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis, where the pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and the recruitment of monocytes are the crucial events leading to its pathogenesis. Glossogyne tenuifolia ethanol extract (GTE) is shown to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the effects of GTE and its major components, luteolin (lut), luteolin-7-glucoside (lut-7-g), and oleanolic acid (OA) on TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results demonstrated that GTE, lut, and lut-7-g attenuated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, and inhibited the adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-activated HUVECs. The TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also suppressed, revealing their inhibitory effects at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, GTE, lut, and lut-7-g blocked the TNF-α-induced degradation of nuclear factor-kB inhibitor (IkB), an indicator of the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). In summary, GTE and its bioactive components were effective in preventing the adhesion of monocytes to cytokine-activated endothelium by the inhibition of expression of adhesion molecules, which in turn is mediated through blocking the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kB. The current results reveal the therapeutic potential of GTE in atherosclerosis. PMID:26393541

  17. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (λ = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8) kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase. PMID:20825632

  18. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  19. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-43 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples. Previously announced in STAR as N83-18910

  20. LARC-13 polyimide adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of an addition-curing polyimide adhesive suitable for low pressure bonding without the generation of volatiles during cure is reported. LARC-13 is designed for bonding of polyimide matrix composites and of titanium to be used above 500 F, and is based on an oligomeric bis-nadimide which allows its processing at 50 psi or less, making it suitable for the bonding of fragile honeycomb sandwich structures. Few volatiles are evolved during its cure allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded, and it has high room and elevated temperature strengths and good strength retention after short terms up to 1100 F. LARC-13 was successfully used to bond the outer and inner skins of a polyimide/graphite wing shear panel for 500 F use, and for a short-term exposure up to 1100 F. Preparation of the adhesive, bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  1. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-13 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples.

  2. Effects of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on Melanoma Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huiwen; Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shinhee; Wang, Lei; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-01-01

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen, to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20-30% and fibronectin by 25-44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (~56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. PMID:22889880

  3. Berberine reduces leukocyte adhesion to LPS-stimulated endothelial cells and VCAM-1 expression both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y-H; Chuang, S-Y; Hong, W-C; Lai, Y-J; Chang, G-J; Pang, J-H S

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium plays a critical initiating role in inflammation. Berberine, an anti-inflammatory natural compound, is known to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury and improve survival of endotoxemic animals with mechanism not fully clarified. This study investigated the effects of berberine on the LPS-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion both in vivo and in vitro. We first established an animal model to observe the in vivo LPS-induced adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium of venules in the lung tissue dose-dependently. Pretreatment of LPS-stimulated rats with berberine for 1 h reduced the leukocyte-endothelium adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in lung. Pretreatment of LPS-stimulated vascular endothelial cells with berberine also dose-dependently decreased the number of adhered THP-1 cells and VCAM-1 expression at both RNA and protein levels. Berberine was further confirmed to inhibit the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of LPS-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). These data demonstrated an additional molecular mechanism for the profound anti-inflammatory effect of berberine. PMID:23058024

  4. Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-04-13

    The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168

  5. Fatal attraction: adhesion molecules and disease.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, J A; Bergijk, E C; Kootstra, C J; de Heer, E

    1997-08-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion has increased rapidly in the past decade. Adhesion mechanisms are of prime importance in both physiology and pathology. With respect to the kidney, expression of adhesion molecules has been studied in a variety of diseases, including various forms of glomerulonephritis. Hitherto, these descriptive studies have merely launched extensive speculation regarding the role of adhesion mechanisms in renal pathology. A logical next step is to correlate adhesion molecule expression to alterations in structures which may possibly be affected by altered adhesion, for example gap junctions. Current studies linking structural to functional adhesion expand our understanding of cell biology in health and disease. PMID:9306955

  6. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  7. Theory of adhesion: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Scaraggi, M

    2014-09-28

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ∼ u(-n), n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results. PMID:25273455

  8. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be incorporated into dental adhesive systems to provide the appropriate environment in which dentin MMP collagen degradation is inhibited and mineral growth can occur. PMID:25227634

  9. Culinary Medicine-Jalebi Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2016-02-01

    Culinary terms have been used to describe anatomy (bean-shaped kidneys), pathology (strawberry gall bladder), clinical signs (café-au-lait spots), radiological images (sausage-shaped pancreas), etc. While Indian cuisine is popular all over the world, no Indian dish finds mention in medical terminology. In intra-abdominal adhesions, sometimes, the intestinal loops are so densely adherent that it is difficult to make out proximal from distal and it is impossible to separate them without injuring the bowel resulting in spill of contents-resection is the only option (Fig. 1). Jalebi, an Indian dessert, has a single long tubular strip of fried batter filled with sugary syrup so intertwined that it is impossible to discern its ends; if broken, the syrup spills out-the best way to relish it is to chew the whole piece (Fig. 2). Because of these similarities between them, I propose to name dense intra-abdominal adhesions as 'jalebi adhesions.' PMID:27186047

  10. Adhesive evaluation of new polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, Terry L.; Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years, the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several novel high temperature polyimide adhesives for anticipated needs of the aerospace industry. These developments have resulted from fundamental studies of structure-property relationships in polyimides. Recent research at LaRC has involved the synthesis and evaluation of copolyimides which incorporate both flexibilizing bridging groups and meta-linked benzene rings. The purpose was to develop systems based on low cost, readily available monomers. Two of these copolyimides evaluated as adhesives for bonding titanium alloy, Ti(6Al-4V), are identified as LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2. Lap shear strength (LSS) measurements were used to determine the strength and durability of the adhesive materials. LSS results are presented for LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI lap shear specimens thermally exposed in air at 232 C for up to 5000 hrs. LARC-TPI was shown to perform better than the copolymer LARC-STPI which exhibited poor thermooxidative performance possibly due to the amines used which would tend to oxidize easier than the benzophenone system in LARC-TPI.

  11. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF MOUSE PHOTORECEPTOR RIBBON SYNAPSES INVOLVE THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN ADHESION PROTEIN SYNCAM 1

    PubMed Central

    Ribic, Adema; Liu, Xinran; Crair, Michael C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the central nervous system (CNS), which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/Nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We now show by immuno-electron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers (ONL and OPL) in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7), but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Further, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses. PMID:23982969

  12. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  13. Effect of propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide on the expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai-Xia; Yang, Li-Chao; Xu, Xu-Dong; Wei, Xiao; Gai, Ya-Ting; Peng, Lu; Guo, Han; Hao-Zhou; Wang, Yi-Qing; Jin, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous agonist of PPARα, has been reported to have anti-atherosclerotic properties. However, OEA can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to oleic acid and ethanolamine and, thus, is not expected to be orally active. In the present study, we designed and synthesized an OEA analog, propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), which is resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of N15 on the expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that N15 inhibited TNFα-induced production of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the adhesion of monocytes to TNFα-induced HUVECs. Furthermore, the protective effect of N15 on inflammation is dependent upon a PPAR-α/γ-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, N15 protects against TNFα-induced vascular endothelial inflammation. This anti-inflammatory effect of N15 is dependent on PPAR-α/γ dual targets. PMID:25797284

  14. Markers of Inflammation, Endothelial Activation and Autoimmunity in Adolescent Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Eyad; Shafi, Shahida; Nurmi-Lawton, Jaana; Burut, Dayangku Fatiha Pengiran; Lanham-New, Susan; Ferns, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    High levels of physical activity have been linked to benefits in cardiovascular and bone health by affecting, in part, changes in proinflammatory profile. Therefore, we have aimed to assess the effects of intensive training on markers of inflammation, endothelial activation and auto-immunity in the absence of the potential confounding effects of incident atherosclerosis. The subjects comprised 25 competitive gymnasts and 19 healthy sedentary adolescent females, aged 8-17 years. Serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and Hsp27 antibody titres were measured by ELISAs in a sample of adolescent girls who were either physically active (competitive gymnasts) or sedentary. The association between age, body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, serum hsCRP, sICAM-1 and Hsp27 antigen and antibody titres were determined. The mean serum sICAM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts compared to the sedentary females (0.29 ± 0.02 versus 0.23 ± 0.01 mg·L-1, p < 0.01). In contrast serum hsCRP concentrations were substantially lower in the gymnasts compared to the sedentary adolescent females (0.49 ± 0.03 versus 1.38 ± 0.19 mg·L-1, p < 0.001). Differences remained significant after adjustment for anthropometric factors. We also found that serum Hsp27 antigen concentrations were determined by dietary saturated fat intake (p < 0.001), and antibody titres to Hsp27 were determined by dietary PUFA (p < 0.001) after adjustment for BMI. Our findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered profile of inflammatory markers and endothelial activation compared to their less physically active peers. Key points Results showed that adolescent young female gymnasts have an altered serum inflammatory markers and endothelial activation, compared to their less physically active peers. Physical activities improved immune system. Differences in these biochemical data kept significant after adjustment for body weight and height. PMID:24149779

  15. Handbook of Adhesion, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, D. E.

    2005-06-01

    This second edition of the successful Handbook of Adhesion provides concise and authoritative articles covering many aspects of the science and technology associated with adhesion and adhesives. It is intended to fill a gap between the necessarily simplified treatment of the student textbook and the full and thorough treatment of the research monograph and review article. The articles are structured in such a way, with internal cross-referencing and external literature references, that the reader can build up a broader and deeper understanding, as their needs require. This second edition includes many new articles covering developments which have risen in prominence in the intervening years, such as scanning probe techniques, the surface forces apparatus and the relation between adhesion and fractal surfaces. Advances in understanding polymer - polymer interdiffusion are reflected in articles drawing out the implications for adhesive bonding. In addition, articles derived from the earlier edition have been revised and updated where needed. Throughout the book there is a renewed emphasis on environmental implications of the use of adhesives and sealants. The scope of the Handbook, which features nearly 250 articles from over 60 authors, includes the background science - physics, chemistry and material science - and engineering, and also aspects of adhesion relevant to the use of adhesives, including topics such as: Sealants and mastics Paints and coatings Printing and composite materials Welding and autohesion Engineering design The Handbook of Adhesion is intended for scientists and engineers in both academia and industry, requiring an understanding of the various facets of adhesion.

  16. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ˜0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence ˜110 J/cm2, spot size ˜5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (15±2 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5±0.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 °C to 32 °C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  17. Marine adhesive proteins: natural composite thermosets.

    PubMed

    Waite, J H

    1990-04-01

    Marine environments are severely challenging for the performance and durability of synthetic adhesives. Factors commonly associated with adhesive failure are weak boundary layers (water, oxides), adhesive erosion and swelling. For many permanently attached marine organisms such as barnacles, mussels, oysters, etc., however, underwater adhesion is 'business-as-usual'. Knowledge about the chemistry and bioprocessing of these marine adhesives will provide profound insights for the evolution of a new generation of environmentally safe, water-resistant adhesives. Despite their apparent structural diversity, marine adhesives are essentially analogous to composite thermosets, that is, the adhesive consists of fibre, filler and catalyst molecules that are dispersed in a cross-linked resin rendering it resistant to heat and solvents. The fibres and fillers in these composites are variable. e.g. collagen, fibroin, chitin present as fibres, and sand, shell, air and water present as fillers. The precured resins of seven organisms including members of the Mollusca, Annelida, and Platyhelminthes have now been isolated and partially sequenced. These are proteins with basic isoelectric points, high levels of the amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (DOPA), and an extended, flexible conformation. The DOPA functional group in particular is thought to play a key role in (a) the chemisorption of these polymers to surface underwater, and (b) covalent cross-linking or setting of the adhesive, the latter reaction catalysed by the enzyme catecholoxidase. Much more needs to be done to explore the details of the adhesive processing and delivery strategies used by these organisms. PMID:2127695

  18. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of mammal cells, evidence is sufficient to propose that sundew adhesive is a promising nanomaterial worth further exploitation in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25948615

  19. Identification of inflammatory mediators in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying; Sheng, Huiming; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Mengxi; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression profile of intravitreous cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD) in comparison with patients with only rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods Twenty RRDCD patients and 30 RRD patients were included in this case-control study. A multiplex bead-based immunoassay was performed to determine the expression of a wide range of 29 inflammatory mediators in undiluted vitreous from the patients. Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U-test for nonparametric values and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared with the patients with RRD, intravitreous inflammatory mediators, including migration inhibitor factor (MIF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCL4, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL22, CXCL9, CXCL8, soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3), and platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), were upregulated in patients with RRDCD. After calibrating the factors duration of detachment, preoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade, and presence or absence of macular hole, the PDGF-AA concentrations were not significantly different according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. MIF and sICAM-1 markers were significantly different between the two groups and represented a forward stepwise logistic regression trend. Conclusions This is the first report to use multiplex bead analysis to investigate inflammatory mediators related to RRDCD. We proposed that the upregulated expression of these mediators may be involved in the inflammation process of RRDCD and that regulation of their expression may be potentially therapeutic by altering local inflammation. PMID:26015767

  20. Predictors of Inflammation in Response to Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Paul J.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Parker, Barbara; Natarajan, Loki; Hong, Suzi; Jain, Shamini; Sadler, Georgia R.; von Känel, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Although chemotherapy for breast cancer can increase inflammation, few studies have examined predictors of this phenomenon. This study examined potential contributions of demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment regimens to markers of inflammation in response to chemotherapy for breast cancer. Thirty-five women with stage I - III-A breast cancer (mean age 50 years) were studied prior to cycle 1 and prior to cycle 4 of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers with high relevance to breast cancer were examined, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-RA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), Interleukin- (IL-6), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), and von Willebrand factor (vWf). Chemotherapy was associated with elevations in VEGF (p≤0.01), sICAM-1 (p≤0.01), sP-selectin (p≤0.02) and vWf (p≤0.05). Multiple regression analysis controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) showed that higher post-chemotherapy levels of inflammation were consistently related to higher pre-chemotherapy levels of inflammation (p’s ≤0.05) as well as to certain disease characteristics. Post-chemotherapy IL-6 levels were higher in patients who had larger tumors (p≤0.05) while post-chemotherapy VEGF levels were higher in patients who had smaller tumors (p≤0.05). Post-chemotherapy sP-selectin levels were highest in women who had received epirubicin, cytoxan, 5fluorouracil chemotherapy (p≤0.01). These findings indicate that chemotherapy treatment can be associated with elevations in certain markers of inflammation, particularly markers of endothelial and platelet activation. Inflammation in response to chemotherapy is most significantly related to inflammation that existed prior to chemotherapy but also potentially to treatment regimen and to certain disease characteristics. PMID:17706918

  1. Association of Endothelial and Oxidative Stress with Metabolic Syndrome and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Szklo, Moyses; Cushman, Mary; Holvoet, Paul; Polak, Joseph; Bahrami, Hossein; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Ouyang, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A cluster of metabolic abnormalities termed metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative internal milieu. We examined whether the association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis is explained by biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Methods MESA is a population based study of 45-84 year old individuals of four US ethnicities without clinical cardiovascular disease. A random sample of 997 MESA participants had data on the following biomarkers: von Willebrand Factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1), CD40 ligand, soluble thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL). We examined whether the associations of MetS with B-mode ultrasound-defined common and internal carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) measured using computerized tomography were explained by the biomarkers using multiple regression methods. Results MetS was associated with higher levels of each of the biomarkers (p<0.001, CD40L suggestive association p=0.004), with greater IMT (p<0.001), and with greater extent of CAC in those in whom CAC was detectable (p=0.01). The association of MetS with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis remained unchanged after adjustment for the biomarkers. After adjusting for MetS, oxLDL was suggestively associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.005) and thicker internal carotid IMT (p=0.002), while sICAM-1was significantly associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.001). Conclusions The association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis was independent of its association with biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities and oxidative endothelial damage may lead to atherosclerotic disease through distinct mechanisms. PMID:21505504

  2. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissues or organs inside are normally able to shift around each other. This is because these tissues ... 13. Paine R. Rehabilitation and therapeutic modalities: a language of exercise and rehabilitation. In: DeLee JC, Drez ...

  3. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  4. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G.; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J.R.; Santos, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article “Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach” (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  5. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibits monocytes adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Lu, Na; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation and its subsequent endothelial dysfunction have been reported to play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of chronic vascular diseases. Inhibiting the attachment of monocytes to endothelium is a potential therapeutic strategy for vascular diseases treatment. α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone is generated from a precursor hormone called proopiomelanocortin by post-translational processing. However, whether α-melanocyte stimulating hormone plays a role in regulating endothelial inflammation is still unknown. In this study, the effects of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone on endothelial inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines were investigated. And the result indicated that α-melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibits the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, thereby attenuating the adhesion of THP-1 cells to the surface of endothelial cells. Mechanistically, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone was found to inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity. Finally, we found that the effect of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone on endothelial inflammation is dependent on its receptor melanocortin receptor 1. PMID:25898835

  6. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate modulates endothelial cell function and suppresses leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation. PMID:23760613

  7. Tumor Cell Extravasation Mediated by Leukocyte Adhesion is Shear Rate Dependent on IL-8 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shile; Hoskins, Meghan; Dong, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    To complete the metastatic journey, cancer cells have to disseminate through the circulation and extravasate to distal organs. However, the extravasation process, by which tumor cells leave a blood vessel and invade the surrounding tissue from the microcirculation, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium (EC) and subsequent extravasation were investigated under various flow conditions. Results have shown polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation by a shear-rate dependent mechanism. Melanoma cell-PMN interactions are mediated by the binding between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and β2 integrins on PMNs. In addition, the fluid convection affects the extent of activation of β2 integrins on PMNs by endogenously secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) within the tumor microenvironment. Results also indicate that shear rate affects the binding kinetics between PMNs and melanoma cells, which may contribute to the shear-rate dependence of melanoma extravasation in a shear flow when mediated by PMNs. PMID:20379392

  8. [Allergens-induced sensitization alters airway epithelial adhesion molecules expression in mice].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Tan, Mei-Ling; Xiang, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Qun; Zhu, Li-Ming; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2015-12-25

    To explore the relationship between the epithelial adhesion molecules and immune responses of airway epithelium, we observed the expression of integrin β4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the mice airway epithelium after sensitization with allergens. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) and then developed airway hyper-responsiveness as determined by barometric whole-body plethysmography. Both OVA and HDM sensitization led to increases of the number of peripheral leukocytes as well as inflammatory cells infiltration in lungs. OVA sensitized mice showed more severe inflammatory cells infiltration than HDM sensitized mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis of mice lung tissues revealed that sensitization with both allergens also led to a decrease of integrin β4 expression and an increase of ICAM-1 expression in airway epithelia. OVA sensitized mice showed a more significant increase of ICAM-1 expression compared with HDM sensitized mice. siRNA mediated silencing of integrin β4 gene in 16HBE cells resulted in an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Our results indicate a possible role of airway epithelial adhesion molecules in allergen-induced airway immune responses. PMID:26701635

  9. Classification of OPP adhesive tapes according to pyrogram of adhesives.

    PubMed

    Kumooka, Y

    2011-03-20

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) of colorless and transparent oriented polypropylene (OPP) adhesive tapes were analyzed by pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS). The PSAs were acrylic and rubber-based PSAs and the tapes were classified according to total ion current (TIC) chromatograms of the PSAs. The main pyrolyzates of the acrylic PSAs were decomposition products of monomers, monomers, dimmers and trimers. Those of the rubber-based PSAs were the monomers of elastomers, and subtle peaks observed were the pyrolyzates of tackifiers and volatile additives in the TIC chromatograms. Small differences were observed among the classifications of the acrylic PSAs by Py/GC/MS, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS). The classification of the rubber-based PSAs by Py/GC/MS and that by ATR FT-IR were the same, and a slight difference was observed between those by Py/GC/MS and MALDI MS. PMID:20719441

  10. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  11. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  12. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-08-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at -2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives.

  13. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  14. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at −2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives. PMID:26282730

  15. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  16. Innate Non-Specific Cell Substratum Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, William F.; Fuller, Danny; Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of motile cells to solid surfaces is necessary to transmit forces required for propulsion. Unlike mammalian cells, Dictyostelium cells do not make integrin mediated focal adhesions. Nevertheless, they can move rapidly on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. We have found that adhesion to such surfaces can be inhibited by addition of sugars or amino acids to the buffer. Treating whole cells with ?lpha-mannosidase to cleave surface oligosaccharides also reduces adhesion. The results indicate that adhesion of these cells is mediated by van der Waals attraction of their surface glycoproteins to the underlying substratum. Since glycoproteins are prevalent components of the surface of most cells, innate adhesion may be a common cellular property that has been overlooked. PMID:22952588

  17. NR-150B2 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatz, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive based polyimide solutions which are more easily processed than conventional aromatic polyimide systems and show potential for use for extended times at 589K are discussed. The adhesive system is based on a solution containing diglyme as the solvent and 2,2 bis(3',4'-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane, paraphenylenediamine, and oxydianiline. The replacement of N-methylpyrrolidone with diglyme as the solvent was found to improve the adhesive strengths of lap shear samples and simplify the processing conditions for bonding both titanium and graphite fiber/polyimide matrix resin composites. Information was obtained on the effects of various environments including high humidity, immersion in jet fuel and methylethylketone on aluminum filled adhesive bonds. The adhesive was also evaluated in wide area bonds and flatwise tensile specimens using titanium honeycomb and composite face sheets. It was indicated that the developed adhesive system has the potential for use in applications requiring long term exposure to at least 589K (600 F).

  18. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  19. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD.

  20. Adhesive for solar control film

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, H.J.

    1984-01-31

    A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

  1. Double-Adhesive Tape Test Reduces Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Reed, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    New method for testing peel strength of particular thermal-control tape used on Space Shuttle orbiter radiators requires only half amount of tape of method previously employed. Thermal-control tape consists of layers of FEP, silver, Inconel metal, adhesive, Kapton Film, and second adhesive layer. Method also avoids cost of labor and materials to prepare second test coupon and can be adapted for testing other types of double-faced adhesive tapes in military, industrial and consumer applications.

  2. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  3. Influence of composition on the adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maeda, Takeshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of composition on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength between denture adhesives and the denture base. Two types of water-soluble polymers (methoxy ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer [PVM-MA] and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]) were used. Samples were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained only PVM-MA; Group 2 contained only CMC; and Group 3 contained PVM-MA and CMC. The initial viscosity and adhesive strength were measured. For Group 1, the initial viscosity increased significantly as PVM-MA content increased. The adhesive strength of Group 1 lasted longer than Group 2. The adhesive strength of Group 3 varied greatly. The ratio of CMC and PVM-MA has a significant effect on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of denture adhesives. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve the durability of a denture adhesive by combining different water-soluble polymers. PMID:24492119

  4. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D; Bassler, Bonnie L; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement face being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  5. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  6. Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Mireille; Thoumine, Olivier; Brevier, Julien; Choquet, Daniel; Riveline, Daniel; Mege, Rene-Marc

    2007-11-15

    Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions.

  7. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D; Bassler, Bonnie L; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement face being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  8. Structural adhesives for missile external protection material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, F. L.; Garzolini, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Two basic rubber materials are examined as possible external substrate protection materials (EPM) for missiles. The analysis provided a data base for selection of the optimum adhesives which are compatible with the substrate, loads applied and predicted bondline temperatures. Under the test conditions, EA934/NA was found to be the optimum adhesive to bond VAMAC 2273 and/or NBR/EPDM 9969A to aluminum substrate. The optimum adhesive for composite structures was EA956. Both of these adhesives are two-part epoxy systems with a pot life of approximately two hours. Further research is suggested on field repair criteria, nuclear hardness and survivability effects on bondline, and ageing effects.

  9. Adhesive strength of autologous fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Hirozane, K; Kamiya, A

    2000-03-01

    To establish an easy and rapid method for measuring the adhesive strength of fibrin glue and to clarify the factor(s) most affecting the strength, a study was made on the effect of the concentration of plasma components on the strength of cryoprecipitate (Cryo) prepared from a subject's own autologous plasma to be used as fibrin glue. The adhesive strength of the Cryo was measured with various supporting materials instead of animal skin using a tester of tension and compression. The results were as follows: (1) the strength of Cryo applied to ground flat glass (4 cm2) was significantly greater than that applied to clear glass, clear plastic, or smooth and flat wood chips; (2) the adhesive strength of Cryo depended on the concentration of thrombin with the optimal concentration being 50 units/ml; (3) the concentration of CaCl2 did not affect the adhesive strength of Cryo; (4) the adhesive reaction was dependent on the temperature and the adhesive strength more quickly reached a steady state at 37 degrees C than at lower temperature; (5) the adhesive strength was correlated well with the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. These results indicate that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be easily and quickly evaluated using a tester and ground glass with thrombin at 50 units/ml, and that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be predicted from the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. PMID:10726885

  10. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  11. Flavones mitigate tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced adhesion molecule upregulation in cultured human endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Choi, Yean-Jung; Park, Sung-Hee; Kang, Jung-Sook; Kang, Young-Hee

    2004-05-01

    Flavones have been classified as anti-atherogenic agents that inhibit monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelium, possibly by blocking induction of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). This anti-atherogenic feature of these flavonoids appears to be related to their chemical structures. Flavones may interfere with key signaling events involved in endothelial cell activation by inflammatory mediators. This study examined the effects of flavones on the induction of CAM and the translocation and DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in TNF-alpha-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The effects of flavones, luteolin and apigenin, on adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to the TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, protein expression and mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, and nuclear appearance and DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B were determined. Flavanols, flavonols, and flavanones were used for comparison. TNF-alpha significantly induced HUVEC protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin with increasing mRNA levels. Luteolin and apigenin inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of THP-1 adhesion and VCAM-1 expression; these inhibitory effects were dose-dependent. The flavones at doses of > or =25 micromol/L almost completely abolished the increased CAM protein and mRNA regardless of their anti-oxidative activity. With the exception of the flavonol quercetin, flavonoids had no such effect; quercetin substantially attenuated the CAM induction. The flavones inhibited nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of the NF-kappa B-containing binding site in the promoter region of the CAM genes in TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC. The inhibition of endothelial CAM induction by flavones is mediated by their interference with the NF-kappa B-dependent transcription pathway. Thus, the flavones may hamper initial atherosclerotic events involving endothelial CAM induction. PMID:15113938

  12. C1q/TNF-related protein-9 inhibits cytokine-induced vascular inflammation and leukocyte adhesiveness via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Yu Mi; Lee, Yoo La; Seol, So Mi; Yoon, Hae Kyeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Although recent studies have reported cardioprotective effects of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), the closet adiponectin paralog, its role on cytokine-induced endothelial inflammation is unknown. We investigated whether CTRP9 prevented inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules and a chemokine in the vascular endothelial cell. We used human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to examine the effects of CTRP9 on NF-κB activation and the expression of NF-κB-mediated genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, CTRP9 reduced TNFα-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECs. Treatment with CTRP9 significantly decreased TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1. In addition, treatment with CTRP9 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the downstream target of AMPK. The inhibitory effect of CTRP9 on the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 and monocyte adhesion to HAECs was abolished after transfection with an AMPKα1-specific siRNA. Our study is the first to demonstrate that CTRP9 attenuates cytokine-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells mediated by AMPK activation. PMID:26523509

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and promotes transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sellati, T J; Burns, M J; Ficazzola, M A; Furie, M B

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of leukocytic infiltrates in perivascular tissues is a key step in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. During an inflammatory response, endothelial cell adhesion molecules mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to the blood vessel wall and their subsequent extravasation into perivascular tissues. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi activated endothelium in a dose- and time-dependent fashion as measured by upregulation of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). As few as one spirochete per endothelial cell stimulated increased expression of these molecules. Expression of E-selectin peaked after spirochetes and HUVEC were coincubated for 4 h and returned to near-basal levels by 24 h. In contrast, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 peaked at 12 h and remained elevated at 24 h. HUVEC monolayers cultured on acellular amniotic tissue were used to investigate the consequences of endothelial cell activation by spirochetes. After incubation of HUVEC-amnion cultures with B. burgdorferi, subsequently added neutrophils migrated across the endothelial monolayers. This process was mediated by E-selectin and by CD11/CD18 leukocytic integrins. The extent of migration depended on both the number of spirochetes used to stimulate the HUVEC and the length of the coincubation period. These results raise the possibility that B. burgdorferi induces a host inflammatory response and accompanying perivascular damage through activation of vascular endothelium. PMID:7591083

  14. Tumor cell surface alpha 4 beta 1 integrin mediates adhesion to vascular endothelium: demonstration of an interaction with the N-terminal domains of INCAM-110/VCAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, D B; Cybulsky, M I; Djaffar, I; Longenecker, B M; Teixid, J; Rice, G E; Aruffo, A; Bevilacqua, M P

    1991-01-01

    Hematogenous metastasis involves adhesive interactions between blood-borne tumor cells and the vessel wall. By the use of in vitro assays, the adhesion of human melanoma, osteosarcoma, and kidney carcinoma (but not colon carcinoma) cell lines was shown to involve the cytokine-inducible endothelial cell surface protein inducible cell adhesion molecule 110 (INCAM-110) and the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, molecules normally involved in endothelial-leukocyte interactions. Tumor adhesion to human endothelial cell monolayers was increased 1.9- to 8.2-fold by endothelial activation with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and inhibited by the anti-INCAM-110 monoclonal antibody (mAb) E1/6. Each of these tumor cells expressed members of the beta 1 integrin family of adhesion molecules, and antibodies to the alpha 4 and beta 1 integrin subunits inhibited tumor-endothelial adhesion (48-87% inhibition). A cDNA encompassing the three N-terminal Ig-like domains of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) encoded a protein recognized by the anti-INCAM-110 mAb E1/6 and, when captured onto plastic, supported melanoma cell adhesion by an alpha 4 integrin-dependent mechanism. In contrast to mAb E1/6, a second anti-INCAM-110 mAb Hu8/4 neither inhibited adhesion to activated endothelium nor bound the first three Ig-like domains of INCAM-110/VCAM-1. These data indicate that the adherence of several human tumors to activated endothelium is mediated by an interaction of alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and the N-terminal Ig-like domains of endothelial INCAM-110/VCAM-1. Tumor acquisition of the alpha 4 integrin subunit and endothelial expression of INCAM-110 may affect the frequency and distribution of metastasis. Images PMID:1716464

  15. IRF-1 regulates alternative mRNA splicing of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in breast epithelial cells generating an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) containing isoform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a master regulator of IFN-γ induced gene transcription. Previously we have shown that IRF-1 transcriptionally induces CEACAM1 via an ISRE (Interferon-Stimulated Response Element) in its promoter. CEACAM1 pre-mRNA undergoes extensive alternative splicing (AS) generating isoforms to produce either a short (S) cytoplasmic domain expressed primarily in epithelial cells or as an ITIM-containing long (L) isoform in immune cells. Methods The transcriptional and molecular mechanism of CEACAM1 minigenes AS containing promoter ISREs mutations in the breast epithelial, MDA-MB-468, cell line was detected using flow cytometry. In addition, transcriptome sequencing was utilized to determine whether IRF-1 could direct the AS of other genes as well. Tumor xenografts were used to evaluate CEACAM1 isoform expression on the leading edge of breast tumor cells. Results In the present study, we provide evidence that CEACAM1’s promoter and variable exon 7 cross-talk allowing IRF-1 to direct AS events. Transcriptome sequencing shows that IRF-1 can also induce the global AS of genes involved in regulation of growth and differentiation as well as genes of the cytokine family. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells grown as tumor xenografts exhibit an AS switch to the L-isoform of CEACAM1, demonstrating that an in vivo inflammatory milieu is also capable of generating the AS switch, similar to that found in human breast cancers Mol Cancer 7:46, 2008. Conclusions The novel AS regulatory activities attributed to IRF-1 indicate that the IFN-γ response involves a global change in both gene transcription and AS in breast epithelial cells. PMID:24650050

  16. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattranctant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, & soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men/women consuming fructose-or glucose-sweetened beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. The objective of this study was ...

  17. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175...) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive adhesives may be safely used as...

  18. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte adhesion to C32 cells via CD36 is inhibited by antibodies to modified band 3.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, N J; Targett, G A; Hall, B S

    1996-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-infected erythrocytes are characterized by their ability to sequester in the microvasculature of various organs, primarily the spleen and bone marrow. This phenomenon is thought to play a critical role in the development and survival of the sexual stages. Little is known, however, about ligands on the gametocyte-infected erythrocyte. Infection of erythrocytes with mature asexual stages of P. falciparum (trophozoites and schizonts) has been shown to induce modification of the erythrocyte anion transporter, band 3, and this has been linked to the acquisition of an adherent phenotype. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that immature gametocyte-infected erythrocytes also express modified band 3. In vitro binding assays demonstrate that gametocyte-infected erythrocytes of the 3D7 strain utilize this surface receptor for adhesion to C32 amelanotic melanoma cells via the host cell receptor CD36 (platelet glycoprotein IIIb). Adhesion of gametocyte-infected erythrocytes to CD36-transfected CHO cells is also dependent on modified band 3. However, modified band 3 does not mediate adhesion of gametocyte-infected erythrocytes to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, a second host receptor for gametocytes expressed on C32 cells. PMID:8926098

  19. Effects of the Tumor-Leukocyte Microenvironment on Melanoma–Neutrophil Adhesion to the Endothelium in a Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shile; Hoskins, Meghan; Khanna, Payal; Kunz, Robert F.; Dong, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of cancer mortality is not attributed to primary tumor formation, but rather to the growth of metastases at distant organ sites. Tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel endothelium (EC) and subsequent transendothelial migration within the circulation are critical components of the metastasis cascade. Previous studies have shown polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation under flow conditions. The melanoma cell–PMN interactions are found to be mediated by the binding between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and β2 integrin on PMNs and by endogenously secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) within the tumor-leukocyte microenvironment. In this study, the effects of fluid convection on the IL-8-mediated activation of PMNs and the binding kinetics between PMNs and melanoma cells were investigated. Results indicate that the shear rate dependence of PMN–melanoma cell adhesion and melanoma cell extravasation is due, at least partly, to the convection of tumor-secreted proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. PMID:19865613

  20. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Mexican Children Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Hernndez-Castellanos, Erika; Barrera-Hernndez, Angel; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults, but there is little information on arsenic and early risk biomarkers for atherosclerosis in children. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an indicator of subclinical atherosclerotic burden that has been associated with plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of arsenic exposure with cIMT, ADMA, and endothelial adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1); soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)] in children who had been exposed to environmental inorganic arsenic (iAs). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 199 children 314 years of age who were residents of Zimapan, Mxico. We evaluated cIMT using ultrasonography, and plasma lipid profiles by standard methods. We analyzed ADMA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 by ELISA, and measured the concentrations of total speciated arsenic (tAs) in urine using hydride generation cryotrapping atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In the multiple linear regression model for cIMT, tAs categories were positively associated with cIMT increase. The estimated cIMT diameter was greater in 35- to 70-ng/mL and > 70-ng/mL groups (0.035 mm and 0.058 mm per 1-ng/mL increase in urinary tAs, respectively), compared with the < 35-ng/mL group. In addition to tAs level, plasma ADMA was a significant predictor of cIMT. In the adjusted regression model, cIMT, percent iAs, and plasma sVCAM-1 were significant predictors of ADMA levels (e.g., 0.419-?mol/L increase in ADMA per 1-mm increase in cIMT). Conclusions: Arsenic exposure and plasma ADMA levels were positively associated with cIMT in a population of Mexican children with environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water. Citation: Osorio-Yez C, Ayllon-Vergara JC, Aguilar-Madrid G, Arreola-Mendoza L, Hernndez-Castellanos E, Barrera-Hernndez A, De Vizcaya-Ruz A, Del Razo LM. 2013. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in Mexican children exposed to inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 121:10901096;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205994 PMID:23757599

  1. Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.

  2. Factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Lambrechts, P; Inokoshi, S; Braem, M; Vanherle, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues. Factors related to the physicochemical structure of the adherents and to the inherent properties of composite restorative materials, along with the postulated bonding mechanisms of current adhesive systems, are discussed. PMID:1470540

  3. Adhesion rings surround invadopodia and promote maturation

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Kevin M.; Hoshino, Daisuke; Weaver, Alissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Invasion and metastasis are aggressive cancer phenotypes that are highly related to the ability of cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). At the cellular level, specialized actin-rich structures called invadopodia mediate focal matrix degradation by serving as exocytic sites for ECM-degrading proteinases. Adhesion signaling is likely to be a critical regulatory input to invadopodia, but the mechanism and location of such adhesion signaling events are poorly understood. Here, we report that adhesion rings surround invadopodia shortly after formation and correlate strongly with invadopodium activity on a cell-by-cell basis. By contrast, there was little correlation of focal adhesion number or size with cellular invadopodium activity. Prevention of adhesion ring formation by inhibition of RGD-binding integrins or knockdown (KD) of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) reduced the number of ECM-degrading invadopodia and reduced recruitment of IQGAP to invadopodium actin puncta. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed that the rate of extracellular MT1-MMP accumulation at invadopodia was greatly reduced in both integrin-inhibited and ILK-KD cells. Conversely, KD of MT1-MMP reduced invadopodium activity and dynamics but not the number of adhesion-ringed invadopodia. These results suggest a model in which adhesion rings are recruited to invadopodia shortly after formation and promote invadopodium maturation by enhancing proteinase secretion. Since adhesion rings are a defining characteristic of podosomes, similar structures formed by normal cells, our data also suggest further similarities between invadopodia and podosomes. PMID:23213464

  4. Selective Adhesion of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Naoya; Kitamura, Keiko; Saiki, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to mineral surfaces plays an important role not only in bacterial survival in natural ecosystems, but also in mining industry applications. Selective adhesion was investigated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans by using four minerals, pyrite, quartz, chalcopyrite, and galena. Escherichia coli was used as a control bacterium. Contact angles were used as indicators of hydrophobicity, which was an important factor in the interaction between minerals and bacteria. The contact angle of E. coli in a 0.5% sodium chloride solution was 31°, and the contact angle of T. ferrooxidans in a pH 2.0 sulfuric acid solution was 23°. E. coli tended to adhere to more hydrophobic minerals by hydrophobic interaction, while T. ferrooxidans selectively adhered to iron-containing minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite. Ferrous ion inhibited the selective adhesion of T. ferrooxidans to pyrite competitively, while ferric ion scarcely inhibited such adhesion. When selective adhesion was quenched by ferrous ion completely, adhesion of T. ferrooxidans was controlled by hydrophilic interactions. Adhesion of E. coli to pyrite exhibited a liner relationship on langmuir isotherm plots, but adhesion of T. ferrooxidans did not. T. ferrooxidans recognized the reduced iron in minerals and selectively adhered to pyrite and chalcopyrite by a strong interaction other than the physical interaction. PMID:16349106

  5. Pathophysiology and prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions represent an important clinical challenge in gastrointestinal surgery. Peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of peritoneal irritation by infection or surgical trauma, and may be considered as the pathological part of healing following any peritoneal injury, particularly due to abdominal surgery. The balance between fibrin deposition and degradation is critical in determining normal peritoneal healing or adhesion formation. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are a major cause of morbidity resulting in multiple complications, many of which may manifest several years after the initial surgical procedure. In addition to acute small bowel obstruction, peritoneal adhesions may cause pelvic or abdominal pain, and infertility. In this paper, the authors reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis and various prevention strategies of adhesion formation, using Medline and PubMed search. Several preventive agents against postoperative peritoneal adhesions have been investigated. Their role aims in activating fibrinolysis, hampering coagulation, diminishing the inflammatory response, inhibiting collagen synthesis or creating a barrier between adjacent wound surfaces. Their results are encouraging but most of them are contradictory and achieved mostly in animal model. Until additional findings from future clinical researches, only a meticulous surgery can be recommended to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality rates from these untoward effects of surgery. In the current state of knowledge, pre-clinical or clinical studies are still necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the several proposed prevention strategies of postoperative peritoneal adhesions. PMID:22147959

  6. Sticky fingers: Adhesive properties of human fingertips.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Wiechert, Anke B; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-02-29

    Fingertip friction is a rather well studied subject. Although the phenomenon of finger stickiness is known as well, the pull-off force and the adhesive strength of human finger tips have never been previously quantified. For the first time, we provided here characterization of adhesive properties of human fingers under natural conditions. Human fingers can generate a maximum adhesive force of 15mN on a smooth surface of epoxy resin. A weak correlation of the adhesive force and the normal force was found on all test surfaces. Up to 300mN load, an increase of the normal force leads to an increase of the adhesive force. On rough surfaces, the adhesive strength is significantly reduced. Our data collected from untreated hands give also an impression of an enormous scattering of digital adhesion depending on a large set of inter-subject variability and time-dependent individual factors (skin texture, moisture level, perspiration). The wide inter- and intra-individual range of digital adhesion should be considered in developing of technical and medical products. PMID:26892897

  7. Molecular Adhesion between Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen network, in simulated physiological conditions. Colloidal force spectroscopy was applied to measure the maximum adhesion force and total adhesion energy between aggrecan end-attached spherical tips (end radius R ≈ 2.5 μm) and trypsin-treated cartilage disks with undamaged collagen networks. Studies were carried out in various aqueous solutions to reveal the physical factors that govern aggrecan–collagen adhesion. Increasing both ionic strength and [Ca2+] significantly increased adhesion, highlighting the importance of electrostatic repulsion and Ca2+-mediated ion bridging effects. In addition, we probed how partial enzymatic degradation of the collagen network, which simulates osteoarthritic conditions, affects the aggrecan–collagen interactions. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in aggrecan–collagen adhesion even when there were no detectable changes at the macro- or microscales. It is hypothesized that the aggrecan–collagen adhesion, together with aggrecan–aggrecan self-adhesion, works synergistically to determine the local molecular deformability and energy dissipation of the cartilage matrix, in turn, affecting its macroscopic tissue properties. PMID:24491174

  8. The effects of plasticity in adhesive fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, M. D.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An energy-balance analysis is presented for adhesive failure in end loaded cantilever beams. The analysis includes the effects of input work, stored strain energy, dissipated plastic energy, and specific adhesive surface energy. Experimental results obtained with 6061-T6 aluminum are presented as evidence for the validity of the approach.-

  9. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  10. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  11. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  12. Fatigue behavior of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.

    1983-01-01

    The fatigue damage mechanism of composite to composite adhesively bonded joints was characterized. The mechanics of the possible modes of fatigue damage propagation in these joints when subjected to constant amplitude cyclic mechanical loading were investigated. The possible failure modes in composite bonded joints may be cyclic debonding (i.e., progressive separation of the adhesive), interlaminar damage (delamination), adherend fatigue or a combination of these. Two composite systems - graphite/epoxy adhesively bonded to graphite/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy adhesively bonded to Kevlar 49/epoxy were investigated. Both composite systems consisted of quasi-isotropic lay-ups, i.e., 0 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg/90 degs. The two adhesives, employed in the study were (1) EC 3445 with cure temperature of 250 F for secondary bonding and (2) FM 300 with cure temperature of 350 F for co-cure bonding.

  13. Adhesion, friction and micromechanical properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics, both in monolithic and coating form, are reviewed. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials, and metals. For the simplicity of discussion, the tribological properties of concern in the processes are separated into two parts. The first part discusses the pull-off force (adhesion) and the shear force required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces. The role of chemical bonding in adhesion and friction, and the effects of surface contaminant films and temperature on tribological response with respect to adhesion and friction are discussed. The second part deals with abrasion of ceramics. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The scratch technique of determining the critical load needed to fracture interfacial adhesive bonds of ceramic deposited on substrates is also addressed.

  14. MRI of placental adhesive disorder.

    PubMed

    Srisajjakul, S; Prapaisilp, P; Bangchokdee, S

    2014-10-01

    Placental adhesive disorder (PAD) is a serious pregnancy complication that occurs when the chorionic villi invade the myometrium. Placenta praevia and prior caesarean section are the two important risk factors. PAD is classified on the basis of the depth of myometrial invasion (placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta). MRI is the preferred image modality for pre-natal diagnosis of PAD and as complementary technique when ultrasonography is inconclusive. Imaging findings that are helpful for the diagnosis include dark intraplacental bands, direct invasion of adjacent structures by placental tissue, interruption of normal trilayered myometrium and uterine bulging. Clinicians should be aware of imaging features of PAD to facilitate optimal patient management. PMID:25060799

  15. INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORK (IPN) ADHESIVES FOR ELECTRON BEAM CURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron beam (e-beam)-processed polymer adhesives have historically performed poorly compared to traditional adhesive technologies due to a lack of toughness engineered into these new types of adhesive materials. Consequently, sequential- and simultaneous-interpenetrating polyme...

  16. Viscoelastic effects in the adhesion of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Wei Jing

    Viscoelastic effects in the tear strength and adhesion of elastomers were investigated by: (1) using a viscoelastic data analysis tool, the Williams, Landel, and Ferry (WLF) equation, to understand the tear strength and adhesion of butyl rubber as a function of dwell time and contact temperature; (2) conducting a simple peel test to measure the adhesion of elastomers to filler particles; and (3) using an equation derived from the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory to calculate the energy required to peel an elastomer strip from a layer of filler particles. The WLF equation was used to form mastercurves of fracture energy of butyl rubber versus effective rate of crack propagation. The peel strength was found to increase continuously over long periods of contact until failure became cohesive within the elastomer layer. At higher temperatures the peel strength increased more rapidly, consistent with the WLF relation governing molecular motion. It is postulated that slow molecular rearrangements occur at the interface, increasing bond strength. Secondly, a simple peel test was used to study the adhesion of three elastomers to filler particles. An interlayer of carbon black particles increased peel strength by up to 300% compared with self-adhesion. Silica particles also increased adhesion, but by a smaller factor. There were significant differences between the different elastomers. Also, the strength of adhesion depended on the degree of crosslinking of the elastomer layers; at higher levels of crosslinking, both self-adhesion and adhesion to particles were reduced. This simple experiment gives an indication of the relative strength of adhesion for different combinations of elastomer and reinforcing filler. Strengths calculated from the hypothesized equation agreed approximately with experimental values.

  17. Color stability of orthodontic adhesive resins.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Theodore; Gioka, Christiana; Heim, Matthew; Eliades, George; Makou, Margarita

    2004-06-01

    Color alteration of adhesive during treatment and after debonding may be implicated in long-term enamel discoloration. The aim of this study was to assess the color stability of light-cured and chemically cured adhesives subjected to artificial photoaging. Disk-shaped specimens of adhesives were colorimetrically evaluated before and after artificial photoaging using an ISO-recommended protocol. The measurement variable was the color change (deltaE) of adhesives induced by artificial, accelerated photoaging. The deltaE values derived from the two color recordings for the materials at pre- and postaging intervals were statistically analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the adhesive brand serving as a discriminating variable. Differences among groups were further investigated using the Tukey multiple comparisons test (alpha = .05). To establish the statistical significance of the difference of the deltaE values of each adhesive and the deltaE threshold for clinical detection, a paired t-test was used (P = .05). All adhesives exhibited color change, which in some cases exceeded the clinically detectable color change limit. The extent of the color alterations of aged bonding systems may contribute to enamel discoloration after treatment. PMID:15264652

  18. Penile adhesion: the hidden complication of circumcision.

    PubMed

    Gracely-Kilgore, K A

    1984-05-01

    A penile or prepuce adhesion can occur after a circumcision if the remaining skin is not retracted after the circumcision has healed. When a circumcision is done, tissue which would normally be intact is split. Unless proper care is taken, the epithelium of the inner prepuce at the point where the foreskin was removed can reattach to the epithelium of the glans. The result of this is a penile adhesion. Usually the adhesions can be released by simple retraction. Sometimes, however, the fusion is so complete that simple retraction will not work, and the child must be referred to a urologist. Another problem is that smegma or bacteria can collect under the adhesion if it covers the preputial cavity and cause infection. Professionals must look for this problem, and parents must be taught how to care for the normal circumcised penis so that penile adhesions do not develop. This article discusses the formation and identification of penile adhesions, the process by which adhesions can be released, when a referral to a urologist is necessary and the proper care for the circumcised penis. PMID:6728346

  19. Adhesion in ceramics and magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a metal or a polymeric material such as a magnetic medium, strong bonds form between the materials. For ceramic-to-metal contacts, adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. Hardness of metals plays a much more important role in adhesion and friction than does the surface energy of metals. Adhesion, friction, surface energy, and hardness of a metal are all related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. An increase in shear modulus results in a decrease in area of contact that is greater than the corresponding increase in surface energy (the fond energy) with shear modulus. Consequently, the adhesion and friction decrease with increasing shear modulus. For ceramics in contact with polymeric magnetic tapes, environment is extremely important. For example, a nitrogen environment reduces adhesion and friction when ferrite contacts polymeric tape, whereas a vacuum environment strengthens the ferrite-to-tape adhesion and increases friction. Adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the particle loading of the tape. An increase in magnetic particle concentration increases the complex modulus of the tape, and a lower real area of contact and lower friction result.

  20. Morphology and genesis of asymmetric adhesion warts—a new adhesion surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Henrik; Due, Poul H.; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    1989-02-01

    Adhesion surface structures have been studied during their formation on a fluvial bar in East Greenland. Two main types occurred: adhesion ripples and asymmetric adhesion warts. Adhesion ripples formed on moist surfaces; their crests lay transverse to the wind direction and they migrated by trapping dry wind-blown sand on their steep fronts. Asymmetric adhesion warts (new structure) formed because of falling moisture content by preferred upwind migration of small protuberances on the adhesion ripples. The protuberances were apparently inherited from an initial rain sculpturing of the bar surface. The asymmetric adhesion warts, here described for the first time, were elongate parallel to the wind, associated with steep upwind-facing fronts and commonly displayed sand-shadow tails tapering in a downwind direction. A study of Devonian flood-basin deposits (Hornelen Basin, Norway) revealed the existence of adhesion surface structures very similar to their modern analogues. The Devonian examples were associated with rain-sculptured surfaces which are believed to have controlled the morphology of the adhesion surface structures as in the modern example. The orientation of the ancient adhesion surface structures is here used for determination of the palaeowind, which blew from the ENE.

  1. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  2. Contact mechanical measurement of block copolymer adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsafi, Afshin

    1998-12-01

    The immediate goals of this thesis were to make a significant advance in measuring adhesion in the presence of viscoelastic effects and to understand the relation of structure and surface architecture to adhesion in polymeric systems. Contact mechanics was used as a tool to measure interfacial properties. In this methodology based on the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory of adhesive contact, two solids of revolution (generally hemispheres) are pressed against each other. The force and contact area are monitored as steps of compression are imposed; the higher the adhesion, the larger the contact area and the lower the force under a given compression. The main feature of this technique is its direct manner of characterization: the surfaces of interest are brought into contact directly. As an integral part of this thesis, an automated apparatus was designed and built to ensure high precision in metrology and good control over experimental conditions. The contact mechanical analysis has originally been developed for elastic materials. The first attempt of this thesis was to extend the analysis to surface energy determination of viscoelastic materials. In this analysis, independent rheological measurements are used as the input. As a model system a series of block copolymers with different compositions, hence different microstructures are tested. Effect of chain architecture of block copolymers on their adhesion is the main subject of this thesis. It has been shown how different surface architectures can influence the dynamics of adhesion. Finally, our understanding of adhesion of viscoelastic materials was applied to technologically important materials such as acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives. The surface energy determination of the crosslinked pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) confirmed the importance of rheological properties on performance of practical (uncrosslinked) PSA that are composition-dependent.

  3. Improving controllable adhesion on both rough and smooth surfaces with a hybrid electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Ruffatto, Donald; Parness, Aaron; Spenko, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, controllable adhesive that combines the benefits of electrostatic adhesives with gecko-like directional dry adhesives. When working in combination, the two technologies create a positive feedback cycle whose adhesion, depending on the surface type, is often greater than the sum of its parts. The directional dry adhesive brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, increasing its effect. Similarly, the electrostatic adhesion helps engage more of the directional dry adhesive fibrillar structures, particularly on rough surfaces. This paper presents the new hybrid adhesive's manufacturing process and compares its performance to three other adhesive technologies manufactured using a similar process: reinforced PDMS, electrostatic and directional dry adhesion. Tests were performed on a set of ceramic tiles with varying roughness to quantify its effect on shear adhesive force. The relative effectiveness of the hybrid adhesive increases as the surface roughness is increased. Experimental data are also presented for different substrate materials to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved with the hybrid adhesive. Results show that the hybrid adhesive provides up to 5.1× greater adhesion than the electrostatic adhesive or directional dry adhesive technologies alone. PMID:24451392

  4. Adhesion patterns in early cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Ryzhkov, Pavel; Prass, Marcus; Gummich, Meike; Kühn, Jac-Simon; Oettmeier, Christina; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2010-05-19

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts explore the chemical suitability before spreading on a given substrate. We find this early phase of cell spreading to be characterized by transient adhesion patches with a typical mean size of (1.0 ± 0.4) µm and a lifetime of (33 ± 12) s. Eventually, these patches fuse to initiate extensive spreading of the cell. We monitor cell adhesion using reflection interference contrast and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Digital time lapse movies are analysed employing spatio-temporal correlation functions of adhesion patterns. Correlation length and time can be scaled to obtain a master curve at the fusion point. PMID:21386433

  5. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  6. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  7. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  8. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  9. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  10. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  11. The development of low temperature curing adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Sutherland, J. D.; Hom, J. M.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for the development of a practical low temperature (293 K-311 K/68 F-100 F) curing adhesive system based on a family of amide/ester resins was studied and demonstrated. The work was conducted on resin optimization and adhesive compounding studies. An improved preparative method was demonstrated which involved the reaction of an amine-alcohol precursor, in a DMF solution with acid chloride. Experimental studies indicated that an adhesive formulation containing aluminum powder provided the best performance when used in conjunction with a commercial primer.

  12. Expression of Versican V3 by Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Alters Tumor Growth Factor β (TGFβ)-, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-, and Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB)-dependent Signaling Pathways, Creating a Microenvironment That Resists Monocyte Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Inkyung; Yoon, Dong Won; Braun, Kathleen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage accumulation plays a critical role during progression of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Our previous studies demonstrated that retrovirally mediated expression of the versican V3 splice variant (V3) by arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) decreases monocyte adhesion in vitro and macrophage accumulation in a model of lipid-induced neointimal formation in vivo. We now demonstrate that V3-expressing ASMCs resist monocyte adhesion by altering the composition of the microenvironment surrounding the cells by affecting multiple signaling pathways. Reduction of monocyte adhesion to V3-expressing ASMCs is due to the generation of an extracellular matrix enriched in elastic fibers and depleted in hyaluronan, and reduction of the proinflammatory cell surface vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1). Blocking these changes reverses the protective effect of V3 on monocyte adhesion. The enhanced elastogenesis induced by V3 expression is mediated by TGFβ signaling, whereas the reduction in hyaluronan cable formation induced by V3 expression is mediated by the blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor and NFκB activation pathways. In addition, expression of V3 by ASMCs induced a marked decrease in NFκB-responsive proinflammatory cell surface molecules that mediate monocyte adhesion, such as VCAM1. Overall, these results indicate that V3 expression by ASMCs creates a microenvironment resistant to monocyte adhesion via differentially regulating multiple signaling pathways. PMID:24719328

  13. Echinoderm adhesive secretions: from experimental characterization to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Flammang, P; Santos, R; Haesaerts, D

    2005-01-01

    Adhesion is a way of life in echinoderms. Indeed, all the species belonging to this phylum use adhesive secretions extensively for various vital functions. According to the species or to the developmental stage considered, different adhesive systems may be recognized. (1) The tube feet or podia are organs involved in attachment to the substratum, locomotion, feeding or burrowing. Their temporary adhesion relies on a duo-gland adhesive system resorting to both adhesive and de-adhesive secretions. (2) The larval adhesive organs allow temporary attachment of larvae during settlement and strong fixation during metamorphosis. (3) The Cuvierian tubules are sticky defence organs occurring in some holothuroid species. Their efficacy is based on the instantaneous release of a quick-setting adhesive. All these systems rely on different types of adhesion and therefore differ in the way they operate, in their structure and in the composition of their adhesive. In addition to fundamental interests in echinoderm bioadhesives, a substantial impetus behind understanding these adhesives are the potential technological applications that can be derived from their knowledge. These applications cover two broad fields of applied research: design of water-resistant adhesives and development of new antifouling strategies. In this context, echinoderm adhesives could offer novel features or performance characteristics for biotechnological applications. For example, the rapidly attaching adhesive of Cuvierian tubules, the releasable adhesive of tube feet or the powerful adhesive of asteroid larvae could each be useful to address particular bioadhesion problems. PMID:17152699

  14. VLA-4 blockade promotes differential routes into human CNS involving PSGL-1 rolling of T cells and MCAM-adhesion of TH17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Rossaint, Jan; Mohan, Hema; Böning, Daniel; Breuer, Johanna; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Gross, Catharina C.; Flanagan, Ken; Sorokin, Lydia; Vestweber, Dietmar; Zarbock, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is the characterization of human T cell blood–brain barrier migration and corresponding molecular trafficking signatures. We examined peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid immune cells from patients under long-term anti–very late antigen-4 (VLA-4)/natalizumab therapy (LTNT) and from CNS specimens. LTNT patients’ cerebrospinal fluid T cells exhibited healthy central-/effector-memory ratios, but lacked CD49d and showed enhanced myeloma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) expression. LTNT led to an increase of PSGL-1 expression on peripheral T cells. Although vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VLA-4 receptor) was expressed at all CNS barriers, P-selectin (PSGL-1-receptor) was mainly detected at the choroid plexus. Accordingly, in vitro experiments under physiological flow conditions using primary human endothelial cells and LTNT patients’ T cells showed increased PSGL-1–mediated rolling and residual adhesion, even under VLA-4 blockade. Adhesion of MCAM+/TH17 cells was not affected by VLA-4 blocking alone, but was abrogated when both VLA-4 and MCAM were inhibited. Consistent with these data, MCAM+ cells were detected in white matter lesions, and in gray matter of multiple sclerosis patients. Our data indicate that lymphocyte trafficking into the CNS under VLA-4 blockade can occur by using the alternative adhesion molecules, PSGL-1 and MCAM, the latter representing an exclusive pathway for TH17 cells to migrate over the blood–brain barrier. PMID:25135296

  15. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. PMID:26477544

  16. Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study.

    PubMed

    Kloboucek, A; Behrisch, A; Faix, J; Sackmann, E

    1999-10-01

    A model system to study the control of cell adhesion by receptor-mediated specific forces, universal interactions, and membrane elasticity is established. The plasma membrane is mimicked by reconstitution of homophilic receptor proteins into solid supported membranes and, together with lipopolymers, into giant vesicles with the polymers forming an artificial glycocalix. The homophilic cell adhesion molecule contact site A, a lipid-anchored glycoprotein from cells of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as receptor. The success of the reconstitution, the structure and the dynamics of the model membranes are studied by various techniques including film balance techniques, micro fluorescence, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, electron microscopy, and phase contrast microscopy. The interaction of the functionalized giant vesicles with the supported bilayer is studied by reflection interference contrast microscopy, and the adhesion strength is evaluated quantitatively by a recently developed technique. At low receptor concentrations adhesion-induced receptor segregation in the membranes leads to decomposition of the contact zone between membranes into domains of strong (receptor-mediated) adhesion and regions of weak adhesion while continuous zones of strong adhesion form at high receptor densities. The adhesion strengths (measured in terms of the spreading pressure S) of the various states of adhesion are obtained locally by analysis of the vesicle contour near the contact line in terms of elastic boundary conditions of adhesion: the balance of tensions and moments. The spreading pressure of the weak adhesion zones is S approximately 10(-9) J/m(2) and is determined by the interplay of gravitation and undulation forces whereas the spreading pressure of the tight adhesion domains is of the order S approximately 10(-6) J/m(2). PMID:10512849

  17. Quantifying adhesive penetration in adhesive/dentin interface using confocal Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2002-01-01

    Confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) provides an important and novel means of analyzing the chemical composition of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantitative determination of the degree of adhesive penetration at the a/d interface using CRM. Three commercial dentin adhesive systems [Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP+), Single Bond (SB), and Primer Bond NT (PBNT)] based on the total etch and "wet" bonding technique were examined in this study. Human dentin specimens treated with these adhesives were analyzed with CRM mapping across the a/d interface. Also, Raman spectra were collected on model mixtures of adhesive and type I collagen, and the ratios of the relative intensities of the Raman bands corresponding to adhesive and collagen were used for the construction of calibration curves. By comparing the Raman band ratios of interface specimens to the calibration curves, the percent of adhesive as a function of spatial position across the a/d interface was determined. The results show that there is a gradual decrease in penetration as a function of position for all three adhesive systems while the adhesive concentration gradient decreases in the order of SBMP+ > SB > PBNT. These differences in penetration of the three adhesives at the a/d interface also are discussed relative to the composition and phase segregation in adhesives. Additionally, our results indicate that confocal Raman microspectroscopy is a reliable in situ analytical technique for simple and rapid quantitative determination of adhesive penetration at its interface with prepared dentin. PMID:11745536

  18. Viscoelastic study of an adhesively bonded joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The plane strain problem of two dissimilar orthotropic plates bonded with an isotropic, linearly viscoelastic adhesive is considered. Both the shear and the normal stresses in the adhesive are calculated for various geometries and loading conditions. Transverse shear deformations of the adherends are taken into account, and their effect on the solution is shown in the results. All three inplane strains of the adhesive are included. Attention is given to the effect of temperature, both in the adhesive joint problem and to the heat generation in a viscoelastic material under cyclic loading. This separate study is included because heat generation and or spatially varying temperature are at present too difficult to account for in the analytical solution of the bonded joint, but whose effect can not be ignored in design.

  19. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  20. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  1. Regulation of integrin-mediated adhesions.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Daniel V; Calderwood, David A

    2015-10-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment and bidirectionally relay signals across the cell membrane. These processes are critical for cell attachment, migration, differentiation, and survival, and therefore play essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and pathology. Integrin-mediated adhesions are regulated by diverse factors, including the conformation-specific affinities of integrin receptors for their extracellular ligands, the clustering of integrins and their intracellular binding partners into discrete adhesive structures, mechanical forces exerted on the adhesion, and the intracellular trafficking of integrins themselves. Recent advances shed light onto how the interaction of specific intracellular proteins with the short cytoplasmic tails of integrins controls each of these activities. PMID:26189062

  2. Ins and Outs of Microbial Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virji, Mumtaz

    Microbial adhesion is generally a complex process, involving multiple adhesins on a single microbe and their respective target receptors on host cells. In some situations, various adhesins of a microbe may co-operate in an apparently hierarchical and sequential manner whereby the first adhesive event triggers the target cell to express receptors for additional microbial adhesins. In other instances, adhesins may act in concert leading to high avidity interactions, often a prelude to cellular invasion and tissue penetration. Mechanisms used to target the host include both lectin-like interactions and protein-protein interactions; the latter are often highly specific for the host or a tissue within the host. This reflective chapter aims to offer a point of view on microbial adhesion by presenting some experiences and thoughts especially related to respiratory pathogens and explore if there can be any future hope of controlling bacterial infections via preventing adhesion or invasion stages of microbial pathogenesis.

  3. Thread-Pull Test Of Curing Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Hardness (and degree of cure) of adhesive layer measured by pulling previously inserted thread out of layer. Strength of bond measured directly on assembly rather than on samples, which can be misleading.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.

  5. TOWARD MINIMALLY ADHESIVE SURFACES UTILIZING SILOXANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of siloxane-based network polymers have been investigated for their surface properties towards potential applications as minimally adhesive coatings. A filled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer, RTV it, has been studied to determine surface weldability and stabil...

  6. [PROPHYLAXIS OF AN ACUTE ADHESIVE ILEUS RECURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Evtushenko, D A

    2015-10-01

    The results of treatment of 56 patients were studied, in whom for adhesive abdominal disease, complicated by an acute adhesive ileus (AAI), the adhesiolysis with intraabdominal introduction of antiadhesive measures, named Mezogel, Defensal were conducted, as well as in 42 patients, operated on in emergency for AAI, using a routine method. Application of videolaparoscopy gives a possibility to control the adhesive process in the early postoperative period, what is necessary for prophylaxis of the adhesive disease occurence. Application of the apparatus, we have elaborated, permitted to conduct a precisional viscerolysis due to good visualization of organs, pathologically changed and healthy tissues. Application of the procedures elaborated for prophylaxis of the AAI recurrence have promoted the reduction of risk for the AAI occurence down to 1.8%, and of disorders of the gut contents transit in terms up to 1 yr - to 3.6%. PMID:26946653

  7. Micropatterning cell adhesion on polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wei-Hui; Rape, Andrew; Wang, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Cell shape and substrate rigidity play critical roles in regulating cell behaviors and fate. Controlling cell shape on elastic adhesive materials holds great promise for creating a physiologically relevant culture environment for basic and translational research and clinical applications. However, it has been technically challenging to create high-quality adhesive patterns on compliant substrates. We have developed an efficient and economical method to create precise micron-scaled adhesive patterns on the surface of a hydrogel (Rape et al., Biomaterials 32:2043-2051, 2011). This method will facilitate the research on traction force generation, cellular mechanotransduction, and tissue engineering, where precise controls of both materials rigidity and adhesive patterns are important. PMID:23955741

  8. Biologically inspired crack trapping for enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Glassmaker, Nicholas J; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Noderer, William L; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2007-06-26

    We present a synthetic adaptation of the fibrillar adhesion surfaces found in nature. The structure consists of protruding fibrils topped by a thin plate and shows an experimentally measured enhancement in adhesion energy of up to a factor of 9 over a flat control. Additionally, this structure solves the robustness problems of previous mimic structures and has preferred contact properties (i.e., a large surface area and a highly compliant structure). We show that this geometry enhances adhesion because of its ability to trap interfacial cracks in highly compliant contact regimes between successive fibril detachments. This results in the requirement that the externally supplied energy release rate for interfacial separation be greater than the intrinsic work of adhesion, in a manner analogous to lattice trapping of cracks in crystalline solids. PMID:17581870

  9. Sticky microbes: forces in microbial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Dufrne, Yves F

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the fundamental forces involved in the adhesion of microbial cells is important not only in microbiology, to elucidate cellular functions (such as ligand-binding or biofilm formation), but also in medicine (biofilm infections) and biotechnology (cell aggregation). Rapid progress in atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has made it possible to measure the forces driving cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions on a single cell basis. A living cell is attached to the AFM probe, thereby enabling researchers to measure the interaction forces between the cell and a target surface. Recent advances in our understanding of the forces driving cell adhesion and biofilm formation are discussed, with a focus on pathogens. These studies provide compelling evidence that, upon contact with a surface, cell adhesion components display a variety of mechanical responses that are important for cell adhesion. PMID:25684261

  10. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue... intended fo