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1

N-cadherin mediates Sertoli cell-spermatogenic cell adhesion.  

PubMed

The complex topological association of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells in the testis suggests the existence of cell surface adhesion molecules that regulate cellular interactions within the seminiferous epithelium. The recent report of N-cadherin mRNA expression in the mouse testis implies the involvement of this known adhesion molecule in testicular cell binding. Accordingly, here we report that (1) N-cadherin is found on the surface membranes of rat spermatogenic cells and on Sertoli cells, and (2) that N-cadherin is a partial mediator of Sertoli cell-germ cell adhesion as tested in an vitro cell-cell binding assay. Antiserum directed against the N-cadherin cell adhesion recognition sequence was used for Western blot anlaysis of purified plasma membranes from Sertoli cells and from spermatogenic cells. Both membrane preparations exhibited reactivity at an appropriate M(r) of about 130 kDa. In addition, immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that both germ cells and Sertoli cells were labeled by anti-N-cadherin. Finally, the antiserum was included in a cytometer-assisted cell-cell binding test to determine its inhibitory ability. The antiserum consistently reduced specific testicular cell-cell adhesion by 30%-50%. This is the first demonstration that antibodies directed against the cadherin cell adhesion recognition sequence are capable of inhibiting cell-cell interactions. Pre-incubation of either rat Sertoli cells or spermatogenic cells alone was sufficient to achieve statistically significant inhibition of intercellular adhesion. We conclude, therefore, that N-cadherin is expressed by both Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells and that N-cadherin is one of a number of regulatory molecules mediating local cellular associations in the mammalian seminiferous tubule. PMID:8400407

Newton, S C; Blaschuk, O W; Millette, C F

1993-05-01

2

Differential effects of N-cadherin-mediated adhesion on the development of myotomal waves.  

PubMed

Myotomal fibers form by a first wave of pioneer myoblasts from the medial epithelial somite, and by a second wave from all four lips of the dermomyotome. Then, a third wave of mitotic progenitors colonizes the myotome, initially stemming from the extreme lips and, later, from the central dermomyotome sheet. In vitro studies have suggested that N-cadherin plays a role in myogenesis, but its role in vivo remains poorly understood. We find that during the growth phase of the dermomyotome sheet, when the orientation of mitotic spindles is parallel to the mediolateral extent of the epithelium, N-cadherin protein is inherited by both daughter cells. Prior to dermomyotome dissociation into dermis and muscle progenitors, when mitoses become perpendicularly oriented, N-cadherin remains associated only with the apical cell located in apposition to the myotome, generating molecular asymmetry between basal and apical progeny. Local gene missexpression confirms that N-cadherin-mediated adhesion is sufficient to promote myotome colonization, whereas its absence drives cells towards the subectodermal domain, hence coupling the asymmetric distribution of N-cadherin to a shift in mitotic orientation and to fate segregation. Site-directed electroporation to additional, discrete somite regions, further reveals that N-cadherin-mediated adhesion is necessary for maintaining the epithelial configuration of all dermomyotome domains while promoting the onset of Myod transcription and the translocation into the myotome of myofibers and/or of Pax-positive progenitors. By contrast, N-cadherin has no effect on migration or differentiation of the first wave of myotomal pioneers. Altogether, we show for the first time that the asymmetric localization of N-cadherin during mitosis indirectly influences fate segregation by differentially driving the allocation of progenitors to muscle versus dermal primordia, that the adhesive domain of N-cadherin maintains the integrity of the dermomyotome epithelium, which is necessary for myogenic specification, and that different molecular mechanisms underlie the establishment of pioneer and later myotomal waves. PMID:16481350

Cinnamon, Yuval; Ben-Yair, Raz; Kalcheim, Chaya

2006-03-01

3

N-cadherin, A Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Cell Adhesion Molecule: Function and Signaling for Vasomotor Control.  

PubMed

Cell-cell adhesion complexes are increasingly recognized as an important cell-signaling site, similar to integrin-extracellular matrix FA. Furthermore, cell-cell adhesions are involved in the regulation of multi-cellular/tissue organization and organ, tissue, and cellular level functional behavior. Although N-cadherin is the major cell-cell adhesion molecule in VSM, only limited studies have been undertaken to understand its function in VSM. In contrast, N-cadherin signaling and functions have been extensively studied in neurons, fibroblasts, and myocytes, as well as in the context of epithelial-mesenchymal-transitions. Increasing evidence has indicated that N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions are important for tissue integrity and cell proliferation. Relevant to VSM, N-cadherin's role in actin cytoskeleton organization and contraction, as well as its role in regulation of Rho family GTPases are of particular interest. This article briefly reviews the fundamentals of N-cadherin biology that help shape our current understanding of its function and signaling mechanisms. In particular, attention is given to applications of this knowledge to VSM. The review points to the need for more research effort that is directed at understanding the role of N-cadherins in the regulation of vascular function. PMID:24521477

Sun, Zhe; Parrish, Alan R; Hill, Michael A; Meininger, Gerald A

2014-04-01

4

Targeting Cx43 and N-Cadherin, Which Are Abnormally Upregulated in Venous Leg Ulcers, Influences Migration, Adhesion and Activation of Rho GTPases  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics.

Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.

2012-01-01

5

Galectin-3 protein regulates mobility of N-cadherin and GM1 ganglioside at cell-cell junctions of mammary carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Galectin-3 binding to cell surface glycoproteins, including branched N-glycans generated by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) activity, forms a multivalent, heterogeneous, and dynamic lattice. This lattice has been shown to regulate integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling promoting tumor cell migration. N-cadherin is a homotypic cell-cell adhesion receptor commonly overexpressed in tumor cells that contributes to cell motility. Here we show that galectin-3 and N-cadherin interact and colocalize with the lipid raft marker GM1 ganglioside in cell-cell junctions of mammary epithelial cancer cells. Disruption of the lattice by deletion of Mgat5, siRNA depletion of galectin-3, or competitive inhibition with lactose stabilizes cell-cell junctions. It also reduces, in a p120-catenin-dependent manner, the dynamic pool of junctional N-cadherin. Proteomic analysis of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) revealed that the galectin lattice opposes entry of many proteins into DRM rafts. N-cadherin and catenins are present in DRMs; however, their DRM distribution is not significantly affected by lattice disruption. Galectin lattice integrity increases the mobile fraction of the raft marker, GM1 ganglioside binding cholera toxin B subunit Ctb, at cell-cell contacts in a p120-catenin-independent manner, but does not affect the mobility of either Ctb-labeled GM1 or GFP-coupled N-cadherin in nonjunctional regions. Our results suggest that the galectin lattice independently enhances lateral molecular diffusion by direct interaction with specific glycoconjugates within the adherens junction. By promoting exchange between raft and non-raft microdomains as well as molecular dynamics within junction-specific raft microdomains, the lattice may enhance turnover of N-cadherin and other glycoconjugates that determine junctional stability and rates of cell migration. PMID:22846995

Boscher, Cécile; Zheng, Yu Zi; Lakshminarayan, Ramya; Johannes, Ludger; Dennis, James W; Foster, Leonard J; Nabi, Ivan R

2012-09-21

6

Galectin-3 Protein Regulates Mobility of N-cadherin and GM1 Ganglioside at Cell-Cell Junctions of Mammary Carcinoma Cells*  

PubMed Central

Galectin-3 binding to cell surface glycoproteins, including branched N-glycans generated by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) activity, forms a multivalent, heterogeneous, and dynamic lattice. This lattice has been shown to regulate integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling promoting tumor cell migration. N-cadherin is a homotypic cell-cell adhesion receptor commonly overexpressed in tumor cells that contributes to cell motility. Here we show that galectin-3 and N-cadherin interact and colocalize with the lipid raft marker GM1 ganglioside in cell-cell junctions of mammary epithelial cancer cells. Disruption of the lattice by deletion of Mgat5, siRNA depletion of galectin-3, or competitive inhibition with lactose stabilizes cell-cell junctions. It also reduces, in a p120-catenin-dependent manner, the dynamic pool of junctional N-cadherin. Proteomic analysis of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) revealed that the galectin lattice opposes entry of many proteins into DRM rafts. N-cadherin and catenins are present in DRMs; however, their DRM distribution is not significantly affected by lattice disruption. Galectin lattice integrity increases the mobile fraction of the raft marker, GM1 ganglioside binding cholera toxin B subunit Ctb, at cell-cell contacts in a p120-catenin-independent manner, but does not affect the mobility of either Ctb-labeled GM1 or GFP-coupled N-cadherin in nonjunctional regions. Our results suggest that the galectin lattice independently enhances lateral molecular diffusion by direct interaction with specific glycoconjugates within the adherens junction. By promoting exchange between raft and non-raft microdomains as well as molecular dynamics within junction-specific raft microdomains, the lattice may enhance turnover of N-cadherin and other glycoconjugates that determine junctional stability and rates of cell migration.

Boscher, Cecile; Zheng, Yu Zi; Lakshminarayan, Ramya; Johannes, Ludger; Dennis, James W.; Foster, Leonard J.; Nabi, Ivan R.

2012-01-01

7

FAK and paxillin: regulators of N-cadherin adhesion and inhibitors of cell migration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

FAK and paxillin are important components in integrin- regulated signaling. New evidence suggests that these two proteins function in crosstalk between cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Further, new insight suggests that under some conditions these proteins inhibit cell migration, in contrast to their established roles in several cell systems as positive regulators of cell adhesion and migration. FAK and paxillin are

Michael D. Schaller

2004-01-01

8

Asymmetric N-cadherin expression results in synapse dysfunction, synapse elimination, and axon retraction in cultured mouse neurons.  

PubMed

Synapse elimination and pruning of axon collaterals are crucial developmental events in the refinement of neuronal circuits. While a control of synapse formation by adhesion molecules is well established, the involvement of adhesion molecules in developmental synapse loss is poorly characterized. To investigate the consequences of mis-match expression of a homophilic synaptic adhesion molecule, we analysed an asymmetric, exclusively postsynaptic expression of N-cadherin. This was induced by transfecting individual neurons in cultures of N-cadherin knockout mouse neurons with a N-cadherin expression vector. 2 days after transfection, patch-clamp analysis of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents revealed an impaired synaptic function without a reduction in the number of presynaptic vesicle clusters. Long-term asymmetric expression of N-cadherin for 8 days subsequently led to synapse elimination as indicated by a loss of colocalization of presynaptic vesicles and postsynaptic PSD95 protein. We further studied long-term asymmetric N-cadherin expression by conditional, Cre-induced knockout of N-cadherin in individual neurons in cultures of N-cadherin expressing cortical mouse neurons. This resulted in a strong retraction of axonal processes in individual neurons that lacked N-cadherin protein. Moreover, an in vivo asymmetric expression of N-cadherin in the developmentally transient cortico-tectal projection was indicated by in-situ hybridization with layer V neurons lacking N-cadherin expression. Thus, mis-match expression of N-cadherin might contribute to selective synaptic connectivity. PMID:23382872

Pielarski, Kim N; van Stegen, Bernd; Andreyeva, Aksana; Nieweg, Katja; Jüngling, Kay; Redies, Christoph; Gottmann, Kurt

2013-01-01

9

Recapitulating cell-cell adhesion using N-cadherin biologically tethered to substrates.  

PubMed

Intercellular adhesion modulated by cadherin molecules plays an important role in diverse cellular functions including tissue morphogenesis, regeneration, and pathogenesis. However, it is a challenging task to decipher the effects of cell-cell adhesion in vitro because of difficulty in controlling the extent and numbers of cell-cell contacts. In this study, we hypothesize that tethering recombinant extracellular domains of neural cadherin with a C-terminal immunoglobulin Fc domain (N-Cad-Fc) to a substrate with an immobilized anti-Fc antibody (Fc-antibody) and a bifunctional polymer, which is reactive to both protein and substrate, would allow us to recapitulate cell-cell adhesion, independent of the number of cells plated on the substrate. To examine this hypothesis, we first immobilized Fc-antibody to a polyacrylamide hydrogel and a methacrylate-substituted glass using poly(amino-2-hydroxyethyl-co-2-methacryloxyethyl aspartamide)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PHMAA-g-PEGNHS) and then incubated the gel in medium containing defined concentrations of the recombinant N-Cad-Fc. The resulting N-Cad-conjugated substrate enabled us to modulate adhesion of bone marrow stromal cells to the gel surface by varying the surface density of N-Cad-Fc. In contrast, direct chemical conjugation of N-Cad-Fc to the gel surface did not support cell adhesion. Additionally, the glass substrate biologically tethered with N-Cad-Fc promoted neuronal adhesion significantly more than substrates coated with poly-l-lysine. We suggest that this novel biological tethering method could be broadly applicable for modifying substrates with a variety of classical cadherins to enable the systematic study of the effects of cadherin-modulated cell-cell adhesion on cellular activities. PMID:24773064

Vega L, Johana C M; Lee, Min Kyung; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Smith, Cartney E; Lee, Kwan Young; Chung, Hee Jung; Leckband, Deborah E; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-06-01

10

PTP? Regulates N-Cadherin-dependent Neurite Outgrowth  

PubMed Central

Cell adhesion is critical to the establishment of proper connections in the nervous system. Some receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) have adhesion molecule–like extracellular segments with intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains that may transduce signals in response to adhesion. PTP? is a RPTP that mediates cell aggregation and is expressed at high levels in the nervous system. In this study, we demonstrate that PTP? promotes neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells when used as a culture substrate. In addition, PTP? was found in a complex with N-cadherin in retinal cells. To determine the physiological significance of the association between PTP? and N-cadherin, the expression level and enzymatic activity of PTP? were perturbed in retinal explant cultures. Downregulation of PTP? expression through antisense techniques resulted in a significant decrease in neurite outgrowth on an N-cadherin substrate, whereas there was no effect on laminin or L1-dependent neurite outgrowth. The overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of PTP? significantly decreased neurite outgrowth on N-cadherin. These data indicate that PTP? specifically regulates signals required for neurites to extend on an N-cadherin substrate, implicating reversible tyrosine phosphorylation in the control of N-cadherin function. Together, these results suggest that PTP? plays a dual role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth.

Burden-Gulley, Susan M.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

1999-01-01

11

PTPmu regulates N-cadherin-dependent neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

Cell adhesion is critical to the establishment of proper connections in the nervous system. Some receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) have adhesion molecule-like extracellular segments with intracellular tyrosine phosphatase domains that may transduce signals in response to adhesion. PTPmu is a RPTP that mediates cell aggregation and is expressed at high levels in the nervous system. In this study, we demonstrate that PTPmu promotes neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells when used as a culture substrate. In addition, PTPmu was found in a complex with N-cadherin in retinal cells. To determine the physiological significance of the association between PTPmu and N-cadherin, the expression level and enzymatic activity of PTPmu were perturbed in retinal explant cultures. Downregulation of PTPmu expression through antisense techniques resulted in a significant decrease in neurite outgrowth on an N-cadherin substrate, whereas there was no effect on laminin or L1-dependent neurite outgrowth. The overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of PTPmu significantly decreased neurite outgrowth on N-cadherin. These data indicate that PTPmu specifically regulates signals required for neurites to extend on an N-cadherin substrate, implicating reversible tyrosine phosphorylation in the control of N-cadherin function. Together, these results suggest that PTPmu plays a dual role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. PMID:10087273

Burden-Gulley, S M; Brady-Kalnay, S M

1999-03-22

12

Expression of N-cadherin proteins in myocardial hypertrophy in rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of N-cadherin in the myocardial tissues of isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy in rats. In addition, the present study provided morphological data to investigate the signal transduction mechanisms of myocardial hypertrophy and reverse myocardial hypertrophy. A myocardial hypertrophy model was established by subcutaneously injecting isoprenaline into healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The myocardial tissue was collected, embedded in conventional paraffin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and the pathological changes were observed. The expression and distribution of N-cadherin were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the changes in mRNA expression of N-cadherin in the myocardial tissues of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Image analysis software was used to quantitatively analyze the expression of N-cadherin. The IHC and immunofluorescence results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the positive expression of N-cadherin. Furthermore, mRNA expression of N-cadherin, in the myocardial tissues of rats, was consistent with the IHC and immunofluorescence results. Thus, N-cadherin may have a significant function in the occurrence and development of myocardial hypertrophy.

MU, LINGMIN; JING, CHANGQIN; GUO, ZHIKUN

2014-01-01

13

E-Cadherin Can Replace N-Cadherin during Secretory-Stage Enamel Development  

PubMed Central

Background N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. Methodology/Principal Findings The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT) and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO) mice was analyzed. ?CT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. Conclusions/Significance The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is normally down-regulated. Notably, this is the first demonstration of a natural endogenous increase in E-cadherin expression due to N-cadherin ablation in a healthy developing tissue.

Guan, Xiaomu; Bidlack, Felicitas B.; Stokes, Nicole; Bartlett, John D.

2014-01-01

14

Adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells on laser-engineered porous titanium surface: expression and localization of N-cadherin and beta-catenin.  

PubMed

Response of different types of cells on biomaterials is crucial for the applications of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is recognized that cell behaviour depends largely on material surface characteristics. The purpose of this study was to define the biologic response of MG63 cells to the innovative patented surface SYNTHEGRA. MG63 morphology and distribution on the three different titanium disk surfaces (sandblasted, smooth, and laser-treated) were evaluated by microscopy analysis after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell adhesion was determined by crystal violet assay at 48 h while proliferation and cytotoxicity were performed by MTT assay at 24, 48, 72 and 240 h. The expression and localization of N-cadherin and beta-catenin were studied by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. At 48 h the adhesion was similar in all titanium surfaces, no difference in cell viability were observed in all titanium disks when compared with controls, while the cell growth on laser-treated disks was significantly higher at 240 h than at 24 and 72 h. Morphological analysis show that cells are aligned along the grooves and inside the cavities. beta-catenin signal appeared more diffuse and localized underneath the cell membrane, while N-cadherin signal was fainter in cells grown on SYNTHEGRA surface. This work put into evidence the performance of newly designed laser-micromachined surface for adhesion, growth and distribution of human osteoblast-like cells. SYNTHEGRA surface inducing modification of N-cadherin and beta-catenin expression and localization, are suggestive of cells undergoing differentiation towards osteocytes and could be particularly suited for immediate load implant procedures. PMID:23830402

Lepore, S; Milillo, L; Trotta, T; Castellani, S; Porro, C; Panaro, M A; Santarelli, A; Bambini, F; Lo Muzio, L; Conese, M; Maffione, A B

2013-01-01

15

N-cadherin Expression in Testicular Germ Cell and Gonadal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Neural-cadherin is a member of the cadherin gene family encoding the N-cadherin protein that mediates cell adhesion. N-cadherin is a marker of Sertoli cells and is also expressed in germ cells of varying stages of maturation. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of this protein by immunohistochemistry in 105 germ cell tumors of both single and mixed histological types and 12 gonadal stromal tumors. Twenty-four germ cell tumors consisted of one cell type and the remaining were mixed. Of the 23 seminomas in either pure or mixed tumors, 74% were positive. Two spermatocytic seminomas were positive. Of the 83 cases with yolk sac tumor, 99% were positive for N-cadherin. The teratomas were positive in 73% in neuroectodermal and / or glandular components. In contrast, 87% of embryonal carcinomas did not express N-cadherin. Only 17% of the syncytiotrophoblastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression is very helpful in the identification of yolk sac tumors. In addition to glypican-3 and Sal-like protein 4, N-cadherin can be beneficial for the diagnosis and classification of this subtype of testicular germ cell tumor. Nine of the 12 gonadal stromal tumors were positive to a variable extent.

Heidenberg, Daniel J.; Barton, Joel H.; Young, Denise; Grinkemeyer, Michael; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.

2012-01-01

16

N-Cadherin: Structure, Function and Importance in the Formation of New Intercalated Disc-Like Cell Contacts in Cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-cadherin belongs to a superfamily of calcium-dependent transmembrane adhesion proteins. It mediates adhesion in the intercalated discs at the termini of cardiomyocytes thereby serving as anchor for myofibrils at cell-cell contacts. A large body of data on the molecular structure and function of N-cadherin exists, however, little is known concerning spatial and temporal interactions between the different junctional structures during

C. Zuppinger; M. Eppenberger-Eberhardt; H. M. Eppenberger

2000-01-01

17

GRIP1 interlinks N-cadherin and AMPA receptors at vesicles to promote combined cargo transport into dendrites  

PubMed Central

The GluA2 subunit of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in neurons. In addition, the transsynaptic cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin controls excitatory synapse function and stabilizes dendritic spine structures. At postsynaptic membranes, GluA2 physically binds N-cadherin, underlying spine growth and synaptic modulation. We report that N-cadherin binds to PSD-95/SAP90/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain 2 of the glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) through its intracellular C terminus. N-cadherin and GluA2-containing AMPARs are presorted to identical transport vesicles for dendrite delivery, and live imaging reveals cotransport of both proteins. The kinesin KIF5 powers GluA2/N-cadherin codelivery by using GRIP1 as a multilink interface. Notably, GluA2 and N-cadherin use different PDZ domains on GRIP1 to simultaneously bind the transport complex, and interference with either binding motif impairs the turnover of both synaptic cargoes. Depolymerization of microtubules, deletion of the KIF5 motor domain, or specific blockade of AMPAR exocytosis affects delivery of GluA2/N-cadherin vesicles. At the functional level, interference with this cotransport reduces the number of spine protrusions and excitatory synapses. Our data suggest the concept that the multi-PDZ-domain adaptor protein GRIP1 can act as a scaffold at trafficking vesicles in the combined delivery of AMPARs and N-cadherin into dendrites.

Heisler, Frank F.; Lee, Han Kyu; Gromova, Kira V.; Pechmann, Yvonne; Schurek, Beate; Ruschkies, Laura; Schroeder, Markus; Schweizer, Michaela; Kneussel, Matthias

2014-01-01

18

Wnt5a influences viability, migration, adhesion, colony formation, E- and N-cadherin expression of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells express Wnt5a, but its role in ovarian cancer progression is poorly defined. The aims of the present study were two-fold: 1) to determine the Wnt5a role in viability, apoptosis, migration, colony formation and adhesion of human serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3, and 2) to assess the relationship of Wnt5a with E- and N-cadherin in high- and low-grade human serous ovarian cancer specimens. Wnt5a over-expression led to 29% increased serum-independent cell viability (P < 0.05) and 35% decreased caspase-3 activity (P < 0.01) compared to SKOV-3 cells. There was 96% (P < 0.001) increased cell motility in Wnt5a-transfected SKOV-3 (SKOV-3/Wnt5a) cells compared to SKOV-3, which was abrogated in the presence of JNK inhibitor. In addition, there was about 42% increased cell adhesion to Matrigel compared to SKOV-3 cells (P < 0.001). Colony-forming assay showed a 4.4-fold increased colony formation in SKOV-3/Wnt5a cells compared to SKOV-3 cells (P < 0.001). E- and N-cadherin levels were reduced by 49 % and 67 % in SKOV-3/Wnt5a cells compared to mock cells, respectively. Wnt5a and E-cadherin immunoexpression was significantly (P < 0.001) different in low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). In HGSC specimens, strong immunoexpression of Wnt5a was detected compared to LGSC. However, E-cadherin showed moderate immunostaining (84 %) in HGSC, whereas 100 % of LGSC specimens showed strong immunoexpression. In both groups no N-cadherin immunoexpression was detected. Moreover, Wnt5a showed a positive relationship with E-cadherin in the LGSC group (r = 0.661, P = 0.027). These results may support important roles for Wnt5a in EOC progression. PMID:24785108

Jannesari-Ladani, F; Hossein, G; Monhasery, N; Shahoei, S H; Izadi Mood, N

2014-01-01

19

ICAM-2 regulates vascular permeability and N-cadherin localization through ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and Rac-1 signalling  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial junctions control functions such as permeability, angiogenesis and contact inhibition. VE-Cadherin (VECad) is essential for the maintenance of intercellular contacts. In confluent endothelial monolayers, N-Cadherin (NCad) is mostly expressed on the apical and basal membrane, but in the absence of VECad it localizes at junctions. Both cadherins are required for vascular development. The intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-2, also localized at endothelial junctions, is involved in leukocyte recruitment and angiogenesis. Results In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), both VECad and NCad were found at nascent cell contacts of sub-confluent monolayers, but only VECad localized at the mature junctions of confluent monolayers. Inhibition of ICAM-2 expression by siRNA caused the appearance of small gaps at the junctions and a decrease in NCad junctional staining in sub-confluent monolayers. Endothelioma lines derived from WT or ICAM-2-deficient mice (IC2neg) lacked VECad and failed to form junctions, with loss of contact inhibition. Re-expression of full-length ICAM-2 (IC2 FL) in IC2neg cells restored contact inhibition through recruitment of NCad at the junctions. Mutant ICAM-2 lacking the binding site for ERM proteins (IC2 ?ERM) or the cytoplasmic tail (IC2 ?TAIL) failed to restore junctions. ICAM-2-dependent Rac-1 activation was also decreased in these mutant cell lines. Barrier function, measured in vitro via transendothelial electrical resistance, was decreased in IC2neg cells, both in resting conditions and after thrombin stimulation. This was dependent on ICAM-2 signalling to the small GTPase Rac-1, since transendothelial electrical resistance of IC2neg cells was restored by constitutively active Rac-1. In vivo, thrombin-induced extravasation of FITC-labeled albumin measured by intravital fluorescence microscopy in the mouse cremaster muscle showed that permeability was increased in ICAM-2-deficient mice compared to controls. Conclusions These results indicate that ICAM-2 regulates endothelial barrier function and permeability through a pathway involving N-Cadherin, ERMs and Rac-1.

2014-01-01

20

N-cadherin expression is regulated by UTP in schwannoma cells.  

PubMed

Schwann cells (SCs) are peripheral myelinating glial cells that express the neuronal Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule, neural cadherin (N-cadherin). N-cadherin is involved in glia-glia and axon-glia interactions and participates in many key events, which range from the control of axonal growth and guidance to synapse formation and plasticity. Extracellular UTP activates P2Y purinergic receptors and exerts short- and long-term effects on several tissues to promote wound healing. Nevertheless, the contribution of P2Y receptors in peripheral nervous system functions is not completely understood. The current study demonstrated that UTP induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in N-cadherin expression in SCs. Furthermore, N-cadherin expression was blocked by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin. The increased N-cadherin expression induced by UTP was mediated by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular-regulated kinase and p38 kinase. Moreover, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C attenuated the UTP-induced activation of MAPKs significantly. Extracellular UTP also modulated increased in the expression of the early transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun. We also demonstrated that the region of the N-cadherin promoter between nucleotide positions -3698 and -2620, which contained one activator protein-1-binding site, was necessary for UTP-induced gene expression. These results suggest a novel role for P2Y purinergic receptors in the regulation of N-cadherin expression in SCs. PMID:23271561

Martiáñez, Tania; Lamarca, Aloa; Casals, Nuria; Gella, Alejandro

2013-06-01

21

E- and N-Cadherin Distribution in Developing and Functional Human Teeth under Normal and Pathological Conditions  

PubMed Central

Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of various biological processes such as cell recognition, intercellular communication, cell fate, cell polarity, boundary formation, and morphogenesis. Although previous studies have shown E-cadherin expression during rodent or human odontogenesis, there is no equivalent study available on N-cadherin expression in dental tissues. Here we examined and compared the expression patterns of E- and N-cadherins in both embryonic and adult (healthy, injured, carious) human teeth. Both proteins were expressed in the developing teeth during the cap and bell stages. E-cadherin expression in dental epithelium followed an apical-coronal gradient that was opposite to that observed for N-cadherin. E-cadherin was distributed in proliferating cells of the inner and outer enamel epithelia but not in differentiated cells such as ameloblasts, whereas N-cadherin expression was up-regulated in differentiated epithelial cells. By contrast to E-cadherin, N-cadherin was also expressed in mesenchymal cells that differentiate into odontoblasts and produce the hard tissue matrix of dentin. Although N-cadherin was not detected in permanent intact teeth, it was re-expressed during dentin repair processes in odontoblasts surrounding carious or traumatic sites. Similarly, N-cadherin re-expression was seen in vitro, in cultured primary pulp cells that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. Taken together these results suggest that E- and N-cadherins may play a role during human tooth development and, moreover, indicate that N-cadherin is important for odontoblast function in normal development and under pathological conditions.

Heymann, Robert; About, Imad; Lendahl, Urban; Franquin, Jean-Claude; Obrink, Bjorn; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

2002-01-01

22

Antagonistic roles of full-length N-cadherin and its soluble BMP cleavage product in neural crest delamination.  

PubMed

During neural crest ontogeny, an epithelial to mesenchymal transition is necessary for cell emigration from the dorsal neural tube. This process is likely to involve a network of gene activities, which remain largely unexplored. We demonstrate that N-cadherin inhibits the onset of crest delamination both by a cell adhesion-dependent mechanism and by repressing canonical Wnt signaling previously found to be necessary for crest delamination by acting downstream of BMP4. Furthermore, N-cadherin protein, but not mRNA, is normally downregulated along the dorsal tube in association with the onset of crest delamination, and we find that this process is triggered by BMP4. BMP4 stimulates cleavage of N-cadherin into a soluble cytoplasmic fragment via an ADAM10-dependent mechanism. Intriguingly, when overexpressed, the cytoplasmic N-cadherin fragment translocates into the nucleus, stimulates cyclin D1 transcription and crest delamination, while enhancing transcription of beta-catenin. CTF2 also rescues the mesenchymal phenotype of crest cells in ADAM10-inhibited neural primordia. Hence, by promoting its cleavage, BMP4 converts N-cadherin inhibition into an activity that is likely to participate, along with canonical Wnt signaling, in the stimulation of neural crest emigration. PMID:17185320

Shoval, Irit; Ludwig, Andreas; Kalcheim, Chaya

2007-02-01

23

Complex interactions amongst N-cadherin, DLAR, and Liprin-? regulate Drosophila photoreceptor axon targeting  

PubMed Central

The formation of stable adhesive contacts between pre- and post-synaptic neurons represents the initial step in synapse assembly. The cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, the receptor tyrosine phosphatase DLAR, and the scaffolding molecule Liprin-? play critical, evolutionarily conserved roles in this process. However, how these proteins signal to the growth cone, and are themselves regulated, remains poorly understood. Using Drosophila photoreceptors (R cells) as a model, we evaluate genetic and physical interactions among these three proteins. We demonstrate that DLAR function in this context is independent of phosphatase activity, but requires interactions mediated by its intracellular domain. Genetic studies reveal both positive and, surprisingly, inhibitory interactions amongst all three genes. These observations are corroborated by biochemical studies demonstrating that DLAR physically associates via its phosphatase domain with N-cadherin in Drosophila embryos. Together, these data demonstrate that N-cadherin, DLAR, and Liprin-? function in a complex to regulate adhesive interactions between pre- and post-synaptic cells, and provide a novel mechanism for controlling the activity of liprin-? in the developing growth cone.

Prakash, Saurabh; Maclendon, Helen; Dubreuil, Catherine I.; Ghose, Aurnab; Hwa, Jennifer; Dennehy, Kelly A.; Tomalty, Katharine M.H.; Clark, Kelsey; Van Vactor, David; Clandinin, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

24

N-Cadherin Loss in POMC-Expressing Cells Leads to Pituitary Disorganization  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are the third most common intracranial tumor in humans and can cause altered hormone secretions leading to hypercortisolism, acromegaly, and infertility. Reduced expression of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin has been linked with the formation of pituitary tumors, but its role in normal pituitary gland physiology or tumor initiation is unknown. In the murine pituitary, N-cadherin expression is detected in virtually all cells of the posterior, intermediate, and anterior lobes. N-cadherin may function to initiate important cues such as controlling proliferation, directing cell placement, and promoting formation of cell networks that coordinately release hormones into the bloodstream. To address this, we generated mice lacking N-cadherin in proopiomelanocortin-expressing melanotrope and corticotrope cells of the intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary. We observed that intermediate lobe cells can aberrantly displace SOX2-containing progenitor cells in the N-cadherin conditional knockout mice at postnatal d 1. By postnatal d 30, although a reduction in ?- and ?-catenin membrane staining occurs, there is little effect on intermediate lobe architecture with N-cadherin loss. Also, despite these changes in adherens junction molecules, no alterations in cell proliferation occur. In contrast, loss of N-cadherin in the corticotropes leads to aberrant cell clustering and a reduction in Pomc mRNA. Taken together, our data reveal important roles of N-cadherin in pituitary cell placement and that loss of N-cadherin alone does not lead to pituitary tumor formation.

Himes, Ashley D.; Fiddler, Rachel M.

2011-01-01

25

N-Cadherin Sustains Motility and Polarity of Future Cortical Interneurons during Tangential Migration  

PubMed Central

In the developing brain, cortical GABAergic interneurons migrate long distances from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in which they are generated, to the cortex in which they settle. MGE cells express the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, a homophilic cell–cell adhesion molecule that regulates numerous steps of brain development, from neuroepithelium morphogenesis to synapse formation. N-cadherin is also expressed in embryonic territories crossed by MGE cells during their migration. In this study, we demonstrate that N-cadherin is a key player in the long-distance migration of future cortical interneurons. Using N-cadherin-coated substrate, we show that N-cadherin-dependent adhesion promotes the migration of mouse MGE cells in vitro. Conversely, mouse MGE cells electroporated with a construct interfering with cadherin function show reduced cell motility, leading process instability, and impaired polarization associated with abnormal myosin IIB dynamics. In vivo, the capability of electroporated MGE cells to invade the developing cortical plate is altered. Using genetic ablation of N-cadherin in mouse embryos, we show that N-cadherin-depleted MGEs are severely disorganized. MGE cells hardly exit the disorganized proliferative area. N-cadherin ablation at the postmitotic stage, which does not affect MGE morphogenesis, alters MGE cell motility and directionality. The tangential migration to the cortex of N-cadherin ablated MGE cells is delayed, and their radial migration within the cortical plate is perturbed. Altogether, these results identify N-cadherin as a pivotal adhesion substrate that activates cell motility in future cortical interneurons and maintains cell polarity over their long-distance migration to the developing cortex.

Luccardini, Camilla; Hennekinne, Laetitia; Viou, Lucie; Yanagida, Mitsutoshi; Murakami, Fujio; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Ma, Xufei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Mege, Rene-Marc

2013-01-01

26

Quantitative Immunohistochemistry of Desmosomal Proteins (Plakoglobin, Desmoplakin and Plakophilin), Connexin-43, and N-cadherin in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy: An Autopsy Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetic disorder related to mutations in desmosomal proteins. The current study tests the hypothesis that immunohistochemical staining for desmosomal proteins is of diagnostic utility by studying autopsy-confirmed cases of ARVC. Methods and Results: We studied 23 hearts from patients dying suddenly with ARVC. Control subject tissues were 21 hearts from people dying from non-cardiac causes (n=15), dilated cardiomyopathy (n=3) and coronary artery disease (n=3). Areas free of fibrofatty change or scarring were assessed on 50 sections from ARVC (24 left ventricle, 26 right ventricle) and 28 sections from controls. Immunohistochemical stains against plakoglobin, plakophilin, desmoplakin, connexin-43, and N-cadherin were applied and area expression analyzed by computerized morphometry. Desmin was stained as a control for fixation and similarly analyzed. The mean area of desmin expression was similar in controls and ARVC (86% vs. 85%, p=0.6). Plakoglobin expression was 4.9% ± 0.3% in controls, vs. 4.6% ± 0.3% in ARVC (p=0.3). Plakophilin staining was 4.8% ± 0.3% in controls vs. 4.4% ± 03% in ARVC (p=0.3). Desmoplakin staining was 3.4% in controls vs. 3.2 ± 0.2% in ARVC (p=0.6). There were no significant differences when staining was compared between right and left ventricles (all p > 0.1). For non-desmosomal proteins, the mean area of connexin-43 staining showed no significant difference by presence of disease. Conclusions: The small and insignificant decrease in junction protein expression in ARVC suggests that immunohistochemistry is not a useful tool for the diagnosis.

Tavora, Fabio; Zhang, Mingchang; Cresswell, Nathaniel; Li, Ling; Fowler, David; Franco, Marcello; Burke, Allen

2013-01-01

27

N-Cadherin–Catenin Interaction: Necessary Component of Cardiac Cell Compartmentalization during Early Vertebrate Heart Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early heart development the expression pattern of N-cadherin, a calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule, suggests its involvement in morphoregulation and the stabilization of cardiomyocyte differentiation. N-cadherin's adhesive activity is dependent upon its interaction with the intracellular catenins. An association with ?-catenin and ?-catenin also is believed to be involved in cell signaling. This study details the expression patterns of ?-catenin,

Kersti K. Linask; Karen A. Knudsen; Yong-Hao Gui

1997-01-01

28

N-Cadherin Relocalizes from the Periphery to the Center of the Synapse after Transient Synaptic Stimulation in Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

N-cadherin is a cell adhesion molecule which is enriched at synapses. Binding of N-cadherin molecules to each other across the synaptic cleft has been postulated to stabilize adhesion between the presynaptic bouton and the postsynaptic terminal. N-cadherin is also required for activity-induced changes at synapses, including hippocampal long term potentiation and activity-induced spine expansion and stabilization. We hypothesized that these activity-dependent changes might involve changes in N-cadherin localization within synapses. To determine whether synaptic activity changes the localization of N-cadherin, we used structured illumination microscopy, a super-resolution approach which overcomes the conventional resolution limits of light microscopy, to visualize the localization of N-cadherin within synapses of hippocampal neurons. We found that synaptic N-cadherin exhibits a spectrum of localization patterns, ranging from puncta at the periphery of the synapse adjacent to the active zone to an even distribution along the synaptic cleft. Furthermore, the N-cadherin localization pattern within synapses changes during KCl depolarization and after transient synaptic stimulation. During KCl depolarization, N-cadherin relocalizes away from the central region of the synaptic cleft to the periphery of the synapse. In contrast, after transient synaptic stimulation with KCl followed by a period of rest in normal media, fewer synapses have N-cadherin present as puncta at the periphery and more synapses have N-cadherin present more centrally and uniformly along the synapse compared to unstimulated cells. This indicates that transient synaptic stimulation modulates N-cadherin localization within the synapse. These results bring new information to the structural organization and activity-induced changes occurring at synapses, and suggest that N-cadherin relocalization may contribute to activity dependent changes at synapses.

Yam, Patricia T.; Pincus, Zachary; Gupta, Gagan D.; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Charron, Frederic; Pelletier, Laurence; Colman, David R.

2013-01-01

29

GSK3? inhibition blocks melanoma cell/host interactions by downregulating N-cadherin expression and decreasing FAK phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

This study addresses the role of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? signaling in the tumorigenic behavior of melanoma. Immunohistochemical staining revealed GSK3? to be focally expressed in the invasive portions of 12% and 33% of primary and metastatic melanomas, respectively. GSK3 inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of GSK3? were found to inhibit the motile behavior of melanoma cells in scratch wound, 3D collagen implanted spheroid and modified Boyden chamber assays. Functionally, inhibition of GSK3? signaling was found to suppress N-cadherin expression at the mRNA and protein levels and was associated with decreased expression of the transcription factor Slug. Pharmacological and genetic ablation of GSK3? signaling inhibited the adhesion of melanoma cells to both endothelial cells and fibroblasts and prevented transendothelial migration, an effect rescued by the forced overexpression of N-cadherin. A further role for GSK3? signaling in invasion was suggested by the ability of GSK3? inhibitors and siRNA knockdown to block phosphorylation of FAK and increase the size of focal adhesions. In summary, we have demonstrated a previously unreported role for GSK3? in modulating the motile and invasive behavior of melanoma cells through N-cadherin and FAK. These studies suggest the potential therapeutic utility of inhibiting GSK3? in defined subsets of melanoma.

John, Jobin K.; Paraiso, Kim H.T.; Rebecca, Vito W.; Cantini, Liliana P.; Abel, Ethan V.; Pagano, Nicholas; Meggers, Eric; Mathew, Rahel; Krepler, Clemens; Izumi, Victoria; Fang, Bin; Koomen, John M.; Messina, Jane L.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

2012-01-01

30

AKT activation by N-cadherin regulates beta-catenin signaling and neuronal differentiation during cortical development  

PubMed Central

Background During cerebral cortical development, neural precursor-precursor interactions in the ventricular zone neurogenic niche coordinate signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies with shRNA knockdown approaches indicated that N-cadherin adhesion between cortical precursors regulates ?-catenin signaling, but the underlying mechanisms remained poorly understood. Results Here, with conditional knockout approaches, we find further supporting evidence that N-cadherin maintains ?-catenin signaling during cortical development. Using shRNA to N-cadherin and dominant negative N-cadherin overexpression in cell culture, we find that N-cadherin regulates Wnt-stimulated ?-catenin signaling in a cell-autonomous fashion. Knockdown or inhibition of N-cadherin with function-blocking antibodies leads to reduced activation of the Wnt co-receptor LRP6. We also find that N-cadherin regulates ?-catenin via AKT, as reduction of N-cadherin causes decreased AKT activation and reduced phosphorylation of AKT targets GSK3? and ?-catenin. Inhibition of AKT signaling in neural precursors in vivo leads to reduced ?-catenin-dependent transcriptional activation, increased migration from the ventricular zone, premature neuronal differentiation, and increased apoptotic cell death. Conclusions These results show that N-cadherin regulates ?-catenin signaling through both Wnt and AKT, and suggest a previously unrecognized role for AKT in neuronal differentiation and cell survival during cortical development.

2013-01-01

31

N-cadherin impedes proliferation of the multiple myeloma cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of the plasma cells localized to the bone marrow. A rare population of MM cancer stem cells (MM-CSCs) has been shown to be responsible for maintaining the pull of residual disease and to contribute to myeloma relapse. The stem cells are found in a bone marrow niche in contact with the stromal cells that are responsible for maintaining the proliferative quiescence of the MM-CSC and regulate its self-renewal and differentiation decisions. Here we show that both MM and bone marrow stromal cells express N-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion molecule shown to maintain a pool of leukemic stem cells. Inhibition of N-cadherin using a neutralizing antibody led to an increase in the MM cell proliferation. A decrease in MM cell adhesion to the bone marrow stroma was observed in the first 24 hours of co-culture followed by a 2.3-30-fold expansion of the adherent cells. Moreover, inhibition of N-cadherin led to a 4.8-9.6-fold expansion of the MM-CSC population. Surprisingly, addition of the N-cadherin antagonist peptide resulted in massive death of the non-adherent MM cells, while the viability of the adherent cells and MM-CSCs remained unaffected. Interestingly, the proliferative effects of N-cadherin inhibition were not mediated by the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the crucial role of N-cadherin in regulating MM cell proliferation and viability and open an interesting avenue of investigation to understand how structural modifications of N-cadherin can affect MM cell behavior. Our findings suggest that targeting N-cadherin may be a useful therapeutic strategy to treat MM in conjunction with an agent that has anti-MM-CSC activity.

Sadler, Nicole M; Harris, Britney R; Metzger, Brittany A; Kirshner, Julia

2013-01-01

32

MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-Cadherin Act in Concert To Facilitate Synapse Reorganization after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) influence synaptic recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Membrane type 5-matrix metalloproteinase (MT5-MMP) and a distintegrin and metalloproteinase-10 (ADAM-10) are membrane-bound MMPs that cleave N-cadherin, a protein critical to synapse stabilization. This study examined protein and mRNA expression of MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin after TBI, contrasting adaptive and maladaptive synaptogenesis. The effect of MMP inhibition on MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin was assessed during maladaptive plasticity and correlated with synaptic function. Rats were subjected to adaptive unilateral entorhinal cortical lesion (UEC) or maladaptive fluid percussion TBI+bilateral entorhinal cortical lesion (TBI+BEC). Hippocampal MT5-MMP and ADAM-10 protein was significantly elevated 2 and 7 days post-injury. At 15 days after UEC, each MMP returned to control level, while TBI+BEC ADAM-10 remained elevated. At 2 and 7 days, N-cadherin protein was below control. By the 15-day synapse stabilization phase, UEC N-cadherin rose above control, a shift not seen for TBI+BEC. At 7 days, increased TBI+BEC ADAM-10 transcript correlated with protein elevation. UEC ADAM-10 mRNA did not change, and no differences in MT5-MMP or N-cadherin mRNA were detected. Confocal imaging showed MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin localization within reactive astrocytes. MMP inhibition attenuated ADAM-10 protein 15 days after TBI+BEC and increased N-cadherin. This inhibition partially restored long-term potentiation induction, but did not affect paired-pulse facilitation. Our results confirm time- and injury-dependent expression of MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin during reactive synaptogenesis. Persistent ADAM-10 expression was correlated with attenuated N-cadherin level and reduced functional recovery. MMP inhibition shifted ADAM-10 and N-cadherin toward adaptive expression and improved synaptic function.

Warren, Kelly M.; Reeves, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

33

Prognostic Significance of Twist and N-Cadherin Expression in NSCLC  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis is the most common cause of disease failure and mortality for non-small cell lung cancer after surgical resection. Twist has been recently identified as a putative oncogene and a key regulator of carcinoma metastasis. N-cadherin is associated with a more aggressive behavior of cell lines and tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of Twist and N-cadherin expression in NSCLC, and the effects of Twist1 knockdown on lung cancer cells. Methods We examined the expressions of Twist and N-cadherin by immunohistochemistry in 120 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (including 68 cases with follow-up records). We also analyzed Twist1 and N-cadherin mRNA expression in 30 non-small cell lung cancer tissues using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The functional roles of Twist1 in lung cancer cell lines were evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the protein followed by analyses of cell apoptosis and invasion. Results In lung cancer tissues, the overexpression rate of Twist was 38.3% in lung cancer tissues. Overexpression of N-cadherin was shown in 40.83% of primary tumors. Moreover, Twist1 mRNA expression levels correlated with N-cadherin mRNA levels. Furthermore, overexpression of Twist1 or N-cadherin in primary non-small cell lung cancers was associated with a shorter overall survival (P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). Depleting Twist expression inhibited cell invasion and increased apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Conclusions The overexpression of Twist and N-cadherin could be considered as useful biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of NSCLC. Twist1 could inhibit apoptosis and promote the invasion of lung cancer cells, and depletion of Twist1 in lung cancer cells led to inhibition of N-cadherin expression.

Hui, Linping; Zhang, Siyang; Dong, Xinjun; Tian, Dali; Cui, Zeshi; Qiu, Xueshan

2013-01-01

34

Structure of the human N-cadherin gene: YAC analysis and fine chromosomal mapping to 18q11.2  

SciTech Connect

The cadherins are a large family of cell adhesion molecules involved in calcium-dependent recognition and adhesion events. The authors have used YAC analysis to determine the structure of the human N-cadherin gene. An 850-kb YAC was isolated and the entire N-cadherin gene mapped to a 250-kb region spanning three putative CpG islands. A PCR and cosmid subcloning strategy was used to define the boundaries for the 16 exons that compose the gene. These were shown to be not only highly conserved between mouse and human N-cadherin genes, but also similar to other cadherins. The first and second introns of the gene are large, a property conserved between the mouse and human genes. In situ hybridization with YAC DNA refined the map position of N-cadherin to human chromosome 18q11.2. 50 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Wallis, J.; Walsh, F.S. [Guy`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Guy`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Fox, M.F. [Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom)] [Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom)

1994-07-01

35

Monoclonal antibody targeting of N-cadherin inhibits prostate cancer growth, metastasis and castration resistance.  

PubMed

The transition from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal event of uncertain molecular etiology. Comparing gene expression in isogenic androgen-dependent and CRPC xenografts, we found a reproducible increase in N-cadherin expression, which was also elevated in primary and metastatic tumors of individuals with CRPC. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin in nonmetastatic, androgen-dependent prostate cancer models caused castration resistance, invasion and metastasis. Monoclonal antibodies against the ectodomain of N-cadherin reduced proliferation, adhesion and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, these antibodies slowed the growth of multiple established CRPC xenografts, blocked local invasion and metastasis and, at higher doses, led to complete regression. N-cadherin-specific antibodies markedly delayed the time to emergence of castration resistance, markedly affected tumor histology and angiogenesis, and reduced both AKT serine-threonine kinase activity and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. These data indicate that N-cadherin is a major cause of both prostate cancer metastasis and castration resistance. Therapeutic targeting of this factor with monoclonal antibodies may have considerable clinical benefit. PMID:21057494

Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kono, Evelyn; Tran, Chau P; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Yamashiro, Joyce; Shimomura, Tatsuya; Fazli, Ladan; Wada, Robert; Huang, Jiaoti; Vessella, Robert L; An, Jaibin; Horvath, Steven; Gleave, Martin; Rettig, Matthew B; Wainberg, Zev A; Reiter, Robert E

2010-12-01

36

Monoclonal antibody targeting of N-cadherin inhibits prostate cancer growth, metastasis and castration resistance  

PubMed Central

The transition from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal event of uncertain molecular etiology. Comparing gene expression in isogenic androgen-dependent and CRPC xenografts, we found a reproducible increase in N-cadherin expression, which was also elevated in primary and metastatic tumors of individuals with CRPC. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin in nonmetastatic, androgen-dependent prostate cancer models caused castration resistance, invasion and metastasis. Monoclonal antibodies against the ectodomain of N-cadherin reduced proliferation, adhesion and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, these antibodies slowed the growth of multiple established CRPC xenografts, blocked local invasion and metastasis and, at higher doses, led to complete regression. N-cadherin–specific antibodies markedly delayed the time to emergence of castration resistance, markedly affected tumor histology and angiogenesis, and reduced both AKT serine-threonine kinase activity and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. These data indicate that N-cadherin is a major cause of both prostate cancer metastasis and castration resistance. Therapeutic targeting of this factor with monoclonal antibodies may have considerable clinical benefit.

Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kono, Evelyn; Tran, Chau P; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Yamashiro, Joyce; Shimomura, Tatsuya; Fazli, Ladan; Wada, Robert; Huang, Jiaoti; Vessella, Robert L; An, Jaibin; Horvath, Steven; Gleave, Martin; Rettig, Matthew B; Wainberg, Zev A; Reiter, Robert E

2011-01-01

37

Biogenesis of N-Cadherin-dependent Cell-Cell Contacts in Living Fibroblasts Is a Microtubule-dependent Kinesin-driven MechanismV?  

PubMed Central

Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is a dynamic process that is regulated during embryonic development, cell migration, and differentiation. Different cadherins are expressed in specific tissues consistent with their roles in cell type recognition. In this study, we examine the formation of N-cadherin–dependent cell-cell contacts in fibroblasts and myoblasts. In contrast to E-cadherin, both endogenous and ectopically expressed N-cadherin shuttles between an intracellular and a plasma membrane pool. Initial formation of N-cadherin–dependent cell-cell contacts results from the recruitment of the intracellular pool of N-cadherin to the plasma membrane. N-cadherin also localizes to the Golgi apparatus and both secretory and endocytotic vesicles. We demonstrate that the intracellular pool of N-cadherin is tightly associated with the microtubule (MT) network and that junction formation requires MTs. In addition, localization of N-cadherin to the cortex is dependent on an intact F-actin cytoskeleton. We show that N-cadherin transport requires the MT network as well as the activity of the MT-associated motor kinesin. In conclusion, we propose that N-cadherin distribution is a regulated process promoted by cell-cell contact formation, which controls the biogenesis and turnover of the junctions through the MT network.

Mary, Sophie; Charrasse, Sophie; Meriane, Mayya; Comunale, Franck; Travo, Pierre; Blangy, Anne; Gauthier-Rouviere, Cecile

2002-01-01

38

N-cadherin/FGFR promotes metastasis through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem/progenitor cell-like properties.  

PubMed

N-cadherin and HER2/neu were found to be co-expressed in invasive breast carcinomas. To test the contribution of N-cadherin and HER2 in mammary tumor metastasis, we targeted N-cadherin expression in the mammary epithelium of the MMTV-Neu mouse. In the context of ErbB2/Neu, N-cadherin stimulated carcinoma cell invasion, proliferation and metastasis. N-cadherin caused fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) upmodulation, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem/progenitor like properties, involving Snail and Slug upregulation, mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. N-cadherin potentiation of the FGFR stimulated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation resulting in differential effects on metastasis. Although ERK inhibition suppressed cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation and stem/progenitor cell properties, it did not affect invasion or EMT. Conversely, AKT inhibition suppressed invasion through Akt 2 attenuation, and EMT through Snail inhibition, but had no effect on cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation or mammosphere formation. These findings suggest N-cadherin/FGFR has a pivotal role in promoting metastasis through differential regulation of ERK and AKT, and underscore the potential for targeting the FGFR in advanced ErbB2-amplified breast tumors. PMID:23975425

Qian, X; Anzovino, A; Kim, S; Suyama, K; Yao, J; Hulit, J; Agiostratidou, G; Chandiramani, N; McDaid, H M; Nagi, C; Cohen, H W; Phillips, G R; Norton, L; Hazan, R B

2014-06-26

39

N-cadherin/FGFR promotes metastasis through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem/progenitor cell-like properties  

PubMed Central

N-cadherin and HER2/neu were found to be co-expressed in invasive breast carcinomas. To test the contribution of N-cadherin and HER2 in mammary tumor metastasis, we targeted N-cadherin expression in the mammary epithelium of the MMTV-Neu mouse. In the context of ErbB2/Neu, N-cadherin stimulated carcinoma cell invasion, proliferation and metastasis. N-cadherin caused fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) upmodulation, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem/progenitor like properties, involving Snail and Slug upregulation, mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. N-cadherin potentiation of the FGFR stimulated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation resulting in differential effects on metastasis. Although ERK inhibition suppressed cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation and stem/progenitor cell properties, it did not affect invasion or EMT. Conversely, AKT inhibition suppressed invasion through Akt 2 attenuation, and EMT through Snail inhibition, but had no effect on cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation or mammosphere formation. These findings suggest N-cadherin/FGFR has a pivotal role in promoting metastasis through differential regulation of ERK and AKT, and underscore the potential for targeting the FGFR in advanced ErbB2-amplified breast tumors.

Qian, X; Anzovino, A; Kim, S; Suyama, K; Yao, J; Hulit, J; Agiostratidou, G; Chandiramani, N; McDaid, HM; Nagi, C; Cohen, HW; Phillips, GR; Norton, L; Hazan, RB

2014-01-01

40

Ovo1 links Wnt signaling with N-cadherin localization during neural crest migration  

PubMed Central

A fundamental issue in cell biology is how migratory cell behaviors are controlled by dynamically regulated cell adhesion. Vertebrate neural crest (NC) cells rapidly alter cadherin expression and localization at the cell surface during migration. Secreted Wnts induce some of these changes in NC adhesion and also promote specification of NC-derived pigment cells. Here, we show that the zebrafish transcription factor Ovo1 is a Wnt target gene that controls migration of pigment precursors by regulating the intracellular movements of N-cadherin (Ncad). Ovo1 genetically interacts with Ncad and its depletion causes Ncad to accumulate inside cells. Ovo1-deficient embryos strongly upregulate factors involved in intracellular trafficking, including several rab GTPases, known to modulate cellular localization of cadherins. Surprisingly, NC cells express high levels of many of these rab genes in the early embryo, chemical inhibitors of Rab functions rescue NC development in Ovo1-deficient embryos and overexpression of a Rab-interacting protein leads to similar defects in NC migration. These results suggest that Ovo proteins link Wnt signaling to intracellular trafficking pathways that localize Ncad in NC cells and allow them to migrate. Similar processes probably occur in other cell types in which Wnt signaling promotes migration.

Piloto, Sarah; Schilling, Thomas F.

2010-01-01

41

Role of N-Cadherin in Breast Cancer Metastasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

N-cadherin is expressed in highly invasive tumor cell lines which lack E-cadnerin expression. We transfected a weakly-metastatic and E-cadherin expressing breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with N-cadherin and analyzed the effects on cell migration, invasion...

R. Hazan

2000-01-01

42

Inversin Forms a Complex with Catenins and N-Cadherin in Polarized Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Nephrogenesis starts with the reciprocal induction of two embryonically distinct analages, metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. This complex process requires the refined and coordinated expression of numerous developmental genes, such as inv. Mice that are homozygous for a mutation in the inv gene (inv/inv) develop renal cysts resembling autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease. The gene locus containing inv has been proposed to serve as a common modifier for some human and rodent polycystic kidney disease phenotypes. We generated polyclonal antibodies to inversin to study its subcellular distribution, potential binding partners, and functional aspects in cultured murine proximal tubule cells. A 125-kDa inversin protein isoform was found at cell-cell junctions. Two inversin isoforms, 140- and 90-kDa, were identified in the nuclear and perinuclear compartments. Plasma membrane allocation of inversin is dependent upon cell-cell contacts and was redistributed when cell adhesion was disrupted after incubation of the cell monolayer with low-calcium/EGTA medium. We further show that the membrane-associated 125-kDa inversin forms a complex with N-cadherin and the catenins. The 90-kDa nuclear inversin complexes with ?-catenin. These findings indicate that the inv gene product functions in several cellular compartments, including the nucleus and cell-cell adhesion sites.

Nurnberger, Jens; Bacallao, Robert L.; Phillips, Carrie L.

2002-01-01

43

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Adenomas in Mice Expressing a Dominant Negative N-Cadherin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadherins mediate cell adhesion and are essential for normal development. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a dominant negative N-cadherin mutant (NCADDelta) under the control of promoters active in small intestinal epithelial cells and then introduced into C57BL\\/6 mouse blastocysts. Analysis of adult chimeric mice revealed that expression of NCADDelta along the entire crypt-villus axis, but not in the villus

Michelle L. Hermiston; Jeffrey I. Gordon

1995-01-01

44

N-cadherin and P-cadherin are biomarkers for invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis of gallbladder carcinomas.  

PubMed

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare, but highly aggressive cancer. The most common type of gallbladder cancer is adenocarcinoma (AC), while squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) is a rare type of gallbladder cancer. The clinicopathologic and biological characteristics of SC/ASC have not been well documented. In this study, the protein expression of N-cadherin and P-cadherin in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 ACs was measured using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with large tumor size, invasion, and lymph node metastasis of both SC/ASC and AC. In contrast, positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with differentiation and TNM stage in only AC. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression, differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, invasion, lymph node metastasis, and surgical curability were significantly associated with overall survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression are independent poor-prognostic factors in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Our study suggested that positive N-cadherin and P-cadherin expression closely correlated with clinicopathological and biological behaviors, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder cancer. PMID:24636838

Yi, Shengen; Yang, Zhu-Lin; Miao, Xiongying; Zou, Qiong; Li, Jinghe; Liang, Lufeng; Zeng, Guixiang; Chen, Senlin

2014-06-01

45

14-3-3 Protein regulates cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes.  

PubMed

Polarity proteins have been implicated in regulating and maintaining tight junction (TJ) and cell polarity in epithelia. Here we report 14-3-3theta, the homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans Par5 in mammalian cells, which is known to confer cell polarity at TJ, is found at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific adherens junction type restricted to the Sertoli cell-elongating spermatid interface, in which TJ is absent. 14-3-3theta was shown to play a critical role in conferring cell adhesion at the apical ES. A loss of 14-3-3theta expression at the apical ES was detected in the seminiferous epithelium before spermiation. Involvement of 14-3-3theta in Sertoli cell adhesion was confirmed by its knockdown by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with established TJ permeability barrier that mimicked the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in vivo. Mislocalization of N-cadherin and zonula occludens-1, but not alpha- and beta-catenins, was observed after 14-3-3theta knockdown in Sertoli cells, moving from the cell-cell interface to cytosol, indicating a disruption of cell adhesion. Studies by endocytosis assay illustrated that this loss of cell adhesion was mediated by an increase in the kinetics of endocytosis of N-cadherin and junctional adhesion molecule-A at the BTB, which may represent a general mechanism by which polarity proteins regulate cell adhesion. In summary, the testis is using 14-3-3theta to regulate cell adhesion at the apical ES to facilitate spermiation and at the BTB to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at stages VIII-IX of the epithelial cycle. 14-3-3theta may act as a molecular switch that coordinates these two cellular events in the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis. PMID:19608648

Wong, Elissa W P; Sun, Shengyi; Li, Michelle W M; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2009-10-01

46

Role of N-Cadherin in Breast Cancer Metastasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intracellular signaling events that cause tumor cells to become metastatic are not well understood. N-cadherin and FGF-2 synergistically increase migration, invasion and secretion of extracellular proteases in breast tumor cells. Here, we define the m...

R. Hazan

2002-01-01

47

Role of N-Cadherin in Breast Cancer Metastasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intracellular signaling events that cause tumor cells to become metastatic are not well understood. N-cadherin and FGF-2 synergistically increase migration, invasion and secretion of extracellular proteases in breast tumor cells. Here, we define a met...

R. Hazan

2004-01-01

48

N-cadherin specifies first asymmetry in developing neurons  

PubMed Central

The precise polarization and orientation of developing neurons is essential for the correct wiring of the brain. In pyramidal excitatory neurons, polarization begins with the sprouting of opposite neurites, which later define directed migration and axo-dendritic domains. We here show that endogenous N-cadherin concentrates at one pole of the newborn neuron, from where the first neurite subsequently emerges. Ectopic N-cadherin is sufficient to favour the place of appearance of the first neurite. The Golgi and centrosome move towards this newly formed morphological pole in a second step, which is regulated by PI3K and the actin/microtubule cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of function experiments in vivo showed that developing neurons with a non-functional N-cadherin misorient their cell axis. These results show that polarization of N-cadherin in the immediate post-mitotic stage is an early and crucial mechanism in neuronal polarity.

Gartner, Annette; Fornasiero, Eugenio F; Munck, Sebastian; Vennekens, Krist'l; Seuntjens, Eve; Huttner, Wieland B; Valtorta, Flavia; Dotti, Carlos G

2012-01-01

49

N-cadherin and cadherin 11 modulate postnatal bone growth and osteoblast differentiation by distinct mechanisms  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that targeted expression of a dominant-negative truncated form of N-cadherin (Cdh2) delays acquisition of peak bone mass in mice and retards osteoblast differentiation; whereas deletion of cadherin 11 (Cdh11), another osteoblast cadherin, leads to only modest osteopenia. To determine the specific roles of these two cadherins in the adult skeleton, we generated mice with an osteoblast/osteocyte specific Cdh2 ablation (cKO) and double Cdh2+/?;Cdh11?/? germline mutant mice. Age-dependent osteopenia and smaller diaphyses with decreased bone strength characterize cKO bones. By contrast, Cdh2+/?;Cdh11?/? exhibit severely reduced trabecular bone mass, decreased in vivo bone formation rate, smaller diaphyses and impaired bone strength relative to single Cdh11 null mice. The number of bone marrow immature precursors and osteoprogenitor cells is reduced in both cKO and Cdh2+/?;Cdh11?/? mice, suggesting that N-cadherin is involved in maintenance of the stromal cell precursor pool via the osteoblast. Although Cdh11 is dispensable for postnatal skeletal growth, it favors osteogenesis over adipogenesis. Deletion of either cadherin reduces ?-catenin abundance and ?-catenin-dependent gene expression, whereas N-cadherin loss disrupts cell-cell adhesion more severely than loss of cadherin 11. Thus, Cdh2 and Cdh11 are crucial regulators of postnatal skeletal growth and bone mass maintenance, serving overlapping, yet distinct, functions in the osteogenic lineage.

Di Benedetto, Adriana; Watkins, Marcus; Grimston, Susan; Salazar, Valerie; Donsante, Christine; Mbalaviele, Gabriel; Radice, Glenn L.; Civitelli, Roberto

2010-01-01

50

N-cadherin juxtamembrane domain modulates voltage-gated Ca2+ current via RhoA GTPase and Rho-associated kinase.  

PubMed

The juxtamembrane domain (JMD) of N-cadherin cytoplasmic tail is an important regulatory region of the clustering and adhesion activities of the protein. In addition, the JMD binds a diversity of proteins capable of modifying intracellular processes including cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by Rho GTPases. These GTPases also function as regulators of voltage-activated calcium channels, which in turn modulate neuronal excitability. The present study was designed to determine whether there is a direct functional link, via Rho GTPase, between the N-cadherin JMD and these voltage-activated channels. It was found that the infusion of the soluble JMD into chick ciliary neurons causes a substantial decrease in the amplitude of the high-threshold voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current. The activation time is increased while the inactivation process is reduced, suggesting that the decreased current amplitude reflects a reduction in the number of channels available to open. This effect was reversed by inhibition of RhoA or its downstream effector, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Because ROCK determines the active state of myosin, these results suggest that the modulation of HVA by the JMD could be mediated by changes in the status of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. PMID:15574742

Piccoli, Giuseppe; Rutishauser, Urs; Brusés, Juan L

2004-12-01

51

The Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway component Vangl2 induces synapse formation through direct control of N-cadherin.  

PubMed

Although regulators of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are widely expressed in vertebrate nervous systems, their roles at synapses are unknown. Here, we show that Vangl2 is a postsynaptic factor crucial for synaptogenesis and that it coprecipitates with N-cadherin and PSD-95 from synapse-rich brain extracts. Vangl2 directly binds N-cadherin and enhances its internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner. This physical and functional interaction is suppressed by ?-catenin, which binds the same intracellular region of N-cadherin as Vangl2. In hippocampal neurons expressing reduced Vangl2 levels, dendritic spine formation as well as synaptic marker clustering is significantly impaired. Furthermore, Prickle2, another postsynaptic PCP component, inhibits the N-cadherin-Vangl2 interaction and is required for normal spine formation. These results demonstrate direct control of classic cadherin by PCP factors; this control may play a central role in the precise formation and maturation of cell-cell adhesions at the synapse. PMID:24582966

Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Ohashi, Riuko; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Sakai, Seiko; Fujisawa, Nobuyoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Huang, Yina H; Igarashi, Michihiro; Kishi, Masashi

2014-03-13

52

The kinase domains of obscurin interact with intercellular adhesion proteins  

PubMed Central

Obscurins comprise a family of giant (?870- to 600-kDa) and small (?250- to 55-kDa) proteins that play important roles in myofibrillogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and cell adhesion and are implicated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tumorigenesis. Giant obscurins are composed of tandem structural and signaling motifs, including 2 serine/threonine kinase domains, SK1 and SK2, present at the COOH terminus of giant obscurin-B. Using biochemical and cellular approaches, we show for the first time that both SK1 and SK2 possess enzymatic activities and undergo autophosphorylation. SK2 can phosphorylate the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, a major component of adherens junctions, and SK1 can interact with the extracellular domain of the ?1-subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase, which also resides in adherens junctions. Immunostaining of nonpermeabilized myofibers and cardiocytes revealed that some obscurin kinase isoforms localize extracellularly. Quantification of the exofacial expression of obscurin kinase proteins indicated that they occupy ?16 and ?5% of the sarcolemmal surface in myofibers and cardiocytes, respectively. Treatment of heart lysates with peptide-N-glycosidase F revealed that while giant obscurin-B localizes intracellularly, possessing dual kinase activity, a small obscurin kinase isoform that contains SK1 localizes extracellularly, where it undergoes N-glycosylation. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the obscurin kinase domains are enzymatically active and may be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion.—Hu, L.-Y. R., Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A. The kinase domains of obscurin interact with intercellular adhesion proteins.

Hu, Li-Yen R.; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

2013-01-01

53

Adhesives from modified soy protein  

DOEpatents

The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

Sun, Susan (Manhattan, KS) [Manhattan, KS; Wang, Donghai (Manhattan, KS) [Manhattan, KS; Zhong, Zhikai (Manhattan, KS) [Manhattan, KS; Yang, Guang (Shanghai, CN) [Shanghai, CN

2008-08-26

54

N-cadherin expression level as a critical indicator of invasion in non-epithelial tumors  

PubMed Central

Cancer cell dissemination away from the primary tumor and their ability to form metastases remain the major causes of death from cancer. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event could lead to the design of new cancer treatments. The establishment and the maintenance of tissue architecture depend on the coordination of cell behavior within this tissue. Cell-cell interactions must form adhesive structures between neighboring cells while remaining highly dynamic to allow and control tissue renewal or remodeling. Among intercellular junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions mediate strong physical interactions and transmit information from the cell microenvironment to the cytoplasm. Disruption of these cell-cell contacts perturbs the polarity of epithelial tissues leading to their disorganization and ultimately to aggressive carcinomas. In non-epithelial tissues, the role of cadherins in the development of cancer is still debated. We recently found that downregulation of N-cadherin in malignant glioma—the most frequent primary brain tumor—results in cell polarization defects leading to abnormal motile behavior with increased cell speed and decreased persistence in directionality. Re-expression of N-cadherin in glioma cells restores cell polarity and limits glioma cell migration, providing a potential therapeutic tool for diffuse glioma.

Peglion, Florent; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

2012-01-01

55

Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling  

SciTech Connect

Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and {beta}-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K. [Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)] [Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Simpson, Melanie A., E-mail: msimpson2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States)

2011-05-01

56

Involvement of N-cadherin/?-catenin interaction in the micro/nanotopography induced indirect mechanotransduction.  

PubMed

Topographical modification at micro- and nanoscale is widely applied to enhance the tissue integration properties of biomaterials, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. The biomaterial topography modulates cell functions via mechanotransduction of direct and indirect. We propose that N-cadherin may play a role in the topographically induced indirect mechanotransduction by regulating the ?-catenin signaling. For confirmation, the cell functions, N-cadherin expression and ?-catenin signaling activation of osteoblasts on titanium (Ti) surfaces with micro- or/and nanotopography are systemically compared with naive and N-cadherin down-regulating MC3T3-E1 cells. We find that the N-cadherin expression is reversely related to the intracellular ?-catenin signaling and the N-cadherin/?-catenin signaling is modulated differentially by the micro- and nanotopography. The nanotopography significantly up-regulates the N-cadherin expression leading to lower ?-catenin signaling activity and consequently depressed differentiation, whereas the microtopography down-regulates the N-cadherin expression resulting in enhanced ?-catenin signaling and thus osteoblast differentiation. Artificial down-regulation of the N-cadherin expression can significantly up-regulate the ?-catenin signaling and consequently enhance the osteoblast differentiation on all the Ti surfaces. The study for the first time clarifies the involvement of the N-cadherin/?-catenin interaction in the micro/nanotopography induced indirect mechanotransduction and provides a potentially new approach for biomaterial modification and biofunctionalization by down-regulating the cell N-cadherin expression to achieve improved clinical performance. PMID:24818888

Liu, Qian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Lingzhou; Song, Wen; Duan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yumei

2014-08-01

57

NHERF Links the N-Cadherin/Catenin Complex to the Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor to Modulate the Actin Cytoskeleton and Regulate Cell Motility  

PubMed Central

Using phage display, we identified Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-2 as a novel binding partner for the cadherin-associated protein, ?-catenin. We showed that the second of two PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains of NHERF interacts with a PDZ-binding motif at the very carboxy terminus of ?-catenin. N-cadherin expression has been shown to induce motility in a number of cell types. The first PDZ domain of NHERF is known to bind platelet-derived growth factor-receptor ? (PDGF-R?), and the interaction of PDGF-R? with NHERF leads to enhanced cell spreading and motility. Here we show that ?-catenin and N-cadherin are in a complex with NHERF and PDGF-R? at membrane ruffles in the highly invasive fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080. Using a stable short hairpin RNA system, we showed that HT1080 cells knocked down for either N-cadherin or NHERF had impaired ability to migrate into the wounded area in a scratch assay, similar to cells treated with a PDGF-R kinase inhibitor. Cells expressing a mutant NHERF that is unable to associate with ?-catenin had increased stress fibers, reduced lamellipodia, and impaired cell migration. Using HeLa cells, which express little to no PDGF-R, we introduced PDGF-R? and showed that it coimmunoprecipitates with N-cadherin and that PDGF-dependent cell migration was reduced in these cells when we knocked-down expression of N-cadherin or NHERF. These studies implicate N-cadherin and ?-catenin in cell migration via PDGF-R–mediated signaling through the scaffolding molecule NHERF.

Theisen, Christopher S.; Wahl, James K.; Johnson, Keith R.

2007-01-01

58

Alterations in cell adhesion proteins and cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Cell adhesive junction is specialized intercellular structure composed of cell adhesion proteins. They are essential to connect adjacent heart muscle cell and make heart contraction effectively and properly. Clinical and genetic studies have revealed close relationship between cell adhesive proteins and the occurrence of various cardiomyopathies. Here we will review recent development on the disease phenotype, potential cellular and molecular mechanism related to cell adhesion molecules, with particular disease pathogenesis learned from genetic manipulated murine models.

Li, Jifen

2014-01-01

59

N-cadherin in osteolineage cells is not required for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

There is evidence suggesting that N-cadherin expression on osteoblast lineage cells regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and quiescence. To test this hypothesis, we conditionally deleted N-cadherin (Cdh2) in osteoblasts using Cdh2flox/flox Osx-Cre mice. N-cadherin expression was efficiently ablated in osteoblast lineage cells as assessed by mRNA expression and immunostaining of bone sections. Basal hematopoiesis is normal in these mice. In particular, HSC number, cell cycle status, long-term repopulating activity, and self-renewal capacity were normal. Moreover, engraftment of wild-type cells into N-cadherin–deleted recipients was normal. Finally, these mice responded normally to G-CSF, a stimulus that mobilizes HSCs by inducing alterations to the stromal micro-environment. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression in osteoblast lineage cells is dispensable for HSC maintenance in mice.

Greenbaum, Adam M.; Revollo, Leila D.; Woloszynek, Jill R.; Civitelli, Roberto

2012-01-01

60

The adhesive properties of coacervated recombinant hybrid mussel adhesive proteins.  

PubMed

Marine mussels attach to substrates using adhesive proteins. It has been suggested that complex coacervation (liquid-liquid phase separation via concentration) might be involved in the highly condensed and non-water dispersed adhesion process of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, as purified natural MAPs are difficult to obtain, it has not been possible to experimentally validate the coacervation model. In the present work, we demonstrate complex coacervation in a system including recombinant MAPs and hyaluronic acid (HA). Our recombinant hybrid MAPs, fp-151 and fp-131, can be produced in large quantities, and are readily purified. We observed successful complex coacervation using cationic fp-151 or fp-131, and an anionic HA partner. Importantly, we found that highly condensed complex coacervates significantly increased the bulk adhesive strength of MAPs in both dry and wet environments. In addition, oil droplets were successfully engulfed using a MAP-based interfacial coacervation process, to form microencapsulated particles. Collectively, our results indicate that a complex coacervation system based on MAPs shows superior adhesive properties, combined with additional valuable features including liquid/liquid phase separation and appropriate viscoelasticity. Our microencapsulation system could be useful in the development of new adhesive biomaterials, including self-adhesive microencapsulated drug carriers, for use in biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:20144475

Lim, Seonghye; Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Song, Young Hoon; Cha, Hyung Joon

2010-05-01

61

Viral hepatitis is associated with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with cholangiolar differentiation and N-cadherin expression.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is thought to have common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma, but until now the histomorphological and genetic features of viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is still unknown. From 2000 to 2010, 170 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who received detailed pathological assessment and regular follow-up at the National Taiwan University Hospital were selected for this study. Of 170 patients, 69 (41%) were positive for hepatitis B and/or C virus. These patients were younger, were more frequently male, and had elevated serum ?-fetoprotein levels as compared with seronegative intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients. Grossly these tumors were mostly of the mass-forming type, and histologically, cholangiolar differentiation was more frequently seen. We identified N-cadherin as an immunohistochemical marker strongly associated with hepatitis virus infection. The prevalence of viral hepatitis in patients with N-cadherin-positive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 75%, and that in N-cadherin-negative patients was only 37%. N-cadherin-positive patients were younger, had elevated ?-fetoprotein, and had no hepatolithiasis. All N-cadherin-positive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were of the mass-forming type. N-cadherin positivity was strongly associated with cholangiolar morphology and lack of carcinoembryonic antigen and MUC2 expression, whereas K-RAS mutations were less frequent. Our results indicate that a subgroup of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma characterized by cholangiolar differentiation and N-cadherin expression is strongly associated with viral hepatitis. PMID:21423153

Yu, Tsan-Hua; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Chen, Yu-Ling; Yang, Wan-Ching; Hsu, Hey-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

2011-06-01

62

A self-renewing division of zebrafish Müller glial cells generates neuronal progenitors that require N-cadherin to regenerate retinal neurons.  

PubMed

Müller glia function as retinal stem cells in adult zebrafish. In response to loss of retinal neurons, Müller glia partially dedifferentiate, re-express neuroepithelial markers and re-enter the cell cycle. We show that the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Alcama is a novel marker of multipotent retinal stem cells, including injury-induced Müller glia, and that each Müller glial cell divides asymmetrically only once to produce an Alcama-negative, proliferating retinal progenitor. The initial mitotic division of Müller glia involves interkinetic nuclear migration, but mitosis of retinal progenitors occurs in situ. Rapidly dividing retinal progenitors form neurogenic clusters tightly associated with Alcama/N-cadherin-labeled Müller glial radial processes. Genetic suppression of N-cadherin function interferes with basal migration of retinal progenitors and subsequent regeneration of HuC/D(+) inner retinal neurons. PMID:24154521

Nagashima, Mikiko; Barthel, Linda K; Raymond, Pamela A

2013-11-01

63

Intervention effects of ganoderma lucidum spores on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons and expression of neurotrophin-4 and N-cadherin.  

PubMed

Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg(2+) free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE). Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i) control, ii) model (incubated with Mg(2+) free medium for 3 hours), iii) GLS group I (incubated with Mg(2+) free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours) and iv) GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg(2+) free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours). Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression. PMID:23637882

Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Shaobo; Sun, Di-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei

2013-01-01

64

Intervention Effects of Ganoderma Lucidum Spores on Epileptiform Discharge Hippocampal Neurons and Expression of Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg2+ free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE). Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i) control, ii) model (incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours), iii) GLS group I (incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours) and iv) GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours). Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression.

Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Shaobo; Sun, Di-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei

2013-01-01

65

An occludin-focal adhesion kinase protein complex at the blood-testis barrier: a study using the cadmium model.  

PubMed

Several integral membrane proteins that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in mammalian testes, in particular rodents, are known to date. These include tight junction (TJ) proteins (e.g. occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudins), basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins (e.g. N-cadherin), and gap junction proteins (e.g. connexin43). However, the regulators (e.g. protein kinases and phosphatases) that affect these proteins, such as their interaction with the cytoskeletal actin, which in turn confer cell adhesion at the TJ, remain largely unknown. We report herein that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a putative interacting partner of occludin, but not claudin-11 or junctional adhesion molecule-A. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy studies illustrated that the expression of FAK in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes was stage specific. FAK colocalized with occludin at the BTB in virtually all stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle but considerably diminished in stages VIII-IX, at the time of BTB restructuring to facilitate the transit of primary leptotene spermatocytes. Using Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with established TJ-permeability barrier and ultrastructures of TJ, basal ectoplasmic specialization and desmosome-like junction that mimicked the BTB in vivo, FAK was shown to colocalize with occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. When these Sertoli cell cultures were treated with CdCl(2) to perturb the TJ-barrier function, occludin underwent endocytic-mediated internalization in parallel with FAK and ZO-1. Thus, these findings demonstrate that FAK is an integrated regulatory component of the occludin-ZO-1 protein complex, suggesting that functional studies can be performed to study the role of FAK in BTB dynamics. PMID:19213829

Siu, Erica R; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Sze, K L; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

2009-07-01

66

VIP and VIP Gene Silencing Modulation of Differentiation Marker N-Cadherin and Cell Shape of Corneal Endothelium in Human Corneas Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed by corneal endothelial (CE) cells and is present in the aqueous humor, which bathes CE cells in vivo. This study demonstrated the role of CE cell VIP in maintaining the expression level of a CE differentiation marker, N-cadherin, and the hexagonal cell shape. Methods To determine the most effective VIP concentration, bovine corneoscleral explants were treated with 0 (control) and 10?12 to 10?6 M VIP. Paired human corneas (nine donors) from an eye bank were used as control; the other corneas were treated with VIP. To silence endogenous VIP, paired fresh human donor corneas (from seven cadavers) were transduced with VIP shRNA or the control lentiviral particles and then bisected/quartered for quantitative analysis by semiquantitative RT-PCR (for mRNA) and Western blot analysis/immunocytochemistry (for protein), whereas alizarin red S staining revealed CE cell shape. Results VIP concentration dependently increased bovine CE cell N-cadherin mRNA levels, with the maximal effect observed between 10?10 (1.47 ± 0.06-fold; P = 0.002) and 10?8 M VIP (1.48 ± 0.18-fold; P = 0.012). VIP (10?8 M) treatment increased N-cadherin protein levels in bovine and human CE cells to 1.98 ± 0.28-fold (P = 0.005) and 1.17 ± 0.10 (range, 0.91–187)-fold (P = 0.050) of their respective controls. VIP antagonist (SN)VIPhyb diminished the VIP effect. VIP silencing resulted in deterioration of the hexagonal cell shape and decreased levels of VIP protein and mRNA, N-cadherin (but not connexin-43) mRNA and protein, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Conclusions Through its autocrine VIP, CE cells play an active role in maintaining the differentiated state and suppressing apoptosis in the corneal endothelium in situ.

Koh, Shay-Whey M.; Chandrasekara, Krish; Abbondandolo, Cara J.; Coll, Timothy J.; Rutzen, Allan R.

2008-01-01

67

Trim28 Contributes to EMT via Regulation of E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In previous work, we demonstrated that transcription factor Trim28 (Tripartite motif containing 28) plays a tumor-suppressor role in early-staged adenocarcinoma of the lung due to its ability to restrain transcription of cell cycle-regulating genes. Herein we examine Trim28's role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly implicated in cancer metastasis. We found that Trim28 plays a role in TGF-?-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Silencing Trim28 with inhibitory RNAs alters the expression of numerous EMT markers, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas overexpression of Trim28 has an opposite effect. Trim28 expression is induced following TGF-? treatment at both protein and mRNA levels. Trim28 deficiency impairs TGF-?-induced EMT and decreases cell migration and invasion. Finally, we demonstrate that the expression of Trim28 affects the acetylation and methylation of histones on E-cadherin and N-cadherin promoters. These results suggest that Trim28 contributes to EMT and might be important for tumor metastasis in lung cancer. Taken together with our previous work these results suggest a model in which Trim28 is a tumor suppressor early in the transformation process in lung cancer, but in later stages it functions as an oncogene.

Chen, Lu; Munoz-Antonia, Teresita; Cress, W. Douglas

2014-01-01

68

Activity-dependent regulation of {beta}-catenin via {epsilon}-cleavage of N-cadherin  

SciTech Connect

N-cadherin is essential for excitatory synaptic contact in the hippocampus. Presenilin 1 (PS1) is located at sites of synaptic contact, forming a complex with N-cadherin and {beta}-catenin. Here, we report that human N-cadherin is cleaved by PS1/{gamma}-secretase in response to physiological concentration of glutamate (Glu) stimulation, yielding a fragment Ncad/CTF2. The expression of Ncad/CTF2 in neuronal cells led to its translocation to the nucleus, and caused a prominent enhancement of cytoplasmic and nuclear {beta}-catenin levels in a cell-cell contact dependent manner, via following mechanisms: 1, inhibition of {beta}-catenin phosphorylation; 2, transactivation of {beta}-catenin; and 3, inhibition of N-cadherin transcription, and finally enhanced {beta}-catenin nuclear signaling. Since the regulation of cellular {beta}-catenin level is essential for synaptic function, disruption in the cleavage of N-cadherin may be causally linked to the synaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)

Uemura, Kengo [Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kihara, Takeshi [Department of Neuroscience for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kuzuya, Akira [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okawa, Katsuya [Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nishimoto, Takaaki [Department of Neuroscience for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Bito, Haruhiko [Department of Neurochemistry, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Ninomiya, Haruaki [Department of Neurobiology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Sugimoto, Hachiro [Department of Neuroscience for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kinoshita, Ayae [Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan) and Department of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: akinoshita@hs.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimohama, Shun [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

2006-07-07

69

Retinoic acid is a negative physiological regulator of N-cadherin during early avian heart morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The vitamin A-deficient (VAD) early avian embryo has a grossly abnormal cardiovascular system that is rescued by treating the embryo with the vitamin A-active form, retinoic acid (RA). Here we examine the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in RA-regulated early cardiovascular morphogenesis. N-cad mRNA and protein are expressed globally in the presomite through HH14 normal and VAD quail embryos. The expression in VAD embryos prior to HH10 is significantly higher than that in normal embryos. Functional analyses of the N-cad overproducing VAD embryos reveal N-cad involvement in the RA-regulated cardiovascular development and suggest that N-cad expression may be mediated by Msx1. We provide evidence that in the early avian embryo, endogenous RA is a negative physiological regulator of N-cad. We hypothesize that a critical endogenous level of N-cad is needed for normal early cardiovascular morphogenesis to occur and that this level is ensured by stage-specific, developmentally regulated RA signaling. PMID:19843154

Romeih, Mahmoud; Cakstina, Inese; Zile, Maija H

2009-12-01

70

Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

2014-01-01

71

N-cadherin deficiency impairs pericyte recruitment, and not endothelial differentiation or sprouting, in embryonic stem cell-derived angiogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial cells express two classical cadherins, VE-cadherin and N-cadherin. VE-cadherin is absolutely required for vascular morphogenesis, but N-cadherin is thought to participate in vessel stabilization by interacting with periendothelial cells during vessel formation. However, recent data suggest a more critical role for N-cadherin in endothelium that would regulate angiogenesis, in part by controlling VE-cadherin expression. In this study, we have assessed N-cadherin function in vascular development using an in vitro model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show that pluripotent ES cells genetically null for N-cadherin can differentiate normally into endothelial cells. In addition, sprouting angiogenesis was unaltered, suggesting that N-cadherin is not essential for the early events of angiogenesis. However, the lack of N-cadherin led to an impairment in pericyte covering of endothelial outgrowths. We conclude that N-cadherin is necessary neither for vasculogenesis nor proliferation and migration of endothelial cells but is required for the subsequent maturation of endothelial sprouts by interacting with pericytes.

Tillet, Emmanuelle [Laboratoire de Developpement et Vieillissement de l'Endothelium, INSERM EMI 0219, CEA, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: emmanuelle.tillet@cea.fr; Vittet, Daniel [Laboratoire de Developpement et Vieillissement de l'Endothelium, INSERM EMI 0219, CEA, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Feraud, Olivier [Laboratoire de Developpement et Vieillissement de l'Endothelium, INSERM EMI 0219, CEA, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Moore, Robert [Max-Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Stuebeweg 51, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Kemler, Rolf [Max-Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Stuebeweg 51, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Huber, Philippe [Laboratoire de Developpement et Vieillissement de l'Endothelium, INSERM EMI 0219, CEA, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)

2005-11-01

72

Cell adhesion to agrin presented as a nanopatterned substrate is consistent with an interaction with the extracellular matrix and not transmembrane adhesion molecules  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular spacing is important for cell adhesion in a number of ways, ranging from the ordered arrangement of matrix polymers extracellularly, to steric hindrance of adhesion/signaling complexes intracellularly. This has been demonstrated using nanopatterned RGD peptides, a canonical extracellular matrix ligand for integrin interactions. Cell adhesion was greatly reduced when the RGD-coated nanoparticles were separated by more than 60 nm, indicating a sharp spacing-dependent threshold for this form of cell adhesion. Results Here we show a similar dependence of cell adhesion on the spacing of agrin, a protein that exists as both a secreted, matrix-bound form and a type-2 transmembrane form in vivo. Agrin was presented as a substrate for cell adhesion assays by anchoring recombinant protein to gold nanoparticles that were arrayed at tunable distances onto glass coverslips. Cells adhered well to nanopatterned agrin, and when presented as uniformly coated substrates, adhesion to agrin was comparable to other well-studied adhesion molecules, including N-Cadherin. Adhesion of both mouse primary cortical neurons and rat B35 neuroblastoma cells showed a spacing-dependent threshold, with a sharp drop in adhesion when the space between agrin-coated nanoparticles increased from 60 to 90 nm. In contrast, adhesion to N-Cadherin decreased gradually over the entire range of distances tested (uniform, 30, 60, 90, and 160 nm). The spacing of the agrin nanopattern also influenced cell motility, and peptide competition suggested adhesion was partially integrin dependent. Finally, differences in cell adhesion to C-terminal agrin fragments of different lengths were detected using nanopatterned substrates, and these differences were not evident using uniformly coated substrates. Conclusion These results suggest nanopatterned substrates may provide a physiological presentation of adhesive substrates, and are consistent with cells adhering to agrin through a mechanism that more closely resembles an interaction with the extracellular matrix than a transmembrane adhesion molecule.

Wolfram, Tobias; Spatz, Joachim P; Burgess, Robert W

2008-01-01

73

Differential perturbations in the morphogenesis of anterior structures induced by overexpression of truncated XB- and N-cadherins in Xenopus embryos  

PubMed Central

Cadherins, a family of Ca-dependent adhesion molecules, have been proposed to act as regulators of morphogenetic processes and to be major effectors in the maintenance of tissue integrity. In this study, we have compared the effects of the expression of two truncated cadherins during early neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis. mRNA encoding deleted forms of XB- and N-cadherin lacking most of the extracellular domain were injected into the four animal dorsal blastomeres of 32-cell stage Xenopus embryos. These truncated cadherins altered the cohesion of cells derived from the injected blastomeres and induced morphogenetic defects in the anterior neural tissue to which they chiefly contributed. Truncated XB-cadherin was more efficient than N- cadherin in inducing these perturbations. Moreover, the coexpression of both truncated cadherins had additive perturbation effects on neural development. The two truncated cadherins can interact with the three known catenins, but with distinct affinities. These results suggest that the adhesive signal mediated by cadherins can be perturbed by overexpressing their cytoplasmic domains by competing with different affinity with catenins and/or a common anchor structure. Therefore, the correct regulation of cadherin function through the cytoplasmic domain appears to be a crucial step in the formation of the neural tissue.

1994-01-01

74

Coordinated Action of N-CAM, N-cadherin, EphA4, and ephrinB2 Translates Genetic Prepatterns into Structure during Somitogenesis in Chick  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation in vertebrates, mesenchymal cells at the anterior end of the pre-somitic mesoderm (PSM) periodically compact, transiently epithelialize and detach from the posterior PSM to form somites. In the prevailing clock-and-wavefront model of somitogenesis, periodic gene expression, particularly of Notch and Wnt, interacts with an FGF8-based thresholding mechanism to determine cell fates. However, this model does not explain how cell determination and subsequent differentiation translates into somite morphology. In this paper, we use computer simulations of chick somitogenesis to show that experimentally-observed temporal and spatial patterns of adhesive N-CAM and N-cadherin and repulsive EphA4–ephrinB2 pairs suffice to reproduce the complex dynamic morphological changes of somitogenesis in wild-type and N-cadherin (?/?) chick, including intersomitic separation, boundary-shape evolution and sorting of misdifferentiated cells across compartment boundaries. Since different models of determination yield the same, experimentally-observed, distribution of adhesion and repulsion molecules, the patterning is independent of the details of this mechanism.

Glazier, James A.; Zhang, Ying; Swat, Maciej; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Schnell, Santiago

2008-01-01

75

Hydrogels that mimic developmentally relevant matrix and N-cadherin interactions enhance MSC chondrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels provide a backbone polymer with which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can interact through several cell surface receptors that are expressed by MSCs, including CD44 and CD168. Previous studies showed that this 3D hydrogel environment supports the chondrogenesis of MSCs, and here we demonstrate through functional blockade that these specific cell–material interactions play a role in this process. Beyond matrix interactions, cadherin molecules, a family of transmembrane glycoproteins, play a critical role in tissue development during embryogenesis, and N-cadherin is a key factor in mediating cell–cell interactions during mesenchymal condensation and chondrogenesis. In this study, we functionalized HA hydrogels with N-cadherin mimetic peptides and evaluated their role in regulating chondrogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition by encapsulated MSCs. Our results show that conjugation of cadherin peptides onto HA hydrogels promotes both early chondrogenesis of MSCs and cartilage-specific matrix production with culture, compared with unmodified controls or those with inclusion of a scrambled peptide domain. This enhanced chondrogenesis was abolished via treatment with N-cadherin–specific antibodies, confirming the contribution of these N-cadherin peptides to chondrogenesis. Subcutaneous implantation of MSC-seeded constructs also showed superior neocartilage formation in implants functionalized with N-cadherin mimetic peptides compared with controls. This study demonstrates the inherent biologic activity of HA-based hydrogels, as well as the promise of biofunctionalizing HA hydrogels to emulate the complexity of the natural cell microenvironment during embryogenesis, particularly in stem cell-based cartilage regeneration.

Bian, Liming; Guvendiren, Murat; Mauck, Robert L.; Burdick, Jason A.

2013-01-01

76

Biomimetic Adhesive Polymers Based on Mussel Adhesive Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature provides many outstanding examples of adhesive strategies from which chemists and material scientists can draw inspiration in their pursuit of new adhesive materials. As described in other chapters of this book, detailed studies of the adhesive mechanisms of geckos, mussels and other organisms during the past several decades have enhanced our understanding of the underlying physicochemical principles to the

BRUCE P. LEE; JEFFREY L. DALSIN; PHILLIP B. MESSERSMITH

77

Distinct Mesenchymal Alterations in N-Cadherin and E-Cadherin Positive Primary Renal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Renal tubular epithelial cells of proximal and distal origin differ markedly in their physiological functions. Therefore, we hypothesized that they also differ in their capacity to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal alterations. Results We used cultures of freshly isolated primary human tubular cells. To distinguish cells of different tubular origin we took advantage of the fact that human proximal epithelial cells uniquely express N-cadherin instead of E-cadherin as major cell-cell adhesion molecule. To provoke mesenchymal alteration we treated these cocultures with TGF-? for up to 6 days. Within this time period, the morphology of distal tubular cells was barely altered. In contrast to tubular cell lines, E-cadherin was not down-regulated by TGF-?, even though TGF-? signal transduction was initiated as demonstrated by nuclear localization of Smad2/3. Analysis of transcription factors and miRNAs possibly involved in E-cadherin regulation revealed high levels of miRNAs of the miR200-family, which may contribute to the stability of E-cadherin expression in human distal tubular epithelial cells. By contrast, proximal tubular epithelial cells altered their phenotype when treated with TGF-?. They became elongated and formed three-dimensional structures. Rho-kinases were identified as modulators of TGF-?-induced morphological alterations. Non-specific inhibition of Rho-kinases resulted in stabilization of the epithelial phenotype, while partial effects were observed upon downregulation of Rho-kinase isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2. The distinct reactivity of proximal and distal cells was retained when the cells were cultured as polarized cells. Conclusions Interference with Rho-kinase signaling provides a target to counteract TGF-?-mediated mesenchymal alterations of epithelial cells, particularly in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, primary distal tubular cells differed from cell lines by their high phenotypic stability which included constant expression of E-cadherin. Our cell culture system of primary epithelial cells is thus suitable to understand and modulate cellular remodeling processes of distinct tubular cells relevant for human renal disease.

Keller, Christof; Kroening, Sven; Zuehlke, Jonathan; Kunath, Frank; Krueger, Bettina; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

2012-01-01

78

N-cadherin{sup +} HSCs in fetal liver exhibit higher long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity than N-cadherin{sup -} HSCs  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High N-cad expression was detected in E12.5 mouse FL LT-HSCs (EPCR{sup +} LSK cells). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immunohistochemically, N-cad{sup +} HSCs co-localized with sinusoidal ECs (Lyve-1{sup +} cells) in E12.5 FL, but these gradually detached in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad{sup +} LSK cells in E12.5 FL exhibited higher LTR activity versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells, which decreased in E15.5 and E18.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad expression may confer high LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche in FL. -- Abstract: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. The regulation of HSCs in fetal liver (FL) and their niche, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in the maintenance of HSCs during FL hematopoiesis. By using anti-N-cad antibodies (Abs) produced by our laboratory, we detected high N-cad expression in embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) mouse FL HSCs, but not in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that N-cad{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} and N-cad{sup +} endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR){sup +} HSCs co-localized with Lyve-1{sup +} sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) in E12.5 FL and that some of these cells also expressed N-cad. However, N-cad{sup +} HSCs were also observed to detach from the perisinusoidal niche at E15.5 and E18.5, concomitant with a down-regulation of N-cad and an up-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in hepatic cells. Moreover, EPCR{sup +} long-term (LT)-HSCs were enriched in the N-cad{sup +}Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) fraction in E12.5 FL, but not in E15.5 or E18.5 FL. In a long-term reconstitution (LTR) activity assay, higher engraftment associated with N-cad{sup +} LSK cells versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells in E12.5 FL when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice. However, the higher engraftment of N-cad{sup +} LSK cells decreased subsequently in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. It is possible that N-cad expression conferred higher LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche, especially at E12.5. The down-regulation of N-cad during FL hematopoiesis may help us better understand the regulation and mobility of HSCs before migration into BM.

Toyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Fumio; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Ikushima, Yoshiko Matsumoto [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@z3.keio.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

2012-11-23

79

Up-regulation of gastric cancer cell invasion by Twist is accompanied by N-cadherin and fibronectin expression.  

PubMed

Twist, a newly found EMT-inducer, has been reported to be up-regulated in those of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas with high N-cadherin level. We show here MKN45, a cell line derived from undifferentiated carcinomas cells, expresses high levels of Twist. Down-regulation of Twist, using an antisense Twist vector in MKN45 cells, inhibits cell migration and invasion, companied with a morphologic changes associated with MET. Suppression of Twist also decreases the expressions of N-cadherin and fibronectin, but not of E-cadherin in MKN45. In contrast, overexpression of Twist in MKN28, a cell line derived from moderate differentiated carcinomas, results in up-regulation of N-cadherin and fibronectin, companied with down-regulation of E-cadherin. Taken together, our results suggest that Twist regulates cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cell lines, probably through the N-cadherin and fibronectin production. PMID:17512904

Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gang, Haiju; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Zumao; Wang, Tao; Han, Juan; Luo, Ting; Wen, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaoting

2007-07-01

80

Clinicopathologic correlations of liver kinase B1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) as a tumor suppressor has emerged from the observation of increased risk of malignancy in gastrointestinal tract in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients harboring LKB1 gene mutations. LKB1 gene inactivation has recently been demonstrated in a subset of lung carcinoma and has been proven to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma cells. However, the clinicopathologic significance, particularly prognosis, of LKB1 protein expression remains largely unclear. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the correlations between LKB1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression and clinicopathologic parameters of lung cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry on specimens of the normal bronchial epithelium revealed that LKB1 was strongly or moderately expressed in the cytoplasm, and E-cadherin was expressed clearly on the cell membrane, whereas N-cadherin was absent or only weakly expressed at the membrane and/or in the cytoplasm. In contrast, in lung cancer samples, LKB1 expression was absent or decreased in 25.7% (29/113) cases accompanied with loss of membranous E-cadherin expression (25/29, P = 0.009) and increased membranous and/or cytoplasmic N-cadherin expression (18/29, P = 0.007). Loss of LKB1 expression positively correlated with histologic type (P=0.001), poor differentiation (P = 0.004), and adverse prognosis (P < 0.001). Moreover, loss of LKB1 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.022) in lung adenocarcinoma samples and was an independent factor that impacted lung adenocarcinoma patients' prognosis (P = 0.003). Therefore, loss of LKB1 expression correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and may be a useful marker of poor survival for the patient with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23235348

Liu, Shuli; Miao, Yuan; Fan, Chuifeng; Liu, Yang; Yu, Juanhan; Zhang, Yong; Dai, Shundong; Wang, Enhua

2013-07-01

81

Aberrant methylation accounts for cell adhesion-related gene silencing during 3-methylcholanthrene and diethylnitrosamine induced multistep rat lung carcinogenesis associated with overexpression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3a  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the significance of alterations in cell adhesion-related genes methylation during lung multistep carcinogenesis induced by the genotoxic carcinogens 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), tissue samples microdissected from MCA/DEN-induced rat lung carcinogenesis model were subjected to methylation-specific PCR to evaluate the DNA methylation status of CADM1, TIMP3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein expression of CADM1, TIMP3, N-cadherin and the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b. E-cadherin hypermethylation was not detected in any tissue. CADM1, TIMP3 and N-cadherin hypermethylation was correlated with the loss of their protein expression during the progression of pathologic lesions. The prevalence of DNA methylation of at least one gene and the average number of methylated genes increased with the histological progression. DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein expression increased progressively during the stages of lung carcinogenesis, whereas DNMT3b overexpression was only found in several samples. Furthermore, DNMT1 protein expression levels were correlated with CADM1 methylation, and DNMT3a protein expression levels were correlated with CADM1, TIMP3 and N-cadherin methylation. The average number of methylated genes during carcinogenesis was significantly correlated with DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein expression levels. Moreover, mRNA expression of CADM1 significantly increased after treatment with DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in CADM1-methylated primary tumor cell lines. Our findings suggest that an accumulation of hypermethylation accounts for cell adhesion-related gene silencing is associated with dynamic changes in the progression of MCA/DEN-induced rat lung carcinogenesis. We suggest that DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein overexpression may be responsible for this aberrant DNA methylation.

Liu Wenbin; Cui Zhihong; Ao Lin; Zhou Ziyuan; Zhou Yanhong; Yuan Xiaoyan; Xiang Yunlong; Liu Jinyi, E-mail: jinyiliutmmu@163.com; Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com

2011-02-15

82

Calcium-dependent N-cadherin up-regulation mediates reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Brain injury induces phenotypic changes in astrocytes, known as reactive astrogliosis, which may influence neuronal survival. Here we show that brain injury induces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes, and that the Ca2+ signaling is required for astrogliosis. We found that type 2 IP3 receptor knockout (IP3R2KO) mice deficient in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling have impaired reactive astrogliosis and increased injury-associated neuronal death. We identified N-cadherin and pumilio 2 (Pum2) as downstream signaling molecules, and found that brain injury induces up-regulation of N-cadherin around the injured site. This effect is mediated by Ca2+-dependent down-regulation of Pum2, which in turn attenuates Pum2-dependent translational repression of N-cadherin. Furthermore, we show that astrocyte-specific knockout of N-cadherin results in impairment of astrogliosis and neuroprotection. Thus, astrocytic Ca2+ signaling and the downstream function of N-cadherin play indispensable roles in the cellular responses to brain injury. These findings define a previously unreported signaling axis required for reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection following brain injury.

Kanemaru, Kazunori; Kubota, Jun; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kenzo; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

2013-01-01

83

Similarities between heterophilic and homophilic cadherin adhesion  

PubMed Central

The mechanism that drives the segregation of cells into tissue-specific subpopulations during development is largely attributed to differences in intercellular adhesion. This process requires the cadherin family of calcium-dependent glycoproteins. A widely held view is that protein-level discrimination between different cadherins on cell surfaces drives this sorting process. Despite this postulated molecular selectivity, adhesion selectivity has not been quantitatively verified at the protein level. In this work, molecular force measurements and bead aggregation assays tested whether differences in cadherin bond strengths could account for cell sorting in vivo and in vitro. Studies were conducted with chicken N-cadherin, canine E-cadherin, and Xenopus C-cadherin. Both qualitative bead aggregation and quantitative force measurements show that the cadherins cross-react. Furthermore, heterophilic adhesion is not substantially weaker than homophilic adhesion, and the measured differences in adhesion do not correlate with cell sorting behavior. These results suggest that the basis for cell segregation during morphogenesis does not map exclusively to protein-level differences in cadherin adhesion.

Prakasam, A. K.; Maruthamuthu, V.; Leckband, D. E.

2006-01-01

84

ADAM9 Up-Regulates N-Cadherin via miR-218 Suppression in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer. CDH2 (N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and ADAM9 (a type I transmembrane protein) are related to lung cancer brain metastasis; however, it is unclear how they interact to mediate this metastasis. Because microRNAs regulate many biological functions and disease processes (e.g., cancer) by down-regulating their target genes, microRNA microarrays were used to identify ADAM9-regulated miRNAs that target CDH2 in aggressive lung cancer cells. Luciferase assays and western blot analysis showed that CDH2 is a target gene of miR-218. MiR-218 was generated from pri-mir-218-1, which is located in SLIT2, in non-invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its expression was inhibited in aggressive lung adenocarcinoma. The down-regulation of ADAM9 up-regulated SLIT2 and miR-218, thus down-regulating CDH2 expression. This study revealed that ADAM9 activates CDH2 through the release of miR-218 inhibition on CDH2 in lung adenocarcinoma.

Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Wang, Li-Ju; Chuang, Li-Ling; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kuo, Ting-Ting; Huang, Cheng-Chung; Chuang, Eric Y.; Lai, Liang-Chuan

2014-01-01

85

c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution.  

PubMed

During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII-IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research. PMID:23169788

Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

2013-01-15

86

Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells  

PubMed Central

When neurons exit the cell cycle after their terminal mitosis, they detach from the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Despite the fact that this detachment is crucial for further neurogenesis and neuronal migration, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, taking advantage of the genetics and imaging possibilities of the zebrafish retina as a model system, we show by knock down experiments that the guidance molecule Slit1b as well as its receptor Robo3 are required for apical retraction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, N-cadherin seems to be responsible for maintenance of apical attachment as expression of dominant-negative N-cadherin causes RGCs to lose apical attachments prematurely and rescues retraction in slit1b morphants. These results suggest that Slit-Robo signaling downregulates N-cadherin activity to allow apical retraction in newly generated RGCs.

Wong, Grace K W; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Norden, Caren; Leung, Louis; Harris, William A.

2012-01-01

87

Adhesion of mussel foot proteins to different substrate surfaces.  

PubMed

Mussel foot proteins (mfps) have been investigated as a source of inspiration for the design of underwater coatings and adhesives. Recent analysis of various mfps by a surface forces apparatus (SFA) revealed that mfp-1 functions as a coating, whereas mfp-3 and mfp-5 resemble adhesive primers on mica surfaces. To further refine and elaborate the surface properties of mfps, the force-distance profiles of the interactions between thin mfp (i.e. mfp-1, mfp-3 or mfp-5) films and four different surface chemistries, namely mica, silicon dioxide, polymethylmethacrylate and polystyrene, were measured by an SFA. The results indicate that the adhesion was exquisitely dependent on the mfp tested, the substrate surface chemistry and the contact time. Such studies are essential for understanding the adhesive versatility of mfps and related/similar adhesion proteins, and for translating this versatility into a new generation of coatings and (including in vivo) adhesive materials. PMID:23173195

Lu, Qingye; Danner, Eric; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Dong Soo

2013-02-01

88

Adhesion of mussel foot proteins to different substrate surfaces  

PubMed Central

Mussel foot proteins (mfps) have been investigated as a source of inspiration for the design of underwater coatings and adhesives. Recent analysis of various mfps by a surface forces apparatus (SFA) revealed that mfp-1 functions as a coating, whereas mfp-3 and mfp-5 resemble adhesive primers on mica surfaces. To further refine and elaborate the surface properties of mfps, the force–distance profiles of the interactions between thin mfp (i.e. mfp-1, mfp-3 or mfp-5) films and four different surface chemistries, namely mica, silicon dioxide, polymethylmethacrylate and polystyrene, were measured by an SFA. The results indicate that the adhesion was exquisitely dependent on the mfp tested, the substrate surface chemistry and the contact time. Such studies are essential for understanding the adhesive versatility of mfps and related/similar adhesion proteins, and for translating this versatility into a new generation of coatings and (including in vivo) adhesive materials.

Lu, Qingye; Danner, Eric; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Dong Soo

2013-01-01

89

The Novel Monoclonal Antibody HPC2 and N-cadherin Distinguish Metastatic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma from Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and primary cholangiocarcinoma are morphologically very similar and therefore challenging to distinguish in liver biopsies. The distinction is important because surgical management and prognosis differ significantly. A number of immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated to aid this diagnosis, but aside from N-cadherin, which labels cholangiocarcinoma, few provide the combination of good sensitivity and specificity. Our laboratory recently developed a novel monoclonal antibody HPC2 that recognizes pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized the combination of our new marker and N-cadherin would reliably distinguish metastatic pancreatic cancer from cholangiocarcinoma. We immunostained 60 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and 31 cholangiocarcinomas for the HPC2 and N-cadherin antigens. We also stained 24 gallbladder adenocarcinomas, 12 ampullary adenocarcinomas, and 10 metastatic colonic adenocarcinomas to the liver. Sections were independently scored by two pathologists with good agreement using both markers (kappa statistics 0.62–0.64, p<0.0001). HPC2 was observed in 80% of pancreatic cancers (48/60), 75% of ampullary (9/12), and 32% (10/31) of cholangiocarcinomas. N-cadherin stained 27% (16/60) of the pancreas cases and 58% (18/31) of the cholangiocarcinomas. Gallbladder and colon cancers were usually double negative (18/24 and 8/10 respectively). Each marker provided significant likelihood ratios to separate pancreatic cancer (HPC2: 2.48 [1.46–4.19], p<0.0001) from cholangiocarcinoma (N-cadherin: 2.17 [1.3–3.64], p<0.01). The combination of both markers provided even better specificity and positive likelihood ratios. We conclude that HPC2 and N-cadherin reliably distinguish pancreatic cancer from cholangiocarcinoma.

Hooper, Jody E.; Morgan, Terry K.; Grompe, Markus; Sheppard, Brett C.; Troxell, Megan L.; Corless, Christopher L.; Streeter, Philip R.

2013-01-01

90

Multifunctional adhesive silk fibroin with blending of RGD-bioconjugated mussel adhesive protein.  

PubMed

Silk has recently been exploited in various fields due to its superior mechanical properties. However, this material's lack of biological functions and relatively poor biodegradation have hindered its wide use in applications related to cells and tissues. Here, we improved the overall characteristics of silkworm silk fibroin (SF) by introduction of RGD peptide-fused recombinant mussel adhesive protein (MAP-RGD). Simple blending of MAP-RGD provided not only bulk-scale adhesive ability but also microscale adhesiveness to cells and various biomolecules. MAP-RGD-blended SF fibers supported enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and spreading of mammalian cells as well as the efficient attachment of biomolecules, including carbohydrate and protein. In addition, the hydrophilicity, swelling, and biodegradability of the MAP-RGD-blended SF material were improved without notable hampering of the original mechanical properties of SF. Therefore, the adhesive silk fibrous scaffold could be successfully used in diverse biomedical engineering applications. PMID:24601579

Yang, Yun Jung; Kwon, Yunkyeoung; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Jung, Dooyup; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Ki Hoon; Cha, Hyung Joon

2014-04-14

91

Shear strength and water resistance of modified soy protein adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy protein polymers recently have been considered as alternatives to petroleum polymers to ease environmental pollution.\\u000a The use of soy proteins as adhesives for plywood has been limited because of their low water resistance. The objective of\\u000a this research was to test the water resistance of adhesives containing modified soy proteins in walnut, maple, poplar, and\\u000a pine plywood applications. Gluing

Xiuzhi Sun; Ke Bian

1999-01-01

92

Overexpression of NEDD9 is associated with altered expression of E-Cadherin, ?-Catenin and N-Cadherin and predictive of poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) is overexpressed in multiple tumor types, where it is thought to regulate tumor cell metastasis and act as a trigger of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Loss of E-cadherin/?-catenin and upregulation of N-cadherin are hallmarks of the EMT. The expression and correlation of NEDD9 with E-cadherin, ?-catenin and N-cadherin in lung cancer are poorly characterized. We examined NEDD9, E-cadherin, ?-catenin and N-cadherin protein expression in 105 cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including 43 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 62 cases of lung adenocarcinoma, and the corresponding normal lung tissues using immunohistochemistry. NEDD9 was overexpressed in 56.2 % (59/105) of the NSCLC samples compared to normal lung tissue. Overexpression of NEDD9 correlated with abnormal expression of E-cadherin, ?-catenin and N-cadherin (P?

Miao, Yuan; Li, Ai-Lin; Wang, Liang; Fan, Chui-Feng; Zhang, Xiu-Peng; Xu, Hong-Tao; Yang, Lian-He; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

2013-04-01

93

Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical properties to produce an environmentally responsible, formaldehyde-free adhesive. It is also imperative to study the adhesion between protein and wood.

Shera, Jeanne Norton

94

Reelin, Rap1 and N-cadherin orient the migration of multipolar neurons in the developing neocortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the neocortical plate during the development of the mouse brain. Their overall movement is radial, but they become multipolar and move nonradially in the intermediate zone. Here we show that Reelin, the Rap1 GTPase and N-cadherin (NCad) are important for multipolar neurons to polarize their migration toward the cortical plate. Inhibition and

Yves Jossin; Jonathan A Cooper

2011-01-01

95

N-cadherin regulates spatially polarized signals through distinct p120ctn and ?-catenin-dependent signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

The spatial distribution of molecular signals within cells is crucial for cellular functions. Here, as a model to study the polarized spatial distribution of molecular activities, we used cells on micro-patterned strips of fibronectin with one end free and the other end contacting a neighboring cell. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the small GTPase Rac display greater activity at the free end, whereas myosin II light chain (MLC) and actin filaments are enriched near the intercellular junction. PI3K and Rac polarization depend specifically on the N-cadherin-p120ctn complex, whereas MLC and actin filament polarization depend on the N-cadherin-?-catenin complex. Integrins promote high PI3K/Rac activities at the free end, and the N-cadherin–p120ctn complex excludes integrin ?5 at the junctions to suppress local PI3K and Rac activity. We hence conclude that N-cadherin couples with distinct effectors to polarize PI3K/Rac and MLC/actin filaments in migrating cells.

Ouyang, Mingxing; Lu, Shaoying; Kim, Taejin; Chen, Chin-En; Seong, Jihye; Leckband, Deborah E.; Wang, Fei; Reynolds, Albert B.; Schwartz, Martin A.; Wang, Yingxiao

2013-01-01

96

Cadmium induces N-cadherin cleavage via ERK-mediated ?-secretase activation in C6 astroglia cells.  

PubMed

N-cadherin has known to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, it is still obscure about the signaling pathway involving in the processing of N-cadherin. Thus, we examined which signaling pathway plays a major role in the processing of N-cadherin in C6 glioma cells following treatment of cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous heavy metal. A cleavage product of N-cadherin, N-cad/CTF2 was observed by the treatment of Cd to C6 cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The production of N-cad/CTF2 was inhibited by pretreatment of ?-secretase inhibitors or siRNA transfection of nicastrin, indicating that ?-secretase is involved in the cleavage. Interestingly, Cd could activate both ERK and JNK signaling pathways in C6 cells; however, ?-secretase-mediated N-cad/CTF2 production by Cd was completely blocked by MEK1/2 inhibitors PD184352 and U0126, but not by a JNK inhibitor SP600125, demonstrating that the ERK signaling pathway plays a major role in the cleavage. In addition, pretreatment of an antioxidant or Ca²? blocker blocked the production of N-cad/CTF2 by Cd together with the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Collectively, these results suggest that Cd increases intracellular Ca²? or ROS, which induces ?-secretase-dependent N-cad/CTF2 production via the activation of the ERK signaling pathway in C6 glial cells. PMID:23876460

Jo, Chulman; Koh, Young Ho

2013-10-24

97

Paxillin: a focal adhesion-associated adaptor protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paxillin is a focal adhesion-associated, phosphotyrosine-containing protein that may play a role in several signaling pathways. Paxillin contains a number of motifs that mediate protein–protein interactions, including LD motifs, LIM domains, an SH3 domain-binding site and SH2 domain-binding sites. These motifs serve as docking sites for cytoskeletal proteins, tyrosine kinases, serine\\/threonine kinases, GTPase activating proteins and other adaptor proteins that

Michael D Schaller

2001-01-01

98

Polymer adhesion at surfaces: biological adhesive proteins and their synthetic mimics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mussels are famous for their ability to permanently adhere to a wide variety of wet surfaces, such as rocks, metal and polymer ship hulls, and wood structures. They accomplish this through specialized proteins collectively referred to as mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). The biophysical aspects of MAP adhesion is being revealed through the use of single molecule force measurements. The results provide insight into the adhesive roles of key amino acids found in these proteins, including the magnitude of adhesive forces, cooperative effects, and their self-healing properties. This molecular-level information is being incorporated into designs of biomimetic polymer coatings for a variety of applications. Our biomimetic approach to polymer design will be illustrated by a few examples where adhesive constituents found in MAPs are exploited to make wet-adhesive polymer coatings. In addition, small molecule analogs of MAPs can be used to apply thin functional films onto virtually any material surface using a facile approach. These coatings have a variety of potential uses in microelectronics, water treatment, prevention of environmental biofouling, and for control of biointerfacial phenomena at the surfaces of medical/diagnostic devices.

Messersmith, Phillip

2008-03-01

99

Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.  

PubMed

Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications. PMID:24650082

Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

2014-05-12

100

Expression profile of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer as a novel predictor of intravesical recurrence following transurethral resection.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the expression profile of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in newly diagnosed non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) on the probability of intravesical recurrence in patients undergoing transurethral resection (TUR). This study included 115 consecutive patients diagnosed as having NMIBC following TUR. Expression levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in TUR specimens from these patients were measured by immunohistochemical staining. In this series, intravesical recurrence occurred in 35 of 115 patients (30.4%). Immunohistochemical study showed that positive expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin were noted in 62 (53.9%) and 48 (41.7%) specimens, respectively. Intravesical recurrence was detected in only 7 of 62 patients (11.3%) with positive E-cadherin expression, while 33 of 48 patients (68.8%) with positive N-cadherin expression developed intravesical recurrence. When patients were divided into 4 groups according to the positivities of E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, intravesical recurrence was detected in 27 of 30 patients (90.0%) with negative E-cadherin as well as positive N-cadherin expression, and the intravesical recurrence-free survival of this group was significantly poorer than those of the remaining 3 groups. Furthermore, negative E-cadherin as well as positive N-cadherin expression was identified as the most powerful independent predictor for intravesical recurrence following TUR on multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that the loss of E-cadherin and gain of N-cadherin expression in on NMIBC appeared to be significantly associated with postoperative recurrence; therefore, the switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin expression might be involved in the mechanism underlying intravesical recurrence of on NMIBC. PMID:20451421

Muramaki, Mototsugu; Miyake, Hideaki; Terakawa, Tomoaki; Kumano, Masafumi; Sakai, Iori; Fujisawa, Masato

2012-01-01

101

Sip1 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during cranial neural crest EMT  

PubMed Central

The neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population, initially resides within the dorsal neural tube but subsequently undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to commence migration. Although neural crest and cancer EMTs are morphologically similar, little is known regarding conservation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. We report that Sip1, which is involved in cancer EMT, plays a critical role in promoting the neural crest cell transition to a mesenchymal state. Sip1 transcripts are expressed in premigratory/migrating crest cells. After Sip1 loss, the neural crest specifier gene FoxD3 was abnormally retained in the dorsal neuroepithelium, whereas Sox10, which is normally required for emigration, was diminished. Subsequently, clumps of adherent neural crest cells remained adjacent to the neural tube and aberrantly expressed E-cadherin while lacking N-cadherin. These findings demonstrate two distinct phases of neural crest EMT, detachment and mesenchymalization, with the latter involving a novel requirement for Sip1 in regulation of cadherin expression during completion of neural crest EMT.

Rogers, Crystal D.; Saxena, Ankur

2013-01-01

102

N-cadherin/wnt interaction controls bone marrow mesenchymal cell fate and bone mass during aging.  

PubMed

Age-related bone loss is characterized by reduced osteoblastogenesis and excessive bone marrow adipogenesis. The mechanisms governing bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts during aging are unknown. We show here that overexpressing N-cadherin (Cadh2) in osteoblasts increased BMSC adipocyte differentiation and reduced osteoblast differentiation in young transgenic (Tg) mice whereas this phenotype was fully reversed with aging. The reversed phenotype with age was associated with enhanced Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression in osteoblasts and a concomitant increase in BMSC osteogenic differentiation. Consistent with this mechanism, conditioned media from young wild type osteoblasts inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation in BMSC from old Cadh2 Tg mice, and this response was abolished by Wnt5a and Wnt10b silencing. Transplantation of BMSC from old Cadh2 Tg mice into young Tg recipients increased Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression and rescued BMSC osteogenic differentiation. In senescent osteopenic mice, blocking the CADH2-Wnt interaction using an antagonist peptide increased Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression, bone formation, and bone mass. The data indicate that Cadh2/Wnt interaction in osteoblasts regulates BMSC lineage determination, bone formation, and bone mass and suggest a therapeutic target for promoting bone formation in the aging skeleton. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1765-1775, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24664975

Haÿ, Eric; Dieudonné, François-Xavier; Saidak, Zuzana; Marty, Caroline; Brun, Julia; Da Nascimento, Sophie; Sonnet, Pascal; Marie, Pierre J

2014-11-01

103

The catenin/cadherin adhesion system is localized in synaptic junctions bordering transmitter release zones  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms linking pre- and postsynaptic membranes at the interneuronal synapses are little known. We tested the cadherin adhesion system for its localization in synapses of mouse and chick brains. We found that two classes of cadherin-associated proteins, alpha N- and beta-catenin, are broadly distributed in adult brains, colocalizing with a synaptic marker, synaptophysin. At the ultrastructural level, these proteins were localized in synaptic junctions of various types, forming a symmetrical adhesion structure. These structures sharply bordered the transmitter release sites associated with synaptic vesicles, although their segregation was less clear in certain types of synapses. N-cadherin was also localized at a similar site of synaptic junctions but in restricted brain nuclei. In developing synapses, the catenin-bearing contacts dominated their junctional structures. These findings demonstrate that interneuronal synaptic junctions comprise two subdomains, transmitter release zone and catenin-based adherens junction. The catenins localized in these junctions are likely associated with certain cadherin molecules including N-cadherin, and the cadherin/ catenin complex may play a critical role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions.

1996-01-01

104

Nanoscale adhesion forces between enamel pellicle proteins and hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is important for minimizing the abrasion caused by parafunctional conditions as they occur, for instance, during bruxism. It is a remarkable feature of the AEP that a protein/peptide film can provide enough protection in normofunction to prevent teeth from abrasion and wear. Despite its obvious critical role in the protection of tooth surfaces, the essential adhesion features of AEP proteins on the enamel surface are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to measure the adhesion force between histatin 5, a primary AEP component, and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. Both biotinylated histatin 5 and biotinylated human serum albumin were allowed to adsorb to streptavidin-coated silica microspheres attached to atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. A multimode AFM with a Nanoscope IIIa controller was used to measure the adhesion force between protein-functionalized silica microspheres attached to cantilever tips and the HA surface. The imaging was performed in tapping mode with a Si3N4 AFM cantilever, while the adhesion forces were measured in AFM contact mode. A collection of force-distance curves (~3,000/replicate) was obtained to generate histograms from which the adhesion forces between histatin 5 or albumin and the HA surface were measured. We found that histatin 5 exhibited stronger adhesion forces (90% >1.830 nN) to the HA surface than did albumin (90% > 0.282 nN). This study presents an objective approach to adhesion force measurements between histatin 5 and HA, and provides the experimental basis for measuring the same parameters for other AEP constituents. Such knowledge will help in the design of synthetic proteins and peptides with preventive and therapeutic benefits for tooth enamel. PMID:24591293

Vukosavljevic, D; Hutter, J L; Helmerhorst, E J; Xiao, Y; Custodio, W; Zaidan, F C; Oppenheim, F G; Siqueira, W L

2014-05-01

105

Developmental changes in expression, subcellular distribution, and function of Drosophila N-cadherin, guided by a cell-intrinsic program during neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) perform numerous functions during neural development. An individual CAM can play different roles during each stage of neuronal differentiation; however, little is known about how such functional switching is accomplished. Here we show that Drosophila N-cadherin (CadN) is required at multiple developmental stages within the same neuronal population and that its sub-cellular expression pattern changes between the different stages. During development of mushroom body neurons and motoneurons, CadN is expressed at high levels on growing axons, whereas expression becomes downregulated and restricted to synaptic sites in mature neurons. Phenotypic analysis of CadN mutants reveals that developing axons require CadN for axon guidance and fasciculation, whereas mature neurons for terminal growth and receptor clustering. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CadN downregulation can be achieved in cultured neurons without synaptic contact with other cells. Neuronal silencing experiments using Kir2.1 indicate that neuronal excitability is also dispensable for CadN downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, downregulation of CadN can be prematurely induced by ectopic expression of a nonselective cation channel, dTRPA1, in developing neurons. Together, we suggest that switching of CadN expression during neuronal differentiation involves regulated cation influx within neurons.

Kurusu, Mitsuhiko; Katsuki, Takeo; Zinn, Kai; Suzuki, Emiko

2012-01-01

106

CAIR-1/BAG-3 modulates cell adhesion and migration by downregulating activity of focal adhesion proteins.  

PubMed

CAIR-1/BAG-3 is a stress and survival protein that has been shown to bind SH3 domain-containing proteins through its proline-rich (PXXP) domain. Because stress and survival pathways are active during invasion and metastasis, we hypothesized that CAIR-1 is a regulator of signaling pathways that modulate cell adhesion and migration. MDA-435 human breast carcinoma cells were stably transfected with full-length CAIR-1 (FL) or a proline-rich domain deleted mutant (dPXXP). FL cells migrated poorly through collagen IV-coated filters to serum (14% of control, p=0.0004), whereas migration of dPXXP cells was more robust (228%, p=0.00001). Adhesion to collagen IV-coated surfaces was reduced in FL cells and augmented in dPXXP cells (FL 64%, p=0.03; dPXXP 138%, p=0.01). Rhodamine-phalloidin staining highlighted more stress fibers and thicker filopodial protrusions in dPXXP cells. Fewer focal adhesions were also seen in FL cells. A reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin occurred in FL cells under these conditions. In contrast, increased FAK and paxillin phosphorylation was documented in dPXXP cells. Differential FAK phosphorylation occurred at the major autophosphorylation site Y(397) and Src phosphorylation site Y(861). Concordant with these findings, there was decreased interaction between FAK and its downstream partners p(130)Cas and Crk observed in FL cells but not in dPXXP cells. These results collectively indicate that CAIR-1 may negatively regulate adhesion, focal adhesion assembly, signaling, and migration via its PXXP domain. PMID:16859681

Kassis, Jareer N; Guancial, Elizabeth A; Doong, Howard; Virador, Victoria; Kohn, Elise C

2006-09-10

107

Expression of Functional Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Protein Mgfp-5 in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mussel adhesive proteins have been suggested as a basis for environmentally friendly adhesives for use in aqueous conditions and in medicine. However, attempts to produce functional and economical recombinant mussel adhesive proteins (mainly foot protein type 1) in several systems have failed. Here, the cDNA coding for Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5) was isolated for the first time.

Dong Soo Hwang; Hyo Jin Yoo; Jong Hyub Jun; Won Kyu Moon; Hyung Joon Cha

2004-01-01

108

N-Cadherin is a prospective cell surface marker of human mesenchymal stem cells that have high ability for cardiomyocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are among the most promising sources of stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, the range of their differentiation ability is very limited. In this study, we explored prospective cell surface markers of human MSCs that readily differentiate into cardiomyocytes. When the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential and the expression of cell surface markers involved in heart development were analyzed using various immortalized human MSC lines, the MSCs with high expression of N-cadherin showed a higher probability of differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes. The differentiated cardiomyocytes expressed terminally differentiated cardiomyocyte-specific markers such as ?-actinin, cardiac troponin T, and connexin-43. A similar correlation was observed with primary human MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Moreover, N-cadherin-positive MSCs isolated with N-cadherin antibody-conjugated magnetic beads showed an apparently higher ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes than the N-cadherin-negative population. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the N-cadherin-positive population expressed significantly elevated levels of cardiomyogenic progenitor-specific transcription factors, including Nkx2.5, Hand1, and GATA4 mRNAs. Our results suggest that N-cadherin is a novel prospective cell surface marker of human MSCs that show a better ability for cardiomyocyte differentiation. PMID:23899519

Ishimine, Hisako; Yamakawa, Norio; Sasao, Mari; Tadokoro, Mika; Kami, Daisuke; Komazaki, Shinji; Tokuhara, Makoto; Takada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kuno, Shinichiro; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Umezawa, Akihiro; Ohgushi, Hajime; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

2013-09-01

109

Protein tyrosine phosphatases in osteoclast differentiation, adhesion, and bone resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoclasts are large cells derived from the monocyte-macrophage hematopoietic cell lineage. Their primary function is to degrade bone in various physiological contexts. Osteoclasts adhere to bone via podosomes, specialized adhesion structures whose structure and subcellular organization are affected by mechanical contact of the cell with bone matrix. Ample evidence indicates that reversible tyrosine phosphorylation of podosomal proteins plays a major

Shira Granot-Attas; Ari Elson

2008-01-01

110

Dancing to Another Tune--Adhesive Moonlighting Proteins in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biological moonlighting refers to proteins which express more than one function. Moonlighting proteins occur in pathogenic and commensal as well as in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The canonical functions of moonlighting proteins are in essential cellular processes, i.e., glycolysis, protein synthesis, chaperone activity, and nucleic acid stability, and their moonlighting functions include binding to host epithelial and phagocytic cells, subepithelia, cytoskeleton as well as to mucins and circulating proteins of the immune and hemostatic systems. Sequences of the moonlighting proteins do not contain known motifs for surface export or anchoring, and it has remained open whether bacterial moonlighting proteins are actively secreted to the cell wall or whether they are released from traumatized cells and then rebind onto the bacteria. In lactobacilli, ionic interactions with lipoteichoic acids and with cell division sites are important for surface localization of the proteins. Moonlighting proteins represent an abundant class of bacterial adhesins that are part of bacterial interactions with the environment and in responses to environmental changes. Multifunctionality in bacterial surface proteins appears common: the canonical adhesion proteins fimbriae express also nonadhesive functions, whereas the mobility organelles flagella as well as surface proteases express adhesive functions.

Kainulainen, Veera; Korhonen, Timo K.

2014-01-01

111

Whey-protein based environmentally friendly wood adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally safe aqueous polymer-isocyanate (API) wood adhesive for structural uses with whey protein isolate (WPI) that is a by-product of cheese making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The API formulations with whey proteins denatured at different heating temperatures and times, WPI\\/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) denaturing processes, PVA contents and nano-CaCO3 (as filler) contents

Zhenhua Gao; Guoping Yu; Yihong Bao; Mingruo Guo

2011-01-01

112

Glycosylated hydroxytryptophan in a mussel adhesive protein from Perna viridis.  

PubMed

The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of mussel byssus play a critical role in wet adhesion and have inspired versatile new synthetic strategies for adhesives and coatings. Apparently, however, not all mussel adhesive proteins are beholden to Dopa chemistry. The cDNA-deduced sequence of Pvfp-1, a highly aromatic and redox active byssal coating protein in the green mussel Perna viridis, suggests that Dopa may be replaced by a post-translational modification of tryptophan. The N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain of Pvfp-1 contains 42 decapeptide repeats with the consensus sequences ATPKPW(1)TAW(2)K and APPPAW(1)TAW(2)K. A small collagen domain (18 Gly-X-Y repeats) is also present. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated tryptic decapeptides has detected both C(2)-hexosylated tryptophan (W(1)) and C(2)-hexosylated hydroxytryptophan (W(2)), the latter of which is redox active. The UV absorbance spectrum of W(2) is consistent with 7-hydroxytryptophan, which represents an intriguing new theme for bioinspired opportunistic wet adhesion. PMID:19584055

Zhao, Hua; Sagert, Jason; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J Herbert

2009-08-28

113

Zyxin and paxillin proteins: focal adhesion plaque LIM domain proteins go nuclear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zyxin and paxillin are the prototypes of two related subfamilies of LIM domain proteins that are localized primarily at focal adhesion plaques. However, recent work has shown that zyxin\\/paxillin family proteins also shuttle through the nucleus. These proteins may enter the nucleus by association with other proteins, but are exported from the nucleus by means of intrinsic leucine-rich nuclear export

Yuan Wang; Thomas D. Gilmore

2003-01-01

114

Actopaxin, a New Focal Adhesion Protein That Binds Paxillin LD Motifs and Actin and Regulates Cell Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paxillin is a focal adhesion adapter protein involved in the integration of growth factor- and adhe- sion-mediated signal transduction pathways. Paxillin LD motifs have been demonstrated to bind to several proteins associated with remodeling of the actin cyto- skeleton including the focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, and a complex of proteins comprising p95PKL, PIX, and PAK (Turner, C.E., M.C. Brown, J.A.

Sotiris N. Nikolopoulos; Christopher E. Turner

2000-01-01

115

Evaluation of photodynamic therapy in adhesion protein expression  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that has clinical applications in both non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. PDT involves a light-sensitive compound (photosensitizer), light and molecular oxygen. This procedure may lead to several different cellular responses, including cell death. Alterations in the attachment of cancer cells to the substratum and to each other are important consequences of photodynamic treatment. PDT may lead to changes in the expression of cellular adhesion structure and cytoskeleton integrity, which are key factors in decreasing tumor metastatic potential. HEp-2 cells were photosensitized with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and zinc phthalocyanine, and the proteins ?1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. The verification of expression changes in the genes for FAK and ?1 integrin were performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that HEp-2 cells do not express ?-integrin or FAK 12 h following PDT. It was concluded that the PDT reduces the adhesive ability of HEp-2 cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the expression and organization of cellular adhesion elements and the subsequent metastatic potential of HEp-2 cells following PDT treatment.

PACHECO-SOARES, CRISTINA; MAFTOU-COSTA, MAIRA; DA CUNHA MENEZES COSTA, CAROLINA GENUNCIO; DE SIQUEIRA SILVA, ANDREZA CRISTINA; MORAES, KAREN C.M.

2014-01-01

116

Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystal structures of the amino-terminal domain of N-cadherin provide a picture at the atomic level of a specific adhesive contact between cells. A repeated set of dimer interfaces is common to the structure in three lattices. These interactions combine to form a linear zipper of molecules that mirrors the linear structure of the intracellular filaments with which cadherins associate. This

Lawrence Shapiro; Allison M. Fannon; Peter D. Kwong; Andrew Thompson; Mogens S. Lehmann; Gerhard Grübel; Jean-François Legrand; Jens Als-Nielsen; David R. Colman; Wayne A. Hendrickson

1995-01-01

117

PDGF signalling controls the migration of mesoderm cells during chick gastrulation by regulating N-cadherin expression.  

PubMed

In the early chick embryo, Pdgfa is expressed in the epiblast, outlining the migration route that mesoderm cells expressing the receptor, Pdgfralpha, follow to form somites. Both expression of a dominant-negative PDGFRalpha and depletion of endogenous PDGFRalpha ligands through injection of PDGFRalpha-Fc fragments, inhibit the migration of mesoderm cells after their ingression through the primitive streak. siRNA-mediated downregulation of Pdgfa expression in the epiblast on one side of the streak strongly blocks the migration of mesoderm cells into that side. Beads soaked in PDGFA elicit a directional attractive movement response in mesoderm cells, showing that PDGFA can provide directional information. Surprisingly, however, PDGF signalling is also required for directional movement towards other attractants, such as FGF4. PDGF signalling controls N-cadherin expression on mesoderm cells, which is required for efficient migration. PDGF signalling activates the PI3 kinase signalling pathway in vivo and activation of this pathway is required for proper N-cadherin expression. PMID:18832396

Yang, Xuesong; Chrisman, Holly; Weijer, Cornelis J

2008-11-01

118

Listeria adhesion protein and heat shock protein 60: Application in pathogenic Listeria detection and implication in Listeriosis prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria adhesion protein (LAP, lmo1634), also known as a housekeeping enzyme alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, is a cell surface protein involved in adhesion and translocation of L. monocytogenes to human intestinal cells. The pathogen crosses the intestinal barrier following interaction with the receptor present on intestinal epithelial cells. Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a eukaryotic mitochondrial chaperon protein is the receptor

Ok Kyung Koo

2010-01-01

119

Dysregulation of Cell Adhesion Proteins and Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis  

PubMed Central

Proper mechanical and electrical coupling of cardiomyocytes is crucial for normal propagation of the electrical impulse throughout the working myocardium.Various proteins on the surface of cardiomyocytes are responsible for the integration of structural information and cell-cell communication. Increasing evidence from diseased myocardium and animal models indicates that alteration in electrical coupling via gap junctions is a critical determinant in the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate. What is less clear is how gap junctions are maintained and regulated in the working myocardium. In this review, we present data from human disease and animal models that support the idea that cell adhesion proteins regulate the stability of the gap junction protein, connexin.

Li, Jifen; Patel, Vickas V.; Radice, Glenn L.

2006-01-01

120

Expression of Functional Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Protein Mgfp-5 in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Mussel adhesive proteins have been suggested as a basis for environmentally friendly adhesives for use in aqueous conditions and in medicine. However, attempts to produce functional and economical recombinant mussel adhesive proteins (mainly foot protein type 1) in several systems have failed. Here, the cDNA coding for Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5) was isolated for the first time. Using this cDNA, we produced a recombinant Mgfp-5 fused with a hexahistidine affinity ligand, which was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli and was highly purified using affinity chromatography. The adhesive properties of purified recombinant Mgfp-5 were compared with the commercial extracted mussel adhesive Cell-Tak by investigating adhesion force using atomic force microscopy, material surface coating, and quartz crystal microbalance. Even though further macroscale assays are needed, these microscale assays showed that recombinant Mgfp-5 has significant adhesive ability and may be useful as a bioadhesive in medical or underwater environments.

Hwang, Dong Soo; Yoo, Hyo Jin; Jun, Jong Hyub; Moon, Won Kyu; Cha, Hyung Joon

2004-01-01

121

Adhesions  

MedlinePLUS

... any problems. But when they partly or completely block the intestines, they cause symptoms such as Severe abdominal pain or cramping Vomiting Bloating An inability to pass gas Constipation Adhesions can ...

122

FAAP, a novel murine protein, is involved in cell adhesion through regulating vinculin-paxillin association.  

PubMed

Focal adhesion associated protein (FAAP), encoded by murine D10Wsu52e gene, is highly homologous to human HSPC117, which interacts with vinculin and talin. HeLa cells transfected with FAAP exhibited normal adhesion incorporation but showed impaired cell spreading, and restrained focal adhesion translocation. Moreover, FAAP facilitated vinculin-paxillin association, decreased interaction of paxillin-focal adhesion kinase and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Together, these results suggest that FAAP, by virtue of modulating interaction of adhesion molecules, regulates cell adhesion dynamics. PMID:18508721

Hu, Jinsong; Teng, Junlin; Ding, Naizheng; He, Mei; Sun, Yuhui; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Chen, Jianguo

2008-01-01

123

Extracellular proteins from Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 prevent adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to study the interference of the extracellular proteins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 with the adhesion of some well-known gut pathogens. The extracellular proteins secreted by L. plantarum BMCM12 in MRS broth were precipitated, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Discordances between the observed and the theoretical molecular masses of several proteins suggested the presence of protein glycosylation, corroborated with specific glycoprotein staining after protein de-glycosylation using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Experiments of exclusion, competition, or prevention of the pathogen adhesion to mucin were performed using BMCM12 extracellular proteins, using Escherichia coli LMG2092 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica LMG15860. Extracellular proteins from BMCM12 reduced significantly the adhesion of the pathogens when they were added prior to adhesion assays. These proteins play thus important roles in preventing pathogen adhesion to the mucin layer. PMID:22461079

Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C

2012-06-01

124

Disruption of CDH2/N-cadherin-based adherens junctions leads to apoptosis of ependymal cells and denudation of brain ventricular walls.  

PubMed

Disruption/denudation of the ependymal lining has been associated with the pathogenesis of various human CNS disorders, including hydrocephalus, spina bifida aperta, and periventricular heterotopia. It has been traditionally considered that ependymal denudation is a consequence of mechanical forces such as ventricular enlargement. New evidence indicates that ependymal disruption can precede ventricular dilation, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the onset of ependymal denudation are unknown. Here, we present a novel model to study ependymal cell pathophysiology and demonstrate that selective disruption of N-cadherin-based adherens junctions is sufficient to provoke progressive ependymal denudation. Blocking N-cadherin function using specific peptides that interfere with the histidine-alanine-valine extracellular homophilic interaction domain caused early pathologic changes characterized by disruption of zonula adherens and abnormal intracellular accumulation of N-cadherin. These changes then triggered massive apoptosis of ependymal cells and denudation of brain ventricular walls. Because no typical extrinsic mechanical factors such as elevated pressure or stretching forces are involved in this model, the critical role of N-cadherin-based adherens junctions in ependymal survival/physiology is highlighted. Furthermore, the results suggest that abnormal adherens junctions between ependymal cells should be considered as key components of the pathogenesis of CNS disorders associated with ependymal denudation. PMID:23965744

Oliver, Cristian; González, César A; Alvial, Genaro; Flores, Carlos A; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Bátiz, Luis Federico

2013-09-01

125

Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells  

SciTech Connect

Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

Aanei, Carmen Mariana, E-mail: caanei@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Eloae, Florin Zugun [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania)] [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France) [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Tavernier, Emmanuelle [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France) [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Carasevici, Eugen [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania)] [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Guyotat, Denis [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France) [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Campos, Lydia [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France) [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France)

2011-11-01

126

Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9

Haapasalmi, K.; Makela, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

1995-01-01

127

Nanostructured composite layers of mussel adhesive protein and ceria nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mussel adhesive proteins are known for their high affinity to a range of different surfaces, and they therefore appear as ideal candidates for producing thin inorganic-organic composite films with high robustness. In this work we explore the possibility of making cohesive films utilizing layer-by-layer deposition of the highly positively charged mussel adhesive protein, Mefp-1, and negatively charged ceria nanoparticles. This particular material combination was chosen due to recent findings that such films provide good corrosion protection. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used for following the film formation process in situ on silica surfaces. A close to linear growth of the film with number of deposited layers was found for up to 18 deposition steps, the highest number of depositions investigated in this work. The Mefp-1 concentration during film deposition affected the film properties, where a higher protein concentration resulted in a stiffer film. It was also found that the added mass could be amplified by using a Mefp-1 solution containing small aggregates. The surface nanomechanical properties of dried multilayer films were investigated using peak force QNM (quantitative nanomechanical mapping) in air. Homogeneous surface coverage was found under all conditions explored, and the Young's modulus of the outer region of the coating increased when a higher Mefp-1 concentration was used during film deposition. The nature of the outermost surface layer was found to significantly affect the surface nanomechanical properties. The abrasion resistance of the coating was measured by using controlled-force contact mode AFM. PMID:23815752

Krivosheeva, Olga; Sababi, Majid; Dedinaite, Andra; Claesson, Per M

2013-07-30

128

The glue protein of ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa ): a natural adhesive with some features of collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic ribbed musselGeukensia (Modiolus)demissa attaches itself to the roots of cord grass and other hard objects in tidal salt marshes by spinning adhesive byssal threads. The precursor of a protein apparently present in the adhesive plaques of the threads was isolated in quantity from the foot of the mussel. The protein has an apparent molecular weight of 130000, a

J. Herbert Waite; Douglas C. Hansen; Kathleen T. Little

1989-01-01

129

Effects of surface wettability and contact time on protein adhesion to biomaterial surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the adhesion forces between three test proteins and low density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces treated by glow discharge plasma to yield various levels of water wettability. The adhesion of proteins to the LDPE substrates showed a step dependence on the wettability of surfaces as measured by the water contact angle (?). For

Li-Chong Xu; Christopher A. Siedlecki

2007-01-01

130

Protein-based underwater adhesives and the prospects for their biotechnological production  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to practical production of biological protein-based adhesives have had limited success over the last several decades. Broader efforts to produce recombinant adhesive proteins may have been limited by early disappointments. More recent synthetic polymer approaches have successfully replicated some aspects of natural underwater adhesives. For example, synthetic polymers, inspired by mussels, containing the catecholic functional group of 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine adhere strongly to wet metal oxide surfaces. Synthetic complex coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm are water-borne adhesives that can be delivered underwater without dispersing. Synthetic approaches offer several advantages, including versatile chemistries and scalable production. In the future, more sophisticated mimetic adhesives may combine synthetic copolymers with recombinant or agriculture-derived proteins to better replicate the structural and functional organization of natural adhesives.

Stewart, Russell J.

2011-01-01

131

Protein-based underwater adhesives and the prospects for their biotechnological production.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to practical production of biological protein-based adhesives have had limited success over the last several decades. Broader efforts to produce recombinant adhesive proteins may have been limited by early disappointments. More recent synthetic polymer approaches have successfully replicated some aspects of natural underwater adhesives. For example, synthetic polymers, inspired by mussels, containing the catecholic functional group of 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine adhere strongly to wet metal oxide surfaces. Synthetic complex coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm are water-borne adhesives that can be delivered underwater without dispersing. Synthetic approaches offer several advantages, including versatile chemistries and scalable production. In the future, more sophisticated mimetic adhesives may combine synthetic copolymers with recombinant or agriculture-derived proteins to better replicate the structural and functional organization of natural adhesives. PMID:20890598

Stewart, Russell J

2011-01-01

132

N-cadherin, NCAM, and integrins promote retinal neurite outgrowth on astrocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal ganglion neurons extend axons that grow along astroglial cell surfaces in the developing optic pathway. To identify the molecules that may mediate axon extension in vivo, antibodies to neuronal cell surface proteins were tested for their effects on neurite outgrowth by embryonic chick retinal neurons cultured on astrocyte monolayers. Neurite outgrowth by retinal neurons from embryonic day 7 (E7)

Karla M. Neugebauer; Kevin J. Tomaselli; Jack Lilien; Louis E Reichardt

1988-01-01

133

Vascular adhesion protein 1 mediates binding of T cells to human hepatic endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Molecules that regulate T-cell adhesion to hepatic endothelium and thereby recirculation of T cells to the liver are poorly understood. Because the adhesion molecule vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), which mediates lymphocyte binding to lymph node endothelium, is expressed on hepatic endothelium, it could play a role in regulating T-cell recruitment to the liver. The aim of this

G McNab; JL Reeves; M Salmi; S Hubscher; S Jalkanen; DH Adams

1996-01-01

134

Glycoconjugates and cell adhesion: the adhesive proteins laminin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand's factor bind specifically to sulfated glycolipids.  

PubMed

The adhesive glycoproteins laminin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand's factor bind specifically and with high affinity to sulfated glycolipids, and it is this binding that probably accounts for their ability to agglutinate glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes. The 3 proteins differ, however, in the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on their binding to sulfatides. Fucoidan strongly inhibits binding of both laminin and thrombospondin, but not of von Willebrand's factor, suggesting the involvement of laminin or thrombospondin or other unknown sulfatide-binding proteins in specific cell interactions that are also inhibited by fucoidan. Thrombospondin adsorbed onto plastic promotes the attachment and spreading of G361 melanoma cells. Interestingly, fucoidan and an antibody directed against the sulfatide-binding domain of thrombospondin selectively inhibit spreading but not attachment. Sulfatides, but not neutral glycolipids or gangliosides, when adsorbed onto plastic also promote attachment and spreading of G361 melanoma cells. Direct adhesion of G361 cells requires high densities of sulfatide. In the presence of laminin, however, specific adhesion of G361 cells to sulfatide is strongly stimulated and requires only low densities of adsorbed lipid, suggesting that laminin mediates adhesion by cross-linking receptors on the melanoma cell surface to sulfatide adsorbed onto the plastic. Although thrombospondin binds to sulfatide and to G361 cells, it does not enhance but rather inhibits direct and laminin-dependent G361 cell adhesion to sulfatide, presumably because it is unable to bind simultaneously to ligands on opposing surfaces. Thus, sulfated glycoconjugates participate in both laminin- and thrombospondin-mediated cell adhesion, but their mechanisms of interaction are different. PMID:3149529

Ginsburg, V; Roberts, D D

1988-11-01

135

Symmetric exchange of multi-protein building blocks between stationary focal adhesions and the cytosol  

PubMed Central

How can the integrin adhesome get self-assembled locally, rapidly, and correctly as diverse cell-matrix adhesion sites? Here, we investigate this question by exploring the cytosolic state of integrin-adhesome components and their dynamic exchange between adhesion sites and cytosol. Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we found that the integrin adhesome is extensively pre-assembled already in the cytosol as multi-protein building blocks for adhesion sites. Stationary focal adhesions release symmetrically the same types of protein complexes that they recruit, thereby keeping the cytosolic pool of building blocks spatiotemporally uniform. We conclude a model in which multi-protein building blocks enable rapid and modular self-assembly of adhesion sites and symmetric exchange of these building blocks preserves their specifications and thus the assembly logic of the system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02257.001

Hoffmann, Jan-Erik; Fermin, Yessica; Stricker, Ruth LO; Ickstadt, Katja; Zamir, Eli

2014-01-01

136

Novel Laminin-Binding Protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, Lbp, Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is a gram- positive pathogenic bacterium that causes pharyngitis, impe- tigo, scarlet fever, and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) (23). These diseases are initiated by the adhesion of S. pyogenes to epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract or skin. In the process of adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (Fn) and laminin (Lm)

Yutaka Terao; Shigetada Kawabata; Eiji Kunitomo; Ichiro Nakagawa; Shigeyuki Hamada

2002-01-01

137

Cell behavior on extracellular matrix mimic materials based on mussel adhesive protein fused with functional peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of cells to surfaces is a basic and important requirement in cell culture and tissue engineering. Here, we designed artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics for efficient cellular attachment, based on mussel adhesive protein (MAP) fusion with biofunctional peptides originating from ECM materials, including fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. Cellular behaviors, including attachment, proliferation, spreading, viability, and differentiation, were investigated with

Bong-Hyuk Choi; Yoo Seong Choi; Dong Gyun Kang; Bum Jin Kim; Young Hoon Song; Hyung Joon Cha

2010-01-01

138

Embedded proteins and sacrificial bonds provide the strong adhesive properties of gastroliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO3. The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude.The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO3. The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30536d

Thormann, Esben; MizunoPresent Address: Nihon L'Oreal, Research; Innovation Center, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan., Hiroyasu; Jansson, Kjell; Hedin, Niklas; Fernández, M. Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Rutland, Mark W.; PaiPresent Address: Center For Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 735 Brookhaven Avenue, Upton, New York 11973., Ranjith Krishna; Bergström, Lennart

2012-06-01

139

Protein Recovery from Secondary Paper Sludge and Its Potential Use as Wood Adhesive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary sludge is an essential part of biosolids produced through the waste treatment plant of paper mills. Globally paper mills generate around 3.0 million ton of biosolids and in the absence of beneficial applications, the handling and disposal of this residual biomass poses a serious environmental and economic proposition. Secondary paper sludges were investigated in this work for recovery of proteins and their use as wood adhesive. After identifying extracellular polymeric substances as adhesion pre-cursors through analytical techniques, studies were carried out to optimize protein recovery from SS and its comprehensive characterization. A modified physicochemical protocol was developed to recover protein from secondary sludge in substantial quantities. The combined effect of French press and sonication techniques followed by alkali treatment resulted in significant improvement of 44% in the yield of solubilized protein compared to chemical methods. The characterization studies confirmed the presence of common amino acids in recovered sludge protein in significant quantities and heavy metal concentration was reduced after recovery process. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of both low and high molecular weight protein fractions in recovered sludge protein. After establishing the proof-of-concept in the use of recovered sludge protein as wood adhesive, the bonding mechanism of protein adhesives with cellulose substrate was further elucidated in a complementary protein-modification study involving soy protein isolate and its glycinin fractions. The results of this study validated the prevailing bonding theories by proving that surface wetting, protein structure, and type of wood play important role in determining final adhesive strength. Recovered sludge protein was also investigated for its compatibility to formulate hybrid adhesive blends with formaldehyde and bio-based polymers. Apart from chemical cross-linking, the synergy of adhesive blends was evaluated through classical rule-of-mixture. The findings of this study warrants further investigation concerning other potential uses of recovered sludge protein, especially as food supplements and economic implications.

Pervaiz, Muhammad

140

Desmoplastic melanoma: expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of melanoma. Most frequently, it seems as clinically ambiguous and histologically characterized by a poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of a proliferation of spindle melanocytes dispersed in a prominent collagenous stroma. It often represents a diagnostic challenge, delaying its detection. We analyzed the expression profile of 29 (28 "pure" and 1 "combined") DM. These data were compared with a series of 62 primary vertical growth phase nondesmoplastic melanomas (NDMs) using a set of proteins including melanocytic markers (S-100 protein and melan-A) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, SPARC, WT1, and PKC?). The S-100 protein confirmed the melanocytic origin of the DM (positive in 96%). The significant positive expression of N-cadherin, SPARC, and WT1 in DM (61%, 82%, and 71%) compared with NDM (28%, 43%, and 47%; P < 0.05) and a lower expression of E-cadherin in DM (14%) compared with NDM (61%) support specific adhesive and migratory properties of DM tumor cells. The study was carried out with tissue microarrays that partly limited the study of the tumor sections. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a prominent expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins in DMs and tries to be one more step in refining its knowledge and leading to a better understanding of its biological and clinical behaviors. PMID:23974224

Garrido, Maria Concepción; Requena, Luis; Kutzner, Heinz; Ortiz, Pablo; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Peralto, José-Luis

2014-03-01

141

Molecular architecture of a complex between an adhesion protein from the malaria parasite and intracellular adhesion molecule 1.  

PubMed

The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ?300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBL? domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G; Higgins, Matthew K

2013-02-22

142

Adhesion mechanisms of the mussel foot proteins mfp-1 and mfp-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mussels adhere to a variety of surfaces by depositing a highly specific ensemble of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (DOPA) containing proteins. The adhesive properties of Mytilus edulis foot proteins mfp-1 and mfp-3 were directly measured at the nano-scale by using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). An adhesion energy of order W ?3 × 10?? J\\/m² was achieved when separating two smooth and chemically

Q. Lin; Delphine Gourdon; Chengjun Sun; Niels Holten-Andersen; T. H. Anderson; J. H. Waite; J. N. Israelachvili

2007-01-01

143

Formulation designs and characterisations of whey-protein based API adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the components of whey-protein based aqueous polymer-isocyanate (API) adhesives on the bond strength. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The bond test (according to the JIS K6806-2003 standard), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise the whey-protein based API adhesives with various formulations and

Zongyan Zhao; Zhenhua Gao; Wenbo Wang; Mingruo Guo

2011-01-01

144

Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.  

PubMed

Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. PMID:23890721

Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

2013-12-14

145

Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)] [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine [Pôle de Recherche Cardiovasculaire, IREC, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)] [Pôle de Recherche Cardiovasculaire, IREC, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Morel, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.morel@uclouvain.be [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)] [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

2013-11-22

146

Distribution of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in adult zebrafish skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The organization of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in skeletal muscle is critical for its contractile function. Zebrafish has become a paramount model for studies of vertebrate biology, including muscle. However, only a few studies have been published using immunolabeling to specifically localize proteins in adult zebrafish muscle. To fully appreciate the distribution of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins, and therefore to better correlate the adult muscle with its myogenesis, we used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen adult zebrafish skeletal muscle sections. Here we describe the fish muscle cytoskeletal architecture and location of the major myofibrillar proteins desmin, alpha-actinin, myosin, titin, troponin, tropomyosin and nebulin, the adhesion proteins vinculin and paxillin, and the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin. Electron microscopical analysis in ultra-thin sections of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle showed bundles of collagen fibers and fibroblastic cells in the extracellular space of the myosepta. PMID:19085835

Câmara-Pereira, E S; Campos, L M; Vannier-Santos, M A; Mermelstein, C S; Costa, M L

2009-02-01

147

A Study of the Adhesive Glycoprotein-Inactivating Protein from Mammalian Blood Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein with a molecular weight of 70 kDa was isolated from bovine blood serum and purified to a homogenous state. This protein reversibly inhibited the adhesive serum glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 12 kDa, which displayed biological activity at ultralow doses. Amino acid analysis showed that the protein inactivator belongs to the group of prealbumins from vertebrate blood

V. P. Yamskova; E. Yu. Rybakova; A. A. Vinogradov; V. V. Vecherkin; I. A. Yamskov

2004-01-01

148

Human proteolipid protein (PLP) mediates winding and adhesion of phospholipid membranes but prevents their fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolipid protein (PLP or lipophilin) is a highly conserved, strongly hydrophobic, integral membrane protein, and is the major protein component of central nervous system myelin. Although PLP has been implicated in many functions, its in vivo role is still uncertain. Here, we report the investigation of PLP’s putative adhesive function using purified PLP and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles made of either

Nades Palaniyar; Jennifer L Semotok; D. Denise Wood; Mario A Moscarello; George Harauz

1998-01-01

149

Effect of serum proteins on osteoblast adhesion to surface-modified bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that modification of the surface of porous bioactive glass promotes osteoblast function. We hypothesize that bone formation on treated bioactive glass is due to the selective adsorption of serum attachment proteins. To test this hypothesis, we examined the profile of proteins adsorbed to treated bioactive glass and compared these proteins with those adsorbed to untreated bioactive glass and porous hydroxyapatite. Porous bioactive glass was treated with Tris-buffered electrolyte solution to generate a calcium phosphate-rich surface layer and then immersed in tissue-culture medium containing 10% serum. Proteins adsorbed to the ceramic surfaces were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. Porous hydroxyapatite bound a higher amount of total protein than did the other substrates. However, surface-modified porous bioactive glass adsorbed more fibronectin than did hydroxyapatite. The effect of serum-protein adsorption on osteoblast adhesion to bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite was also evaluated. Cell adhesion to porous bioactive glass that was surface-modified and serum-treated was significantly greater than to porous bioactive glass that was either surface-modified or serum-treated. Furthermore, cell adhesion to porous bioactive glass treated to form the dual layer of calcium phosphate and serum protein was significantly higher than adhesion to porous hydroxyapatite with adsorbed serum protein. Results of the study strongly suggest that adsorption of serum fibronectin to the surface of modified porous bioactive glass coated with calcium phosphate may be responsible for enhanced osteoblast adhesion. PMID:10376721

El-Ghannam, A; Ducheyne, P; Shapiro, I M

1999-05-01

150

Fast Turnover of L1 Adhesions in Neuronal Growth Cones Involving Both Surface Diffusion and Exo/Endocytosis of L1 Molecules  

PubMed Central

We investigated the interplay between surface trafficking and binding dynamics of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1 at neuronal growth cones. Primary neurons were transfected with L1 constructs bearing thrombin-cleavable green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing visualization of newly exocytosed L1 or labeling of membrane L1 molecules by Quantum dots. Intracellular L1–GFP vesicles showed preferential centrifugal motion, whereas surface L1–GFP diffused randomly, revealing two pathways to address L1 to adhesive sites. We triggered L1 adhesions using microspheres coated with L1–Fc protein or anti-L1 antibodies, manipulated by optical tweezers. Microspheres coupled to the actin retrograde flow at the growth cone periphery while recruiting L1–GFP molecules, of which 50% relied on exocytosis. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed a rapid recycling of L1–GFP molecules at L1–Fc (but not anti-L1) bead contacts, attributed to a high lability of L1–L1 bonds at equilibrium. L1–GFP molecules truncated in the intracellular tail as well as neuronal cell adhesion molecules (NrCAMs) missing the clathrin adaptor binding sequence showed both little internalization and reduced turnover rates, indicating a role of endocytosis in the recycling of mature L1 contacts at the base of the growth cone. Thus, unlike for other molecules such as NrCAM or N-cadherin, diffusion/trapping and exo/endocytosis events cooperate to allow the fast renewal of L1 adhesions.

Dequidt, Caroline; Danglot, Lydia; Alberts, Philipp; Galli, Thierry; Choquet, Daniel

2007-01-01

151

Effect of adhesion proteins and surface chemistry on the procoagulant state of adherent platelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor hemocompatibility of a blood contacting device can lead to blood clotting, reduced blood flow, and depletion of platelets from the blood. Improved understanding of the processes by which blood-material contact leads to these responses could result in more hemocompatible materials. Platelets accelerate blood clotting by adhesion, aggregation, secretion of proteins and agonists and acceleration of thrombin generation. Platelets are said to be "procoagulant" after phosphatidylserine residues flip from the cytosolic to the extracellular face of the lipid bilayer. This then allows for the assembly of the prothrombinase complex (Xa, Va and calcium) on the platelet membrane, which can rapidly convert prothrombin to thrombin. In this study, three different methods confirmed that adhesion causes platelets to become procoagulant: shortening of clotting times of recalcified plasma, binding of FITC-annexin V, and generation of thrombin in the presence of Va, Xa and prothrombin by adherent platelets. Adherent platelets were 10--23 times more activated than bulk phase unactivated platelets and 10--24 times less activated than bulk phase platelets activated by calcium ionophore. The role of adsorbed fibrinogen, vWF, mixtures of fibrinogen and vWF, fibronectin, whole and dilute plasma, and plasma deficient in adhesion proteins in stimulating platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. The results of these experiments suggested that adhesion proteins affect procoagulant activation to varying degrees and that surfaces preadsorbed with mixtures of adhesion proteins are more activating that surfaces preadsorbed with single adhesion proteins. The hypothesis that materials that affect tightness of binding of adsorbed adhesion proteins affect platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. These studies showed that increasing fluorine content of RFGD polymerized films caused reduced platelet adhesion, but increased procoagulant activity, possibly due to their ability to adsorb greater amounts of vWF.

Grunkemeier, John Mark

152

The SRC-associated protein CUB Domain-Containing Protein-1 regulates adhesion and motility  

PubMed Central

Multiple SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are commonly activated in carcinoma and appear to have a role in metastasis through incompletely understood mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that CDCP1 (CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) Domain-Containing Protein-1) is a transmembrane protein and an SRC substrate potentially involved in metastasis. Here we show that increased SFK and CDCP1 tyrosine phosphorylation is, surprisingly, associated with a decrease in FAK phosphorylation. This appears to be true in human tumors as shown by our correlation analysis of a mass spectrometric data set of affinity-purified phosphotyrosine peptides obtained from normal and cancer lung tissue samples. Induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of CDCP1 in cell culture, including by a mAb that binds to its extracellular domain, promoted changes in SFK and FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, as well as in PKC™, a protein known to associate with CDCP1, and these changes are accompanied by increases in adhesion and motility. Thus, signaling events that accompany the CDCP1 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in cell lines and human lung tumors may explain how the CDCP1/SFK complex regulates motility and adhesion.

Benes, CH; Poulogiannis, G; Cantley, LC; Soltoff, SP

2013-01-01

153

Synergistic roles for lipids and proteins in the permanent adhesive of barnacle larvae.  

PubMed

Thoracian barnacles rely heavily upon their ability to adhere to surfaces and are environmentally and economically important as biofouling pests. Their adhesives have unique attributes that define them as targets for bio-inspired adhesive development. With the aid of multi-photon and broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies, we report that the larval adhesive of barnacle cyprids is a bi-phasic system containing lipids and phosphoproteins, working synergistically to maximize adhesion to diverse surfaces under hostile conditions. Lipids, secreted first, possibly displace water from the surface interface creating a conducive environment for introduction of phosphoproteins while simultaneously modulating the spreading of the protein phase and protecting the nascent adhesive plaque from bacterial biodegradation. The two distinct phases are contained within two different granules in the cyprid cement glands, implying far greater complexity than previously recognized. Knowledge of the lipidic contribution will hopefully inspire development of novel synthetic bioadhesives and environmentally benign antifouling coatings. PMID:25014570

Gohad, Neeraj V; Aldred, Nick; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Jong Lee, Young; Cicerone, Marcus T; Orihuela, Beatriz; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Dan; Mount, Andrew S

2014-01-01

154

E-cadherin and ?-catenin adhesion proteins correlate positively with connexins in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The majority of solid cancers present with qualitative and quantitative aberrations of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin and ?-catenin, and connexin (Cx) gap junction proteins, which is consistent with alterations in the expression and location of such proteins in neoplastic cells. Since there are no data on the correlation between adhesion proteins and Cxs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and correlation between these proteins. Tissue specimens were obtained from 151 cases of surgically removed colorectal adenocarcinomas. The samples were examined by immunohistochemistry with the use of antibodies against E-cadherin, ?-catenin and the three Cxs: Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43. The aberrant expression of the studied adhesion proteins (primarily cytoplasmic for E-cadherin and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear for ?-catenin) was observed, whereas only a minority of cases revealed normal membranous distribution of the labeling. The present study is the first in the literature to reveal a correlation between the expression of E-cadherin and ?-catenin and the examined Cxs in CRC in humans. The positive correlation between the Cxs, particularly Cx26 and Cx32, and the adhesive proteins occurred in patients without lymph node metastases and in the moderately differentiated tumors (G2). Such a dependency was not observed in the analysis of the correlation between Cx43 and E-cadherin. However, a positive correlation between these proteins was observed in patients with lymph nodes metastases. Additionally, a link between the expression of these adhesion proteins was observed. The present study indicates, for the first time, that the expression of adhesion proteins, E-cadherin and ?-catenin, is closely associated with the expression of three studied Cxs in CRC, and that this correlation may improve an understanding of the carcinogenic process in this cancer.

KANCZUGA-KODA, LUIZA; WINCEWICZ, ANDRZEJ; FUDALA, ANDRZEJ; ABRYCKI, TOMASZ; FAMULSKI, WALDEMAR; BALTAZIAK, MAREK; SULKOWSKI, STANISLAW; KODA, MARIUSZ

2014-01-01

155

Disruption of cell-substrate adhesion activates the protein tyrosine kinase pp60(c-src).  

PubMed

Treatment of confluent chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) with trypsin results in a dose- and time-dependent increase in c-Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. A similar, but less marked, increase in c-Src PTK activity occurs upon incubation of CEFs in calcium-free phosphate-buffered saline, which also causes a decrease in cell-substrate adhesion. The increase in c-Src PTK activity following disruption of cell-substrate adhesion correlates with a decrease in the phosphorylation of c-Src at the regulatory site, Tyr527. The phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide blocks the increase in c-Src PTK activity seen following treatment with trypsin and the morphological changes associated with the disruption of cell-substrate adhesion. In contrast, disruption of cell-substrate adhesion causes a decrease in FAK PTK activity that rapidly returns to control levels when the cells are plated on fibronection-coated dishes. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin D, which disrupts actin filaments but not cell-substrate adhesion, causes only a slight increase in c-Src PTK activity. Thus, these studies demonstrate a ligand-independent mechanism for the activation of c-Src that is consistent with its role in both cell adhesion and cell motility. Furthermore, these data suggest that similar to adhesion, loss of adhesion is not a passive process but can activate specific signaling pathways that may have significant effects on cellular function. PMID:11035913

Maher, P A

2000-11-01

156

Adhesion mechanism in a DOPA-deficient foot protein from green mussels†  

PubMed Central

The holdfast or byssus of Asian green mussels, Perna viridis, contains a foot protein, pvfp-1, that differs in two respects from all other known adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfp): (1) instead of the hallmark L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues in mfp-1, for example, pvfp-1 contains C2-mannosyl-7-hydroxytryptophan (Man7OHTrp). (2) In addition, pvfp-1 chains are not monomeric like mfp-1 but trimerized by collagen and coiled-coil domains near the carboxy terminus after a typical domain of tandemly repeated decapeptides. Here, the contribution of these peculiarities to adhesion was examined using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Unlike previously studied mfp-1s, pvfp-1 showed significant adhesion to mica and, in symmetric pvfp-1 films, substantial cohesive interactions were present at pH 5.5. The role of Man7OHTrp in adhesion is not clear, and a DOPA-like role for Man7OHTrp in metal complexation (e.g., Cu2+, Fe3+) was not observed. Instead, cation–? interactions with low desolvation penalty between Man7OHTrp and lysyl side chains and conformational changes (raveling and unraveling of collagen helix and coiled-coil domains) are the best explanations for the strong adhesion between pvfp-1 monomolecular films. The strong adhesion mechanism induced by cation–? interactions and conformational changes in pvfp-1 provides new insights for the development of biomimetic underwater adhesives.

Hwang, Dong Soo; Zeng, Hongbo; Lu, Qingye; Israelachvili, Jacob; Waite, J. Herbert

2012-01-01

157

Adhesion mechanism in a DOPA-deficient foot protein from green mussels().  

PubMed

The holdfast or byssus of Asian green mussels, Perna viridis, contains a foot protein, pvfp-1, that differs in two respects from all other known adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfp): (1) instead of the hallmark L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues in mfp-1, for example, pvfp-1 contains C(2)-mannosyl-7-hydroxytryptophan (Man7OHTrp). (2) In addition, pvfp-1 chains are not monomeric like mfp-1 but trimerized by collagen and coiled-coil domains near the carboxy terminus after a typical domain of tandemly repeated decapeptides. Here, the contribution of these peculiarities to adhesion was examined using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Unlike previously studied mfp-1s, pvfp-1 showed significant adhesion to mica and, in symmetric pvfp-1 films, substantial cohesive interactions were present at pH 5.5. The role of Man7OHTrp in adhesion is not clear, and a DOPA-like role for Man7OHTrp in metal complexation (e.g., Cu(2+), Fe(3+)) was not observed. Instead, cation-? interactions with low desolvation penalty between Man7OHTrp and lysyl side chains and conformational changes (raveling and unraveling of collagen helix and coiled-coil domains) are the best explanations for the strong adhesion between pvfp-1 monomolecular films. The strong adhesion mechanism induced by cation-? interactions and conformational changes in pvfp-1 provides new insights for the development of biomimetic underwater adhesives. PMID:23105946

Hwang, Dong Soo; Zeng, Hongbo; Lu, Qingye; Israelachvili, Jacob; Waite, J Herbert

2012-01-01

158

A comparison of outer membrane proteins and surface characteristics of adhesive and non-adhesive phenotypes of Bordetella avium.  

PubMed

The outer membrane protein profiles of four adherent and one reduced-adherence mutant phenotype of Bordetella avium were compared; a non-adherent B. avium-like organism isolated from turkeys was also examined. The organisms were grown on brain-heart infusion agar at 35 C for 36 hours. In addition, one of the adherent phenotypes was grown at 18 C and 40 C. The outer membrane proteins were isolated by sonication and detergent extraction with Triton X-100. Surface characteristics of intact bacteria were examined using negative stain and transmission electron microscopy. The adherent phenotypes had identical protein profiles by electrophoresis. The non-adherent B. avium-like organism lacked at least five of the proteins present on the adherent strains. The non-adherent mutant phenotype had a protein profile similar to that of the adherent organisms, although several proteins were present in much lower concentrations. Fimbriae were found on both adherent and non-adherent organisms. By comparing protein profiles of adherent and non-adherent B. avium we were able to make a preliminary determination of the membrane proteins that lack adhesive properties. PMID:2462412

Hellwig, D H; Arp, L H; Fagerland, J A

1988-01-01

159

Adrenomedullin increases fibroblast-like synoviocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins by upregulating integrin activation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by bone and cartilage invasion by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). Adrenomedullin, a peptide with anabolic and antiapoptotic properties, is secreted by rheumatoid FLSs. Adrenomedullin also increases the expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and keratinocytes. Here, we investigated whether adrenomedullin mediated FLS adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods FLSs were isolated from synovial tissues from RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Plates were coated overnight with the ECM proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, and type I collagen (Coll.I). Adrenomedullin was used as a soluble FLS ligand before plating. We tested interactions with the adrenomedullin receptor antagonist (22-52)adrenomedullin and with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, and inhibition of co-receptor RAMP-2 by siRNA. Cell adhesion was measured by using color densitometry. Activation of ?2 and ?1 integrins was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy; integrin inhibition, by RGD peptides; and the talin-integrin interaction, by immunoprecipitation (IP). Results Adrenomedullin specifically increased RA-FLS adhesion to vitronectin, fibronectin, and Coll.I; no such effect was found for OA-FLS adhesion. Basal or adrenomedullin-stimulated RA-FLS adhesion was inhibited by (22-52)adrenomedullin, H-89, and RAMP-2 siRNA. Adrenomedullin-stimulated adhesion was inhibited by RGD peptides, and associated with ?2 and ?1 integrin activation. This activation was shown with IP to be related to an integrin-talin interaction and was significantly decreased by (22-52)adrenomedullin. Conclusions Adrenomedullin-stimulated RA-FLS adhesion was specific for ECM proteins and mediated by ?2 and ?1 integrins. This effect of adrenomedullin was dependent on adrenomedullin receptors. These results support a new role for adrenomedullin in rheumatoid synovial fibroblast pathobiology.

2010-01-01

160

Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in focal adhesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 68-kD protein (paxillin) is a cytoskele- tal component that localizes to the focal adhesions at the ends of actin stress fibers in chicken embryo fibroblasts. It is also present in the focal adhesions of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells but is absent, like talin, from the cell-cell adherens junctions of these cells. Paxillin purified from chicken gizzard smooth

Christopher E. Turner; John R. Glermey; Keith Burridge

1990-01-01

161

Vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) functions as a molecular brake during granulocyte rolling and mediates recruitment in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocyte extravasation from the blood into tissues is a prerequisite for a proper inflammatory response. It is regulated by a multistep adhesion cascade consisting of successive contacts between leukocyte sur- face receptors and their endothelial ligands on vessels. Vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial surface glycoprotein with two functions. It is an enzyme (monoamine oxidase) and an adhesion

SAMI TOHKA; MARJA-LEENA LAUKKANEN; SIRPA JALKANEN; MARKO SALMI

2001-01-01

162

c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the blood-testis barrier and the apical ectoplasmic specialization in the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes.  

PubMed

During spermatogenesis, extensive junction restructuring takes place at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES, a testis-specific adherens junction) in the seminiferous epithelium. However, the mechanism(s) that regulates these critical events in the testis remains unknown. Based on the current concept in the field, changes in the phosphorylation status of integral membrane proteins at these sites can induce alterations in protein endocytosis and recycling, causing junction restructuring. Herein, c-Yes, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, was found to express abundantly at the BTB and apical ES stage-specifically, coinciding with junction restructuring events at these sites during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. c-Yes also structurally associated with adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin and N-cadherin) and the apical ES (e.g., ?1-integrin, laminins ?3 and ?3), possibly to regulate phosphorylation status of proteins at these sites. SU6656, a selective c-Yes inhibitor, was shown to perturb the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier in vitro, which is mediated by changes in the distribution of occludin and N-cadherin at the cell-cell interface, moving from cell surface to cytosol, thereby destabilizing the tight junction-barrier. However, this disruptive effect of SU6656 on the barrier was blocked by testosterone. Furthermore, c-Yes is crucial to maintain the actin filament network in Sertoli cells since a blockade of c-Yes by SU6656 induced actin filament disorganization. In summary, c-Yes regulates BTB and apical ES integrity by maintaining proper distribution of integral membrane proteins and actin filament organization at these sites. PMID:21256972

Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2011-04-01

163

Expression of the focal adhesion protein paxillin in lung cancer and its relation to cell motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer can lead to abnormalities of the actin cytoskeleton structure which may be important in transformation. In this study, we have investigated the expression of the cytoskeletal associated protein paxillin in lung cancer. Paxillin is a 68 kDa focal adhesion protein, with four tandem LIM domains at the C-terminus, involved in growth factor receptor, integrin and oncogenic signaling such

Ravi Salgia; Jian-Liang Li; Darren S Ewaniuk; You-Bin Wang; Martin Sattler; Wen-Che Chen; William Richards; Evan Pisick; Geoffrey I Shapiro; Barrett J Rollins; Lan Bo Chen; James D Griffin; David J Sugarbaker

1999-01-01

164

Effects of ECM protein mimetics on adhesion and proliferation of chorion derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Background: We evaluated the effects of fibronectin, collagen, cadherin, and laminin based extracellular matrix (ECM) protein mimetics coated with mussel derived adhesive protein (MAP) on adhesion and proliferation of chorionic mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs). Methods: Human placental chorionic tissues from term third-trimester pregnancies (n=3) were used. The cMSCs were cultured on rationally designed ECM protein mimetics coated with MAP on plastic surfaces with the addition of reduced fetal bovine serum (0.5%, 1% FBS). Adhesion capabilities were monitored by a real time cell analysis system (RTCA) utilizing an impedance method. Proliferation capabilities were monitored by RTCA and MTS assay. Results: Of the ECM protein mimetics tested, GRGDSP(FN) coated surfaces exhibited the highest adhesion and proliferation capabilities on RTCA at FBS concentration of 0.5% and 1%. When 0.5% FBS was added to ECM protein mimetics during the MTS assay, GRGDSP(FN), REDV(FN), and collagen mimetics, GPKGAAGEPGKP(ColI) showed higher cMSCs proliferation compared with the control. When 1% FBS was added, GRGDSP(FN) and TAIPSCPEGTVPLYS(ColIV) showed significant cMSCs proliferation capacity. Conclusions: Fibronectin mimetics, GRGDSP(FN) amino acid sequence showed the highest adhesion and proliferation capabilities. In addition, results from RTCA assessment of cell viability correlated well with the tetrazolium-based MTS assay. PMID:24516355

Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul

2014-01-01

165

Effects of ECM Protein Mimetics on Adhesion and Proliferation of Chorion Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the effects of fibronectin, collagen, cadherin, and laminin based extracellular matrix (ECM) protein mimetics coated with mussel derived adhesive protein (MAP) on adhesion and proliferation of chorionic mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs). Methods: Human placental chorionic tissues from term third-trimester pregnancies (n=3) were used. The cMSCs were cultured on rationally designed ECM protein mimetics coated with MAP on plastic surfaces with the addition of reduced fetal bovine serum (0.5%, 1% FBS). Adhesion capabilities were monitored by a real time cell analysis system (RTCA) utilizing an impedance method. Proliferation capabilities were monitored by RTCA and MTS assay. Results: Of the ECM protein mimetics tested, GRGDSP(FN) coated surfaces exhibited the highest adhesion and proliferation capabilities on RTCA at FBS concentration of 0.5% and 1%. When 0.5% FBS was added to ECM protein mimetics during the MTS assay, GRGDSP(FN), REDV(FN), and collagen mimetics, GPKGAAGEPGKP(ColI) showed higher cMSCs proliferation compared with the control. When 1% FBS was added, GRGDSP(FN) and TAIPSCPEGTVPLYS(ColIV) showed significant cMSCs proliferation capacity. Conclusions: Fibronectin mimetics, GRGDSP(FN) amino acid sequence showed the highest adhesion and proliferation capabilities. In addition, results from RTCA assessment of cell viability correlated well with the tetrazolium-based MTS assay.

Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul

2014-01-01

166

The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 interacts with beta1 integrins and regulates adhesion.  

PubMed

The growth arrest-specific-3 (GAS3)/PMP22 proteins are members of the four-transmembrane (tetraspan) superfamily. Although the function of these proteins is poorly understood, GAS3/PMP22 proteins have been implicated in the control of growth and progression of certain cancers. Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2), a GAS3/PMP22 family member, was recently identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene. Here, we addressed the normal function of EMP2 by testing the prediction that it influences integrin-related cell functions. We observed that EMP2 associates with the beta(1) integrin subunit. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunodepletion experiments indicated that approximately 60% of beta(1) integrins and EMP2 can be isolated in common protein complexes. Whereas this association between EMP2 and beta(1) integrin may be direct or indirect, it has features of integrin heterodimer selectivity. Thus, by laser confocal microscopy, EMP2 colocalized with alpha(6)beta(1) but not alpha(5)beta(1) integrin. Increased expression of EMP2 also influenced the integrin heterodimer repertoire present on the plasma membrane. EMP2 specifically increased the surface expression of the alpha(6)beta(1) integrin while decreasing that of the alpha(5)beta(1) protein. Reciprocally, reduction in EMP2 expression using a specific ribozyme decreased surface expression of alpha(6)beta(1) integrin. Accordingly, these EMP2-mediated changes resulted in a dramatic alteration in cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. This study demonstrates for the first time the interaction of a GAS3/PMP22 family member with an integrin protein and suggests that such interactions and their functional consequences are a physiologic role of GAS3/PMP22 proteins. PMID:12189152

Wadehra, Madhuri; Iyer, Ramaswamy; Goodglick, Lee; Braun, Jonathan

2002-10-25

167

Decreased adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins of H-2Kb gene transfected tumour cells.  

PubMed

Transfection of murine metastatic B78H1 cells (derived from B16 melanoma) with a syngeneic H-2Kb gene was used to study the effect of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) gene products on tumour cell adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins and the involvement in the metastatic process. H-2Kb-expressing transfectants showed a reduced adhesion to endothelial surfaces of different origin (four murine endotheliomas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells) when compared to parental B78H1 cells and to controls transfected with pSV2neo alone. On the average a 50-70% reduction in adhesion to endothelial cells was observed among H-2Kb transfectants. H-2Kb transfectants had a reduced expression of the alpha 4 integrin subunit, moreover the adhesion of Neo-transfected clones to endothelial cells was reduced to the levels of H-2Kb transfectants by antibodies directed against the beta 1 subunit and the endothelial VCAM-1 molecule, thus suggesting an impairment of the VLA-4/VCAM-1 interaction in H-2Kb transfectants. Adhesion to extracellular matrix components was also strongly decreased: in general the adhesion of H-2Kb cells showed a 50-75% inhibition with respect to Neo or parental controls. The highest difference was observed in adhesion to vitronectin and laminin, the lowest in adhesion to fibronectin. Reduction in adhesive properties of H-2Kb-expressing transfectants could be involved in the reduced metastatic ability, evaluated by means of intravenous injection of cells: H-2Kb transfectants yielded less than ten lung colonies, while all controls produced more than 100. Our data indicate that expression of a single class I MHC gene can significantly alter the metastatic phenotype of MHC-negative tumour cells and this could be related to a general alteration of tumour cell adhesive interactions. PMID:7692918

Lauri, D; De Giovanni, C; Biondelli, T; Lalli, E; Landuzzi, L; Facchini, A; Nicoletti, G; Nanni, P; Dejana, E; Lollini, P L

1993-11-01

168

Decreased adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins of H-2Kb gene transfected tumour cells.  

PubMed Central

Transfection of murine metastatic B78H1 cells (derived from B16 melanoma) with a syngeneic H-2Kb gene was used to study the effect of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) gene products on tumour cell adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins and the involvement in the metastatic process. H-2Kb-expressing transfectants showed a reduced adhesion to endothelial surfaces of different origin (four murine endotheliomas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells) when compared to parental B78H1 cells and to controls transfected with pSV2neo alone. On the average a 50-70% reduction in adhesion to endothelial cells was observed among H-2Kb transfectants. H-2Kb transfectants had a reduced expression of the alpha 4 integrin subunit, moreover the adhesion of Neo-transfected clones to endothelial cells was reduced to the levels of H-2Kb transfectants by antibodies directed against the beta 1 subunit and the endothelial VCAM-1 molecule, thus suggesting an impairment of the VLA-4/VCAM-1 interaction in H-2Kb transfectants. Adhesion to extracellular matrix components was also strongly decreased: in general the adhesion of H-2Kb cells showed a 50-75% inhibition with respect to Neo or parental controls. The highest difference was observed in adhesion to vitronectin and laminin, the lowest in adhesion to fibronectin. Reduction in adhesive properties of H-2Kb-expressing transfectants could be involved in the reduced metastatic ability, evaluated by means of intravenous injection of cells: H-2Kb transfectants yielded less than ten lung colonies, while all controls produced more than 100. Our data indicate that expression of a single class I MHC gene can significantly alter the metastatic phenotype of MHC-negative tumour cells and this could be related to a general alteration of tumour cell adhesive interactions.

Lauri, D.; De Giovanni, C.; Biondelli, T.; Lalli, E.; Landuzzi, L.; Facchini, A.; Nicoletti, G.; Nanni, P.; Dejana, E.; Lollini, P. L.

1993-01-01

169

Use of adhesion-defective mutants of Staphylococcus aureus to define the role of specific plasma proteins in promoting bacterial adhesion to canine arteriovenous shunts.  

PubMed Central

We used an ex vivo canine arteriovenous shunt model, previously developed to study plasma protein adsorption and thrombogenesis on polymeric biomaterials, to define the role of host proteins in promoting adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Either polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride tubings were exposed to canine blood for 5, 15, or 60 min at a flow rate of 300 ml/min and then were flushed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), cut into 1.5-cm segments, and stored at -70 degrees C. After thawing, each segment was preincubated in 0.5% albumin in PBS to prevent nonspecific staphylococcal attachment to surfaces that were not exposed to blood. Each segment was then incubated with 4 x 10(6) CFU of [3H]thymidine-labelled S. aureus per ml for 60 min at 37 degrees C in an in vitro adhesion assay. Two site-specific mutants of S. aureus were tested: one specifically defective in adhesion to surface-bound fibronectin (FnAd-def) and the other defective in adhesion to fibrinogen (FgAD-def) [corrected]. Compared with their respective parental strains, the FgAd-def, but not the FnAd-def, mutant of S. aureus showed a strong (> 80%) decrease in attachment to ex vivo tubings. The adhesion of each strain of S. aureus onto polyethylene was consistently more than twofold higher than the adhesion onto polyvinyl chloride segments exposed to flowing blood for 5 or 15 min, but adhesion became similar to that on polyvinyl chloride after 60 min of exposure. In conclusion, the specific adhesion-defective mutants of S. aureus suggested that fibrinogen was the most active adhesion-promoting protein in a short-term blood-material interaction. The experimental approach described in this study should prove useful for screening materials thought to be resistant to protein-mediated staphylococcal adhesion and colonization.

Vaudaux, P E; Francois, P; Proctor, R A; McDevitt, D; Foster, T J; Albrecht, R M; Lew, D P; Wabers, H; Cooper, S L

1995-01-01

170

Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling and N-Cadherin Related ?-Catenin Signaling Play a Role in Mechanically Induced Osteogenic Cell Fate  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding how the mechanical microenvironment influences cell fate, and more importantly, by what molecular mechanisms, will enhance not only the knowledge of mesenchymal stem cell biology but also the field of regenerative medicine. Mechanical stimuli, specifically loading induced oscillatory fluid flow, plays a vital role in promoting healthy bone development, homeostasis and morphology. Recent studies suggest that such loading induced fluid flow has the potential to regulate osteogenic differentiation via the upregulation of multiple osteogenic genes; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transduction of a physical signal into altered cell fate have yet to be determined. Methods and Principal Findings Using immuno-staining, western blot analysis and luciferase assays, we demonstrate the oscillatory fluid flow regulates ?-catenin nuclear translocation and gene transcription. Additionally, real time RT-PCR analysis suggests that flow induces Wnt5a and Ror2 upregulation, both of which are essential for activating the small GTPase, RhoA, upon flow exposure. Furthermore, although ?-catenin phosphorylation is not altered by flow, its association with N-cadherin is, indicating that flow-induced ?-catenin signaling is initiated by adherens junction signaling. Conclusion We propose that the mechanical microenvironment of bone has the potential to regulate osteogenic differentiation by initiating multiple key molecular pathways that are essential for such lineage commitment. Specifically, non-canonical Wnt5a signaling involving Ror2 and RhoA as well as N-cadherin mediated ?-catenin signaling are necessary for mechanically induced osteogenic differentiation.

Arnsdorf, Emily J.; Tummala, Padmaja; Jacobs, Christopher R.

2009-01-01

171

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to nanohydroxyapatite in the presence of model proteins.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections can have adverse effects on the efficacy, lifetime, and safety of an implanted device. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial adhesion of several strains, namely S. aureus and S. epidermidis, on two distinct types of nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA), sintered at 725 °C and 1000 °C. A comparison was also made with nanohydroxyapatite having adsorbed fetal bovine serum (FBS), human fibronectin (FN) and human serum albumin (HSA). Adhered bacterial cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified as colony forming units after being released by sonication. The wettability of the sample surface with and without adsorbed protein was assessed by contact-angle measurements. NanoHA sintered at 1000 °C showed lower bacterial adhesion than this heat-treated at 725 °C. Adsorption of FBS onto the nanoHA surface caused a decrease in the adhesion of all strains on both materials. The bacterial adhesion patterns in the presence of FN were different for both nanoHA substrates; the adherence of the bacterial strains, except for the clinical strain of S. epidermidis, was significantly higher on nanoHA 1000 in comparison to nanoHA 1000 without protein and the bacterial adhesion on the FN-coated nanoHA 725 was lower in comparison to the bare nanoHA 725. The effect of HSA on bacterial adhesion was concentration and bacterial strain dependent. PMID:22652496

Ribeiro, M; Monteiro, F J; Ferraz, M P

2012-08-01

172

Single Adhesive Nanofibers from a Live Diatom Have the Signature Fingerprint of Modular Proteins  

PubMed Central

The adhesive and mechanical properties of a cell-substratum adhesive secreted by live diatom cells were examined in situ using atomic force microscopy. The resulting force curves have a regular saw-tooth pattern, the characteristic fingerprint of modular proteins, and when bridged between tip and surface can repeatedly be stretched and relaxed resulting in precisely overlaying saw-tooth curves (up to ?600 successive cycles). The average rupture force of the peaks is 0.794 ± 0.007 (mean ± SE) nN at a loading rate of 0.8 ?m/s and the average persistence length is 0.026 ± <0.001 (mean ± SE) nm (fit using the worm-like chain model). We propose that we are pulling on single adhesive nanofibers, each a cohesive unit composed of a set number of modular proteins aligned in register. Furthermore, we can observe and differentiate when up to three adhesive nanofibers are pulled based upon multimodal distributions of force and persistence length. The high force required for bond rupture, high extensibility (?1.2 ?m), and the accurate and rapid refolding upon relaxation, together provide strong and flexible properties ideally suited for the cell-substratum adhesion of this fouling diatom and allow us to understand the mechanism responsible for the strength of adhesion.

Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Mulvaney, P.; Wetherbee, R.

2005-01-01

173

Cytokines modulate MIA PaCa 2 and CAPAN-1 adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins.  

PubMed

Variations in cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins might underlie an enhanced metastatic potential. ECM binding is mediated by cell-adhesion molecules, the membrane expression of which might be influenced by soluble mediators, such as cytokines. The aims of our study were to ascertain whether epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), or interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) can modify MIA PaCa 2 (pancreatic cancer cell line) and CAPAN-1 (metastatic pancreatic cancer cell line) adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, or type I collagen, and whether these cytokines can shift the membrane expression of the hyaluronic acid receptor (CD44). EGF significantly enhanced MIA PaCa 2, but not CAPAN-1, adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, and type I collagen. TGF-beta1 reduced MIA PaCa 2 adhesion to type I collagen, but enhanced CAPAN-1 adhesion to fibronectin and laminin. IL-1alpha was found to enhance MIA PaCa 2 adhesion to fibronectin, while reducing adhesion to type I collagen, whereas IL-1beta reduced the adhesion to laminin. IL-1alpha enhanced CAPAN-1 adhesion to laminin in a dose-dependent manner; IL-1beta slightly increased the adhesion of these cells to laminin at low dosage, and to type I collagen at high dosage. Both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta reduced CD44 membrane expression of MIA PaCa 2, while TGF-beta1 increased the percentage of CD44-positive CAPAN-1 cells. We suggest that the effects on cell adhesion induced by different cytokines depend on the status of the target pancreatic cancer cell. EGF and, in part, IL-1alpha can favor nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell adhesion to ECM, possibly favoring tumor spread. Metastatic cells seem to lose the responsiveness to EGF, while becoming hyperresponsive to IL-1alpha. TGF-beta1 might exert an antidiffusive effect on primary, and a prodiffusive effect on metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. Only IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and TGF-beta1 seem to influence CD44 membrane expression. All the results presented in this study were obtained in vitro, and in vivo studies are needed to verify whether the studied cytokines can favor or counteract pancreatic cancer spread. PMID:10547196

Stefani, A L; Basso, D; Panozzo, M P; Greco, E; Mazza, S; Zancanaro, F; De Franchis, G; Plebani, M

1999-11-01

174

Modulation of Drosophila Retinal Epithelial Integrity by the Adhesion Proteins Capricious and Tartan  

PubMed Central

Background The development of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc requires complex epithelial rearrangements. Cells of the morphogenetic furrow are apically constricted and this leads to a physical indentation in the epithelium. Posterior to the furrow, cells start to rearrange into distinct clusters and eventually form a precisely patterned array of ommatidia. These morphogenetic processes include regulated changes of adhesion between cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that two transmembrane adhesion proteins, Capricious and Tartan, have dynamic and complementary expression patterns in the eye imaginal disc. We also describe novel null mutations in capricious and double null mutations in capricious and tartan. We report that they have redundant functions in regulating the architecture of the morphogenetic furrow and ommatidial spacing. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Capricious and Tartan contribute to the adhesive properties of the cells in the morphogenetic furrow and that this regulated adhesion participates in the control of spacing ommatidial clusters.

Mao, Yanlan; Kerr, Martin; Freeman, Matthew

2008-01-01

175

The Adhesive Protein cDNA of Mjttirus galloprovincialis Encodes Decapeptide Repeats but No Hexapeptide Motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.,A mussel,is attached,to hard,surfaces,by its byssus, which consists of a bundle of threads, each with a fibrous collagenous,core coated,with adhesive,proteins. We constructed,a cDNA library from,RNA isolated,from the foot of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis,sampled in Japan. The library,was,probed,with,a nucleotide,se- quence,corresponding,to a part of the decapeptide,repeat motif,in the major,adhesive,protein,of the closely related species M. edulis, and a clone including the whole coding

Koji Inoue; Satoshi Odo

1994-01-01

176

Identification of macrophage external membrane proteins and their possible role in cell adhesion  

PubMed Central

Starch-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages (STpMAC) plated on plastic demonstrate the adhesive properties typical for activated pMAC: attaching as round cells and, within 15 min, spreading out with marginal membrane ruffles. These attached STpMAC were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed 125I surface iodination, sodium dodecyl- sulfate-lysed, and the lysates electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels which were examined by autoradiography. The STpMAC morphological phenotype correlates with the labeling of a particular protein (195,000, estimated mol wt). Normal pMAC (NpMAC), from unstimulated mice, do not spread and do not display the 195,000 band. Both pMAC band patterns, including the 195,000 band, are relatively resistant to trypsin digestion, as is pMAC adhesion itself trypsin-resistant. Neither class of pMAC exhibits fibronectin (Cell Adhesion Factor, LETS protein) which is a component in the adhesive matrix of cells forming trypsin-sensitive monolayers. When pMAC are tested against antifibronectin antibody, these cells do not give immunofluorescent staining. In summary, two functions in pMAC adhesion, enzyme resistance and the ability to spread, appear related to molecular properties distinctive for pMAC surface protein.

1978-01-01

177

Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11

Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

1995-01-01

178

Adhesion mechanisms of the mussel foot proteins mfp-1 and mfp-3  

PubMed Central

Mussels adhere to a variety of surfaces by depositing a highly specific ensemble of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (DOPA) containing proteins. The adhesive properties of Mytilus edulis foot proteins mfp-1 and mfp-3 were directly measured at the nano-scale by using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). An adhesion energy of order W ?3 × 10?4 J/m2 was achieved when separating two smooth and chemically inert surfaces of mica (a common alumino-silicate clay mineral) bridged or “glued” by mfp-3. This energy corresponds to an approximate force per plaque of ?100 gm, more than enough to hold a mussel in place if no peeling occurs. In contrast, no adhesion was detected between mica surfaces bridged by mfp-1. AFM imaging and SFA experiments showed that mfp-1 can adhere well to one mica surface, but is unable to then link to another (unless sheared), even after prolonged contact time or increased load (pressure). Although mechanistic explanations for the different behaviors are not yet possible, the results are consistent with the apparent function of the proteins, i.e., mfp-1 is disposed as a “protective” coating, and mfp-3 as the adhesive or “glue” that binds mussels to surfaces. The results suggest that the adhesion on mica is due to weak physical interactions rather than chemical bonding, and that the strong adhesion forces of plaques arise as a consequence of their geometry (e.g., their inability to be peeled off) rather than a high intrinsic surface or adhesion energy, W.

Lin, Qi; Gourdon, Delphine; Sun, Chengjun; Holten-Andersen, Niels; Anderson, Travers H.; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

2007-01-01

179

Characterisation of cellulose-binding proteins that are involved in the adhesion mechanism of Fibrobacter intestinalis DR7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose-binding proteins (CBP) isolated from cell envelopes of the cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter intestinalis strain DR7 were studied in order to investigate the adhesion mechanism. The proteins were examined for their reaction with\\u000a antibodies that specifically block bacterial adhesion, response to glycosylation staining and monosaccharide composition.\\u000a To this end, the effect of some monosaccharides (CBP components) on blocking of DR7 adhesion

J. Miron; C. W. Forsberg

1999-01-01

180

Epithelial-stromal interactions in human breast cancer: effects on adhesion, plasma membrane fluidity and migration speed and directness.  

PubMed

Interactions occurring between malignant cells and the stromal microenvironment heavily influence tumor progression. We investigated whether this cross-talk affects some molecular and functional aspects specifically correlated with the invasive phenotype of breast tumor cells (i.e. adhesion molecule expression, membrane fluidity, migration) by co-culturing mammary cancer cells exhibiting different degrees of metastatic potential (MDA-MB-231>MCF-7) with fibroblasts isolated from breast healthy skin (normal fibroblasts, NFs) or from breast tumor stroma (cancer-associated fibroblasts, CAFs) in 2D or 3D (nodules) cultures. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis of the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin on frozen nodule sections demonstrated that NFs and CAFs, respectively, induced or inhibited its expression in MCF-7 cells. An increase in the mesenchymal adhesion protein N-cadherin was observed in CAFs, but not in NFs, as a result of the interaction with both kinds of cancer cells. CAFs, in turn, promoted N-cadherin up-regulation in MDA-MB-231 cells and its de novo expression in MCF-7 cells. Beyond promotion of "cadherin switching", another sign of the CAF-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was the induction of vimentin expression in MCF-7 cells. Plasma membrane labeling of monolayer cultures with the fluorescent probe Laurdan showed an enhancement of the membrane fluidity in cancer cells co-cultured with NFs or CAFs. An increase in lipid packing density of fibroblast membranes was promoted by MCF-7 cells. Time-lapsed cell tracking analysis of mammary cancer cells co-cultured with NFs or CAFs revealed an enhancement of tumor cell migration velocity, even with a marked increase in the directness induced by CAFs.Our results demonstrate a reciprocal influence of mammary cancer and fibroblasts on various adhesiveness/invasiveness features. Notably, CAFs' ability to promote EMT, reduction of cell adhesion, increase in membrane fluidity, and migration velocity and directness in mammary cancer cells can be viewed as an overall progression- and invasion-promoting effect. PMID:23251387

Angelucci, Cristiana; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Lama, Gina; Proietti, Gabriella; Colabianchi, Anna; Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; De Spirito, Marco; Micera, Alessandra; Balzamino, Omar Bijorn; Di Leone, Alba; Masetti, Riccardo; Sica, Gigliola

2012-01-01

181

Adhesion protein adsorption and bone cell growth on carbon nanotube composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone growth on nano-structured materials is of paramount importance for designing better orthopedic prostheses. We have demonstrated here that surface energies and nano scale roughness are indeed important factors for determining adsorption of an important adhesion protein, fibronectin, and subsequent growth of bone forming cells, osteoblasts, on carbon nanotube composite materials. ^ For more meaningful and relevant quantification of surface

Dongwoo Khang

2006-01-01

182

Regulation of Cell-Cell Adhesion by Rac and Rho Small G Proteins in MDCK Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rho small G protein family, consisting of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 subfamilies, regulates vari- ous cell functions, such as cell shape change, cell motil- ity, and cytokinesis, through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show here that the Rac and Rho sub- families furthermore regulate cell-cell adhesion. We prepared MDCK cell lines stably expressing each of dominant active

Kenji Takaishi; Takuya Sasaki; Hirokazu Kotani; Hideo Nishioka; Yoshimi Takai

1997-01-01

183

Chemistry on a Single Protein, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule1, during Forced Unfolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins of many types experience tensile forces in their normal function, and vascular cell adhesion mole- cule-1 (VCAM-1) is typical in this. VCAM has seven Ig domains, and each has a disulfide bond (-S-S-) buried in its core that covalently stabilizes about half of each domain against unfolding. VCAM is extended here by single molecule atomic force microscopy in the

Nishant Bhasin; Philippe Carl; Sandy Harper; Gang Feng; Hui Lu; David W. Speicher

2004-01-01

184

Membrane and acto-myosin tension promote clustering of adhesion proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicists have studied the aggregation of adhesive proteins, giving a central role to the elastic properties of membranes, whereas cell biologists have put the emphasis on the cytoskeleton. However, there is a dramatic lack of experimental studies probing both contributions on cellular systems. Here, we tested both mechanisms on living cells. We compared, for the same cell line, the growth

H. Delanoë-Ayari; R. Al Kurdi; M. Vallade; D. Gulino-Debrac; D. Riveline

2004-01-01

185

Adhesive properties of soy proteins modified by urea and guanidine hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted on the adhesive and water-resistance properties of soy protein isolates that were modified\\u000a by varying solutions of urea (1, 3, 5, and 8 M) or guanidine hydrochloride (GH) (0.5, 1, and 3 M) and applied on walnut, cherry,\\u000a and pine plywoods. Soy proteins modified by 1 and 3 M urea showed greater shear strengths than did

Weining Huang; Xiuzhi Sun

2000-01-01

186

Carbohydrate-decorated PCL fibers for specific protein adhesion.  

PubMed

Ultrafine biocompatible fibers decorated with carbohydrates were prepared by electrospinning. Both bulk- and surface-modification approaches have been investigated and compared in terms of practicability and grafting density along the fibrous mats. On one hand, bulk-functionalized fibers were prepared by electrospinning of native and galactose-modified PCL polymers. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers was strongly influenced by the galactose-PCL content as observed by electron microscopy. Successful surface modification was evidenced by water contact angle measurements, but a rather low carbohydrate density was attained, as indicated by a colorimetric quantification. On the other hand, efficient and versatile surface-glycosylation was achieved after modification of azido-functionalized electrospun fibers by CuAAC click-chemistry. Homogeneous ultrafine PCL fibers, decorated with azide functions, have been made completely hydrophilic upon coupling with propargyl-?-d-mannoside and propargyl-?-d-galactoside. Specific adhesion of lectins further attested good bioavailability of the surface carbohydrate residues, suggesting interesting perspectives of the latter approach in the development of bioactive materials for tissue engineering. PMID:23651235

Lancuški, Anica; Bossard, Frédéric; Fort, Sébastien

2013-06-10

187

Foaming properties of soybean protein-based plywood adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of soy protein-based plywood glues for foam extrusion. Foaming properties\\u000a were the first criterion used to screen several soy protein sources. Foaming capacities and stabilities of glue mixes containing\\u000a animal blood (control) or soy products (meals, flours, concentrates, and isolates) were compared and correlated with molecular\\u000a weights and surface hydrophobicity indices (S

Milagros P. Hojilla-Evangelista; Larson B. Dunn

2001-01-01

188

Paxillin: a new vinculin-binding protein present in focal adhesions  

PubMed Central

The 68-kD protein (paxillin) is a cytoskeletal component that localizes to the focal adhesions at the ends of actin stress fibers in chicken embryo fibroblasts. It is also present in the focal adhesions of Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells but is absent, like talin, from the cell-cell adherens junctions of these cells. Paxillin purified from chicken gizzard smooth muscle migrates as a diffuse band on SDS- PAGE gels with a molecular mass of 65-70 kD. It is a protein of multiple isoforms with pIs ranging from 6.31 to 6.85. Using purified paxillin, we have demonstrated a specific interaction in vitro with another focal adhesion protein, vinculin. Cleavage of vinculin with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease results in the generation of two fragments of approximately 85 and 27 kD. Unlike talin, which binds to the large vinculin fragment, paxillin was found to bind to the small vinculin fragment, which represents the rod domain of the molecule. Together with the previous observation that paxillin is a major substrate of pp60src in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells (Glenney, J. R., and L. Zokas. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:2401-2408), this interaction with vinculin suggests paxillin may be a key component in the control of focal adhesion organization.

1990-01-01

189

The oxidase activity of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is essential for function  

PubMed Central

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and is suggested to play a role in immune cell trafficking. It is not clear whether this effect is mediated by the oxidase activity or by other features of the protein such as direct adhesion. In order to study the role of VAP-1 oxidase activity in vivo, we have generated mice carrying an oxidase activity-null VAP-1 protein. We demonstrate that the VAP-1 oxidase null mutant mice have a phenotype similar to the VAP-1 null mice in animal models of sterile peritonitis and antibody induced arthritis suggesting that the oxidase activity is responsible for the inflammatory function of VAP-1.

Noonan, Thomas; Lukas, Susan; Peet, Gregory W; Pelletier, Josephine; Panzenbeck, Mark; Hanidu, Adedayo; Mazurek, Suzanne; Wasti, Ruby; Rybina, Irina; Roma, Teresa; Kronkaitis, Anthony; Shoultz, Alycia; Souza, Donald; Jiang, Huiping; Nabozny, Gerald; Modis, Louise Kelly

2013-01-01

190

Distinct biophysical mechanisms of focal adhesion kinase mechanoactivation by different extracellular matrix proteins.  

PubMed

Matrix mechanics controls cell fate by modulating the bonds between integrins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, it remains unclear how fibronectin (FN), type 1 collagen, and their receptor integrin subtypes distinctly control force transmission to regulate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity, a crucial molecular signal governing cell adhesion/migration. Here we showed, using a genetically encoded FAK biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, that FN-mediated FAK activation is dependent on the mechanical tension, which may expose its otherwise hidden FN synergy site to integrin ?5. In sharp contrast, the ligation between the constitutively exposed binding motif of type 1 collagen and its receptor integrin ?2 was surprisingly tension-independent to induce sufficient FAK activation. Although integrin ? subunit determines mechanosensitivity, the ligation between ? subunit and the ECM proteins converges at the integrin ?1 activation to induce FAK activation. We further discovered that the interaction of the N-terminal protein 4.1/ezrin/redixin/moesin basic patch with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate is crucial during cell adhesion to maintain the FAK activation from the inhibitory effect of nearby protein 4.1/ezrin/redixin/moesin acidic sites. Therefore, different ECM proteins either can transmit or can shield from mechanical forces to regulate cellular functions, with the accessibility of ECM binding motifs by their specific integrin ? subunits determining the biophysical mechanisms of FAK activation during mechanotransduction. PMID:24222685

Seong, Jihye; Tajik, Arash; Sun, Jie; Guan, Jun-Lin; Humphries, Martin J; Craig, Susan E; Shekaran, Asha; García, Andrés J; Lu, Shaoying; Lin, Michael Z; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yingxiao

2013-11-26

191

Control of osteoblast cells adhesion and spreading by microcontact printing of extracellular matrix protein patterns.  

PubMed

In this study, we report a simple method for creating extracellular matrix (ECM) protein patterns to control osteoblast cell adhesion and spreading. The fibronectin patterns are directly produced on polystyrene (PS) surfaces by microcontact printing (?CP). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images show that protein patterns are successfully fabricated on PS surfaces. Newborn rat osteoblast cells are then seeded on these protein patterns and cultured for 4 days. The results demonstrate that osteoblast cells preferentially adhere and grow on the protein areas. The pattern dimensions have significant influences on cell behaviors, including cell adhesion, spreading, distribution, and growth direction. Therefore, it is possible to control the cell morphology and even cell function by carefully designing the pattern shapes and sizes. The present study suggests that the ECM protein patterns can be used to modify biomaterials' surfaces and spatially control the morphologies of osteoblast cells. We believe that our work could find applications for creating patterned bioactive surfaces to control cell adhesion, spreading and cell function. It may be helpful for the development of novel implantable biomaterials, such as artificial bone implants, where control of interfacial biological interactions between implants and cells would be preferable. PMID:23298583

Pan, Chang-Jiang; Qin, Hao; Nie, Yu-Dong; Ding, Hong-Yan

2013-04-01

192

Adhesive strength and curing rate of marine mussel protein extracts on porcine small intestinal submucosa*  

PubMed Central

An adhesive protein extracted from marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used to bond strips of connective tissue for the purpose of evaluating the use of curing agents to improve adhesive curing. Specifically, mussel adhesive protein solution (MAPS, 0.5 mM dihydroxyphenylalanine) was applied, with or without the curing agents, to the ends of two overlapping strips of porcine small intestinal submucosa. The bond strength of this lap joint was determined after curing for 1 h at room temperature (25°C). The strength of joints formed using only MAPS or with only the ethyl, butyl or octyl cyanoacrylate adhesives were determined. Although joints bonded using ethyl cyanoacrylate were strongest, those using MAPS were stronger than those using butyl and octyl cyanoacrylates. The addition of 25 mM solutions of the transition metal ions V5+, Fe3+ and Cr6+, which are all oxidants, increased the bond strength of the MAPS joints. The V5+ gave the strongest bonds and the Fe3+ the second strongest. In subsequent tests with V5+ and Fe3+ solutions, the bond strength increased with V5+ concentration, but it did not increase with Fe3+ concentration. Addition of 250 mM V5+ gave a very strong bond.

Ninan, Lal; Stroshine, R L; Wilker, J.J.; Shi, Riyi

2008-01-01

193

Protein Adhesion and Ion Substitution (on\\/in)to Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic and pathogenic prion protein-scrapie (PrPsc) are important contaminants which may soil and water for decades, unless they are removed by sorption. Two sorption mechanisms will be discussed, namely the organics (Prp and single aminoacid) adsorption on clay and the arsenic substitution in gypsum. The elucidation of these contrasted mechanisms will be shown to request complementary molecular-mechanical simulations with experimental

L. Charlet; A. Fernandez Martinez; Y. Chapron; N. Sahai; G. Cuello; J. Brendle; C. Marichal

2008-01-01

194

Extracellular matrix protein patterns guide human chondrocytes adhesion and alignment characterized by vimentin and matrilin-3.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influences of collagen VI (col-VI) patterns on human chondrocytes behaviors. To this end, col-VI stripes with varying width and interstripe spacing are created on polystyrene (PS) surfaces by microcontact printing (?CP). Human chondrocytes are then seeded on these protein patterns and the cell adhesion and alignment are investigated by staining the vimentin and matrilin-3 secreted by seeded chondrocytes. The results indicate that the cells preferentially attach onto the protein areas, rendering cell patterns and the elongated cell shapes. The pattern dimensions can significantly influence cell adhesion, spreading and orientation. The stripe protein patterns can guide cell adhesion and alignment. The cell morphologies can be controlled by carefully designing the pattern shapes and sizes. Our results suggest that the protein patterns can be used to modify biomaterials' surfaces for selective cell-binding and cell alignment. It could provide some cues for the development of novel implantable biomaterials, such as tissue-engineered scaffolds for cartilage replacement, where specific cell alignment is needed. PMID:23107951

Pan, Chang-Jiang; Ding, Hong-Yan; Dong, Yun-Xiao

2013-02-01

195

Structural basis of the tensile strength of protein complexes mediating cell adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the behaviour of adhesive complexes of cell adhesion molecules undergoing forced detachment. Molecular-forces measurements combined with Steered Molecular Dynamic (SMD) simulations were used to investigate the mechanical response of the CD2 C58 and hemophilic C-cadherin bonds. The CD2-CD58 adhesive complex, important for the adaptive immune response, contains several salt-bridges in the adhesive interface. SMD simulations showed that these inter-protein salt bridges contribute independently to the tensile strength of the complex. Consistent with this, force measurements with the Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) demonstrated that the elimination of single salt bridges weakens the bond. The corresponding loss in adhesion energy of the CD2-CD58 complex correlates with the importance of the salt bridges observed in the simulations. These findings correlate closely with the effect of the elimination of single salt bridges observed in cell aggregation assays and binding measurements. On the other hand, the hemophilic C-cadherin interaction determines specific cell-cell adhesion during development in Xenopus laevis . Single molecule force spectroscopy was used to characterize the multiple bound states between C-cadherin ectodomains. The experiments showed two short-lived bound states associated with the two outermost ectodomains and two long-lived states associated with the full ectodomain. It is likely that the two short-lived states are involved in the specificity of the interaction since previous studies showed that the corresponding states in E-cadherin have different lifetimes. In addition, SMD simulations of the forced dissociation of the strand dieter of C-cadherin suggested a mechanism for the specificity of cadherin interactions.

Bayas, Marco Vinicio

196

Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Regulates Leukocyte Transmigration Rate in the Retina During Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial adhesion molecule that possesses semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity and is involved in leukocyte recruitment. Leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels is a predominant feature of experimentally induced diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, the role of VAP-1 in this process is unknown. Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of Streptozotocin in Long–Evans rats. The specific inhibitor of VAP-1, UV-002, was administered by daily i.p. injections. The expression of VAP-1 mRNA in the retinal extracts of normal and diabetic animals was measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Firm leukocyte adhesion was quantified in retinal flatmounts after intravascular staining with concanavalin A (ConA). Leukocyte transmigration rate was quantified by in vivo acridine orange leukocyte staining (AOLS). In diabetic rats, the rate of leukocyte transmigration into the retinal tissues of live animals was significantly increased, as determined by AOLS. When diabetic animals were treated with daily injections of the VAP-1 inhibitor (0.3mg/kg), leukocyte transmigration rate was significantly reduced (P<0.05). However, firm adhesion of leukocytes in diabetic animals treated with the inhibitor did not differ significantly from vehicle-treated diabetic controls. This work provides evidence for an important role of VAP-1 in the recruitment of leukocyte to the retina in experimental DR. Our results reveal the critical contribution of VAP-1 to leukocyte transmigration, with little impact on firm leukocyte adhesion in the retinas of diabetic animals. VAP-1 inhibition might be beneficial in the treatment of DR.

Noda, Kousuke; Nakao, Shintaro; Zandi, Souska; Engelstadter, Verena; Mashima, Yukihiko; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2009-01-01

197

Polarity proteins and actin regulatory proteins are unlikely partners that regulate cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

In mammalian testis, spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, which is composed of a series of cellular events. These include: (i) spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) renewal via mitosis and differentiation of SSC to spermatogenia, (ii) meiosis, (iii) spermiogenesis, and (iv) spermiation. Throughout these events, developing germ cells remain adhered to the Sertoli cell in the seminiferous epithelium amidst extensive cellular, biochemical, molecular and morphological changes to obtain structural support and nourishment. These events are coordinated via signal transduction at the cell-cell interface through cell junctions, illustrating the significance of cell junctions and adhesion in spermatogenesis. Additionally, developing germ cells migrate progressively across the seminiferous epithelium from the stem cell niche, which is located in the basal compartment near the basement membrane of the tunica propria adjacent to the interstitium. Recent studies have shown that some apparently unrelated proteins, such as polarity proteins and actin regulatory proteins, are in fact working in concert and synergistically to coordinate the continuous cyclic changes of adhesion at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface in the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, such that developing germ cells remain attached to the Sertoli cell in the epithelium while they alter in cell shape and migrate across the epithelium. In this review, we highlight the physiological significance of endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events under the influence of polarity and actin regulatory proteins in conferring cyclic events of cell adhesion and de-adhesion. Furthermore, these recent findings have unraveled some unexpected molecules to be targeted for male contraceptive development, which are also targets of toxicant-induced male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:21938683

Cheng, C Y; Wong, E W P; Lie, P P Y; Mruk, D D; Xiao, X; Li, M W M; Lui, W-Y; Lee, W M

2011-11-01

198

Polarity proteins and actin regulatory proteins are unlikely partners that regulate cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary In mammalian testis, spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, which is composed of a series of cellular events. These include: (i) spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) renewal via mitosis and differentiation of SSC to spermatogenia, (ii) meiosis, (iii) spermiogenesis, and (iv) spermiation. Throughout these events, developing germ cells remain adhered to the Sertoli cell in the seminiferous epithelium amidst extensive cellular, biochemical, molecular and morphological changes to obtain structural support and nourishment. These events are coordinated via signal transduction at the cell-cell interface through cell junctions, illustrating the significance of cell junctions and adhesion in spermatogenesis. Additionally, developing germ cells migrate progressively across the seminiferous epithelium from the stem cell niche, which is located in the basal compartment near the basement membrane of the tunica propria adjacent to the interstitium. Recent studies have shown that some apparently unrelated proteins, such as polarity proteins and actin regulatory proteins, are in fact working in concert and synergistically to coordinate the continuous cyclic changes of adhesion at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface in the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, such that developing germ cells remain attached to the Sertoli cell in the epithelium while they alter in cell shape and migrate across the epithelium. In this review, we highlight the physiological significance of endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events under the influence of polarity and actin regulatory proteins in conferring cyclic events of cell adhesion and de-adhesion. Furthermore, these recent findings have unraveled some unexpected molecules to be targeted for male contraceptive development, which are also targets of toxicant-induced male reproductive dysfunction.

Cheng, C. Yan; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Lie, Pearl P.Y.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Michelle W.M.; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M.

2014-01-01

199

Focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase phosphorylated in response to cell attachment to fibronectin.  

PubMed Central

A homology-based cDNA cloning approach was used to identify a widely expressed protein-tyrosine kinase designated as "focal adhesion kinase" (FadK). The entire mouse FadK amino acid sequence was deduced from cDNA clones, revealing a large (119-kDa) non-membrane-spanning protein-tyrosine kinase that lacks Src-homology SH2 and SH3 domains. Immunostaining of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts revealed that FadK is concentrated in focal adhesions. FadK is phosphorylated on tyrosine in growing cultures of BALB/c 3T3 cells but contains little or no phosphotyrosine in cells detached by trypsinization. The tyrosine-phosphorylated state is regained within minutes when the cells are replated onto fibronectin. Activation of FadK may be an important early step in intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered in response to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Images

Hanks, S K; Calalb, M B; Harper, M C; Patel, S K

1992-01-01

200

Endocytosis Regulates Cell Soma Translocation and the Distribution of Adhesion Proteins in Migrating Neurons  

PubMed Central

Newborn neurons migrate from their birthplace to their final location to form a properly functioning nervous system. During these movements, young neurons must attach and subsequently detach from their substrate to facilitate migration, but little is known about the mechanisms cells use to release their attachments. We show that the machinery for clathrin-mediated endocytosis is positioned to regulate the distribution of adhesion proteins in a subcellular region just proximal to the neuronal cell body. Inhibiting clathrin or dynamin function impedes the movement of migrating neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting dynamin function in vitro shifts the distribution of adhesion proteins to the rear of the cell. These results suggest that endocytosis may play a critical role in regulating substrate detachment to enable cell body translocation in migrating neurons.

Shieh, Jennifer C.; Schaar, Bruce T.; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Brodsky, Frances M.; McConnell, Susan K.

2011-01-01

201

The adapter proteins ADAP and Nck cooperate in T cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Nck adapter proteins link receptor and receptor-associated tyrosine kinases with proteins implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Nck is involved in a multitude of receptor-initiated signaling pathways and its physiological role thus covers aspects of tissue development and homeostasis, malignant transformation/invasiveness of tumour cells and also immune cell function. In T cells, changes of cell polarity and morphology associated with cellular activation and effector function crucially rely on the T cell receptor-mediated recruitment and activation of different actin-regulatory proteins to orchestrate and drive cytoskeletal reorganization at the immunological synapse. In a former approach to determine the interactome of Nck in human T cells, we identified the adapter protein ADAP as a Nck-interacting protein. This adhesion and degranulation-promoting adapter protein had already been implicated in the inside-out activation of integrins. Employing co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate that both Nck family members Nck1 and Nck2 coprecipitate with ADAP. Specifically, Nck interacts via its Src homology 2 domain with phosphorylated tyrosine Y595DDV and Y651DDV sites of ADAP. Moreover, we show that endogenous ADAP is phosphorylated in primary human T cell blasts and thus associates with Nck. At the functional level, ADAP and Nck adapter proteins cooperatively facilitate T cell adhesion to the LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1. Our data indicate that the ADAP/Nck complex might provide a means to link integrin activation with the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24769494

Lettau, Marcus; Kliche, Stefanie; Kabelitz, Dieter; Janssen, Ottmar

2014-07-01

202

Platelet adhesion to collagen under flow causes dissociation of a phosphoprotein complex of heat-shock proteins and protein phosphatase 1.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events in human blood platelets were investigated during their adhesion to collagen under flow conditions. Using 32P-labeled platelets and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we found that adhesion to collagen mediated primarily by the alpha2beta1 integrin resulted in a strong dephosphorylation of several protein bands. Neither adhesion to polylysine nor thrombin-induced aggregation caused similar protein dephosphorylation. In addition, treatment with okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), caused significant inhibition of adhesion, suggesting that adhesion is regulated by OA-sensitive phosphatases. Recent studies indicate that phosphatases may be associated with the heat-shock proteins. Immunoprecipitations with antibodies against either the heat-shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) or heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) showed the presence of a phosphoprotein complex in 32P-labeled, resting human platelets. Antibody probing of this complex detected hsc70, hsp90, two isoforms of the catalytic subunit of PP1, PP1C alpha and PP1C delta, as well as the M regulatory subunit of PP1 (PP1M). OA, at concentrations that markedly blocked platelet adhesion to collagen, caused hyperphosphorylation of the hsc70 complex. In platelets adhering to collagen, hsc70 was completely dephosphorylated and hsp90, PP1 alpha, and PP1M were dissociated from the complex, suggesting involvement of heat-shock proteins and protein phosphatases in platelet adhesion. PMID:9269769

Polanowska-Grabowska, R; Simon, C G; Falchetto, R; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Gear, A R

1997-08-15

203

Adhesive Surface Proteins of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Bind to Polystyrene, Fibronectin, and Type I and IV Collagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes erysipelas in animals and erysipeloid in humans. We found two adhesive surface proteins of E. rhusiopathiae and determined the nucleotide sequences of the genes, which were colocalized and designated rspA and rspB. The two genes were present in all of the serovars of E. rhusiopathiae strains examined. The deduced RspA and RspB

Yoshihiro Shimoji; Yohsuke Ogawa; Makoto Osaki; Hidenori Kabeya; Soichi Maruyama; Takeshi Mikami; Tsutomu Sekizaki

2003-01-01

204

Focal adhesion proteins Zyxin and Vinculin are co-distributed at tubulobulbar complexes.  

PubMed

Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) are actin-related double-membrane invaginations formed at intercellular junctions in the seminiferous epithelium of mammalian testis. They occur at basal junction complexes between neighboring Sertoli cells and at apical junctions between Sertoli cells and spermatids. They are proposed to internalize intercellular junctions during the translocation of spermatocytes from basal to adluminal compartments of the seminiferous epithelium, and during sperm release from Sertoli cells. Although TBCs are specific to the seminiferous epithelium, they morphologically resemble podosomes in osteoclasts. Previously, we have reported that a key group of proteins consisting of N-WASp, Arp2/3, cortactin and dynamin that occur at podosomes also is present at TBCs. Here we explore the prediction that zyxin, a focal adhesion protein known to be present at podosomes, also is present at apical TBCs. A rabbit polyclonal anti-zyxin antibody (B71) was used to label fixed fragments and frozen sections of testis. In both fragments and sections, B71 labeled tubular regions of TBCs at apical sites of attachment between Sertoli cells and spermatids, in addition to being localized at actin related intercellular adhesion junctions termed ectoplasmic specializations. Although the function of zyxin at TBCs has yet to be determined, the protein is known to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of integrins at focal adhesions, and integrins are known to be present in TBCs. PMID:22553491

Young, J'nelle S; Vogl, A Wayne

2012-01-01

205

Focal adhesion proteins Zyxin and Vinculin are co-distributed at tubulobulbar complexes  

PubMed Central

Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) are actin-related double-membrane invaginations formed at intercellular junctions in the seminiferous epithelium of mammalian testis. They occur at basal junction complexes between neighboring Sertoli cells and at apical junctions between Sertoli cells and spermatids. They are proposed to internalize intercellular junctions during the translocation of spermatocytes from basal to adluminal compartments of the seminiferous epithelium, and during sperm release from Sertoli cells. Although TBCs are specific to the seminiferous epithelium, they morphologically resemble podosomes in osteoclasts. Previously, we have reported that a key group of proteins consisting of N-WASp, Arp2/3, cortactin and dynamin that occur at podosomes also is present at TBCs. Here we explore the prediction that zyxin, a focal adhesion protein known to be present at podosomes, also is present at apical TBCs. A rabbit polyclonal anti-zyxin antibody (B71) was used to label fixed fragments and frozen sections of testis. In both fragments and sections, B71 labeled tubular regions of TBCs at apical sites of attachment between Sertoli cells and spermatids, in addition to being localized at actin related intercellular adhesion junctions termed ectoplasmic specializations. Although the function of zyxin at TBCs has yet to be determined, the protein is known to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of integrins at focal adhesions, and integrins are known to be present in TBCs.

Young, J'Nelle S.; Vogl, A. Wayne

2012-01-01

206

Metavinculin: New insights into functional properties of a muscle adhesion protein.  

PubMed

Metavinculin is a muscle-specific splice variant of the ubiquitously expressed cytoskeletal adaptor protein vinculin. Both proteins are thought to be co-expressed in all muscle types where they co-localize to microfilament-associated adhesion sites. It has been shown that a metavinculin-specific insertion of 68 amino acids alters the biochemical properties of the five-helix bundle in the tail domain. Here, we demonstrate that the metavinculin-specific helix H1' plays an important role for protein stability of the tail domain, since a point mutation in this helix, R975W, which is associated with the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy in man, further decreases thermal stability of the metavinculin tail domain. In striated muscle progenitor cells (myoblasts), both, metavinculin and the R975W mutant show significantly reduced, albeit distinctive residency and exchange rates in adhesion sites as compared to vinculin. In contrast to previous studies, we show that metavinculin is localized in a muscle fiber type-dependent fashion to the costameres of striated muscle, reflecting the individual metabolic and physiological status of a given muscle fiber. Metavinculin expression is highest in fast, glycolytic muscle fibers and virtually absent in M. diaphragmaticus, a skeletal muscle entirely lacking fast, glycolytic fibers. In summary, our data suggest that metavinculin enrichment in attachment sites of muscle cells leads to higher mechanical stability of adhesion complexes allowing for greater shear force resistance. PMID:23159629

Thoss, Florian; Dietrich, Franziska; Punkt, Karla; Illenberger, Susanne; Rottner, Klemens; Himmel, Mirko; Ziegler, Wolfgang H

2013-01-01

207

Human proteolipid protein (PLP) mediates winding and adhesion of phospholipid membranes but prevents their fusion.  

PubMed

Proteolipid protein (PLP or lipophilin) is a highly conserved, strongly hydrophobic, integral membrane protein, and is the major protein component of central nervous system myelin. Although PLP has been implicated in many functions, its in vivo role is still uncertain. Here, we report the investigation of PLP's putative adhesive function using purified PLP and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles made of either 100% phosphatidylcholine (PC), or a mixture of 92% PC and 8% phosphatidylserine (PS), by weight. PLP-induced changes in the phospholipid bilayer surfaces were directly examined by transmission electron microscopy. We found that upon the introduction of PLP, larger lipid vesicles became smaller and unilamellar. At the PLP:lipid molar ratio of 1:20, vesicle membranes rolled onto themselves forming 'croissant'-like structures that subsequently adhered to each other. The phenomena of PLP-induced bilayer rolling and adhesion were dependent on the concentration of PLP and the period of incubation, but were independent of the presence of calcium and types of phospholipids (PC or PC:PS). Furthermore, the presence of PLP in the lipid bilayers prevented the fusion of membranes. These findings show that PLP can induce membrane 'winding' while preventing the fusion of adjacent lipid bilayers. Hence, our data provide direct evidence for PLP's suspected function of membrane adhesion, and also suggest that PLP could potentially play a role in the formation of the myelin sheath. PMID:9858696

Palaniyar, N; Semotok, J L; Wood, D D; Moscarello, M A; Harauz, G

1998-12-01

208

Adhesive protein cDNA sequence of the mussel Mytilus coruscus and its evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

cDNA encoding the adhesive protein of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mcfp1) was isolated. The coding region encoded 848 amino acids (a.a.) comprising the 20-a.a. signal peptide, the 21-a.a. nonrepetitive linker, and the 805-a.a. repetitive domain. Although the first 204 nucleotides and the 3'-untranslated region of Mcfp1 cDNA were homologous to corresponding parts of M. galloprovincialis adhesive protein (Mgfp1) cDNA, the other parts diverged. The representative repeat motif of the repetitive domain, YKPK(I/P)(S/T)YPP(T/S), was similar but slightly different from the repeat motif of Mgfp1. The codon usage patterns for the same amino acids were different in different positions of the decapeptide motif. Almost identical nucleotide sequences encoding the two to 13 repeats appeared several times in the repetitive region, which suggests that the adhesive protein genes of mussels have evolved through the duplication of these repeat units. PMID:8798340

Inoue, K; Takeuchi, Y; Takeyama, S; Yamaha, E; Yamazaki, F; Odo, S; Harayama, S

1996-10-01

209

Cell behavior on extracellular matrix mimic materials based on mussel adhesive protein fused with functional peptides.  

PubMed

Adhesion of cells to surfaces is a basic and important requirement in cell culture and tissue engineering. Here, we designed artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics for efficient cellular attachment, based on mussel adhesive protein (MAP) fusion with biofunctional peptides originating from ECM materials, including fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. Cellular behaviors, including attachment, proliferation, spreading, viability, and differentiation, were investigated with the artificial ECM material-coated surfaces, using three mammalian cell lines (pre-osteoblast, chondrocyte, and pre-adipocyte). All cell lines examined displayed superior attachment, proliferation, spreading, and survival properties on the MAP-based ECM mimics, compared to other commercially available cell adhesion materials, such as poly-L-lysine and the naturally extracted MAP mixture. Additionally, the degree of differentiation of pre-osteoblast cells on MAP-based ECM mimics was increased. These results collectively demonstrate that the artificial ECM mimics developed in the present work are effective cell adhesion materials. Moreover, we expect that the MAP peptide fusion approach can be extended to other functional tissue-specific motifs. PMID:20832110

Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Kim, Bum Jin; Song, Young Hoon; Cha, Hyung Joon

2010-12-01

210

The glue protein of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa): a natural adhesive with some features of collagen.  

PubMed

The Atlantic ribbed mussel Geukensia (Modiolus) demissa attaches itself to the roots of cord grass and other hard objects in tidal salt marshes by spinning adhesive byssal threads. The precursor of a protein apparently present in the adhesive plaques of the threads was isolated in quantity from the foot of the mussel. The protein has an apparent molecular weight of 130,000, a pI of 8.1, and contains a high proportion of Gly, Glu/Gln, Lys and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (DOPA). Sequence of tryptic peptides suggests a pattern of repeated motifs, such as: Gly--DOPA--Lys, and X--Gly--DOPA--Y--Z--Gly--DOPA/Tyr--Lys, where X is Thr or Ala in octapeptides and Gln--Thr in nonapeptides. Y is variable, but more often than not hydrophobic; and Z is frequently Pro or 4-trans-hydroxyproline (Hyp). The presence of Pro--Gly and Hyp--Gly sequences of delta-hydroxylysine in the protein is reminiscent of typical collagens; however, the protein is not labile to clostridial collagenase, nor does collagen cross-react with antibodies raised against the mussel protein. Unlike typical collagens, Gly probably occurs only at every 4th or 5th residue in this unusual mussel protein. PMID:2481690

Waite, J H; Hansen, D C; Little, K T

1989-01-01

211

Chick neural retina adhesion and survival molecule is a retinol-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

A 20,000-D protein called purpurin has recently been isolated from the growth-conditioned medium of cultured embryonic chick neural retina cells. Purpurin is a constituent of adherons and promotes cell-adheron adhesion by interacting with a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It also prolongs the survival of cultured neural retina cells. This paper shows that purpurin is a secretory protein that has sequence homology with a human protein synthesized in the liver that transports retinol in the blood, the serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). Purpurin binds (/sup 3/H)retinol, and both purpurin and chick serum RBP stimulate the adhesion of neural retina cells, although the serum protein is less active than purpurin. Purpurin and the serum RBP are, however, different molecules, for the serum protein is approx.3.000 D larger than purpurin and has different silver-staining characteristics. Finally, purpurin supports the survival of dissociated ciliary ganglion cells, indicating that RBPs can act as ciliary neurotrophic factors.

Schubert, D.; LaCorbiere, M.; Esch, F.

1986-01-01

212

Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces.

Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rouge, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Herve

2006-01-01

213

Protein Adhesion and Ion Substitution (on/in)to Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic and pathogenic prion protein-scrapie (PrPsc) are important contaminants which may soil and water for decades, unless they are removed by sorption. Two sorption mechanisms will be discussed, namely the organics (Prp and single aminoacid) adsorption on clay and the arsenic substitution in gypsum. The elucidation of these contrasted mechanisms will be shown to request complementary molecular-mechanical simulations with experimental spectroscopic investigations. As first example, structural studies performed at ILL/ESRF on As-doped gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) using neutron and X-ray diffraction data and EXAFS were performed to determine how As fits into the bulk of gypsum structure. The combined Rietveld analysis of neutron and X-ray diffraction data shows an expansion of the unit cell volume proportional to the As concentration within the samples. to-sulfate substitution mechanisms were used as simulation starting hypotheses. DFT-based simulations (Mulliken analysis) were used to interpret charge distribution and to show that among the possible mechanisms, a sulphate substitution by either protonated, or fully deprotonated, arsenate ion, only the protonated arsenate substitution could best fit the EXAFS data. In the second example, we used Molecular Dynamics to understand the mechanism of strong binding of the pathogenic PrP peptide with clay mineral surfaces. We modeled only the infectious moiety, PrP92-138, of the whole PrPsc structure, with explicitly solvating water molecules in contact with the cleavage plane of pyrophillite, as a model for montmorillonite without any cationic substitution. Partial residual negative charges on the cleavage plane were balanced with K+ ions. The peptide anchored to the clay surface via up to 10 hydrogen bonds from lysine and histidine residues to oxygen atoms of the siloxane cavities, and a total adsorption energy of 3465 KJ.mol-1 was obtained. Our results were compared to the one obtained by chemical and thermal analysis, 23Na, 1H, 13C solid state NMR and MD computation on sorption of single lysine amino acid on model synthetic Na-montmorillonite. Our data provide further insight about interactions between lysine and montmorillonite which depend strongly on lysine concentration.

Charlet, L.; Fernandez Martinez, A.; Chapron, Y.; Sahai, N.; Cuello, G.; Brendle, J.; Marichal, C.

2008-12-01

214

Biphasic influence of Miz1 on neural crest development by regulating cell survival and apical adhesion complex formation in the developing neural tube  

PubMed Central

Myc interacting zinc finger protein-1 (Miz1) is a transcription factor known to regulate cell cycle– and cell adhesion–related genes in cancer. Here we show that Miz1 also plays a critical role in neural crest development. In the chick, Miz1 is expressed throughout the neural plate and closing neural tube. Its morpholino-mediated knockdown affects neural crest precursor survival, leading to reduction of neural plate border and neural crest specifier genes Msx-1, Pax7, FoxD3, and Sox10. Of interest, Miz1 loss also causes marked reduction of adhesion molecules (N-cadherin, cadherin6B, and ?1-catenin) with a concomitant increase of E-cadherin in the neural folds, likely leading to delayed and decreased neural crest emigration. Conversely, Miz1 overexpression results in up-regulation of cadherin6B and FoxD3 expression in the neural folds/neural tube, leading to premature neural crest emigration and increased number of migratory crest cells. Although Miz1 loss effects cell survival and proliferation throughout the neural plate, the neural progenitor marker Sox2 was unaffected, suggesting a neural crest–selective effect. The results suggest that Miz1 is important not only for survival of neural crest precursors, but also for maintenance of integrity of the neural folds and tube, via correct formation of the apical adhesion complex therein.

Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E.

2014-01-01

215

Protein O-mannosylation is crucial for E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion  

PubMed Central

In recent years protein O-mannosylation has become a focus of attention as a pathomechanism underlying severe congenital muscular dystrophies associated with neuronal migration defects. A key feature of these disorders is the lack of O-mannosyl glycans on ?-dystroglycan, resulting in abnormal basement membrane formation. Additional functions of O-mannosylation are still largely unknown. Here, we identify the essential cell–cell adhesion glycoprotein epithelial (E)-cadherin as an O-mannosylated protein and establish a functional link between O-mannosyl glycans and cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion. By genetically and pharmacologically blocking protein O-mannosyltransferases, we found that this posttranslational modification is essential for preimplantation development of the mouse embryo. O-mannosylation–deficient embryos failed to proceed from the morula to the blastocyst stage because of defects in the molecular architecture of cell–cell contact sites, including the adherens and tight junctions. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that O-mannosyl glycans are present on E-cadherin, the major cell-adhesion molecule of blastomeres, and present evidence that this modification is generally conserved in cadherins. Further, the use of newly raised antibodies specific for an O-mannosyl–conjugated epitope revealed that these glycans are present on early mouse embryos. Finally, our cell-aggregation assays demonstrated that O-mannosyl glycans are crucial for cadherin-based cell adhesion. Our results redefine the significance of O-mannosylation in humans and other mammals, showing the immense impact of cadherins on normal as well as pathogenic cell behavior.

Lommel, Mark; Winterhalter, Patrick R.; Willer, Tobias; Dahlhoff, Maik; Schneider, Marlon R.; Bartels, Markus F.; Renner-Muller, Ingrid; Ruppert, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Strahl, Sabine

2013-01-01

216

Processing of mussel-adhesive protein analog copolymer thin films by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the successful thin film growth of a mussel-adhesive protein analog, DOPA-modified PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer PF127, using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The MAPLE-deposited thin films were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact-angle measurements. We have found that the main functional groups of the mussel-adhesive protein analog are present in the transferred film. These adhesive materials have several potential electronic, medical, and marine applications.

Patz, T.; Cristescu, R.; Narayan, R.; Menegazzo, N.; Mizaikoff, B.; Messersmith, P. B.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chrisey, D. B.

2005-07-01

217

Fabrication of a Dual Substrate Display to Test Roles of Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vesicle Targeting to Plasma Membrane Domains  

PubMed Central

While much is known of the molecular machinery involved in protein sorting during exocytosis, less is known about the spatial regulation of exocytosis at the plasma membrane (PM). This study outlines a novel method, Dual Substrate Display, used to formally test the hypothesis that E-cadherin-mediated adhesion directs basolateral vesicle exocytosis to specific sites at the PM. We show that vesicles containing the basolateral marker protein VSV-G preferentially target to sites of adhesion to E-cadherin rather than collagen VI or a control peptide. These results support the hypothesis that E-cadherin adhesion initiates signaling at the PM resulting in targeted sites for exocytosis.

Hunt, Stephen J.; Nelson, W. James

2009-01-01

218

Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces: An AFM and QCM-D study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, mineral surfaces, or other industrial surfaces is strongly controlled by the way bacteria interact with protein layers or organic matter and other biomolecules that coat the materials. Despite this knowledge, many studies of bacterial adhesion are performed under clean conditions, instead of in the presence of proteins or organic molecules. We chose fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a model protein, and prepared FBS films on quartz crystals. The thickness of the FBS layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging under liquid and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Next, we characterized how the model biomaterial surface would interact with the nocosomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. An AFM probe was coated with S. epidermidis cells and used to probe a gold slide that had been coated with FBS or another protein, fibronectin (FN). These experiments show that AFM and QCM-D can be used in complementary ways to study the complex interactions between bacteria, proteins, and surfaces.

Strauss, Joshua; Liu, Yatao; Camesano, Terri A.

2009-09-01

219

Recombinant Probiotic Expressing Listeria Adhesion Protein Attenuates Listeria monocytogenes Virulence In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular foodborne pathogen, infects immunocompromised hosts. The primary route of transmission is through contaminated food. In the gastrointestinal tract, it traverses the epithelial barrier through intracellular or paracellular routes. Strategies to prevent L. monocytogenes entry can potentially minimize infection in high-risk populations. Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) aids L. monocytogenes in crossing epithelial barriers via the paracellular route. The use of recombinant probiotic bacteria expressing LAP would aid targeted clearance of Listeria from the gut and protect high-risk populations from infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to investigate the ability of probiotic bacteria or LAP-expressing recombinant probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LbpLAP) to prevent L. monocytogenes adhesion, invasion, and transwell-based transepithelial translocation in a Caco-2 cell culture model. Several wild type probiotic bacteria showed strong adhesion to Caco-2 cells but none effectively prevented L. monocytogenes infection. Pre-exposure to LbpLAP for 1, 4, 15, or 24 h significantly (P<0.05) reduced adhesion, invasion, and transepithelial translocation of L. monocytogenes in Caco-2 cells, whereas pre-exposure to parental Lb. paracasei had no significant effect. Similarly, LbpLAP pre-exposure reduced L. monocytogenes translocation by as much as 46% after 24 h. LbpLAP also prevented L. monocytogenes-mediated cell damage and compromise of tight junction integrity. Furthermore, LbpLAP cells reduced L. monocytogenes-mediated cell cytotoxicity by 99.8% after 1 h and 79% after 24 h. Conclusions/Significance Wild type probiotic bacteria were unable to prevent L. monocytogenes infection in vitro. In contrast, LbpLAP blocked adhesion, invasion, and translocation of L. monocytogenes by interacting with host cell receptor Hsp60, thereby protecting cells from infection. These data show promise for the use of recombinant probiotics in preventing L. monocytogenes infection in high-risk populations.

Koo, Ok Kyung; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K.

2012-01-01

220

Skeletal muscle LIM protein 1 regulates integrin-mediated myoblast adhesion, spreading, and migration.  

PubMed

The skeletal muscle LIM protein 1 (SLIM1) is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and its expression is downregulated significantly in dilated human cardiomyopathy. However, the function of SLIM1 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular localization of SLIM1. Endogenous and recombinant SLIM1 localized to the nucleus, stress fibers, and focal adhesions in skeletal myoblasts plated on fibronectin, collagen, or laminin. However, after inhibition of integrin signaling either by plating on poly-l-lysine or by soluble RGD peptide, SLIM1 localized diffusely in the cytosol, with decreased nuclear expression. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D did not inhibit nuclear localization of SLIM1 in integrin-activated cells. Green fluorescent protein-tagged SLIM1 shuttled in the nucleus of untransfected NIH 3T3 cells, in a heterokaryon fusion assay. Overexpression of SLIM1 in Sol8 myoblasts inhibited cell adhesion and promoted cell spreading and migration. These studies show SLIM1 localizes in an integrin-dependent manner to the nucleus and focal adhesions where it functions downstream of integrin activation to promote cell spreading and migration. PMID:12397030

Robinson, Paul A; Brown, Susan; McGrath, Meagan J; Coghill, Imogen D; Gurung, Rajendra; Mitchell, Christina A

2003-03-01

221

Reduction of Adhesion between Steel and Grilled Fish Protein with Ultra-Hydrophobic DLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an issue of the fish adhering to the metal grids of grill strongly after grilling fish. Recently, the temperature in a grill equipment is over 500 °C, Fluorine resin coating which has low adhesion property can not endurant at 500 °C. In order to overcome this issue, we proposed a new grill not to adhere a fish with Ultra-Hydrophobic Diamond-like Carbon coating named as UH-DLC coating. UH-DLC coating has high hydrophobicity. We expected this coating to decrease wettability of water including fish protein and contact area, because fish protein includes about 90% water. Contact angle of water on UH-DLC was over 120° at room temperature. After heating at 500 °C for 54 minutes, UH-DLC kept ultra-hydrophobic property. On the other hand, Fluorine resin coating desappeared hydrophobic properties after heating at 500 °C for 54 minutes. It was conducted adhesion test for UH-DLC coating, Fluorine resin coating and no coating grilling rods after the grilling of real fish in a grill equipment by gas. The adhesion force between UH-DLC coating grill rods and real fish was as half as that of no coating grill rods and as much as that of Fluorine resin grill rods. So, we believe that Ultra Hydrophobic Diamond-like Carbon coating has a possibility for the usage as new grilling grids at high temperature.

Honda, Naoko; Kajiya, Makoto; Jang, Young-Jun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Tokoroyama, Takayuki

222

Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration  

PubMed Central

PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML?/?) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML?/? MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML?/? MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-?1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation.

Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

2013-01-01

223

Mitogen-activated protein kinase modulates ethanol inhibition of cell adhesion mediated by the L1 neural cell adhesion molecule  

PubMed Central

There is a genetic contribution to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but the identification of candidate genes has been elusive. Ethanol may cause FASD in part by decreasing the adhesion of the developmentally critical L1 cell adhesion molecule through interactions with an alcohol binding pocket on the extracellular domain. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of ERK2 did not alter L1 adhesion, but markedly decreased ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion in NIH/3T3 cells and NG108-15 cells. Likewise, leucine replacement of S1248, an ERK2 substrate on the L1 cytoplasmic domain, did not decrease L1 adhesion, but abolished ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion. Stable transfection of NIH/3T3 cells with human L1 resulted in clonal cell lines in which L1 adhesion was consistently sensitive or insensitive to ethanol for more than a decade. ERK2 activity and S1248 phosphorylation were greater in ethanol-sensitive NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines than in their ethanol-insensitive counterparts. Ethanol-insensitive cells became ethanol sensitive after increasing ERK2 activity by transfection with a constitutively active MAP kinase kinase 1. Finally, embryos from two substrains of C57BL mice that differ in susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis showed corresponding differences in MAPK activity. Our data suggest that ERK2 phosphorylation of S1248 modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion by inside-out signaling and that differential regulation of ERK2 signaling might contribute to genetic susceptibility to FASD. Moreover, identification of a specific locus that regulates ethanol sensitivity, but not L1 function, might facilitate the rational design of drugs that block ethanol neurotoxicity.

Dou, Xiaowei; Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Menkari, Carrie E.; Parnell, Scott E.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Charness, Michael E.

2013-01-01

224

Characterization of the adhesive properties of the type IIb subfamily receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases.  

PubMed

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) have cell adhesion molecule-like extracellular domains coupled to cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains. PTPmu is the prototypical member of the type IIb subfamily of RPTPs, which includes PTPrho, PTPkappa, and PCP-2. The authors performed the first comprehensive analysis of the subfamily in one system, examining adhesion and antibody recognition. The authors evaluated if antibodies that they developed to detect PTPmu also recognized other subfamily members. Notably, each antibody recognizes distinct subsets of type IIb RPTPs. PTPmu, PTPrho, and PTPkappa have all been shown to mediate cell-cell aggregation, and prior work with PCP-2 indicated that it can mediate bead aggregation in vitro. This study reveals that PCP-2 is unique among the type IIb RPTPs in that it does not mediate cell-cell aggregation via homophilic binding. The authors conclude from these experiments that PCP-2 is likely to have a distinct biological function other than cell-cell aggregation. PMID:20521994

Becka, Scott; Zhang, Peng; Craig, Sonya E L; Lodowski, David T; Wang, Zhenghe; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M

2010-04-01

225

Mechanical Activation of a Multimeric Adhesive Protein Through Domain Conformational Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical force-induced activation of the adhesive protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), which experiences high hydrodynamic forces, is essential in initiating platelet adhesion. The importance of the mechanical force-induced functional change is manifested in the multimeric VWF’s crucial role in blood coagulation, when high fluid shear stress activates plasma VWF (PVWF) multimers to bind platelets. Here, we showed that a pathological level of high shear stress exposure of PVWF multimers results in domain conformational changes, and the subsequent shifts in the unfolding force allow us to use force as a marker to track the dynamic states of the multimeric VWF. We found that shear-activated PVWF multimers are more resistant to mechanical unfolding than nonsheared PVWF multimers, as indicated in the higher peak unfolding force. These results provide insight into the mechanism of shear-induced activation of PVWF multimers.

Wijeratne, Sithara S.; Botello, Eric; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Zhou, Zhou; Bergeron, Angela L.; Frey, Eric W.; Patel, Jay M.; Nolasco, Leticia; Turner, Nancy A.; Moake, Joel L.; Dong, Jing-fei; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

2013-03-01

226

Adhesion of Fusobacterium necrophorum to bovine endothelial cells is mediated by outer membrane proteins.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is frequently associated with suppurative and necrotic infections of animals and humans. The organism is a major bovine pathogen, and in cattle, the common fusobacterial infections are hepatic abscesses, foot rot, and necrotic laryngitis. The species comprises two subspecies: F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis, and outer membrane proteins (OMP) play an important role in adhesion and establishment of certain Gram-negative bacterial infections. The means by which F. necrophorum attaches to epithelial or endothelial cells has not been determined. We evaluated whether OMP of F. necrophorum, isolated from a liver abscess, mediated adhesion to bovine endothelial cells (adrenal gland capillary endothelial cell line). The extent of binding of subsp. necrophorum to the endothelial cells was higher than that of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Trypsin treatment of bacterial cells decreased their binding to endothelial cells indicating the protein nature of adhesins. Preincubation of endothelial cells with OMP extracted from F. necrophorum decreased the binding of bacterial cells. In addition, binding of each subspecies to endothelial cells was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies raised against respective OMP and the antibody-mediated inhibition was subspecies specific. The western blot analysis of OMP bound to endothelial cells with anti-OMP antibodies showed four OMP of 17, 24, 40 and 74 kDa. We conclude that OMP of F. necrophorum play a role in adhesion of bacterial cells to the endothelial cells. PMID:23153522

Kumar, Amit; Gart, Elena; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

2013-03-23

227

Highly purified mussel adhesive protein to secure biosafety for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

Background Unique adhesive and biocompatibility properties of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) are known for their great potential in many tissue engineering and biomedical applications. Previously, it was successfully demonstrated that redesigned hybrid type MAP, fp-151, mass-produced in Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, could be utilized as a promising adhesive biomaterial. However, purification of recombinant fp-151 has been unsatisfactory due to its adhesive nature and polarity which make separation of contaminants (especially, lipopolysaccharide, a toxic Gram-negative cell membrane component) very difficult. Results In the present work, we devised a high resolution purification approach to secure safety standards of recombinant fp-151 for the successful use in in vivo applications. Undesirable impurities were remarkably eliminated as going through sequential steps including treatment with multivalent ion and chelating agent for cell membrane washing, mechanical cell disruption, non-ionic surfactant treatment for isolated inclusion body washing, acid extraction of washed inclusion body, and ion exchange chromatography purification of acid extracted sample. Through various analyses, such as high performance liquid chromatographic purity assay, limulus amoebocyte lysate endotoxin assay, and in vitro mouse macrophage cell tests on inflammation, viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis, we confirmed the biological safety of bacterial-derived purified recombinant fp-151. Conclusions Through this purification design, recombinant fp-151 achieved 99.90% protein purity and 99.91% endotoxin reduction that nearly no inflammation response was observed in in vitro experiments. Thus, the highly purified recombinant MAP would be successfully used as a safety-secured in vivo bioadhesive for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

2014-01-01

228

Characterizing the modification of surface proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) to interrupt platelet adhesion  

PubMed Central

Surface protein modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can inhibit acute thrombosis on damaged vascular and biomaterial surfaces by blocking surface protein–platelet interactions. However, the feasibility of employing protein reactive PEGs to limit intravascular and biomaterial thrombosis in vivo is contingent upon rapid and extensive surface protein modification. To characterize the factors controlling this potential therapeutic approach, the model protein bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces and modified with PEG-carboxymethyl succinimidyl ester (PEG-NHS), PEG-isocyanate (PEG-ISO), or PEG-diisocyanate (PEG-DISO) in aqueous buffer at varying concentrations and contact times. It was found that up to 5 PEGs could be attached per albumin molecule within one min and that adsorbed albumin PEGylation approached maximal levels by 6 min. The lability of reactive PEGs in aqueous buffer reduced total protein modification by 50% when the PEG solution was incubated for 7 min prior to application. For fibrinogen PEGylation (performed in the solution phase), PEG-NHS was more reactive than PEG-ISO or PEG-DISO. The ? peptide of fibrinogen, which contains several key platelet-binding motifs, was highly modified. A marked reduction in platelet adhesion was observed on fibrinogen-adsorbed polyurethane treated with PEG-NHS or PEG-DISO. Relative differences in platelet adhesion on PEG-NHS and PEG-DISO modified surfaces could be attributed to differences in reactivity towards fibrinogen and the size of the polymer backbone. Taken together, these findings provide insight and guidance for applying protein reactive PEGs for the interruption of acute thrombotic deposition.

Xu, Haiyan; Kaar, Joel L.; Russell, Alan J.; Wagner, William R.

2010-01-01

229

Influence of preadsorbed milk proteins on adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica surfaces.  

PubMed Central

The adsorption of beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-casein for 8 h and beta-lactoglobulin and bovine serum albumin for 1 h at silanized silica surfaces of low and high hydrophobicity, followed by incubation in buffer and contact with Listeria monocytogenes, resulted in different numbers of cells adhered per unit of surface area. Adhesion to both surfaces was greatest when beta-lactoglobulin was present and was lowest when bovine serum albumin was present. Preadsorption of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-casein showed an intermediate effect on cell adhesion. Adsorption of beta-lactoglobulin for 1 h resulted in a generally lower number of cells adhered compared with the 8-h adsorption time, while the opposite result was observed with respect to bovine serum albumin. The adhesion data were explainable in terms of the relative rates of arrival to the surface and postadsorptive conformational change among the proteins, in addition to the extent of surface coverage in each case.

al-Makhlafi, H; McGuire, J; Daeschel, M

1994-01-01

230

Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current small diameter (<5 mm) synthetic vascular graft materials exhibit poor long-term patency due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Tissue engineered solutions have yielded functional vascular tissue, but some require an eight-week in vitro culture period prior to implantation—too long for immediate clinical bedside applications. Previous in vitro studies have shown that nanostructured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surfaces elevated endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis when compared to nanosmooth surfaces. Nonetheless, these studies failed to address the importance of lateral and vertical surface feature dimensionality coupled with surface free energy; nor did such studies elicit an optimum specific surface feature size for promoting endothelial cell adhesion. In this study, a series of highly ordered nanometer to submicron structured PLGA surfaces of identical chemistry were created using a technique employing polystyrene nanobeads and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. Results demonstrated increased endothelial cell adhesion on PLGA surfaces with vertical surface features of size less than 18.87 nm but greater than 0 nm due to increased surface energy and subsequently protein (fibronectin and collagen type IV) adsorption. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that the vertical dimension of nanometer surface features, rather than the lateral dimension, is largely responsible for these increases. In this manner, this study provides key design parameters that may promote vascular graft efficacy.

Carpenter, Joseph; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J.

2008-12-01

231

Plakophilin 2 affects cell migration by modulating focal adhesion dynamics and integrin protein expression.  

PubMed

Plakophilin 2 (PKP2), a desmosome component, modulates the activity and localization of the small GTPase RhoA at sites of cell-cell contact. PKP2 regulates cortical actin rearrangement during junction formation, and its loss is accompanied by an increase in actin stress fibers. We hypothesized that PKP2 may regulate focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration. Here we show that PKP2-deficient cells bind efficiently to the extracellular matrix, but upon spreading display total cell areas ? 30% smaller than control cells. Focal adhesions in PKP2-deficient cells are ? 2 × larger and more stable than in control cells, and vinculin displays an increased time for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Furthermore, ?4 and ?1 integrin protein and mRNA expression is elevated in PKP2-silenced cells. Normal focal adhesion phenotypes can be restored in PKP2-null cells by dampening the RhoA pathway or silencing ?1 integrin. However, integrin expression levels are not restored by RhoA signaling inhibition. These data uncover a potential role for PKP2 upstream of ?1 integrin and RhoA in integrating cell-cell and cell-substrate contact signaling in basal keratinocytes necessary for the morphogenesis, homeostasis, and reepithelialization of the stratified epidermis. PMID:23884246

Koetsier, Jennifer L; Amargo, Evangeline V; Todorovi?, Viktor; Green, Kathleen J; Godsel, Lisa M

2014-01-01

232

Differential Effect of Actomyosin Relaxation on the Dynamic Properties of Focal Adhesion Proteins  

PubMed Central

Treatment of cultured cells with inhibitors of actomyosin contractility induces rapid deterioration of stress fibers, and disassembly of the associated focal adhesions (FAs). In this study, we show that treatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, which blocks actomyosin contractility, induces disarray in the FA-associated actin bundles, followed by the differential dissociation of eight FA components from the adhesion sites. Live-cell microscopy indicated that the drug triggers rapid dissociation of VASP and zyxin from FAs (? values of 7-8 min), followed by talin, paxillin and ILK (? ~16 min), and then by FAK, vinculin and kindlin-2 (? = 25-28 min). Examination of the molecular kinetics of the various FA constituents, using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP), in the absence of or following short-term treatment with the drug, revealed major changes in the kon and koff values of the different proteins tested, which are in close agreement with their differential dissociation rates from the adhesion sites. These findings indicate that mechanical, actomyosin-generated forces differentially regulate the molecular kinetics of individual FA-associated molecules, and thereby modulate FA composition and stability.

Lavelin, Irena; Wolfenson, Haguy; Patla, Israel; Henis, Yoav I.; Medalia, Ohad; Volberg, Tova; Livne, Ariel; Kam, Zvi; Geiger, Benjamin

2013-01-01

233

The endocytic protein GRAF1 is directed to cell-matrix adhesion sites and regulates cell spreading  

PubMed Central

The rho GTPase-activating protein GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1) remodels membranes into tubulovesicular clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) mediating lipid-anchored receptor endocytosis. However, the cell biological functions of this highly prevalent endocytic pathway are unclear. In this article, we present biochemical and cell biological evidence that GRAF1 interacted with a network of endocytic and adhesion proteins and was found enriched at podosome-like adhesions and src-induced podosomes. We further demonstrate that these sites comprise microdomains of highly ordered lipid enriched in GRAF1 endocytic cargo. GRAF1 activity was upregulated in spreading cells and uptake via CLICs was concentrated at the leading edge of migrating cells. Depletion of GRAF1, which inhibits CLIC generation, resulted in profound defects in cell spreading and migration. We propose that GRAF1 remodels membrane microdomains at adhesion sites into endocytic carriers, facilitating membrane turnover during cell morphological changes.

Doherty, Gary J.; Ahlund, Monika K.; Howes, Mark T.; Moren, Bjorn; Parton, Robert G.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Lundmark, Richard

2011-01-01

234

The endocytic protein GRAF1 is directed to cell-matrix adhesion sites and regulates cell spreading.  

PubMed

The rho GTPase-activating protein GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1) remodels membranes into tubulovesicular clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) mediating lipid-anchored receptor endocytosis. However, the cell biological functions of this highly prevalent endocytic pathway are unclear. In this article, we present biochemical and cell biological evidence that GRAF1 interacted with a network of endocytic and adhesion proteins and was found enriched at podosome-like adhesions and src-induced podosomes. We further demonstrate that these sites comprise microdomains of highly ordered lipid enriched in GRAF1 endocytic cargo. GRAF1 activity was upregulated in spreading cells and uptake via CLICs was concentrated at the leading edge of migrating cells. Depletion of GRAF1, which inhibits CLIC generation, resulted in profound defects in cell spreading and migration. We propose that GRAF1 remodels membrane microdomains at adhesion sites into endocytic carriers, facilitating membrane turnover during cell morphological changes. PMID:21965292

Doherty, Gary J; Åhlund, Monika K; Howes, Mark T; Morén, Björn; Parton, Robert G; McMahon, Harvey T; Lundmark, Richard

2011-11-01

235

Quantum dots as bio-labels for the localization of a small plant adhesion protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, semiconducting nanoparticles have been successfully applied in live mammalian cell cultures, as alternative biological labels for multicolour imaging, by verifying known physiological processes. Here, we report the application of semiconducting nanoparticles to live plant cells in culture. Utilizing this technique, we have uncovered new knowledge regarding the localization of a plant pollen tube adhesion protein, stigma/stylar cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA). The potential of these nanoparticles is evident when the results were compared with conventional immunolocalization methods using fluorescently labelled antibodies.

Ravindran, Sathyajith; Kim, Sunran; Martin, Rebecca; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

2005-01-01

236

Thermal properties and adhesiveness of soy protein modified with cationic detergent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research studied the effects of cationic detergents on the adhesiveness and thermal properties of soy protein isolate\\u000a (SPI). Three cationic detergents, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (EDAB), and\\u000a benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium chloride, each at concentrations of 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mM, were used to modify SPI. The\\u000a effect of pH at selected EDAB concentrations was also studied. Results

Y. Wang; D. Wang; X. S. Sun

2005-01-01

237

Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion  

PubMed Central

In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

Roberto, Francisco F.

2007-01-01

238

Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion  

SciTech Connect

In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

2007-12-01

239

The species-specific egg receptor for sea urchin sperm adhesion is EBR1,a novel ADAMTS protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-specific adhesion of sperm to the egg during sea urchin fertilization involves the interaction of the sperm adhesive protein,bindin,and a complementary receptor on the egg surface,and serves to restrict the gene pool to individuals of the same species. We used PCR represen- tation difference analysis to clone the species-specific egg receptor for bindin,EBR1,from Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Sf) and S. purpuratus (Sp).

Noriko Kamei; Charles G. Glabe

2003-01-01

240

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 modulates endothelial cell motility through the small G-protein Rho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion mole- cule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoglobulin family vascular adhesion molecule, is involved in endothelial cell mi- gration and angiogenesis (1, 2). We found that endo- thelial cells lacking PECAM-1 exhibit increased single cell motility and extension formation but poor wound healing migration, reminiscent of cells in which Rho activity has been suppressed by overexpressing a GTPase-activating protein

DITA GRATZINGER; SANDRA CANOSA; BRITTA ENGELHARDT; JOSEPH A. MADRI

2003-01-01

241

Effect of interfacial serum proteins on melanoma cell adhesion to biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres coated with hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

We have measured the interaction forces between a murine melanoma cell and a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere coated with/without hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (i.e., an HAp/PLLA or a bare PLLA microsphere) in a serum-free culture medium, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with colloid probe technique, in order to investigate how the HAp-nanoparticle coating as well as interfacial serum proteins influence the cell-microsphere adhesion. The cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was 1.4-fold stronger than that of the bare PLLA microspheres. When the microspheres were pretreated with a culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was increased by a factor of 2.1; in contrast, no change was observed in the cell adhesion force of the bare PLLA microspheres before/after the pretreatment. Indeed, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA was 2.8-fold larger than that of the bare PLLA after the pretreatment. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of interfacial serum proteins on the zeta potentials of these microspheres. On the basis of the obtained results, possible mechanism of cell adhesion to the HAp/PLLA and bare PLLA microspheres in the presence/absence of the interfacial serum proteins is discussed. PMID:23524077

Shinto, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Takuya; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Fujii, Syuji; Maeda, Hayata; Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

2013-08-01

242

Protein-mediated Adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain 737 to Mouse Stomach Squamous Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 737 to mouse stomach squamous epithelium was investigated. Adhesion inhibition tests involving chelators, monosaccharides, periodate and concanavalin A and the use of bacteria grown in the presence of tunicamycin failed to clarify the adhesive mechanism. Washed bacterial cells had reduced adhesive capacity, except in the presence of spent broth culture supernatant fraction

PATRICIA L. CONWAY; STAFFAN KJELLEBERG

1989-01-01

243

Protein-Mediated Adhesion of the Dissimilatory Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to Hydrous Ferric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HFO adhesion molecules. S. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

Caccavo, Frank

1999-01-01

244

Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide  

SciTech Connect

The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

Caccavo, F. Jr.

1999-11-01

245

Signalling 'SELF' to phagocytes with adhesion proteins that turn off default engulfment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Marker of self' proteins are being discovered that reportedly have the important role in multicellular organisms of signalling self to the many phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils, etc) in the body. These cells generally succeed in engulfing, degrading, or at least isolating (even by cell fusion into giant cells) foreign objects ranging from the microbes that have existed for eons to more modern implant biomaterials and injectibles. We have conducted wide-ranging studies aimed at clarifying the function of one 'marker of self' surface protein, CD47, found on all cells and its counter-receptor, SIRPa, found on phagocytes. The Ig domains of these proteins, from human and mouse, are being recombinantly expressed and used to not only verify binding to the suitable receptors in solution and on cells, but the proteins are also being used to begin evaluating the signaling dynamics that underlie phagocytosis inhibition through adhesion. Conceptually, activators of engulfment on the surfaces of targeted cells (complement , antibodies, etc.) compete with CD47-SIRPa signalling through phosphorylation cascades that couple to cytoskeleton activation in the phagocytes. Collectively the results suggest new protein-protein means of understanding and perhaps augmenting biocompatibility.

Discher, Dennis; Photos, Peter; Subramanian, Shyam; Parthasarathy, Ranganath

2004-03-01

246

Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

2014-01-01

247

Yin yang-1 regulates the characterized murine focal adhesion-associated protein promoter.  

PubMed

The focal adhesion-associated protein (FAAP), product of the murine D10Wsu52e gene, is involved in modulating cell adhesion dynamics. The ubiquitously expressed protein belongs to the highly conserved UPF0027 family, the newly identified RNA >p ligase family. To understand the mechanisms underlying FAAP expression and regulation, we first mapped its major transcription start site at the nucleotide 79? bp upstream of the ATG codon. The murine FAAP 2.1? kb 5'-flanking region was cloned, analyzed, and aligned with the corresponding 1.7? kb region of its human homolog HSPC117. Despite the differences in activity, cell in vitro transfection and testis in vivo electroporation identified a 0.2 kb efficient promoter region lacking a functional TATA-box. Gel shift assays confirmed the specific interaction between Yin Yang-1 (YY1) and the potential element in the proximal region of the FAAP promoter. Site mutation, truncation, RNAi, and overexpression analyses suggested that YY1 is an important regulator of the FAAP promoter. PMID:21977911

Ding, Nai-Zheng; He, Mei; He, Cheng-Qiang; Hu, Jin-Song; Teng, Jun-Lin; Chen, Jianguo

2012-04-01

248

Viability and proliferation of rat MSCs on adhesion protein-modified PET and PU scaffolds.  

PubMed

In 2011, the first in-man successful transplantation of a tissue engineered trachea-bronchial graft, using a synthetic POSS-PCU nanocomposite construct seeded with autologous stem cells, was performed. To further improve this technology, we investigated the feasibility of using polymers with a three dimensional structure more closely mimicking the morphology and size scale of native extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers. We therefore investigated the in vitro biocompatibility of electrospun polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU) scaffolds, and determined the effects on cell attachment by conditioning the fibers with adhesion proteins. Rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were seeded on either PET or PU fiber-layered culture plates coated with laminin, collagen I, fibronectin, poly-D-lysine or gelatin. Cell density, proliferation, viability, morphology and mRNA expression were evaluated. MSC cultures on PET and PU resulted in similar cell densities and amounts of proliferating cells, with retained MSC phenotype compared to data obtained from tissue culture plate cultures. Coating the scaffolds with adhesion proteins did not increase cell density or cell proliferation. Our data suggest that both PET and PU mats, matching the dimensions of ECM fibers, are biomimetic scaffolds and, because of their high surface area-to-volume provided by the electrospinning procedure, makes them per se suitable for cell attachment and proliferation without any additional coating. PMID:22901964

Gustafsson, Ylva; Haag, Johannes; Jungebluth, Philipp; Lundin, Vanessa; Lim, Mei Ling; Baiguera, Silvia; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Bianco, Alessandra; Moll, Guido; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Lemon, Greg; Teixeira, Ana Isabel; Macchiarini, Paolo

2012-11-01

249

Spontaneous unraveling of hagfish slime thread skeins is mediated by a seawater-soluble protein adhesive.  

PubMed

Hagfishes are known for their ability to rapidly produce vast quantities of slime when provoked. The slime is formed via the interaction between seawater and two components released by the slime glands: mucin vesicles from gland mucous cells, which swell and rupture in seawater to form a network of mucus strands, and intermediate filament-rich threads, which are produced within gland thread cells as tightly coiled bundles called skeins. A previous study showed that the unraveling of skeins from Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) requires both the presence of mucins and hydrodynamic mixing. In contrast, skeins from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) unravel in the absence of both mucins and mixing. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous unraveling of E. stoutii skeins is triggered by the dissolution of a seawater-soluble protein adhesive and the release of stored strain energy within the coiled thread. Here we show that, as predicted by this hypothesis, unraveling can be initiated by a protease under conditions in which unraveling does not normally occur. We also demonstrate, using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, that the treatment of skeins with solutions that cause unraveling also leads to the disappearance of surface and inter-thread features that remain when skeins are washed with stabilizing solutions. Our study provides a mechanism for the deployment of thread skeins in Pacific hagfish slime, and raises the possibility of producing novel biomimetic protein adhesives that are salt, temperature and kosmotrope sensitive. PMID:24744422

Bernards, Mark A; Oke, Isdin; Heyland, Andreas; Fudge, Douglas S

2014-04-15

250

Plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion onto comb-like PEO gradient surfaces.  

PubMed

Comb-like polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfaces were prepared on low-density polyethylene (PE). The comb-like PEO chain density was changed gradually along the sample lengths by corona discharge treatment with gradually increasing power and the following graft copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate macromers (PEO-MA). The macromers with different PEO repeat unit, 1, 5, and 10, were used. The prepared comb-like PEO gradient surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. All these measurements indicated that the PEO chains are grafted on the PE surface with gradually increasing density of PEO. Plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion on the PEO gradient surfaces decreased with increasing PEO chain length and surface density. As observed by scanning electron microscopy, PEO10-MA-grafted surface with high PEO density was very effective in preventing protein adsorption and platelet adhesion and did not activate the platelets. PMID:8978659

Lee, J H; Jeong, B J; Lee, H B

1997-01-01

251

Augmenting the articular cartilage-implant interface: functionalizing with a collagen adhesion protein  

PubMed Central

The lack of integration between implants and articular cartilage is an unsolved problem that negatively impacts the development of treatments for focal cartilage defects. Many approaches attempt to increase the number of matrix-producing cells that can migrate to the interface, which may help to reinforce the boundary over time but does not address the problems associated with an initially unstable interface. The objective of this study was to develop a bio-adhesive implant to create an immediate bond with the extracellular matrix components of articular cartilage. We hypothesized that implant-bound CollageN Adhesion protein, CNA, would increase the interfacial strength between a poly(vinly alcohol), PVA, implant and articular cartilage immediately after implantation, without preventing cell migration into the implant. By way of a series of in vitro immunohistochemical and mechanical experiments, we demonstrated that: free CNA can bind to articular cartilage, implant-bound CNA can bind to collagen type II and that implants functionalized with CNA result in a four-fold increase in interfacial strength with cartilage relative to un-treated implants at day zero. Of note, the interfacial strength significantly decreased after 21 days in culture which may be an indication that the protein itself has lost its effectiveness. Our data suggests that functionalizing scaffolds with CNA may be a viable approach towards creating an initially stable interface between scaffolds and articular cartilage. Further efforts are required to ensure long-term interface stability.

Allon, A.A.; Ng, K.W.; Hammoud, S.; Russell, B.H.; Jones, C.M.; Rivera, J.J.; Schwartz, J.; Hook, M.; Maher, S.A.

2012-01-01

252

Inhibition of fibroblast adhesion by covalently immobilized protein repellent polymer coatings studied by single cell force spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Cochlea implants (CI) restore the hearing in patients with sensorineural hearing loss by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve via an electrode array. The increase of the impedance at the electrode-tissue interface due to a postoperative connective tissue encapsulation leads to higher power consumption of the implants. Therefore, reduced adhesion and proliferation of connective tissue cells around the CI electrode array is of great clinical interest. The adhesion of cells to substrate surfaces is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Protein repellent polymers (PRP) are able to inhibit unspecific protein adsorption. Thus, a reduction of cell adhesion might be achieved by coating the electrode carriers with PRPs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different PRPs, poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAA) and poly(2-ethyloxazoline) (PEtOx), on the strength and the temporal dynamics of the initial adhesion of fibroblasts. Polymers were immobilized onto glass plates by a photochemical grafting onto method. Water contact angle measurements proved hydrophilic surface properties of both PDMAA and PEtOx (45 ± 1° and 44 ± 1°, respectively). The adhesion strength of NIH3T3 fibroblasts after 5, 30, and 180 s of interaction with surfaces was investigated by using single cell force spectroscopy. In comparison to glass surfaces, both polymers reduced the adhesion of fibroblasts significantly at all different interaction times and lower dynamic rates of adhesion were observed. Thus, both PDMAA and PEtOx represented antiadhesive properties and can be used as implant coatings to reduce the unspecific ECM-mediated adhesion of fibroblasts to surfaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. PMID:23596088

Aliuos, Pooyan; Sen, Aromita; Reich, Uta; Dempwolf, Wibke; Warnecke, Athanasia; Hadler, Christoph; Lenarz, Thomas; Menzel, Henning; Reuter, Guenter

2013-04-18

253

Adhesive surface proteins of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bind to polystyrene, fibronectin, and type I and IV collagens.  

PubMed

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes erysipelas in animals and erysipeloid in humans. We found two adhesive surface proteins of E. rhusiopathiae and determined the nucleotide sequences of the genes, which were colocalized and designated rspA and rspB. The two genes were present in all of the serovars of E. rhusiopathiae strains examined. The deduced RspA and RspB proteins contain the C-terminal anchoring motif, LPXTG, which is preceded by repeats of consensus amino acid sequences. The consensus sequences are composed of 78 to 92 amino acids and repeat 16 and 3 times in RspA and RspB, respectively. Adhesive surface proteins of other gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes adhesin-like protein, Streptococcus pyogenes protein F2 and F2-like protein, Streptococcus dysgalactiae FnBB, and Staphylococcus aureus Cna, share the same consensus repeats. Furthermore, the N-terminal regions of RspA and RspB showed characteristics of the collagen-binding domain that was described for Cna. RspA and RspB were expressed in Escherichia coli as histidine-tagged fusion proteins and purified. The recombinant proteins showed a high degree of capacity to bind to polystyrene and inhibited the binding of E. rhusiopathiae onto the abiotic surface in a dose dependent manner. In a solid-phase binding assay, both of the recombinant proteins bound to fibronectin, type I and IV collagens, indicating broad spectrum of their binding ability. It was suggested that both RspA and RspB were exposed on the cell surface of E. rhusiopathiae, as were the bacterial cells agglutinated by the anti-RspA immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-RspB IgG. RspA and RspB were present both in surface-antigen extracts and the culture supernatants of E. rhusiopathiae Fujisawa-SmR (serovar 1a) and SE-9 (serovar 2). The recombinant RspA, but not RspB, elicited protection in mice against experimental challenge. These results suggest that RspA and RspB participate in initiation of biofilm formation through their binding abilities to abiotic and biotic surfaces. PMID:12700253

Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Osaki, Makoto; Kabeya, Hidenori; Maruyama, Soichi; Mikami, Takeshi; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

2003-05-01

254

Adhesive Surface Proteins of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Bind to Polystyrene, Fibronectin, and Type I and IV Collagens  

PubMed Central

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes erysipelas in animals and erysipeloid in humans. We found two adhesive surface proteins of E. rhusiopathiae and determined the nucleotide sequences of the genes, which were colocalized and designated rspA and rspB. The two genes were present in all of the serovars of E. rhusiopathiae strains examined. The deduced RspA and RspB proteins contain the C-terminal anchoring motif, LPXTG, which is preceded by repeats of consensus amino acid sequences. The consensus sequences are composed of 78 to 92 amino acids and repeat 16 and 3 times in RspA and RspB, respectively. Adhesive surface proteins of other gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes adhesin-like protein, Streptococcus pyogenes protein F2 and F2-like protein, Streptococcus dysgalactiae FnBB, and Staphylococcus aureus Cna, share the same consensus repeats. Furthermore, the N-terminal regions of RspA and RspB showed characteristics of the collagen-binding domain that was described for Cna. RspA and RspB were expressed in Escherichia coli as histidine-tagged fusion proteins and purified. The recombinant proteins showed a high degree of capacity to bind to polystyrene and inhibited the binding of E. rhusiopathiae onto the abiotic surface in a dose dependent manner. In a solid-phase binding assay, both of the recombinant proteins bound to fibronectin, type I and IV collagens, indicating broad spectrum of their binding ability. It was suggested that both RspA and RspB were exposed on the cell surface of E. rhusiopathiae, as were the bacterial cells agglutinated by the anti-RspA immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-RspB IgG. RspA and RspB were present both in surface-antigen extracts and the culture supernatants of E. rhusiopathiae Fujisawa-SmR (serovar 1a) and SE-9 (serovar 2). The recombinant RspA, but not RspB, elicited protection in mice against experimental challenge. These results suggest that RspA and RspB participate in initiation of biofilm formation through their binding abilities to abiotic and biotic surfaces.

Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Osaki, Makoto; Kabeya, Hidenori; Maruyama, Soichi; Mikami, Takeshi; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

2003-01-01

255

Underwater adhesion: The barnacle way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacle cement is an underwater adhesive insoluble protein complex. Marine proteins secreted by the invertebrates such as barnacles and mussels have potential application as powerful adhesives as they insolubilize and adhere to variety of substrates in aqueous environment. The adhesive properties of the barnacle adhesive proteins have been utilized for various dental and medical purposes. These polyphenolic proteins are currently

Lidita Khandeparker; Arga Chandrashekhar Anil

2007-01-01

256

Natural variation within the principal adhesion domain of the Plasmodium vivax duffy binding protein.  

PubMed Central

The blood-stage development of malaria parasites is initiated by the invasion of merozoites into susceptible erythrocytes. Specific receptor-ligand interactions must occur for the merozoites to first attach to and then invade erythrocytes. Because the invasion process is essential for the parasite's survival and the merozoite adhesion molecules are exposed on the merozoite surface during invasion, these adhesion molecules are candidates for antibody-dependent malaria vaccines. The Duffy binding protein of Plasmodium vivax belongs to a family of erythrocyte-binding proteins that contain functionally conserved cysteine-rich regions. The amino cysteine-rich regions of these homologous erythrocyte-binding proteins were recently identified for P. vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium falciparum as the principal erythrocyte-binding domains (C. Chitnis and L. H. Miller, J. Exp. Med. 180:497-506, 1994, and B. K. L. Sim, C. E. Chitnis, K. Wasniowska, T. J. Hadley, and L. H. Miller, Science 264:1941-1944, 1994). We report that amino acids in this critical ligand domain of the P. vivax Duffy binding protein are hypervariable, but this variability is limited. Hypervariability of the erythrocyte-binding domain suggests that this domain is the target of an effective immune response, but conservation of amino acid substitutions indicates that functional constraints limit this variation. In addition, the amino cysteine-rich region and part of the hydrophilic region immediately following it were the site of repeated homologous recombinations as represented by tandem repeat sequence polymorphisms. Similar polymorphisms have been identified in the same region of the homologous genes of P. falciparum and P. knowlesi, suggesting that there is a common mechanism of recombination or gene conversion that occurs in these Plasmodium genes. Images

Tsuboi, T; Kappe, S H; al-Yaman, F; Prickett, M D; Alpers, M; Adams, J H

1994-01-01

257

A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1  

PubMed Central

Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-?-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-?-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis.

Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon

2013-01-01

258

The Desmosomal Armadillo Protein Plakoglobin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Adhesion and Motility through Vitronectin-Dependent Src Signaling  

PubMed Central

Plakoglobin (PG) is an armadillo protein that associates with both classic and desmosomal cadherins, but is primarily concentrated in mature desmosomes in epithelia. While reduced levels of PG have been reported in localized and hormone refractory prostate tumors, the functional significance of these changes is unknown. Here we report that PG expression is reduced in samples of a prostate tumor tissue array and inversely correlated with advancing tumor potential in 7 PCa cell lines. Ectopically expressed PG enhanced intercellular adhesive strength, and attenuated the motility and invasion of aggressive cell lines, whereas silencing PG in less tumorigenic cells had the opposite effect. PG also regulated cell-substrate adhesion and motility through extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent inhibition of Src kinase, suggesting that PG’s effects were not due solely to increased intercellular adhesion. PG silencing resulted in elevated levels of the ECM protein vitronectin (VN), and exposing PG-expressing cells to VN induced Src activity. Furthermore, increased VN levels and Src activation correlated with diminished expression of PG in patient tissues. Thus, PG may inhibit Src by keeping VN low. Our results suggest that loss of intercellular adhesion due to reduced PG expression might be exacerbated by activation of Src through a PG-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, PG down-regulation during PCa progression could contribute to the known VN-dependent promotion of PCa invasion and metastasis, demonstrating a novel functional interaction between desmosomal cell-cell adhesion and cell-substrate adhesion signaling axes in prostate cancer.

Desai, Bhushan V.; Mirzoeva, Salida; Yang, Ximing J.; Green, Kathleen J.; Pelling, Jill C.

2012-01-01

259

Major Membrane Protein TDE2508 Regulates Adhesive Potency in Treponema denticola  

PubMed Central

The cultivation and genetic manipulation of Treponema denticola, a Gram-negative oral spirochaeta associated with periodontal diseases, is still challenging. In this study, we formulated a simple medium based on a commercially available one, and established a transformation method with high efficiency. We then analyzed proteins in a membrane fraction in T. denticola and identified 16 major membrane-associated proteins, and characterized one of them, TDE2508, whose biological function was not yet known. Although this protein, which exhibited a complex conformation, was presumably localized in the outer membrane, we did not find conclusive evidence that it was exposed on the cell surface. Intriguingly, a TDE2508-deficient mutant exhibited significantly increased biofilm formation and adherent activity on human gingival epithelial cells. However, the protein deficiency did not alter autoaggregation, coaggregation with Porphyromonas gingivalis, hemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity, motility, or expression of Msp which was reported to be an adherent molecule in this bacteria. In conclusion, the major membrane protein TDE2508 regulates biofilm formation and the adhesive potency of T. denticola, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear.

Abiko, Yuki; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

2014-01-01

260

The proline-rich focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP is a ligand for profilins.  

PubMed Central

Profilins are small proteins that form complexes with G-actin and phosphoinositides and are therefore considered to link the microfilament system to signal transduction pathways. In addition, they bind to poly-L-proline, but the biological significance of this interaction is not yet known. The recent molecular cloning of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an established in vivo substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, revealed the presence of a proline-rich domain which prompted us to investigate a possible interaction with profilins. VASP is a microfilament and focal adhesion associated protein which is also concentrated in highly dynamic regions of the cell cortex. Here, we demonstrate that VASP is a natural proline-rich profilin ligand. Human platelet VASP bound directly to purified profilins from human platelets, calf thymus and birch pollen. Moreover, VASP and a novel protein were specifically extracted from total cell lysates by profilin affinity chromatography and subsequently eluted either with poly-L-proline or a peptide corresponding to a proline-rich VASP motif. Finally, the subcellular distributions of VASP and profilin suggest that both proteins also interact within living cells. Our data support the hypothesis that profilin and VASP act in concert to convey signal transduction to actin filament formation. Images

Reinhard, M; Giehl, K; Abel, K; Haffner, C; Jarchau, T; Hoppe, V; Jockusch, B M; Walter, U

1995-01-01

261

The involvement of an integrin-like protein and protein kinase C in amoebic adhesion to fibronectin and amoebic cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Adherence of a pathogen to the host cell is one of the critical steps in microbial infections. Naegleria fowleri, a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans, is expected to interact with extracellular components of the host, such as fibronectin, in a receptor-mediated mode. In this study, we investigated the interaction between N. fowleri and fibronectin to understand its cytopathology. In binding assays using immobilized fibronectin, the number of amoebae bound to fibronectin was increased compared to the controls, and was dependent on the amount of coated fibronectin present. A fibronectin binding protein of 60 kDa was found in extracts of N. fowleri. Western blot and immunolocalization assays using integrin alpha(5)/FnR antibodies showed that a 60 kDa protein reacted with the antibodies in extracts of N. fowleri, which was localized on the surface of N. fowleri. Preincubation of N. fowleri with the integrin antibodies significantly inhibited amoebic binding to fibronectin and cytotoxicity to the CHO cells. Additionally, protein kinase C activity was detected in the extract of N. fowleri. When N. fowleri was pretreated with protein kinase C activator or inhibitor, the abilities of amoebic adhesion to fibronectin and cytotoxicity to the host cells were markedly affected compared to untreated amoebae. These results suggest that an amoebic integrin-like receptor and protein kinase C play important roles in amoebic cellular processes in response to fibronectin. PMID:15338291

Han, Kyu-Lee; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Myeong Heon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Im, Kyung-Il; Park, Soon-Jung

2004-09-01

262

Electrophoretic interactions between nitrocellulose membranes and proteins: Biointerface analysis and protein adhesion properties.  

PubMed

Protein adsorption onto membrane surfaces is important in fields related to separation science and biomedical research. This study explored the molecular interactions between protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and nitrocellulose films (NC) using electrokinetic phenomena and the effects of these interactions on the streaming potential measurements for different membrane pore morphologies and pH conditions. The data were used to calculate the streaming ratios of membranes-to-proteins and to compare these values to the electrostatic or hydrophobic attachment of the protein molecules onto the NC membranes. The results showed that different pH and membrane pore morphologies contributes to different protein adsorption mechanisms. The protein adsorption was significantly reduced under conditions where the membrane and protein have like-charges due to electrostatic repulsion. At the isoelectric point (IEP) of the protein, the repulsion between the BSA and the NC membrane was at the lowest; thus, the BSA could be easily attached onto the membrane/solution interface. In this case, the protein was considered to be in a compact layer without intermolecular protein repulsions. PMID:23732801

Low, S C; Shaimi, R; Thandaithabany, Y; Lim, J K; Ahmad, A L; Ismail, A

2013-10-01

263

Anterior gradient protein-2 is a regulator of cellular adhesion in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Anterior Gradient Protein (AGR-2) is reported to be over-expressed in many epithelial cancers and promotes metastasis. A clear-cut mechanism for its observed function(s) has not been previously identified. We found significant upregulation of AGR-2 expression in a bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, following culturing in bone marrow-conditioned medium. Substantial AGR-2 expression was also confirmed in prostate cancer tissue specimens in patients with bone lesions. By developing stable clones of PC3 cells with varying levels of AGR-2 expression, we identified that abrogation of AGR-2 significantly reduced cellular attachment to fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin I and fibrinogen. Loss of cellular adhesion was associated with sharp decrease in the expression of ?4, ?5, ?V, ?3 and ?4 integrins. Failure to undergo apoptosis following detachment is a hallmark of epithelial cancer metastasis. The AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells showed higher resistance to Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in vitro. This observation was also supported by significantly reduced Caspase-3 expression in AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells, which is a key effector of both extrinsic and intrinsic death signaling pathways. These data suggest that AGR-2 influence prostate cancer metastasis by regulation of cellular adhesion and apoptosis. PMID:24587138

Chanda, Diptiman; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Sawant, Anandi; Hensel, Jonathan A; Isayeva, Tatyana; Reilly, Stephanie D; Siegal, Gene P; Smith, Claire; Grizzle, William; Singh, Raj; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2014-01-01

264

Protein kinase B/AKT and focal adhesion kinase: two close signaling partners in cancer.  

PubMed

AKT (or protein kinase B) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are two important kinases that regulate various cellular functions. Each is overexpressed and/or aberrantly activated in diverse cancers. Several small molecular inhibitors targeting either AKT or FAK are in development or in clinical trials. It is well established that FAK is an upstream regulator of AKT signaling pathway in various cancer cell lines and in xenograft tumor models. However, very recent reports from our laboratory and others demonstrate that AKT can also directly regulate FAK through direct association and serine phosphorylation. This indicates that AKT and FAK may be dual therapeutic targets for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of primary and metastatic cancer. FAK-AKT interaction is particularly critical for metastatic adhesion. We review recent developments in AKT and FAK signaling in cancer with the particular emphasis on the novel signaling pathways in which FAK is downstream of AKT. We also provide an update on inhibitors targeting AKT or FAK currently in clinical trials. PMID:22023045

Wang, Shouye; Basson, Marc D

2011-12-01

265

Purification and characterization of a surface-binding protein from Lactobacillus fermentum RC14 that inhibits adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli have been shown to be important in the maintenance of the healthy urogenital flora. One strain, Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, releases surface-active components which can inhibit adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria. Using a quantitative method for determining inhibition of adhesion, a protein with high anti-adhesive properties against Enterococcus faecalis 1131 was purified. The N-terminal sequence of the 29-kDa protein was identical

Christine Heinemann; Dick B. Janssen; Henk J. Busscher; Henny C. van der Mei; Gregor Reid

2000-01-01

266

Matching structure with function: the GAIN domain of Adhesion-GPCR and PKD1-like proteins.  

PubMed

Elucidation of structural information can greatly facilitate the understanding of molecular function. A recent example is the description of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain, an evolutionarily ancient fold present in Adhesion-GPCRs (aGPCRs) and polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1)-like proteins. In the past, the peculiar autoproteolytic capacity of both membrane protein families at the conserved GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) had not been described in detail. The physiological performance of aGPCRs and PKD1-like proteins is thought to be regulated through the GPS, but it is debated how. A recent report provides pivotal details by discovery and analysis of the GAIN domain structure that incorporates the GPS motif. Complementary studies have commenced to analyze physiological requirements of the GAIN domain for aGPCR function, indicating that it serves as the linchpin for multiple receptor signals. Structural analysis and functional assays now allow for the dissection of the biological duties conferred through the GAIN domain. PMID:23850273

Prömel, Simone; Langenhan, Tobias; Araç, Demet

2013-08-01

267

Host Adhesive Activities and Virulence of Novel Fimbrial Proteins of Porphyromonas gingivalis?  

PubMed Central

The fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis mediate critical roles in host colonization and evasion of innate defenses and comprise polymerized fimbrilin (FimA) associated with quantitatively minor accessory proteins (FimCDE) of unknown function. We now show that P. gingivalis fimbriae lacking FimCDE fail to interact with the CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and bacteria expressing FimCDE-deficient fimbriae cannot exploit CXCR4 in vivo for promoting their persistence, as the wild-type organism does. Consistent with these loss-of-function experiments, purified FimC and FimD (but not FimE) were shown to interact with CXCR4. However, significantly stronger binding was observed when a combination of all three proteins was allowed to interact with CXCR4. In addition, FimC and FimD bound to fibronectin and type 1 collagen, whereas FimE failed to interact with these matrix proteins. These data and the fact that FimE is required for the association of FimCDE with P. gingivalis fimbriae suggest that FimE may recruit FimC and FimD into a functional complex, rather than directly binding host proteins. Consistent with this notion, FimE was shown to bind both FimC and FimD. In summary, the FimCDE components cooperate and impart critical adhesive and virulence properties to P. gingivalis fimbriae.

Pierce, Deanne L.; Nishiyama, So-ichiro; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Min; Triantafilou, Martha; Triantafilou, Kathy; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Demuth, Donald R.; Hajishengallis, George

2009-01-01

268

Adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein is required for efficient thymocyte development and selection.  

PubMed

Adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein (ADAP) is required in TCR-induced activation and proliferation of peripheral T cells. Loss of ADAP also impairs TCR-initiated inside-out activation of the integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2). In this study, we demonstrate that ADAP-deficient CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) cells have a diminished ability to proliferate, and that these DP thymocytes up-regulate CD69 poorly in vivo. Moreover, in both MHC class I- and class II-restricted TCR transgenic models, loss of ADAP interferes with both positive and negative selection. ADAP deficiency also impairs the ability of transgene-bearing DP thymocytes to form conjugates with Ag-loaded presenting cells. These findings suggest that ADAP is critical for thymocyte development and selection. PMID:16709827

Wu, Jennifer N; Gheith, Shereen; Bezman, Natalie A; Liu, Qing-Hua; Fostel, Lindsey V; Swanson, Andrew M; Freedman, Bruce D; Koretzky, Gary A; Peterson, Erik J

2006-06-01

269

?1 Integrin is an Adhesion Protein for Sperm Binding to Eggs  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of ?1 integrin in mammalian fertilization and the mode of inhibition of fertilin?-derived polymers. We determined that polymers displaying the Glu-Cys-Asp peptide from the fertilin? disintegrin domain mediate inhibition of mammalian fertilization through a ?1 integrin receptor on the egg surface. Inhibition of fertilization is a consequence of competition with sperm binding to the cell surface, not activation of an egg-signaling pathway. The presence of the ?1 integrin on the egg surface increases the rate of sperm attachment, but does not alter the total number of sperm that can attach or fuse to the egg. We conclude that the presence of ?1 integrin enhances the initial adhesion of sperm to the egg plasma membrane and that subsequent attachment and fusion are mediated by additional egg and sperm proteins present in the ?1 integrin complex. Therefore, the mechanisms by which sperm fertilize wild-type and ?1 knockout eggs are different.

Baessler, Keith A.; Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S.

2009-01-01

270

Novel Pyridazinone Inhibitors for Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1): Old target - New Inhibition Mode  

PubMed Central

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a primary amine oxidase and a drug target for inflammatory and vascular diseases. Despite extensive attempts to develop potent, specific and reversible inhibitors of its enzyme activity, the task has proven challenging. Here we report the synthesis, inhibitory activity and molecular binding mode of novel pyridazinone inhibitors, which show specificity for VAP-1 over monoamine and diamine oxidases. The crystal structures of three inhibitor-VAP-1 complexes show that these compounds bind reversibly into a unique binding site in the active site channel. Though they are good inhibitors of human VAP-1, they do not inhibit rodent VAP-1 well. To investigate this further, we used homology modeling and structural comparison to identify amino acid differences, which explain the species-specific binding properties. Our results prove the potency and specificity of these new inhibitors and the detailed characterization of their binding mode is of importance for further development of VAP-1 inhibitors.

Bligt-Linden, Eva; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Szatmari, Istvan; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Smith, David J.; Lazar, Laszlo; Fulop, Ferenc; Salminen, Tiina A.

2014-01-01

271

Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment  

PubMed Central

Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite its abundance and conservation in the genus, we find no evidence for a role of Pam in either virulence or symbiosis.

2010-01-01

272

In Vivo Selection for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opacity Protein Expression in the Absence of Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

phenicol-resistant (Cmr) strain and following Cmr Opa populations mixed with a higher percentage of Opa variants of the wild-type (Cms) strain. Reciprocal experiments (Opa Cmr gonococci spiked with Opa Cms bacteria) were consistent with selection of Opa variants. Based on the absence in mice of human carcino- embryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules, the major class of Opa protein adherence receptors,

Amy N. Simms; Ann E. Jerse

2006-01-01

273

In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Shigella is the etiological agent of shigellosis, a disease responsible for more than 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries. These pathogens colonize the intestinal colon, invade, spreading to the other enterocytes. Breastfeeding plays a very important role in protecting infants from intestinal infections. Amongst milk compounds, glycosylated proteins prevent the adhesion of many enteropathogens in vitro.

Emerson da Motta Willer; Renato de Lourenço Lima; Loreny Gimenes Giugliano

2004-01-01

274

Adhesive protein expression on endothelial cells after contact in vitro with polyethylene terephthalate coated with pyrolytic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at evaluating the expression of some adhesive proteins on endothelial cell surface after contact with polyethylene terephthalate coated with pyrolytic carbon (PET + PC). Twenty-two different cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were put in contact with PET + PC. Both HUVECs grown without the biomaterial and HUVECs incubated with endotoxin were used as control.

E. Cenni; D. Granchi; C. R. Arciola; G. Ciapetti; L. Savarino; S. Stea; D. Cavedagna; A. Di Leo; A. Pizzoferrato

1995-01-01

275

Characterization of Syntenin, a Syndecan-binding PDZ Protein, as a Component of Cell Adhesion Sites and Microfilaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntenin is a PDZ protein that binds the cytoplasmic C-terminal FYA motif of the syndecans. Syntenin is widely expressed. In cell fractionation experiments, syntenin partitions between the cytosol and microsomes. Immunofluorescence microscopy localizes endogenous and epitope- tagged syntenin to cell adhesion sites, microfilaments, and the nucleus. Syntenin is composed of at least three domains. Both PDZ domains of syntenin are

Pascale Zimmermann; Daniela Tomatis; Marcela Rosas; Johan Grootjans; Iris Leenaerts; Gisele Degeest; Gunter Reekmans; Christien Coomans; Guido David

2001-01-01

276

Complete sequence and transcript regulation of a cell adhesion protein from aggregating Dictyostelium cells  

PubMed Central

Three cDNA clones coding for the contact site A (csA) protein, a cell adhesion molecule of Dictyostelium discoideum, were isolated by screening a cDNA library with monoclonal antibodies. Two of these clones contained the complete coding region for the csA protein of 1542 bp including a sequence of 57 bp coding for the leader. The N terminus of the mature protein, as it was published previously, was identified in the amino acid sequence derived from both full-length cDNA clones. Southern blot analysis suggests the presence of only one csA gene in the haploid genome. Accumulation of the csA-specific message of 1.9 kb begins during development on nitrocellulose filters at 9 h of starvation, and reaches a maximum at 12 h, the time of cell aggregation. Expression of the csA glycoprotein follows closely accumulation of the transcripts. In the multicellular slug stage following cell aggregation, the amount of csA transcripts rapidly declines to low levels. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.

Noegel, A.; Gerisch, G.; Stadler, J.; Westphal, M.

1986-01-01

277

Diamagnetic levitation causes changes in the morphology, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion proteins expression in osteocytes.  

PubMed

Diamagnetic levitation technology is a novel simulated weightless technique and has recently been applied in life-science research. We have developed a superconducting magnet platform with large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels, namely, ?g (diamagnetic levitation), 1g, and 2g for diamagnetic materials. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on the activity, morphology, and cytoskeleton (actin filament, microtubules, and vimentin intermediate filaments) in osteocyte - like cell line MLO-Y4 were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), respectively. The changes induced by LG-HMF in distribution and expression of focal adhesion (FA) proteins, including vinculin, paxillin, and talin in MLO-Y4 were determined by LSCM and Western blotting. The results showed that LG-HMF produced by superconducting magnet had no lethal effects on MLO-Y4. Compared to control, diamagnetic levitation (?g) affected MLO-Y4 morphology, nucleus size, cytoskeleton architecture, and FA proteins distribution and expression. The study indicates that osteocytes are sensitive to altered gravity and FA proteins (vinculin, paxillin, and talin) may be involved in osteocyte mechanosensation. The diamagnetic levitation may be a novel ground-based space-gravity simulator and can be used for biological experiment at cellular level. PMID:21216704

Qian, A R; Wang, L; Gao, X; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Han, J; Li, J B; Di, S M; Shang, Peng

2012-01-01

278

Lsa21, a novel leptospiral protein binding adhesive matrix molecules and present during human infection  

PubMed Central

Background It has been well documented over past decades that interaction of pathogens with the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a primary role in host cell attachment and invasion. Adherence to host tissues is mediated by surface-exposed proteins expressed by the microorganisms during infection. The mechanisms by which pathogenic leptospires invade and colonize the host remain poorly understood since few virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease have been identified. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of L. interrogans allowed identification of a repertoire of putative leptospiral surface proteins. Results Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new leptospiral protein that exhibits extracellular matrix-binding properties, called as Lsa21 (leptospiral surface adhesin, 21 kDa). Compatible with its role in adhesion, the protein was shown to be surface-exposed by indirect immunofluorescence. Attachment of Lsa21 to laminin, collagen IV, and plasma fibronectin was specific and dose dependent. Laminin oxidation by sodium metaperiodate reduced the protein-laminin interaction in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that laminin sugar moieties are crucial for this interaction. The gene coding for Lsa21 is present in pathogenic strains belonging to the L. interrogans species but was not found in the saprophytic L. biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc 1. Loss of gene expression occurs upon culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. Environmental factors such as osmolarity and temperature affect Lsa21 expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, anti-Lsa21 serum labeled liver and kidney tissues of human fatal cases of leptospirosis. Conclusion Our data suggest a role of Lsa21 in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.

Atzingen, Marina V; Barbosa, Angela S; De Brito, Thales; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; de Morais, Zenaide M; Lima, Dirce MC; Abreu, Patricia AE; Nascimento, Ana LTO

2008-01-01

279

Cytoplasmic Domain of Zebrafish Myelin Protein Zero: Adhesive Role Depends on ?-Conformation  

PubMed Central

Solution spectroscopy studies on the cytoplasmic domain of human myelin protein zero (P0) (hP0-cyt) suggest that H-bonding between ?-strands from apposed molecules is likely responsible for the tight cytoplasmic apposition in compact myelin. As a follow-up to these findings, in the current study we used circular dichroism and x-ray diffraction to analyze the same type of model membranes previously used for hP0-cyt to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the zebrafish cytoplasmic apposition. This space is significantly narrower in teleosts compared with that in higher vertebrates, and can be accounted for in part by the much shorter cytoplasmic domain in the zebrafish protein (zP0-cyt). Circular dichroism measurements on zP0-cyt showed similar structural characteristics to those of hP0-cyt, i.e., the protein underwent a ??? structural transition at lipid/protein (L/P) molar ratios >50, and adopted a ?-conformation at lower L/P molar ratios. X-ray diffraction was carried out on lipid vesicle solutions with zP0-cyt before and after dehydration to study the effect of protein on membrane lipid packing. Solution diffraction revealed the electron-density profile of a single membrane bilayer. Diffraction patterns of dried samples suggested a multilamellar structure with the ?-folded P0-cyt located at the intermembrane space. Our findings support the idea that the adhesive role of P0 at the cytoplasmic apposition in compact myelin depends on the cytoplasmic domain of P0 being in the ?-conformation.

Luo, XiaoYang; Inouye, Hideyo; Gross, Abby A. R.; Hidalgo, Marla M.; Sharma, Deepak; Lee, Daniel; Avila, Robin L.; Salmona, Mario; Kirschner, Daniel A.

2007-01-01

280

Association of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 oncoprotein with the focal adhesion protein paxillin through a conserved protein interaction motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that the E6 oncoprotein of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BE6) as well as the E6 protein of the cancer associated HPV-16 (16E6) interact with the focal adhesion protein paxillin. Mutational analysis of paxillin revealed that BE6 binds paxillin through small protein interaction motifs called LD motifs that have been previously identified as important in regulating association of

Scott B Vande Pol; Michael C Brown; Christopher E Turner; SB Vande Pol

1998-01-01

281

Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri and non-pathogenic Naegleria lovaniensis exhibit differential adhesion to, and invasion of, extracellular matrix proteins.  

PubMed

Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis are closely related free-living amoebae found in the environment. N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while N. lovaniensis is non-pathogenic. N. fowleri infection occurs when the amoebae access the nasal passages, attach to the nasal mucosa and its epithelial lining, and migrate to the brain. This process involves interaction with components of the host extracellular matrix (ECM). Since the ability to invade tissues can be a characteristic that distinguishes pathogenic from non-pathogenic amoebae, the objective of this study was to assess adhesion to, and invasion of, the ECM by these two related but distinct Naegleria species. N. fowleri exhibited a higher level of adhesion to the ECM components laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen I. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that N. fowleri attached on ECM substrata exhibited a spread-out appearance that included the presence of focal adhesion-like structures. Western immunoblotting revealed two integrin-like proteins for both species, but one of these, with a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa, was detected at a higher level in N. fowleri. Confocal microscopy indicated that the integrin-like proteins co-localized to the focal adhesion-like structures. Furthermore, anti-integrin antibody decreased adhesion of N. fowleri to ECM components. Finally, N. fowleri disrupted 3D ECM scaffolds, while N. lovaniensis had a minimal effect. Collectively, these results indicate a distinction in adhesion to, and invasion of, ECM proteins between N. fowleri and N. lovaniensis. PMID:22222499

Jamerson, Melissa; da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Cabral, Guy A; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

2012-03-01

282

Characterization of Spiroplasma citri adhesion related protein SARP1, which contains a domain of a novel family designated sarpin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of the plant pathogen Spiroplasma citri by its leafhopper vector, Circulifer tenellus, involves adherence to and invasion of insect host cells. The S. citri adhesion related protein P89 (SARP1) was purified by immunoprecipitation using anti-SARP1 monoclonal antibodies. The protein's N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and used to design a degenerate oligonucleotide. The labeled oligonucleotide hybridized to a 3.5

Michael Berg; Ulrich Melcher; Jacqueline Fletcher

2001-01-01

283

An SH3 Domain-Containing GTPase-Activating Protein for Rho and Cdc42 Associates with Focal Adhesion Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

of integrin-dependent alterations in cell homeostasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK or pp125FAK) is one of the tyrosine kinases predicted to be a critical component of integrin signaling. To elucidate the mechanisms by whichFAKparticipatesinintegrin-mediatedsignaling,wehaveusedexpressioncloningtoidentifycDNAsthat encode potential FAK-binding proteins. We report here the identification of a cDNA that encodes a new member of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family of GTPase regulators. This

JEFFREY D. HILDEBRAND; JOAN M. TAYLOR; THOMAS PARSONS

1996-01-01

284

The Heparin-Binding Activity of Secreted Modular Calcium-Binding Protein 1 (SMOC-1) Modulates Its Cell Adhesion Properties  

PubMed Central

Secreted modular calcium-binding proteins 1 and 2 (SMOC-1 and SMOC-1) are extracellular calcium- binding proteins belonging to the BM-40 family of proteins. In this work we have identified a highly basic region in the extracellular calcium-binding (EC) domain of the SMOC-1 similar to other known glycosaminoglycan-binding motifs. Size-exclusion chromatography shows that full length SMOC-1 as well as its C-terminal EC domain alone bind heparin and heparan sulfate, but not the related chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence measurements were used to quantify the binding of heparin to full length SMOC-1 and the EC domain alone. The calculated equilibrium dissociation constants were in the lower micromolar range. The binding site consists of two antiparallel alpha helices and mutagenesis experiments have shown that heparin-binding residues in both helices must be replaced in order to abolish heparin binding. Furthermore, we show that the SMOC-1 EC domain, like the SMOC-2 EC domain, supports the adhesion of epithelial HaCaT cells. Heparin-binding impaired mutants failed to support S1EC-mediated cell adhesion and together with the observation that S1EC in complex with soluble heparin attenuated cell adhesion we conclude that a functional and accessible S1EC heparin-binding site mediates adhesion of epithelial cells to SMOC-1.

Klemencic, Marina; Novinec, Marko; Maier, Silke; Hartmann, Ursula; Lenarcic, Brigita

2013-01-01

285

Functional Modulation of Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 by a Novel Splice Variant  

PubMed Central

Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial adhesion molecule belonging to the primary amine oxidases. Upon inflammation it takes part in the leukocyte extravasation cascade facilitating transmigration of leukocytes into the inflamed tissue. Screening of a human lung cDNA library revealed the presence of an alternatively spliced shorter transcript of VAP-1, VAP-1?3. Here, we have studied the functional and structural characteristics of VAP-1?3, and show that the mRNA for this splice variant is expressed in most human tissues studied. In comparison to the parent molecule this carboxy-terminally truncated isoform lacks several of the amino acids important in the formation of the enzymatic groove of VAP-1. In addition, the conserved His684, which takes part in coordinating the active site copper, is missing from VAP-1?3. Assays using the prototypic amine substrates methylamine and benzylamine demonstrated that VAP-1?3 is indeed devoid of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity characteristic to VAP-1. When VAP-1?3-cDNA is transfected into cells stably expressing VAP-1, the surface expression of the full-length molecule is reduced. Furthermore, the SSAO activity of the co-transfectants is diminished in comparison to transfectants expressing only VAP-1. The observed down-regulation of both the expression and enzymatic activity of VAP-1 may result from a dominant-negative effect caused by heterodimerization between VAP-1 and VAP-1?3, which was detected in co-immunoprecipitation studies. This alternatively spliced transcript adds thus to the repertoire of potential regulatory mechanisms through which the cell-surface expression and enzymatic activity of VAP-1 can be modulated.

Kaitaniemi, Sam; Gron, Kirsi; Elovaara, Heli; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Elima, Kati

2013-01-01

286

[Expression and purification of an adhesive protein of rabbit Pasteurella multocida C51-3 and detection of its antigenicity].  

PubMed

The cp36 gene encoding an adhesive protein was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of rabbit P. multocida C51-3 strain, and cloned into the pMD18-T vector and then sequenced. The mature adhesive protein without a signal peptide of cpm36 gene was amplified by PCR from the recombinant plasmid pMD18-cp36, then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE30 to provide a recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36. The recombinant protein of CPM36 was produced in Escherichia coli M15 harboring the recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36 by IPTG induction, and the recombinant protein purified by the affinity chromatography with Ni(2+)-NTA resin. The sequence analyses showed that the ORF of cp36 gene was 1032 bp in length, and DNA homology of the cp36 genes between the C51-3 strain and the previously reported different serotype strains of P. multocida in GenBank was 76.9 to 100%. The SDS-PAGE analyses revealed a single fusion protein band with a molecular weight of 37 kD, and the Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the recombinant protein CPM36 and native 36 kD protein of C51-3 were recognized specifically by an antiserum against the recombinant protein, suggesting that the recombinant protein is an antigenic protein. PMID:18998549

Nazierbieke, Wulumuhan; Yan, Fang; He, Cui; Zhang, Lei; Borrathybay, Entomack

2008-08-01

287

Universal method for protein bioconjugation with nanocellulose scaffolds for increased cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is an emerging biomaterial since it is biocompatible, integrates well with host tissue and can be biosynthesized in desired architecture. However, being a hydrogel, it exhibits low affinity for cell attachment, which is crucial for the cellular fate process. To increase cell attachment, the surface of BNC scaffolds was modified with two proteins, fibronectin and collagen type I, using an effective bioconjugation method applying 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium (CDAP) tetrafluoroborate as the intermediate catalytic agent. The effect of CDAP treatment on cell adhesion to the BNC surface is shown for human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the mouse mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2. In both cases, the surface modification increased the number of cells attached to the surfaces. In addition, the morphology of the cells indicated more healthy and viable cells. CDAP activation of bacterial nanocellulose is shown to be a convenient method to conjugate extracellular proteins to the scaffold surfaces. CDAP treatment can be performed in a short period of time in an aqueous environment under heterogeneous and mild conditions preserving the nanofibrillar network of cellulose. PMID:24094166

Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Sämfors, Sanna; Hägg, Daniel; Gatenholm, Paul

2013-12-01

288

Interfacial tension of complex coacervated mussel adhesive protein according to the Hofmeister series.  

PubMed

Complex coacervation is a liquid-liquid phase separation in a colloidal system of two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes or colloids. The interfacial tension of the coacervate phase is the key parameter for micelle formation and interactions with the encapsulating material. However, the relationship between interfacial tensions and various salt solutions is poorly understood in complex coacervation. In the present work, the complex coacervate dynamics of recombinant mussel adhesive protein (MAP) with hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in the presence of Hofmeister series salt ions. Using measurements of absorbance, hydrodynamic diameter, capillary force, and receding contact angle in the bulk phase, the interfacial tensions of complex coacervated MAP/HA were determined to be 0.236, 0.256, and 0.287 mN/m in 250 mM NaHCOO, NaCl, and NaNO3 solutions, respectively. The sequences of interfacial tensions and contact angles of the complex coacervates in the presence of three sodium salts with different anions were found to follow the Hofmeister ordering. The tendency of interfacial tension between the coacervate and dilute phases in the presence of different types of Hofmeister salt ions could provide a better understanding of Hofmeister effects on complex coacervated materials based on the protein-polysaccharide system. This information can also be utilized for microencapsulation and adsorption by controlling intramolecular interactions. In addition, the injection molding dynamics of mussel byssus formation was potentially explained based on the measured interfacial tension of coacervated MAP. PMID:24490867

Lim, Seonghye; Moon, Dustin; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, In Seok; Cha, Hyung Joon

2014-02-01

289

Exchange of adsorbed serum proteins during adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to an abiotic surface and Candida albicans hyphae--an AFM study.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans are the second and third most commonly isolated microorganisms in hospital-related-infections, that are often multi-species in nature causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, adhesion forces between a S. aureus strain and abiotic (tissue-culture-polystyrene, TCPS) or partly biotic (TCPS with adhering hyphae of C. albicans) surfaces were investigated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum or individual serum proteins and related with staphylococcal adhesion. Atomic-force-microscopy was used to measure adhesion forces between S. aureus and the abiotic and biotic surfaces. Adsorption of individual serum proteins like albumin and apo-transferrin to abiotic TCPS surfaces during 60min, impeded development of strong adhesion forces as compared to fibronectin, while 60min adsorption of proteins from fetal-bovine-serum yielded a decrease in adhesion force from -5.7nN in phosphate-buffered-saline to -0.6nN. Adsorption of albumin and apo-transferrin also decreased staphylococcal adhesion forces to hyphae as compared with fibronectin. During 60min exposure to fetal-bovine-serum however, initial (5min protein adsorption) staphylococcal adhesion forces were low (-1.6nN), but strong adhesion forces of around -5.5nN were restored within 60min. This suggests for the first time that in whole fetal-bovine-serum exchange of non-adhesive proteins by fibronectin occurs on biotic C. albicans hyphal surfaces. No evidence was found for such protein exchange on abiotic TCPS surfaces. Staphylococcal adhesion of abiotic and biotic surfaces varied in line with the adhesion forces and was low on TCPS in presence of fetal-bovine-serum. On partly biotic TCPS, staphylococci aggregated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum around adhering C. albicans hyphae. PMID:23707849

Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J

2013-10-01

290

The evaluation of p,p'-DDT exposure on cell adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Many studies have found a positive association between the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and DDT exposure. These studies mainly focus on the effect of DDT exposure on cell proliferation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotion. However, the influence of DDT on cell adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be unclear. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of p,p'-DDT on cell adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The data showed that p,p'-DDT, exposing HepG2 cells for 6 days, decreased cell-cell adhesion and elevated cell-matrix adhesion. Strikingly, p,p'-DDT increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and this was accompanied by the activation of JAK/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, ROS inhibitor supplement reversed these effects significantly. However, the addition of ER inhibitor, ICI, had no effect on the p,p'-DDT-induced effects. p,p'-DDT altered the mRNA levels of related adhesion molecules, including inhibition of E-cadherin and promotion of N-cadherin along with CD29. Interestingly, the p,p'-DDT-altered adhesion molecules could be reversed with JAK inhibitor or STAT3 inhibitor. Likewise, p,p'-DDT stimulated the JAK/STAT3 pathway in nude mice, as well as altered the mRNA levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and CD29. Taken together, these results indicate that p,p'-DDT profoundly promotes the adhesion process by decreasing cell-cell adhesion and inducing cell-matrix adhesion via the ROS-mediated JAK/STAT3 pathway. All these events account for the carcinogenic potential of p,p'-DDT in liver. PMID:24820114

Jin, Xiaoting; Chen, Meilan; Song, Li; Li, Hanqing; Li, Zhuoyu

2014-08-01

291

Diffusion of clusters of transmembrane proteins as a model of focal adhesion remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal adhesions play a major role in maintaining the cell shape and motility, and in regulating numerous cellular processes.\\u000a Observations suggest that the functioning of focal adhesions is possible due to their dynamic nature, yet the mechanisms that\\u000a govern their motion are not well understood. This study addresses the process of focal adhesion remodeling using two distinct\\u000a theoretical approaches. Namely,

David M. Broday

2000-01-01

292

Fetuin-A, a Hepatocyte-Specific Protein That Binds Plasmodium berghei Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein: a Potential Role in Infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria infection is initiated when the insect vector injects Plasmodium sporozoites into a susceptible vertebrate host. Sporozoites rapidly leave the circulatory system to invade hepatocytes, where further devel- opment generates the parasite form that invades and multiplies within erythrocytes. Previous experiments have shown that the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) plays an important role in sporozoite infectivity for hepatocytes. TRAP, a

Deepa Jethwaney; Timothy Lepore; Saria Hassan; Kerrianne Mello; Radha Rangarajan; Willi Jahnen-Dechent; Dyann Wirth; Ali A. Sultan

2005-01-01

293

Regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and de-adhesion by a cell surface mechanism directed by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and endogenous thrombospondin-1.  

PubMed

T lymphocytes are highly motile and constantly reposition themselves between a free-floating vascular state, transient adhesion and migration in tissues. The regulation behind this unique dynamic behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that T cells have a cell surface mechanism for integrated regulation of motility and adhesion and that integrin ligands and CXCL12/SDF-1 influence motility and adhesion through this mechanism. Targeting cell surface-expressed low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) with an antibody, or blocking transport of LRP1 to the cell surface, perturbed the cell surface distribution of endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) while inhibiting motility and potentiating cytoplasmic spreading on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and fibronectin. Integrin ligands and CXCL12 stimulated motility and enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1, intact TSP-1 and a 130,000 MW TSP-1 fragment while preventing formation of a de-adhesion-coupled 110 000 MW TSP-1 fragment. The appearance of the 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment was inhibited by the antibody that targeted LRP1 expression, inhibited motility and enhanced spreading. The TSP-1 binding site in the LRP1-associated protein, calreticulin, stimulated adhesion to ICAM-1 through intact TSP-1 and CD47. Shear flow enhanced cell surface expression of intact TSP-1. Hence, chemokines and integrin ligands up-regulate a dominant motogenic pathway through LRP1 and TSP-1 cleavage and activate an associated adhesion pathway through the LRP1-calreticulin complex, intact TSP-1 and CD47. This regulation of T-cell motility and adhesion makes pro-adhesive stimuli favour motile responses, which may explain why T cells prioritize movement before permanent adhesion. PMID:24877199

Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

2014-06-01

294

The species-specific egg receptor for sea urchin sperm adhesion is EBR1,a novel ADAMTS protein.  

PubMed

Species-specific adhesion of sperm to the egg during sea urchin fertilization involves the interaction of the sperm adhesive protein,bindin, and a complementary receptor on the egg surface,and serves to restrict the gene pool to individuals of the same species. We used PCR representation difference analysis to clone the species-specific egg receptor for bindin, EBR1, from Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Sf) and S. purpuratus (Sp). Sf-EBR1 contains a novel ADAMTS-like N-terminal domain followed by approximately 19 tandem EBR repeats consisting of alternating CUB and thrombospondin type 1 (TSP-1) domains where the last 10 EBR repeats are species-specific and highly conserved. Recombinant protein corresponding to the species-specific EBR repeat displays species-specific sperm adhesion and bindin-binding activity. The Sp-EBR1 ortholog has the same ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-1 modules) core region followed by eight and one-half tandem egg bindin receptor (EBR) repeats that share 88% identity with the Sf-EBR1 repeats,but has an entirely different species-specific domain consisting of hyalin-like (HYR) repeats. Thus,the species-specific domains of egg bindin receptor 1 (EBR1) from both species function as the egg surface receptor to mediate species-specific sperm adhesion. PMID:14561772

Kamei, Noriko; Glabe, Charles G

2003-10-15

295

The species-specific egg receptor for sea urchin sperm adhesion is EBR1,a novel ADAMTS protein  

PubMed Central

Species-specific adhesion of sperm to the egg during sea urchin fertilization involves the interaction of the sperm adhesive protein,bindin, and a complementary receptor on the egg surface,and serves to restrict the gene pool to individuals of the same species. We used PCR representation difference analysis to clone the species-specific egg receptor for bindin, EBR1, from Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Sf) and S. purpuratus (Sp). Sf-EBR1 contains a novel ADAMTS-like N-terminal domain followed by ?19 tandem EBR repeats consisting of alternating CUB and thrombospondin type 1 (TSP-1) domains where the last 10 EBR repeats are species-specific and highly conserved. Recombinant protein corresponding to the species-specific EBR repeat displays species-specific sperm adhesion and bindin-binding activity. The Sp-EBR1 ortholog has the same ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-1 modules) core region followed by eight and one-half tandem egg bindin receptor (EBR) repeats that share 88% identity with the Sf-EBR1 repeats,but has an entirely different species-specific domain consisting of hyalin-like (HYR) repeats. Thus,the species-specific domains of egg bindin receptor 1 (EBR1) from both species function as the egg surface receptor to mediate species-specific sperm adhesion.

Kamei, Noriko; Glabe, Charles G.

2003-01-01

296

Direct modulatory effect of C-reactive protein on primary human monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypic acute phase serum protein in humans. The effects of CRP on primary human monocyte adhesion molecule expression and interaction with the endothelium have not been studied. Herein, we describe an investigation into the phenotypic and functional consequences of CRP binding to peripheral blood monocytes ex vivo. Peripheral whole blood was collected from healthy, non-smoking males. Mononuclear cells (MNC) and monocytes were isolated by differential centrifugation using lymphoprep and Dynal negative isolation kit, respectively. Cells were exposed to CRP from 0 to 250 µg/ml for 0–60 min at 37°C and analysed for (a) CD11b, PECAM-1 (CD31) and CD32 expression by flow cytometry and (b) adhesion to LPS (1 µg/ml; 0–24 h) treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). CD14+ monocyte expression of CD11b increased significantly up to twofold when exposed to CRP, compared to controls. There was no significant difference in CD32 expression, whereas CD31 expression decreased after exposure to CRP. CRP treatment of monocytes inhibited their adhesion to early LPS-activated HUVEC (0–5 h). However, the adhesion of CRP-treated monocytes to HUVEC was significantly greater to late activation antigens on HUVEC (24 h, LPS) compared to controls. We have shown that CRP can affect monocyte activation ex vivo and induce phenotypic changes that result in an altered recruitment to endothelial cells. This study provides the first evidence for a further role for C-reactive protein in both monocyte activation and adhesion, which may be of importance during an inflammatory event.

Woollard, K J; Phillips, D C; Griffiths, H R

2002-01-01

297

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein controls antigen-presenting cell-driven CD4+ T-cell motility by regulating adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1  

PubMed Central

T-cell scanning for antigen-presenting cells (APC) is a finely tuned process. Whereas non-cognate APC trigger T-cell motility via chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), cognate APC deliver a stop signal resulting from antigen recognition. We tested in vitro the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton regulator Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) to the scanning activity of primary human CD4+ T cells. WASP knock-down resulted in increased T-cell motility upon encounter with non-cognate dendritic cells or B cells and reduced capacity to stop following antigen recognition. The high motility of WASP-deficient T cells was accompanied by a diminished ability to round up and to stabilize pauses. WASP-deficient T cells migrated in a normal proportion towards CXCL12, CCL19 and CCL21, but displayed an increased adhesion and elongation on ICAM-1. The elongated morphology of WASP-deficient T cells was related to a reduced confinement of high-affinity lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 to the mid-cell zone. Our data therefore indicate that WASP controls CD4+ T-cell motility upon APC encounter by regulating lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 spatial distribution.

Lafouresse, Fanny; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Malet-Engra, Gema; Galy, Anne; Valitutti, Salvatore; Dupre, Loic

2012-01-01

298

Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Zyxin-Related Protein that Binds the Focal Adhesion and Microfilament Protein VASP (Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), an established substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in vitro and in living cells, is associated with focal adhesions, microfilaments, and membrane regions of high dynamic activity. Here, the identification of an 83-kDa protein (p83) that specifically binds VASP in blot overlays of different cell homogenates is reported. With VASP overlays as a detection tool, p83

Matthias Reinhard; Karin Jouvenal; Dominique Tripier; Ulrich Walter

1995-01-01

299

EspC Promotes Epithelial Cell Detachment by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli via Sequential Cleavages of a Cytoskeletal Protein and then Focal Adhesion Proteins.  

PubMed

EspC is a non-locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded autotransporter produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) that is secreted to the extracellular milieu by a type V secretion system and then translocated into epithelial cells by the type III secretion system. Here, we show that this efficient EspC delivery into the cell leads to a cytopathic effect characterized by cell rounding and cell detachment. Thus, EspC is the main protein involved in epithelial cell cytotoxicity detected during EPEC adhesion and pedestal formation assays. The cell detachment phenotype is triggered by cytoskeletal and focal adhesion disruption. EspC-producing EPEC is able to cleave fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but these effects are not observed when cells are infected with an espC isogenic mutant. Recovery of these phenotypes by complementing the mutant with the espC gene but not with the espC gene mutated in the serine protease motif highlights the role of the protease activity of EspC in the cell detachment phenotype. In vitro assays using purified proteins showed that EspC, but not EspC with an S256I substitution [EspCS256I], directly cleaves these cytoskeletal and focal adhesion proteins. Kinetics of protein degradation indicated that EspC-producing EPEC first cleaves fodrin (within the 11th and 9th repetitive units at the Q1219 and D938 residues, respectively), and this event sequentially triggers paxillin degradation, FAK dephosphorylation, and FAK degradation. Thus, cytoskeletal and focal adhesion protein cleavage leads to the cell rounding and cell detachment promoted by EspC-producing EPEC. PMID:24643541

Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Vidal, Jorge E; Salazar, M Isabel; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela

2014-06-01

300

Enhanced Adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni to Abiotic Surfaces Is Mediated by Membrane Proteins in Oxygen-Enriched Conditions  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the major foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. In contradiction with its fastidious growth requirements, this microaerobic pathogen can survive in aerobic food environments, suggesting that it must employ a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. For the first time, C. jejuni 81–176 inner and outer membrane subproteomes were analyzed separately using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis (2-DE) of oxygen-acclimated cells and microaerobically grown cells. LC-MS/MS analyses successfully identified 42 and 25 spots which exhibited a significantly altered abundance in the IMP-enriched fraction and in the OMP-enriched fraction, respectively, in response to oxidative conditions. These spots corresponded to 38 membrane proteins that could be grouped into different functional classes: (i) transporters, (ii) chaperones, (iii) fatty acid metabolism, (iv) adhesion/virulence and (v) other metabolisms. Some of these proteins were up-regulated at the transcriptional level in oxygen-acclimated cells as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Downstream analyses revealed that adhesion of C. jejuni to inert surfaces and swarming motility were enhanced in oxygen-acclimated cells or paraquat-stressed cells, which could be explained by the higher abundance of membrane proteins involved in adhesion and biofilm formation. The virulence factor CadF, over-expressed in the outer membrane of oxygen-acclimated cells, contributes to the complex process of C. jejuni adhesion to inert surfaces as revealed by a reduction in the capability of C. jejuni 81–176 ?CadF cells compared to the isogenic strain. Taken together, these data demonstrate that oxygen-enriched conditions promote the over-expression of membrane proteins involved in both the biofilm initiation and virulence of C. jejuni.

Sulaeman, Sheiam; Hernould, Mathieu; Schaumann, Annick; Coquet, Laurent; Bolla, Jean-Michel; De, Emmanuelle; Tresse, Odile

2012-01-01

301

Recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to ?1 integrin promotes cancer cell migration via mitogen activated protein kinase activation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions activate signaling cascades such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). Integrin binding to extracellular matrix increases tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK activity by expression of its carboxyl terminus decreases cell motility, and cells from FAK deficient mice also show reduced migration. Paxillin is a focal adhesion protein which is also phosphorylated on tyrosine. FAK recruitment of paxillin to the cell membrane correlates with Shc phosphorylation and activation of MAPK. Decreased FAK expression inhibits papilloma formation in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model. We previously demonstrated that MAPK activation was required for growth factor induced in vitro migration and invasion by human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines. Methods Adapter protein recruitment to integrin subunits was examined by co-immunoprecipitation in SCC cells attached to type IV collagen or plastic. Stable clones overexpressing FAK or paxillin were created using the lipofection technique. Modified Boyden chambers were used for invasion assays. Results In the present study, we showed that FAK and paxillin but not Shc are recruited to the ?1 integrin cytoplasmic domain following attachment of SCC cells to type IV collagen. Overexpression of either FAK or paxillin stimulated cancer cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane which was dependent on MAPK activity. Conclusions We concluded that recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to ?1 integrin promoted cancer cell migration via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

Crowe, David L; Ohannessian, Arthur

2004-01-01

302

MEASUREMENTS OF CONFORMATION CHANGES DURING ADHESION OF LIPID PROTEIN (POLYLYSINE AND S-LAYER) SURFACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The adhesion forces between various surfaces were measured using the "surface forces apparatus" technique which allows for the thickness of surface layers and the adhesion force between them to be directly measured in controlled vapor or liquid environments. hree types of biologi...

303

Fetuin-A, a Hepatocyte-Specific Protein That Binds Plasmodium berghei Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein: a Potential Role in Infectivity†  

PubMed Central

Malaria infection is initiated when the insect vector injects Plasmodium sporozoites into a susceptible vertebrate host. Sporozoites rapidly leave the circulatory system to invade hepatocytes, where further development generates the parasite form that invades and multiplies within erythrocytes. Previous experiments have shown that the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) plays an important role in sporozoite infectivity for hepatocytes. TRAP, a typical type-1 transmembrane protein, has a long extracellular region, which contains two adhesive domains, an A-domain and a thrombospondin repeat. We have generated recombinant proteins of the TRAP adhesive domains. These TRAP fragments show direct interaction with hepatocytes and inhibit sporozoite invasion in vitro. When the recombinant TRAP A-domain was used for immunoprecipitation against hepatocyte membrane fractions, it bound to ?2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A, a hepatocyte-specific protein associated with the extracellular matrix. When the soluble sporozoite protein fraction was immunoprecipitated on a fetuin-A-adsorbed protein A column, TRAP bound this ligand. Importantly, anti-fetuin-A antibodies inhibited invasion of hepatocytes by sporozoites. Further, onset of malaria infection was delayed in fetuin-A-deficient mice compared to that in wild-type C57BL/6 mice when they were challenged with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites. These data demonstrate that the extracellular region of TRAP interacts with fetuin-A on hepatocyte membranes and that this interaction enhances the parasite's ability to invade hepatocytes.

Jethwaney, Deepa; Lepore, Timothy; Hassan, Saria; Mello, Kerrianne; Rangarajan, Radha; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Wirth, Dyann; Sultan, Ali A.

2005-01-01

304

Adhesive properties of Clostridium perfringens to extracellular matrix proteins collagens and fibronectin.  

PubMed

The adhesive properties of Clostridium perfringens to collagens, gelatin, fibronectin (Fn), Fn-prebound collagens, and Fn-prebound gelatin were investigated. C. perfringens could bind to Fn-prebound collagen type II, type III, and gelatin, but not to gelatin or collagens except for collagen type I directly. Recombinant Fn-binding proteins of C. perfringens, rFbpA and rFbpB, were used to examine Fn-mediated bacterial adherence to collagen type I. In the presence of rFbps, C. perfringens adherence to Fn-prebound collagen type I was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Fn was not released from the coated collagen type I by the presence of rFbps, and rFbps did not bind to collagen type I. Thus, the inhibition of C. perfringens binding to Fn-prebound collagen type I by rFbps could not be explained by the removal of Fn from collagen or by the competitive binding of rFbps to collagen. Instead, both rFbps were found to bind to C. perfringens. These results suggest the possibility that rFbps may bind to the putative Fn receptor expressed on C. perfringens and competitively inhibit Fn binding to C. perfringens. PMID:24239649

Hitsumoto, Yasuo; Morita, Naomi; Yamazoe, Ryosuke; Tagomori, Mika; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Katayama, Seiichi

2014-02-01

305

Effect of avidin-like proteins and biotin modification on mesenchymal stem cell adhesion  

PubMed Central

The avidin-biotin system is a highly specific reaction that has been used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including surface modification and cell patterning. We systematically examined a number of avidin derivatives as the basis for a simple and cost effective tissue culture polystyrene substrate surface modification for human stem cell culture. Non-specific adhesion between human mesenchymal stem cells and various avidin derivatives, media conditions, and subsequent biotinylation reactions was quantified. We observed significant non-specific cell adhesion to avidin and strepthavidin, indicating that previous observations using this system may be artifactual. Seeding of cells in serum free media, blocking with bovine-serum albumin, and the use of the avidin derivative Neutravidin were all necessary for elimination of background adhesion. Neutravidin conjugated with biotinylated bsp-RGD(15) peptide provided the most robust cell adhesion, as well as the greatest increase in cell adhesion over background levels.

Schmidt, Ray C.; Healy, Kevin E.

2013-01-01

306

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Protein Encoding Genes Are Coregulated by Mss11, but Cellular Adhesion Phenotypes Appear Only Flo Protein Dependent  

PubMed Central

The outer cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as the interface with the surrounding environment and directly affects cell?cell and cell?surface interactions. Many of these interactions are facilitated by specific adhesins that belong to the Flo protein family. Flo mannoproteins have been implicated in phenotypes such as flocculation, substrate adhesion, biofilm formation, and pseudohyphal growth. Genetic data strongly suggest that individual Flo proteins are responsible for many specific cellular adhesion phenotypes. However, it remains unclear whether such phenotypes are determined solely by the nature of the expressed FLO genes or rather as the result of a combination of FLO gene expression and other cell wall properties and cell wall proteins. Mss11 has been shown to be a central element of FLO1 and FLO11 gene regulation and acts together with the cAMP-PKA-dependent transcription factor Flo8. Here we use genome-wide transcription analysis to identify genes that are directly or indirectly regulated by Mss11. Interestingly, many of these genes encode cell wall mannoproteins, in particular, members of the TIR and DAN families. To examine whether these genes play a role in the adhesion properties associated with Mss11 expression, we assessed deletion mutants of these genes in wild-type and flo11? genetic backgrounds. This analysis shows that only FLO genes, in particular FLO1/10/11, appear to significantly impact on such phenotypes. Thus adhesion-related phenotypes are primarily dependent on the balance of FLO gene expression.

Bester, Michael C.; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F.

2012-01-01

307

Effect of the distribution of adsorbed proteins on cellular adhesion behaviors using surfaces of nanoscale phase-reversed amphiphilic block copolymers.  

PubMed

In order to create suitable biocompatible materials for various tissue engineering applications, it is important to be able to understand protein adsorption and cell adhesion behaviors on the material's surfaces. It is known that the nanoscale distribution of adsorbed proteins affects cell adhesion behaviors. However, how nanoscale structures affect cell adhesion behaviors is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effect of the distribution of adsorbed proteins by the phase reversal of amphiphilic block copolymers composed of protein-non-adsorptive poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and protein-adsorptive poly(3-methacryloyloxy propyltris(trimethylsilyloxy) silane) (PMPTSSi) on cell adhesion behaviors. The nanodomain structures of phase-separated block copolymers were successfully confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Surfaces that had PMPC dot-like domains (23±4nm) and ones that had PMPTSSi dot-like domains (25±6nm) were made. From protein adsorption and L929 cell adhesion measurements, it was found that even on surfaces with equal quantities of protein adsorption, the number of cells on surfaces with PMPC dot-like domains was larger than those with PMPTSSi dot-like domains. This suggests that the simple phase-reversal of the distribution of adsorbed proteins can be used to affect cell adhesion behaviors for designing biomaterial surfaces for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24690479

Hiraguchi, Yukari; Nagahashi, Koji; Shibayama, Takashi; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Yano, Taka-Aki; Kushiro, Keiichiro; Takai, Madoka

2014-07-01

308

Conserved roles of the prion protein domains on subcellular localization and cell-cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Analyses of cultured cells and transgenic mice expressing prion protein (PrP) deletion mutants have revealed that some properties of PrP -such as its ability to misfold, aggregate and trigger neurotoxicity- are controlled by discrete molecular determinants within its protein domains. Although the contributions of these determinants to PrP biosynthesis and turnover are relatively well characterized, it is still unclear how they modulate cellular functions of PrP. To address this question, we used two defined activities of PrP as functional readouts: 1) the recruitment of PrP to cell-cell contacts in Drosophila S2 and human MCF-7 epithelial cells, and 2) the induction of PrP embryonic loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes in zebrafish. Our results show that homologous mutations in mouse and zebrafish PrPs similarly affect their subcellular localization patterns as well as their in vitro and in vivo activities. Among PrP's essential features, the N-terminal leader peptide was sufficient to drive targeting of our constructs to cell contact sites, whereas lack of GPI-anchoring and N-glycosylation rendered them inactive by blocking their cell surface expression. Importantly, our data suggest that the ability of PrP to homophilically trans-interact and elicit intracellular signaling is primarily encoded in its globular domain, and modulated by its repetitive domain. Thus, while the latter induces the local accumulation of PrPs at discrete punctae along cell contacts, the former counteracts this effect by promoting the continuous distribution of PrP. In early zebrafish embryos, deletion of either domain significantly impaired PrP's ability to modulate E-cadherin cell adhesion. Altogether, these experiments relate structural features of PrP to its subcellular distribution and in vivo activity. Furthermore, they show that despite their large evolutionary history, the roles of PrP domains and posttranslational modifications are conserved between mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23936187

Solis, Gonzalo P; Radon, Yvonne; Sempou, Emily; Jechow, Katharina; Stuermer, Claudia A O; Málaga-Trillo, Edward

2013-01-01

309

Phg1p is a nine-transmembrane protein superfamily member involved in dictyostelium adhesion and phagocytosis.  

PubMed

To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in phagocytosis, we generated random insertion mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum and selected two mutants defective for phagocytosis. Both represented insertions in the same gene, named PHG1. This gene encodes a polytopic membrane protein with an N-terminal lumenal domain and nine potential transmembrane segments. Homologous genes can be identified in many species; however, their function is yet to be elucidated. Disruption of PHG1 caused a selective defect in phagocytosis of latex beads and Escherichia coli, but not Klebsiella aerogenes bacteria. This defect in phagocytosis was caused by a decrease in the adhesion of mutant cells to phagocytosed particles. These results indicate that the Phg1 protein is involved in the adhesion of Dictyostelium to various substrates, a crucial event of phagocytosis and demonstrate the usefulness of a genetic approach to dissect the molecular events involved in the phagocytic process. PMID:10944536

Cornillon, S; Pech, E; Benghezal, M; Ravanel, K; Gaynor, E; Letourneur, F; Brückert, F; Cosson, P

2000-11-01

310

Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium falciparum: expression during sporozoite ontogeny and binding to human hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium sporozoites collected from oocysts, haemocoel and salivary glands of the mosquito show profound differences in their biological properties such as motility, ability to induce protective immune response and infectivity for vertebrate host cells. Sporozoites from salivary glands are much more infectious than those from oocysts and haemocoel. Differential expression of proteins, such as the circumsporozoite (CS) protein and the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), implicated in sporozoite recognition and entry into hepatocytes may account for the development of infectivity during ontogeny. We have carried out a series of experiments to: (i) analyse the expression and localization of TRAP in P.falciparum sporozoites during development in the mosquito; and (ii) elucidate the biochemical and adhesive properties of recombinant TRAP. Our data indicate that TRAP is not expressed in oocysts, whereas variable amounts of CS protein are found in this parasite developmental stage. Hemocoel sporozoites display the distinct phenotypes TRAP- CS protein+ and TRAP+ CS protein+ at a frequency of 98.5 and 1.5% respectively. Salivary gland sporozoites are all TRAP+ CS protein+. We also provide experimental evidence showing that recombinant TRAP binds to the basolateral cell membrane of hepatocytes in the Disse's space and that sulfated glycoconjugates function as TRAP ligands on human hepatocytes. Images

Robson, K J; Frevert, U; Reckmann, I; Cowan, G; Beier, J; Scragg, I G; Takehara, K; Bishop, D H; Pradel, G; Sinden, R

1995-01-01

311

Internalization of adhesion junction proteins and their association with recycling endosome marker proteins in rat seminiferous epithelium.  

PubMed

Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) are elaborate cytoskeleton-related structures that are formed in association with intercellular junctions in the seminiferous epithelium. They consist of a cylindrical double-membrane core composed of the plasma membranes of the two attached cells, cuffed by a dendritic network of actin filaments. TBCs are proposed to be subcellular machines that internalize intercellular junctions during the extensive junction remodeling that occurs during spermatogenesis. At the apical sites of attachment between Sertoli cells and spermatids, junction disassembly is part of the sperm release mechanism. In this study, we used immunological probes to explore junction internalization and recycling at apical TBCs in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We demonstrate that ?1-integrin and nectin 2 were concentrated at the ends of TBCs and for the first time show that the early endosome marker RAB5A was also distinctly localized at the ends of TBCs that appear to be the 'bulbar' regions of the complexes. Significantly, we also demonstrate that the 'long-loop' recycling endosome marker RAB11A was co-distributed with nectin 2 at junctions with early spermatids deeper in the epithelium. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that TBCs associated with late spermatids internalize adhesion junctions and also indicate that some of the internalized junction proteins may be recycled to form junctions with the next generation of spermatids. PMID:22157319

Young, J'Nelle S; Takai, Yoshimi; Kojic, Katarina L; Vogl, A Wayne

2012-03-01

312

Induction of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins and Increased Adhesion of Quinolone-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Subinhibitory Levels of Ciprofloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that strain EN1252a, a fluoroquinolone-resistant derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325 with mutations in grlA and gyrA, expressed increased levels of fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and showed a significantly higher attachment to fibronectin-coated polymer surfaces after growth in the pres- ence of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin. The present study evaluated the occurrence and fre- quency of fluoroquinolone-induced FnBP-mediated adhesion

CARMELO BISOGNANO; PIERRE VAUDAUX; PETER ROHNER; DANIEL P. LEW; DAVID C. HOOPER

2000-01-01

313

Development of a rapid immunochromatographic test using a recombinant thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Babesia gibsoni.  

PubMed

We developed an immunochromatographic test (ICT) with the full-length of thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Babesia gibsoni expressed by the modified expression method. The developed ICT showed high sensitivity, specificity, and kappa value with a reference test (100%, 93.78%, and 0.8976, respectively), indicating that the ICT could be a new practical diagnostic test for B. gibsoni infection. PMID:22795671

Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Lee, Naeun; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Luo, Yuzi; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kim, Suk; Xuan, Xuenan

2012-12-21

314

Spin-lattice relaxation of water protons in serum adhesion protein (SAP) solutions of ultra low concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-lattice relaxation of water protons in serum adhesion protein (SAP) solutions of ultra low concentrations (10?13, 10?15, 10?16, 10?17, 10?19 M) are investigated in the temperature range 288–330 K. It is shown that the Arrenius equation with two activation energies describes the experimental function T1=f(T). The activation energies of water proton motion for all studied solutions and for clean water

T. A. Babushkina; T. P. Klimova; I. A. Yamskov; V. P. Yamskova

2005-01-01

315

Lactobacillus plantarum surface layer adhesive protein protects intestinal epithelial cells against tight junction injury induced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) has previously been used for the treatment and prevention of intestinal disorders and disease. However, the role of the\\u000a LP surface layer adhesive protein (SLAP) in inhibition of epithelial cell disruption is not fully understood. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to investigate the protective effects of purified SLAP on Caco-2 cells infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia

Zhihua LiuTongyi; Tongyi Shen; Peng Zhang; Yanlei Ma; Huanlong Qin

2011-01-01

316

A Role for the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45 in Macrophage Adhesion through the Regulation of Paxillin Degradation  

PubMed Central

CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed on all cells of hematopoietic origin that is known to regulate Src family kinases. In macrophages, the absence of CD45 has been linked to defects in adhesion, however the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that bone marrow derived macrophages from CD45-deficient mice exhibit abnormal cell morphology and defective motility. These defects are accompanied by substantially decreased levels of the cytoskeletal-associated protein paxillin, without affecting the levels of other proteins. Degradation of paxillin in CD45-deficient macrophages is calpain-mediated, as treatment with a calpain inhibitor restores paxillin levels in these cells and enhances cell spreading. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinases proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), kinases that are capable of mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, also restored paxillin levels, indicating a role for these kinases in the CD45-dependent regulation of paxillin. These data demonstrate that CD45 functions to regulate Pyk2/FAK activity, likely through the activity of Src family kinases, which in turn regulates the levels of paxillin to modulate macrophage adhesion and migration.

St-Pierre, Joelle; Ostergaard, Hanne L.

2013-01-01

317

A role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 in macrophage adhesion through the regulation of paxillin degradation.  

PubMed

CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed on all cells of hematopoietic origin that is known to regulate Src family kinases. In macrophages, the absence of CD45 has been linked to defects in adhesion, however the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that bone marrow derived macrophages from CD45-deficient mice exhibit abnormal cell morphology and defective motility. These defects are accompanied by substantially decreased levels of the cytoskeletal-associated protein paxillin, without affecting the levels of other proteins. Degradation of paxillin in CD45-deficient macrophages is calpain-mediated, as treatment with a calpain inhibitor restores paxillin levels in these cells and enhances cell spreading. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinases proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), kinases that are capable of mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, also restored paxillin levels, indicating a role for these kinases in the CD45-dependent regulation of paxillin. These data demonstrate that CD45 functions to regulate Pyk2/FAK activity, likely through the activity of Src family kinases, which in turn regulates the levels of paxillin to modulate macrophage adhesion and migration. PMID:23936270

St-Pierre, Joëlle; Ostergaard, Hanne L

2013-01-01

318

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells  

PubMed Central

Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p < 0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p < 0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p < 0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells.

Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shuai; Qin, Hua-Min; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

2014-01-01

319

Adhesion and Degranulation Promoting Adapter Protein (ADAP) Is a Central Hub for Phosphotyrosine-Mediated Interactions in T Cells  

PubMed Central

TCR stimulation leads to an increase in cellular adhesion among other outcomes. The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin family. While three tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been characterized biochemically, the binding capabilities and associated functions of several other potential phosphotyrosine motifs remain unclear. Here, we utilize in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to map novel phosphotyrosine sites in the C-terminal part of human ADAP (486–783). Individual tyrosines were then mutated to phenylalanine and their relevance for cellular adhesion and migration was tested experimentally. Functionally important tyrosine residues include two sites within the folded hSH3 domains of ADAP and two at the C-terminus. Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC) we identified SLP-76, PLC?, PIK3R1, Nck, CRK, Gads, and RasGAP as phospho-dependent binding partners of a central YDDV motif of ADAP. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between ADAP and Nck was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation and binary pulldown experiments, indicating that ADAP directly links integrins to modulators of the cytoskeleton independent of SLP-76.

Sylvester, Marc; Kliche, Stefanie; Lange, Sabine; Geithner, Sabine; Klemm, Clementine; Schlosser, Andreas; Grossmann, Arndt; Stelzl, Ulrich; Schraven, Burkhart; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

2010-01-01

320

Members of the Pmp protein family of Chlamydia pneumoniae mediate adhesion to human cells via short repetitive peptide motifs  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae sp. are obligate intracellular pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans. Adhesion of the infectious elementary body to the eukaryotic host cell is a pivotal step in chlamydial pathogenesis. Here we describe the characterization of members of the polymorphic membrane protein family (Pmp), the largest protein family (with up to 21 members) unique to Chlamydiaceae. We show that yeast cells displaying Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 on their surfaces, or beads coated with the recombinant proteins, adhere to human epithelial cells. A hallmark of the Pmp protein family is the presence of multiple repeats of the tetrapeptide motifs FxxN and GGA(I, L, V) and deletion analysis shows that at least two copies of these motifs are needed for adhesion. Importantly, pre-treatment of human cells with recombinant Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 protein reduces infectivity upon subsequent challenge with Chlamydia pneumoniae and correlates with diminished attachment of Chlamydiae to target cells. Antibodies specific for Pmp21 can neutralize infection in vitro. Finally, a combination of two different Pmp proteins in infection blockage experiments shows additive effects, possibly suggesting similar functions. Our findings imply that Pmp6, Pmp20 and Pmp21 act as adhesins, are vital during infection and thus represent promising vaccine candidates.

Molleken, Katja; Schmidt, Eleni; Hegemann, Johannes H

2010-01-01

321

Recombinant S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus brevis mediating antibody adhesion to calf intestine alleviated neonatal diarrhea syndrome.  

PubMed

A chimeric gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a S-layer protein from Lactobacillus brevis KCTC3102, and/or two copies of the Fc-binding Z-domain, a synthetic analog of the B-domain of protein A, was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The S-layer fusion proteins produced in a 500-l fermentor were likely to be stable in the range of pH 5 to 8 and 0 degree to 40 degrees . Their adhesive property enabled an easy and rapid immobilization of enzymes or antibodies on solid materials such as plastics, glass, sol-gel films, and intestinal epithelial cells. Owing to their affinity towards intestinal cells and immunoglobulin G, the Slayer fusion proteins enabled the adhesion of antibodies to human epithelial cells. In addition, feeding a mixture of the S-layer fusion proteins and antibodies against neonatal calf diarrhea (coronavirus, rotavirus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium) to Hanwoo calves resulted in 100% prevention of neonatal calf diarrhea syndrome (p<0.01),whereas feeding antibodies only resulted in 56% prevention. PMID:19494700

Khang, Yong-Ho; Park, Hee-Young; Jeong, Yoo-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Young-Hwan

2009-05-01

322

Protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) is required for protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPmu)-dependent neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPmu) is an adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily and is expressed in the developing nervous system. We have shown that PTPmu can promote neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells and it regulates neurite outgrowth mediated by N-cadherin (S. M. Burden-Gulley and S. M. Brady-Kalnay, 1999, J. Cell Biol. 144, 1323-1336). We previously demonstrated that PTPmu binds to the scaffolding protein RACK1 in yeast and mammalian cells (T. Mourton et al., 2001, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 14896-14901). RACK1 is a receptor for activated protein kinase C (PKC). In this article, we demonstrate that PKC is involved in PTPmu-dependent signaling. PTPmu, RACK1, and PKCdelta exist in a complex in cultured retinal cells and retinal tissue. Using pharmacologic inhibition of PKC, we demonstrate that PKCdelta is required for neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells on a PTPmu substrate. These results suggest that PTPmu signaling via RACK1 requires PKCdelta activity to promote neurite outgrowth. PMID:11860281

Rosdahl, Jullia A; Mourton, Tracy L; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M

2002-02-01

323

Role of Lactobacillus reuteri cell and mucus-binding protein A (CmbA) in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus in vitro.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri, a symbiotic inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals, is marketed as a probiotic. The ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus is an interesting property with regard to probiotic features such as colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and interaction with the host. Here, we present a study performed to elucidate the role of sortase (SrtA), four putative sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs), and one C-terminal membrane-anchored cell surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 in adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus in vitro. This included mutagenesis of the genes encoding these proteins and complementation of mutants. A null mutation in hmpref0536_10255 encoding srtA resulted in significantly reduced adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus, indicating involvement of SDPs in adhesion. Evaluation of the bacterial adhesion revealed that of the five putative surface protein mutants tested, only a null mutation in the hmpref0536_10633 gene, encoding a putative SDP with an LPxTG motif, resulted in a significant loss of adhesion to both Caco-2 cells and mucus. Complementation with the functional gene on a plasmid restored adhesion to Caco-2 cells. However, complete restoration of adhesion to mucus was not achieved. Overexpression of hmpref0536_10633 in strain ATCC PTA 6475 resulted in an increased adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus compared with the WT strain. We conclude from these results that, among the putative surface proteins tested, the protein encoded by hmpref0536_10633 plays a critical role in binding of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 to Caco-2 cells and mucus. Based on this, we propose that this LPxTG motif containing protein should be referred to as cell and mucus binding protein A (CmbA). PMID:24473252

Jensen, Hanne; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A; Axelsson, Lars

2014-04-01

324

Calcium Dobesilate Inhibits the Alterations in Tight Junction Proteins and Leukocyte Adhesion to Retinal Endothelial Cells Induced by Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in the last decades, but its mechanisms of action are not elucidated. CaD is able to correct the excessive vascular permeability in the retina of diabetic patients and in experimental diabetes. We investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CaD against the increase in blood–retinal barrier (BRB) permeability induced by diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with CaD. The BRB breakdown was evaluated using Evans blue. The content or distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, and zonula occluden-1 [ZO-1]), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Leukocyte adhesion was evaluated in retinal vessels and in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the detection of oxidized carbonyls and tyrosine nitration. NF-?B activation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Diabetes increased the BRB permeability and retinal thickness. Diabetes also decreased occludin and claudin-5 levels and altered the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin in retinal vessels. These changes were inhibited by CaD treatment. CaD also inhibited the increase in leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels or endothelial cells and in ICAM-1 levels, induced by diabetes or elevated glucose. Moreover, CaD decreased oxidative stress and p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation caused by diabetes. CONCLUSIONS CaD prevents the BRB breakdown induced by diabetes, by restoring tight junction protein levels and organization and decreasing leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels. The protective effects of CaD are likely to involve the inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation, possibly through the inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

Leal, Ermelindo C.; Martins, Joao; Voabil, Paula; Liberal, Joana; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Bauer, Jacques; Cunha-Vaz, Jose; Ambrosio, Antonio F.

2010-01-01

325

Molecular cloning, structural analysis and functional expression of the proline-rich focal adhesion and microfilament-associated protein VASP.  

PubMed Central

The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a substrate for cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in vitro and in intact cells, is associated with actin filaments, focal adhesions and dynamic membrane regions. VASP, cloned here from human HL-60 and canine MDCK cells, is organized into three distinct domains. A central proline-rich domain contains a GPPPPP motif as a single copy and as a 3-fold tandem repeat, as well as three conserved phosphorylation sites for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. A C-terminal domain contains a repetitive mixed-charge cluster which is predicted to form an alpha-helix. The hydrodynamic properties of purified human VASP together with the calculated molecular mass of cloned VASP suggest that the native protein is a homotetramer with an elongated structure. VASP over-expressed in transiently transfected BHK21 cells was predominantly detected at stress fibres, at focal adhesions and in F-actin-containing cell surface protrusions, whereas truncated VASP lacking the C-terminal domain was no longer concentrated at focal adhesions. These data indicate that the C-terminal domain is required for anchoring VASP at focal adhesion sites, whereas the central domain is suggested to mediate VASP interaction with profilin. Our results provide evidence for the structural basis by which VASP, both a target of the cAMP and cGMP signal transduction pathways and a component of the actin-based cytoskeleton, including the cytoskeleton-membrane interface, may be able to exchange signals between these networks. Images

Haffner, C; Jarchau, T; Reinhard, M; Hoppe, J; Lohmann, S M; Walter, U

1995-01-01

326

Inhibition of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxylapatite by commercial dairy powders and individual milk proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of various dairy powders and milk constituents on the adhesion\\u000a of a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel. Adhesion of a microorganism to a cell surface such as epithelial cells\\u000a or tooth enamel is considered to be the first step in pathogenesis.

R. M. Halpin; M. M. O’Connor; A. McMahon; C. Boughton; E. D. O’Riordan; M. O’Sullivan; D. B. Brady

2008-01-01

327

Reaction of Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) with Primary Amines  

PubMed Central

Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial copper-dependent amine oxidase involved in the recruitment and extravasation of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. VAP-1 is an important therapeutic target for several pathological conditions. We expressed soluble VAP-1 in HEK293 EBNA1 cells at levels suitable for detailed mechanistic studies with model substrates. Using the model substrate benzylamine, we analyzed the steady-state kinetic parameters of VAP-1 as a function of solution pH. We found two macroscopic pKa values that defined a bell-shaped plot of turnover number kcat,app as a function of pH, representing ionizable groups in the enzyme-substrate complex. The dependence of (kcat/Km)app on pH revealed a single pKa value (?9) that we assigned to ionization of the amine group in free benzylamine substrate. A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 6 to 7.6 on (kcat/Km)app over the pH range of 6 to 10 was observed with d2-benzylamine. Over the same pH range, the KIE on kcat was found to be close to unity. The unusual KIE values on (kcat/Km)app were rationalized using a mechanistic scheme that includes the possibility of multiple isotopically sensitive steps. We also report the analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) using para-substituted protiated and deuterated phenylethylamines. With phenylethylamines we observed a large KIE on kcat,app (8.01 ± 0.28 with phenylethylamine), indicating that C–H bond breakage is limiting for 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone reduction. Poor correlations were observed between steady-state rate constants and QSAR parameters. We show the importance of combining KIE, QSAR, and structural studies to gain insight into the complexity of the VAP-1 steady-state mechanism.

Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Gummadova, Jennet O.; Pang, Jiayun; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

2011-01-01

328

Differential interactions between transforming growth factor-beta3/TbetaR1, TAB1, and CD2AP disrupt blood-testis barrier and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion.  

PubMed

The biochemical basis that regulates the timely and selective opening of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to migrating preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle in adult rat testes is virtually unknown. Recent studies have shown that cytokines (e.g. transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3) may play a crucial role in this event. However, much of this information relies on the use of toxicants (e.g. CdCl(2)), making it difficult to relay these findings to normal testicular physiology. Here we report that overexpression of TGF-beta3 in primary Sertoli cells cultured in vitro indeed perturbed the tight junction (TJ) barrier with a concomitant decline in the production of BTB constituent proteins as follows: occludin, N-cadherin, and ZO-1. Additionally, local administration of TGF-beta3 to testes in vivo was shown to reversibly perturb the BTB integrity and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion via the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathways. Most importantly, the simultaneous activation of p38 and ERK signaling pathways is dependent on the association of the TGF-beta3-TbetaR1 complex with adaptors TAB1 and CD2AP because if TbetaR1 was associated preferentially with CD2AP, only Sertoli-germ cell adhesion was perturbed without compromising the BTB. Collectively, these data illustrate that local production of TGF-beta3, and perhaps other TGF-betas and cytokines, by Sertoli and germ cells into the microenvironment at the BTB during spermatogenesis transiently perturbs the BTB and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion to facilitate germ cell migration when the activated TbetaRI interacts with adaptors TAB1 and CD2AP. However, TGF-beta3 selectively disrupts Sertoli-germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium to facilitate germ cell migration without compromising BTB when TbetaRI interacts only with adaptor CD2AP. PMID:16617054

Xia, Weiliang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2006-06-16

329

Expression and distribution of cell adhesion-related proteins in bovine parthenogenetic embryos: The effects of oocyte vitrification.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate expression of cell adhesion-related proteins (E-cadherin, ?-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) in bovine parthenogenetic embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes. Bovine oocytes at metaphase II were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without freezing (toxicity); and (3) vitrified and warmed by the open-pulled straw method (vitrification). After parthenogenetic activation, in the vitrification group compared with the control, the timing of compaction was delayed in (108-120 vs. 96-108 hours, respectively), and the percentage of blastocysts that developed from eight-cell embryos was lower (32.08% vs. 61.03%; P < 0.05). To investigate whether vitrification delayed embryo compaction by affecting adhesion junction formation and function, immunostaining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to characterize distribution patterns (E-cadherin, ?-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) and expression levels of cell adhesion-related proteins (?-catenin). Distribution of ?-catenin in eight-cell embryos from the vitrification group changed dramatically compared with the control and toxicity groups. Relative expression of ?-catenin at the mRNA and protein levels was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the fresh and toxicity groups. However, expression and distribution of E-cadherin were similar among groups. In conclusion, abnormal distribution and decreased expression of ?-catenin in bovine parthenogenetic eight-cell embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes were associated with embryo compaction and reduced competence for subsequent embryo development. PMID:23602219

Zeng, Yan; Fu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Guangbin; Yue, Mingxing; Zhou, Yanhua; Zhu, Shien

2013-07-01

330

A multifunctional streptococcal collagen-mimetic protein coating prevents bacterial adhesion and promotes osteoid formation on titanium.  

PubMed

The major barriers to the clinical success of orthopedic and dental implants are poor integration of fixtures with bone tissue and biomaterial-associated infections. Although multifunctional device coatings have long been considered a promising strategy, their development is hindered by difficulties in integrating biocompatibility, anti-infective activity and antithrombotic properties within a single grafting agent. In this study, we used cell adhesion assays and confocal microscopy of primary murine osteoblasts and human osteoblast cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 to demonstrate that a streptococcal collagen-like protein engineered to display the ?1 and ?2 integrin recognition sequences enhances osteoblast adhesion and spreading on titanium fixtures. By measuring calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity, we also showed that selective activation of ?2?1 integrin induces osteoblast differentiation, osteoid formation and mineralization. Moreover, cell adhesion assays and scanning electron microscopy of clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus Philips and Staphylococcus epidermidis 9491 indicated that streptococcal collagen-mimetic proteins inhibit bacterial colonization and biofilm formation irrespective of their interaction with integrins. Given that streptococcal collagenous substrates neither interact with platelets nor trigger a strong immune response, this novel bioactive coating appears to have desirable multifaceted properties with promising translational applications. PMID:24732634

Bronk, Julianna K; Russell, Brooke H; Rivera, Jose J; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Höök, Magnus; Barbu, E Magda

2014-07-01

331

Exploring the Molecular Origins of Bio(in)compatibility: Adhesion Between Proteins and Individual Chains of Poly(ethylene oxide)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical determinant of the biocompatibility of implanted blood-contacting devices is the initial noncovalent adsorption of blood plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Using high-resolution force spectroscopy, we have measured the complex intermolecular interaction forces between individual end-grafted PEO chains and a probe tip covalently bound with human serum albumin, the most abundant blood plasma protein in the human body. On approach, a long-range, nonlinear repulsive force is observed. Upon retraction, however, adhesion between the HSA probe tip and PEO chain occurs, which in many cases is strong enough to allow long-range adhesion and stretching of the individual PEO chains. The known PEO strain-induced conformational transition from the helical (ttg) to the planar (ttt) conformation is clearly observed and seen to shift to lower force values. Statistical analysis of adhesion data, comparison to a variety of control experiments, and theoretical modeling enable us to interpret these experimental results in terms of electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and steric forces.

Rixman, Monica A.; Ortiz, Christine

2002-03-01

332

New insights into the roles of Xin repeat-containing proteins in cardiac development, function, and disease.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of Xin repeat-containing proteins in 1996, the importance of Xin proteins in muscle development, function, regeneration, and disease has been continuously implicated. Most Xin proteins are localized to myotendinous junctions of the skeletal muscle and also to intercalated discs (ICDs) of the heart. The Xin gene is only found in vertebrates, which are characterized by a true chambered heart. This suggests that the evolutionary origin of the Xin gene may have played a key role in vertebrate origins. Diverse vertebrates including mammals possess two paralogous genes, Xin? (or Xirp1) and Xin? (or Xirp2), and this review focuses on the role of their encoded proteins in cardiac muscles. Complete loss of mouse Xin? (mXin?) results in the failure of forming ICD, severe growth retardation, and early postnatal lethality. Deletion of mouse Xin? (mXin?) leads to late-onset cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. Molecular studies have identified three classes of mXin?-interacting proteins: catenins, actin regulators/modulators, and ion-channel subunits. Thus, mXin? acts as a scaffolding protein modulating the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and ion-channel surface expression. Xin expression is significantly upregulated in early stages of stressed hearts, whereas Xin expression is downregulated in failing hearts from various human cardiomyopathies. Thus, mutations in these Xin loci may lead to diverse cardiomyopathies and heart failure. PMID:24725425

Wang, Qinchuan; Lin, Jenny Li-Chun; Erives, Albert J; Lin, Cheng-I; Lin, Jim Jung-Ching

2014-01-01

333

Structure and function of a bacterial Fasciclin I Domain Protein elucidates function of related cell adhesion proteins such as TGFBIp and periostin?  

PubMed Central

Fasciclin I (FAS1) domains have important roles in cell adhesion, which are not understood despite many structural and functional studies. Examples of FAS1 domain proteins include TGFBIp (?ig-h3) and periostin, which function in angiogenesis and development of cornea and bone, and are also highly expressed in cancer tissues. Here we report the structure of a single-domain bacterial fasciclin I protein, Fdp, in the free-living photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and show that it confers cell adhesion properties in vivo. A binding site is identified which includes the most highly conserved region and is adjacent to the N-terminus. By mapping this onto eukaryotic homologues, which all contain tandem FAS1 domains, it is concluded that the interaction site is normally buried in the dimer interface. This explains why corneal dystrophy mutations are concentrated in the C-terminal domain of TGFBIp and suggests new therapeutic approaches.

Moody, Robert G.; Williamson, Mike P.

2013-01-01

334

Ras guanyl nucleotide releasing protein 2 affects cell viability and cell-matrix adhesion in ECV304 endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Ras guanyl nucleotide releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras and Rap. We recently reported that xrasgrp2, which is a homolog of the human rasgrp2, plays a role in vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis during early development of Xenopus embryos. However, the function of RasGRP2 in human vascular endothelium remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to analyze the function of human RasGRP2 in vascular endothelial cells. RasGRP2 overexpression did not increase Ras activation. However, it slightly increased Ras expression and increased proliferation in ECV304 cells. Furthermore, RasGRP2 overexpression increased Rap1 activation and cell–matrix adhesion in ECV304 cells. These data demonstrate that RasGRP2 increases cell viability and cell–matrix adhesion through increased Ras expression and Rap1 activation, respectively, in endothelial cells.

Takino, Junichi; Nagamine, Kentaro; Hori, Takamitsu

2013-01-01

335

Poly(ethylene glycol) grafting to poly(ether imide) membranes: influence on protein adsorption and thrombocyte adhesion.  

PubMed

The chain length and end groups of linear PEG grafted on smooth surfaces is known to influence protein adsorption and thrombocyte adhesion. Here, it is explored whether established structure function relationships can be transferred to application relevant, rough surfaces. Functionalization of poly(ether imide) (PEI) membranes by grafting with monoamino PEG of different chain lengths (Mn ?=1 kDa or 10 kDa) and end groups (methoxy or hydroxyl) is proven by spectroscopy, changes of surface hydrophilicity, and surface shielding effects. The surface functionalization does lead to reduction of adsorption of BSA, but not of fibrinogen. The thrombocyte adhesion is increased compared to untreated PEI surfaces. Conclusively, rough instead of smooth polymer or gold surfaces should be investigated as relevant models. PMID:24167100

Neffe, Axel T; von Ruesten-Lange, Maik; Braune, Steffen; Luetzow, Karola; Roch, Toralf; Richau, Klaus; Jung, Friedrich; Lendlein, Andreas

2013-12-01

336

Cell Adhesion to a Motif Shared by the Malaria Circumsporozoite Protein and Thrombospondin Is Mediated by Its Glycosaminoglycan-binding Region and Not by CSVTCG*  

PubMed Central

The malaria circumsporozoite protein (CS), thrombospondin (TSP), and several other proteins including the terminal complement proteins and the neural adhesion molecules F-spondin and Unc-5, share a cell adhesive sequence. In CS this sequence is designated as region II-plus (EWSPCSVTCGNGIQVRIK) and in TSP it is found in the type I repeats. Previous studies aimed at fine mapping the amino acid residues required for cell adhesion have yielded discrepant results. Here we show in three different cell lines that the downstream basic residues are required for cell adhesion whereas the CSVTCG sequence is not. Using mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells selected for deficiencies in proteoglycan synthesis, we show that in wild type cells, heparan sulfate proteoglycans are the binding sites for this motif. This finding is supported by additional experiments with two other cell lines demonstrating that treatment with heparitinase but not chondroitinase abolishes cell adhesion to peptides representing this motif. Using Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants deficient in heparan sulfate proteoglycans but possessing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, we show that cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans can also mediate binding to this motif although higher concentrations of peptides are required for adhesion. Chondroitinase, but not heparitinase, treatment of these cells destroys cell surface-binding sites. Taken together, these results indicate that cell adhesion to this motif involves an interaction between the downstream positively-charged residues and the negatively charged glycosaminoglycan chains of heparan sulfate, or in some cases chondroitin sulfate, proteoglycans on the cell surface.

Gantt, Soren M.; Clavijo, Pedro; Bai, Xiaomei; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Sinnis, Photini

2014-01-01

337

Three intrinsically unstructured mussel adhesive proteins, mfp-1, mfp-2, and mfp-3: analysis by circular dichroism.  

PubMed

Mussel foot proteins (mfps) mediate fouling by the byssal holdfast and have been extensively investigated as models for versatile polymer-mediated underwater adhesion and coatings. However, insights into the structural properties of mfps have lagged far behind the nanomechanical advances, owing in part to the inability of these proteins to crystallize as well as their limited solubility. Here, solution secondary structures of mfp-1, mfp-2, and mfp-3, localized in the mussel byssal cuticle, adhesive plaque, and plaque-substratum interface, respectively, were investigated using circular dichroism. All three have significant extended coil solution structure, but two, mfp-1 and mfp-2, appear to have punctuated regions of structure separated by unstructured domains. Apart from its punctuated distribution, the structure in mfp-1 resembles other structural proteins such as collagen and plant cell-wall proteins with prominent polyproline II helical structure. As in collagen, PP II structure of mfp-1 is incrementally disrupted by increasing the temperature and by raising pH. However, no recognizable change in mfp-1's PP II structure was evident with the addition with Ca²? and Fe³?. In contrast, mfp-2 exhibits Ca²?- and disulfide-stabilized epidermal growth factor-like domains separated by unstructured sequence. Mfp-2 showed calcium-binding ability. Bound calcium in mfp-2 was not removed by chelation at pH 5.5, but it was released upon reduction of disulfide bonds. Mfp-3, in contrast, appears to consist largely of unstructured extended coils. PMID:22915553

Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J Herbert

2012-11-01

338

A human salivary protein which promotes adhesion of Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains to hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of one of the factors in human submandibular-sublingual (SMSL) saliva which promotes the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains to hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. Gel filtration chromatography of SMSL saliva on Trisacryl GF2000 gave a void volume peak which contained the major fraction of adhesion-promoting activity for S. mutans JBP to HA. Maximum adhesion-promoting activity, however, eluted slightly later than the maximum 220-nm absorbance of the void volume peak. Gel filtration of the void volume material after treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gave an early-eluting larger peak followed by a smaller peak with which the adhesion-promoting activity was associated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the presence of relatively slowly migrating material associated with the larger inactive peak, presumably mucin, and a faster-migrating band(s) associated with the smaller active peak. SDS-PAGE indicated molecular weights in the range of 300,000 to 350,000 by extrapolation from size standards. Comparison of SMSL from five individuals showed the presence of single bands or double bands associated with adhesion-promoting activity, indicating genetic polymorphism. The active material did not resemble either secretory immunoglobulin A, based on SDS-PAGE and immunoassay, or fibronectin, based on SDS-PAGE, and also differed in molecular weight from salivary mucins and salivary constituents previously reported to promote aggregation of certain oral bacteria, but a relationship to these materials cannot be excluded. This adhesion-promoting material may play a significant role in the initial colonization of tooth surfaces by S. mutans strains. Images

Kishimoto, E; Hay, D I; Gibbons, R J

1989-01-01

339

Mechanism for Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR56-Mediated RhoA Activation Induced By Collagen III Stimulation  

PubMed Central

GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Despite the importance of GPR56 in brain development, where mutations cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP), the signaling mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. Like many other adhesion GPCRs, GPR56 is cleaved via a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain into N- and C-terminal fragments (GPR56N and GPR56C); however, the biological significance of this cleavage is elusive. Taking advantage of the recent identification of a GPR56 ligand and the presence of BFPP-associated mutations, we investigated the molecular mechanism of GPR56 signaling. We demonstrate that ligand binding releases GPR56N from the membrane-bound GPR56C and triggers the association of GPR56C with lipid rafts and RhoA activation. Furthermore, one of the BFPP-associated mutations, L640R, does not affect collagen III-induced lipid raft association of GPR56. Instead, it specifically abolishes collagen III-mediated RhoA activation. Together, these findings reveal a novel signaling mechanism that may apply to other members of the adhesion GPCR family.

Luo, Rong; Jeong, Sung-Jin; Yang, Annie; Wen, Miaoyun; Saslowsky, David E.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Arac, Demet; Piao, Xianhua

2014-01-01

340

Organ-specific function of adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126 is domain-dependent.  

PubMed

Despite their abundance and multiple functions in a variety of organ systems, the function and signaling mechanisms of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are poorly understood. Adhesion GPCRs possess large N termini containing various functional domains. In addition, many of them are autoproteolytically cleaved at their GPS sites into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and C-terminal fragment. Here we demonstrate that Gpr126 is expressed in the endocardium during early mouse heart development. Gpr126 knockout in mice and knockdown in zebrafish caused hypotrabeculation and affected mitochondrial function. Ectopic expression of Gpr126-NTF that lacks the GPS motif (NTF(?GPS)) in zebrafish rescued the trabeculation but not the previously described myelination phenotype in the peripheral nervous system. These data support a model in which the NTF of Gpr126, in contrast to the C-terminal fragment, plays an important role in heart development. Collectively, our analysis provides a unique example of the versatile function and signaling properties of adhesion GPCRs in vertebrates. PMID:24082093

Patra, Chinmoy; van Amerongen, Machteld J; Ghosh, Subhajit; Ricciardi, Filomena; Sajjad, Amna; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly R; Mühlfeld, Christian; Engel, Felix B

2013-10-15

341

Organ-specific function of adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126 is domain-dependent  

PubMed Central

Despite their abundance and multiple functions in a variety of organ systems, the function and signaling mechanisms of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are poorly understood. Adhesion GPCRs possess large N termini containing various functional domains. In addition, many of them are autoproteolytically cleaved at their GPS sites into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and C-terminal fragment. Here we demonstrate that Gpr126 is expressed in the endocardium during early mouse heart development. Gpr126 knockout in mice and knockdown in zebrafish caused hypotrabeculation and affected mitochondrial function. Ectopic expression of Gpr126-NTF that lacks the GPS motif (NTF?GPS) in zebrafish rescued the trabeculation but not the previously described myelination phenotype in the peripheral nervous system. These data support a model in which the NTF of Gpr126, in contrast to the C-terminal fragment, plays an important role in heart development. Collectively, our analysis provides a unique example of the versatile function and signaling properties of adhesion GPCRs in vertebrates.

Patra, Chinmoy; van Amerongen, Machteld J.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Ricciardi, Filomena; Sajjad, Amna; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly R.; Muhlfeld, Christian; Engel, Felix B.

2013-01-01

342

Protein kinase D isoforms are dispensable for integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and homing to lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrins are essential for lymphocyte adhesion, trafficking and effector functions. Protein kinase D (PKD) has previously been implicated in lymphocyte integrin regulation through regulation of Rap1 activity. However, the true role of PKD in integrin regulation in primary lymphocytes has not previously been investigated. The major PKD isoform in lymphocytes is PKD2. Here we employed PKD2-deficient mice, a specific PKD kinase inhibitor, as well as PKD-null DT40 B cells to investigate the role of PKD in integrin regulation in lymphocytes. We report that PKD2-deficient lymphocytes bound normally to integrin ligands in static and shear flow adhesion assays. They also homed normally to lymphoid organs after adoptive transfer into wild-type mice. DT40 B cells devoid of any PKD isoforms and primary lymphocytes pretreated with a specific PKD inhibitor bound normally to integrin ligands, indicating that multiple PKD isoforms do not redundantly regulate lymphocyte integrins. In addition, PKD2-deficient lymphocytes, as well as DT40 cells devoid of any PKD isoforms, could activate Rap1 in response to B-cell receptor ligation or phorbol ester treatment. Together, these results show that the PKD family does not play a critical role in lymphocyte integrin-mediated cell adhesion or lymphocyte trafficking in vivo. PMID:22311617

Matthews, Sharon A; San Lek, Hwee; Morrison, Vicky L; Mackenzie, Matthew G; Zarrouk, Marouan; Cantrell, Doreen; Fagerholm, Susanna C

2012-05-01

343

Protein kinase D isoforms are dispensable for integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and homing to lymphoid tissues  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrins are essential for lymphocyte adhesion, trafficking and effector functions. Protein kinase D (PKD) has previously been implicated in lymphocyte integrin regulation through regulation of Rap1 activity. However, the true role of PKD in integrin regulation in primary lymphocytes has not previously been investigated. The major PKD isoform in lymphocytes is PKD2. Here we employed PKD2-deficient mice, a specific PKD kinase inhibitor, as well as PKD-null DT40 B cells to investigate the role of PKD in integrin regulation in lymphocytes. We report that PKD2-deficient lymphocytes bound normally to integrin ligands in static and shear flow adhesion assays. They also homed normally to lymphoid organs after adoptive transfer into wild-type mice. DT40 B cells devoid of any PKD isoforms and primary lymphocytes pretreated with a specific PKD inhibitor bound normally to integrin ligands, indicating that multiple PKD isoforms do not redundantly regulate lymphocyte integrins. In addition, PKD2-deficient lymphocytes, as well as DT40 cells devoid of any PKD isoforms, could activate Rap1 in response to B-cell receptor ligation or phorbol ester treatment. Together, these results show that the PKD family does not play a critical role in lymphocyte integrin-mediated cell adhesion or lymphocyte trafficking in vivo.

Matthews, Sharon A; San Lek, Hwee; Morrison, Vicky L; Mackenzie, Matthew G; Zarrouk, Marouan; Cantrell, Doreen; Fagerholm, Susanna C

2012-01-01

344

Identification, purification, and characterization of a zyxin-related protein that binds the focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein).  

PubMed Central

VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), an established substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in vitro and in living cells, is associated with focal adhesions, microfilaments, and membrane regions of high dynamic activity. Here, the identification of an 83-kDa protein (p83) that specifically binds VASP in blot overlays of different cell homogenates is reported. With VASP overlays as a detection tool, p83 was purified from porcine platelets and used to generate monospecific polyclonal antibodies. VASP binding to purified p83 in solid-phase binding assays and the closely matching subcellular localization in double-label immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that both proteins also directly interact as native proteins in vitro and possibly in living cells. The subcellular distribution, the biochemical properties, as well as microsequencing data revealed that porcine platelet p83 is related to chicken gizzard zyxin and most likely represents the mammalian equivalent of the chicken protein. The VASP-p83 interaction may contribute to the targeting of VASP to focal adhesions, microfilaments, and dynamic membrane regions. Together with our recent identification of VASP as a natural ligand of the profilin poly-(L-proline) binding site, our present results suggest that, by linking profilin to zyxin/p83, VASP may participate in spatially confined profilin-regulated F-actin formation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6

Reinhard, M; Jouvenal, K; Tripier, D; Walter, U

1995-01-01

345

The Arcanobacterium pyogenes Collagen-Binding Protein, CbpA, Promotes Adhesion to Host Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen associated with suppurative diseases in economically important food animals such as cattle, pigs, and turkeys. A. pyogenes adheres to host epithelial cells, and adhesion is promoted by the action of neuraminidase, which is expressed by this organism. However, a neuraminidase-deficient mutant of A. pyogenes only had a reduced ability to adhere to host epithelial

Paula A. Esmay; Stephen J. Billington; Malen A. Link; J. Glenn Songer; B. Helen Jost

2003-01-01

346

Integrin-induced protein kinase Calpha and Cepsilon translocation to focal adhesions mediates vascular smooth muscle cell spreading.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix influences the cellular spreading of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via integrin receptors. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms are still incompletely understood. We investigated the hypothesis that VSMCs binding to fibronectin activates the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, causes differential intracellular PKC isoform translocation, and mediates cell spreading. VSMCs binding to poly-L-lysine or preincubated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides were used as controls. Diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipase D (PLD) activity were measured by thin-layer chromatography. Intracellular distribution of PKC isoforms was assessed by confocal microscopy. VSMCs binding to fibronectin induced focal adhesions and cell spreading within 30 minutes. Fibronectin induced a rapid increase in DAG content, peaking at 10 minutes with a sustained response for <1 hour. In contrast, PLD activity was not influenced by specific binding to fibronectin. PKC isoforms alpha, delta, epsilon, and zeta were assessed by confocal microscopy. Fibronectin induced a PKC isoform translocation to the cell nucleus and to focal adhesions within minutes. The nuclear PKCalpha immunoreactivity was transiently increased. PKC isoforms a and epsilon were both translocated to focal adhesions. The intracellular distributions of other PKC isoforms were not influenced by fibronectin. The effects of fibronectin on DAG generation, the translocation of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, and cell spreading were all abolished by the incubation with RGD peptides. Downregulation of PKC isoforms alpha and epsilon with specific antisense oligodinucleotides resulted in a significant inhibition of cell spreading. Our results show that integrins induce intracellular signaling in VSMCs via DAG and PKC. PKC isoform a is translocated to the nucleus, whereas PKC isoforms alpha and epsilon are translocated to focal adhesions. Both isoforms seem to play a role in inside-out integrin signaling and cell spreading. PMID:9468186

Haller, H; Lindschau, C; Maasch, C; Olthoff, H; Kurscheid, D; Luft, F C

1998-02-01

347

SpyAD, a Moonlighting Protein of Group A Streptococcus Contributing to Bacterial Division and Host Cell Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen causing a wide repertoire of mild and severe diseases for which no vaccine is yet available. We recently reported the identification of three protein antigens that in combination conferred wide protection against GAS infection in mice. Here we focused our attention on the characterization of one of these three antigens, Spy0269, a highly conserved, surface-exposed, and immunogenic protein of unknown function. Deletion of the spy0269 gene in a GAS M1 isolate resulted in very long bacterial chains, which is indicative of an impaired capacity of the knockout mutant to properly divide. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the protein was mainly localized at the cell septum and could interact in vitro with the cell division protein FtsZ, leading us to hypothesize that Spy0269 is a member of the GAS divisome machinery. Predicted structural domains and sequence homologies with known streptococcal adhesins suggested that this antigen could also play a role in mediating GAS interaction with host cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by showing that recombinant Spy0269 could bind to mammalian epithelial cells in vitro and that Lactococcus lactis expressing Spy0269 on its cell surface could adhere to mammalian cells in vitro and to mice nasal mucosa in vivo. On the basis of these data, we believe that Spy0269 is involved both in bacterial cell division and in adhesion to host cells and we propose to rename this multifunctional moonlighting protein as SpyAD (Streptococcus pyogenes Adhesion and Division protein).

Gallotta, Marilena; Gancitano, Giovanni; Pietrocola, Giampiero; Mora, Marirosa; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Tuscano, Giovanna; Chiarot, Emiliano; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro; Soriani, Marco; Bensi, Giuliano

2014-01-01

348

Notch ligand Delta-like 1 promotes the metastasis of melanoma by enhancing tumor adhesion  

PubMed Central

Notch signaling plays a vital role in tumorigenicity and tumor progression by regulating proliferation, invasion, and the tumor microenvironment. Previous research by our group indicated that Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is involved in angiogenesis in melanoma, and we noticed that it took a longer time to trypsinize Dll1-expressing B16 melanoma cells than the control cells. In this article, we extended our study to investigate the effects of Dll1 on tumor cell adhesion and metastasis. Dll1 overexpression activated Notch signaling in B16 tumor cells and significantly enhanced the adhering capacity of B16 tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. B16-Dll1 cells also had a higher metastatic potential than their counterpart in the mouse model of lung metastasis. Along with increased Dll1 expression, N-cadherin, but not E-cadherin, was upregulated in B16-Dll1 cells. These data suggested that Notch ligand Dll1 may enhance the adhesion and metastasis of melanoma cells by upregulation of N-cadherin.

Zhang, J.P.; Li, N.; Bai, W.Z.; Qiu, X.C.; Ma, B.A.; Zhou, Y.; Fan, Q.Y.; Shan, L.Q.

2014-01-01

349

Notch ligand Delta-like 1 promotes the metastasis of melanoma by enhancing tumor adhesion.  

PubMed

Notch signaling plays a vital role in tumorigenicity and tumor progression by regulating proliferation, invasion, and the tumor microenvironment. Previous research by our group indicated that Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is involved in angiogenesis in melanoma, and we noticed that it took a longer time to trypsinize Dll1-expressing B16 melanoma cells than the control cells. In this article, we extended our study to investigate the effects of Dll1 on tumor cell adhesion and metastasis. Dll1 overexpression activated Notch signaling in B16 tumor cells and significantly enhanced the adhering capacity of B16 tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. B16-Dll1 cells also had a higher metastatic potential than their counterpart in the mouse model of lung metastasis. Along with increased Dll1 expression, N-cadherin, but not E-cadherin, was upregulated in B16-Dll1 cells. These data suggested that Notch ligand Dll1 may enhance the adhesion and metastasis of melanoma cells by upregulation of N-cadherin. PMID:24714813

Zhang, J P; Li, N; Bai, W Z; Qiu, X C; Ma, B A; Zhou, Y; Fan, Q Y; Shan, L Q

2014-04-01

350

Cross Talk between Cell Cell and Cell Matrix Adhesion Signaling Pathways during Heart Organogenesis: Implications for Cardiac Birth Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anterior posterior and dorsal ventral progression of heart organogenesis is well illustrated by the patterning and activity of two members of different families of cell adhesion molecules: the calcium-dependent cadherins, specifically N-cadherin, and the extracellular matrix glycoproteins, fibronectin. N-cadherin by its binding to the intracellular molecule [beta]-catenin and fibronectin by its binding to integrins at focal adhesion sites, are involved in regulation of gene expression by their association with the cytoskeleton and through signal transduction pathways. The ventral precardiac mesoderm cells epithelialize and become stably committed by the activation of these cell matrix and intracellular signaling transduction pathways. Cross talk between the adhesion signaling pathways initiates the characteristic phenotypic changes associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation: electrical activity and organization of myofibrils. The development of both organ form and function occurs within a short interval thereafter. Mutations in any of the interacting molecules, or environmental insults affecting either of these signaling pathways, can result in embryonic lethality or fetuses born with severe heart defects. As an example, we have defined that exposure of the embryo temporally to lithium during an early sensitive developmental period affects a canonical Wnt pathway leading to [beta]-catenin stabilization. Lithium exposure results in an anterior posterior progression of severe cardiac defects.

Linask, Kersti K.; Manisastry, Shyam; Han, Mingda

2005-06-01

351

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

Lu, Renquan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Xinghui [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, MA 02115 (United States) [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, MA 02115 (United States); Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Guo, Lin, E-mail: guolin500@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2012-03-09

352

Assignment of disulfide bonds in gp64, a putative cell-cell adhesion protein of Polysphondylium pallidum. Presence of Sushi domains in the cellular slime mold protein.  

PubMed

The 64-kDa membrane-bound glycoprotein of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum (referred to as gp64), seems to be implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Previously we have isolated a full-length gp64 cDNA, determined its nucleotide sequence, and found that all cysteine residues in the protein are involved in the formation of disulfide bonds. The disulfide arrangement of the 36 cysteines in gp64 was established by analysis of proteolytically cleaved protein and sequence analysis of cystine-containing fragments. Since gp64 has 36 Cys residues, 18 disulfide bonds must exist and the positions of 15 of them were determined. The 15 disulfide bonds in gp64 constitute five characteristic, so-called Sushi domains. In a Sushi domain, the first Cys in a sequence is connected to the third one and the second Cys to the fourth one. This is the first report describing the presence of Sushi domains in a cellular slime mold protein. From these data, gp64 appears to be distinct from all other previously described cell-adhesion proteins. PMID:7961835

Saito, T; Kumazaki, T; Ochiai, H

1994-11-18

353

Grafted poly-(ethylene glycol) on lipid surfaces inhibits protein adsorption and cell adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolayers of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) mixing with various mole percentages of distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-conjugated poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG m.w. 750–5000) were deposited on DPPE-coated glass surfaces by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. Increasing percentages of grafted PEG in these supported lipid surfaces increasingly inhibit the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), laminin, and fibronectin. Increasing percentages of grafted PEG also inhibit the adhesion of erythrocytes,

Hong Du; Parthapratim Chandaroy; Sek Wen Hui

1997-01-01

354

Characterization of Palladin, a Novel Protein Localized to Stress Fibers and Cell Adhesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we describe the identification of a novel phosphoprotein named palladin, which colocal- izes with a -actinin in the stress fibers, focal adhesions, cell-cell junctions, and embryonic Z-lines. Palladin is expressed as a 90-92-kD doublet in fibroblasts and coimmunoprecipitates in a complex with a -actinin in fibroblast lysates. A cDNA encoding palladin was iso- lated by screening a mouse embryo

Mana M. Parast; Carol A. Otey

2000-01-01

355

Hydrogen sulfide impairs keratinocyte cell growth and adhesion inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.  

PubMed

The effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on normal skin-derived immortalized human keratinocytes have been investigated in detail. We show in vitro that exogenous hydrogen sulfide reduces clonal growth, cell proliferation and cell adhesion of human keratinocytes. H(2)S, in fact, decreases the frequency of the putative keratinocyte stem cell subpopulation in culture, consequently affecting clonal growth, and impairs cell proliferation and adhesion of mature cells. As a mechanistic explanation of these effects, we show at the molecular level that (i) H2S reduces the Raf/MAPK kinase/ERK signaling pathway; (ii) the reduced adhesion of sulfur-treated cells is associated to the downregulation of the expression of beta4, alpha2 and alpha6 integrins that are necessary to promote cell adhesion as well as anti-apoptotic and proliferative signaling in normal keratinocytes. One specific interest of the effects of sulfurs on keratinocytes derives from the potential applications of the results, as sulfur is able to penetrate the skin and a sulfur-rich balneotherapy has been known for long to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. Thus, the relevance of our findings to the pathophysiology of psoriasis was tested in vivo by treating psoriatic lesions with sulfurs at a concentration comparable to that most commonly found in sulfurous natural springs. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the immunohistochemical analysis of patient biopsies showed a specific downregulation of ERK activation levels, the key molecular event in the sulfur-induced effects on keratinocytes. PMID:19546851

Gobbi, Giuliana; Ricci, Francesca; Malinverno, Chiara; Carubbi, Cecilia; Pambianco, Maurizia; Panfilis, Giuseppe de; Vitale, Marco; Mirandola, Prisco

2009-09-01

356

Local control of protein binding and cell adhesion by patterned organic thin films.  

PubMed

Control of the cell adhesion and growth on chemically patterned surfaces is important in an increasing number of applications in biotechnology and medicine, for example implants, in-vitro cellular assays, and biochips. This review covers patterning techniques for organic thin films suitable for site-directed guidance of cell adhesion to surfaces. Available surface patterning techniques are critically evaluated, with special emphasis on surface chemistry that can be switched in time and space during cultivation of cells. Examples from the authors' laboratory include the use of cell-repellent self-assembled monolayers (SAM) terminated by oligoethylene glycol (OEG) units and the lifting of the cell repellent properties by use of electrogenerated Br2/HOBr which can be performed with positionable microelectrodes. Structural changes of the SAM were analyzed by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM IRRAS). Use of a soft array system of individually addressable microelectrodes enables formation of flexible and complex patterns in a short time and has the potential for further acceleration of probe-induced local manipulation of cell adhesion. PMID:23411629

Meiners, Frank; Plettenberg, Inka; Witt, Julia; Vaske, Britta; Lesch, Andreas; Brand, Izabella; Wittstock, Gunther

2013-04-01

357

Enterolobium contortisiliquum Trypsin Inhibitor (EcTI), a Plant Proteinase Inhibitor, Decreases in Vitro Cell Adhesion and Invasion by Inhibition of Src Protein-Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Signaling Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Tumor cell invasion is vital for cancer progression and metastasis. Adhesion, migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix are important events involved in the establishment of cancer cells at a new site, and therefore molecular targets are sought to inhibit such processes. The effect of a plant proteinase inhibitor, Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells was the focus of this study. EcTI showed no effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells or fibroblasts but inhibited the adhesion, migration, and cell invasion of gastric cancer cells; however, EcTI had no effect upon the adhesion of fibroblasts. EcTI was shown to decrease the expression and disrupt the cellular organization of molecules involved in the formation and maturation of invadopodia, such as integrin ?1, cortactin, neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, membrane type 1 metalloprotease, and metalloproteinase-2. Moreover, gastric cancer cells treated with EcTI presented a significant decrease in intracellular phosphorylated Src and focal adhesion kinase, integrin-dependent cell signaling components. Together, these results indicate that EcTI inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells through alterations in integrin-dependent cell signaling pathways.

de Paula, Claudia Alessandra Andrade; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Suzuki, Erika; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.

2012-01-01

358

Connexin 43 and plakophilin-2 as a protein complex that regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics.  

PubMed

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) formed by adjacent Sertoli cells is composed of coexisting tight junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES), and desmosome-like junction. Desmosome-like junctions display structural features of desmosome and gap junctions, but its function at the BTB remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction integral membrane protein, structurally interacts with desmosomal protein plakophilin-2 (PKP2), basal ES proteins N-cadherin and beta-catenin, and signaling molecule c-Src, but not with the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rats. The localization of Cx43 in the seminiferous epithelium during (i) the normal epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis and (ii) anchoring junction restructuring at the Sertoli-spermatid interface induced by adjudin which mimics junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis have suggested that Cx43 is involved in cell adhesion. The knockdown of Cx43 by RNAi technique using specific siRNA duplexes was performed in primary Sertoli cell cultures with an established TJ permeability barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. This knockdown of Cx43 affected neither the TJ barrier function nor the steady-state levels of junction proteins of TJ, basal ES, and desmosome-like junction. However, after the knockdown of both Cx43 and PKP2, the Sertoli cell TJ barrier function was perturbed transiently. This perturbation was concomitant with a mislocalization of occludin and ZO-1 from the cell-cell interface. In summary, Cx43 and PKP2 form a protein complex within the desmosome-like junction to regulate cell adhesion at the BTB, partly through its effects on the occludin/ZO-1 complex, so as to facilitate the transit of primary preleptotene spermatocytes. PMID:19509333

Li, Michelle W M; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2009-06-23

359

Effect of adsorbed fibronectin on the differential adhesion of osteoblast-like cells and Staphylococcus aureus with and without fibronectin-binding proteins.  

PubMed

The influence of fibronectin (Fn) coated surfaces patterned with poly(ethylene glycol) microgels having inter-gel spacings between 0.5 and 3.0 ?m on the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without Fn-binding proteins and cellular adhesion/spreading was investigated. Quantitative force measurements between a S. aureus cell and a patterned surface showed that the adhesion force between the bacterium and the patterned surface increased substantially after Fn adsorption, regardless of the strain used, but decreased with decreasing inter-gel spacing. In flow-chamber experiments, the Fn-binding strain adhered at a higher rate after Fn adsorption than the strain lacking Fn-binding proteins. In both cases, the adhesion rates decreased with decreasing inter-gel spacing. Osteoblast-like cells could bind to patterned surfaces despite the microgels, and adsorbed Fn substantially amplified this effect. Even under highly non-adhesive conditions associated with closely spaced microgels, adsorbed Fn preserves a window of inter-gel spacing around 1 ?m where the adhesion of staphylococcal cells is hindered while cells can still adhere and spread. PMID:23004018

Wang, Y; Subbiahdoss, G; de Vries, J; Libera, M; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

2012-01-01

360

A Novel Group of Moraxella catarrhalis UspA Proteins Mediates Cellular Adhesion via CEACAMs and Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis (Mx) is a common cause of otitis media and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increasing worldwide problem. Surface proteins UspA1 and UspA2 of Mx bind to a number of human receptors and may function in pathogenesis. Genetic recombination events in the pathogen can generate hybrid proteins termed UspA2H. However, whether certain key functions (e.g. UspA1-specific CEACAM binding) can be exchanged between these adhesin families remains unknown. In this study, we have shown that Mx can incorporate the UspA1 CEACAM1-binding region not only into rare UspA1 proteins devoid of CEACAM-binding ability, but also into UspA2 which normally lack this capacity. Further, a screen of Mx isolates revealed the presence of novel UspA2 Variant proteins (UspA2V) in ?14% of the CEACAM-binding population. We demonstrate that the expression of UspA2/2V with the CEACAM-binding domain enable Mx to bind both to cell surface CEACAMs and to integrins, the latter via vitronectin. Such properties of UspA2/2V have not been reported to date. The studies demonstrate that the UspA family is much more heterogeneous than previously believed and illustrate the in vivo potential for exchange of functional regions between UspA proteins which could convey novel adhesive functions whilst enhancing immune evasion.

Hill, Darryl J.; Whittles, Cheryl; Virji, Mumtaz

2012-01-01

361

Corynebacterium diphtheriae invasion-associated protein (DIP1281) is involved in cell surface organization, adhesion and internalization in epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host. In this study, we investigated the function of surface-associated protein DIP1281, previously annotated as hypothetical invasion-associated protein. Results Microscopic inspection of DIP1281 mutant strains revealed an increased size of the single cells in combination with an altered less club-like shape and formation of chains of cells rather than the typical V-like division forms or palisades of growing C. diphtheriae cells. Cell viability was not impaired. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE and 2-D PAGE of surface proteins revealed clear differences of wild-type and mutant protein patterns, which were verified by atomic force microscopy. DIP1281 mutant cells were not only altered in shape and surface structure but completely lack the ability to adhere to host cells and consequently invade these. Conclusions Our data indicate that DIP1281 is predominantly involved in the organization of the outer surface protein layer rather than in the separation of the peptidoglycan cell wall of dividing bacteria. The adhesion- and invasion-negative phenotype of corresponding mutant strains is an effect of rearrangements of the outer surface.