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Sample records for adhesion protein n-cadherin

  1. Targeting Cx43 and N-Cadherin, Which Are Abnormally Upregulated in Venous Leg Ulcers, Influences Migration, Adhesion and Activation of Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:22615994

  2. Epstein–Barr virus LMP1 induces focal adhesions and epithelial cell migration through effects on integrin-α5 and N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wasil, L R; Shair, K H Y

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus associated with human epithelial and B-cell malignancies. The EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 is expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and promotes oncogenic intracellular signaling mechanisms. LMP1 also promotes a pro-migratory phenotype through potential effects on cell surface proteins, as expression of LMP1 induces an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cell lines. In this study, LMP1 was examined for potential effects on cadherin and integrin surface interactions, and assessed for biological effects on adhesion and motility to fibronectin. Expression of LMP1 in the non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line MCF10a induced an EMT-associated cadherin switch. The induced N-cadherin was ligated and localized to the cell surface as determined by triton-solubility and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, LMP1 induced the assembly of focal adhesions (FAs) with increased production of fibronectin in MCF10a and NP460hTERT-immortalized nasopharyngeal cells. Biochemical enrichment of fibronectin-associated proteins indicated that LMP1 selectively promoted the recruitment of integrin-α5 and Src family kinase proteins to FA complexes. Neutralizing antibodies to N-cadherin and integrin-α5, but not integrin-αV, blocked the adhesion and transwell motility of MCF10a cells to fibronectin induced by LMP1. LMP1-induced transwell motility was also decreased by Src inhibition with the PP2 kinase inhibitor and short hairpin RNAs. These studies reveal that LMP1 has multiple mechanisms to promote the adhesive and migratory properties of epithelial cells through induction of fibronectin and modulation of cell surface interactions involving integrin-α5 and N-cadherin, which may contribute to the metastatic potential of NPC. PMID:26479443

  3. N-cadherin prodomain processing regulates synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reinés, Analía; Bernier, Louis-Philippe; McAdam, Robyn; Belkaid, Wiam; Shan, Weisong; Koch, Alexander W; Séguéla, Philippe; Colman, David R; Dhaunchak, Ajit S

    2012-05-01

    Classical cadherins, which are adhesion molecules functioning at the CNS synapse, are synthesized as adhesively inactive precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Signal sequence and prodomain cleavage in the ER and Golgi apparatus, respectively, activates their adhesive properties. Here, we provide the first evidence for sorting of nonadhesive precursor N-cadherin (ProN) to the neuronal surface, where it coexists with adhesively competent mature N-cadherin (N-cad), generating a spectrum of adhesive strengths. In cultured hippocampal neurons, a high ProN/N-cad ratio downregulates synapse formation. Neurons expressing genetically engineered uncleavable ProN make markedly fewer synapses. The synapse number can be rescued to normality by depleting surface ProN levels through prodomain cleavage by an exogenous protease. Finally, prodomain processing is developmentally regulated in the rat hippocampus. We conclude that it is the ProN/N-cad ratio and not mature N-cad alone that is critical for regulation of adhesion during synaptogenesis. PMID:22553038

  4. N-cadherin haploinsufficiency affects cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifen; Levin, Mark D; Xiong, Yanming; Petrenko, Nataliya; Patel, Vickas V.; Radice, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac-specific deletion of the murine gene (Cdh2) encoding the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, results in disassembly of the intercalated disc (ICD) structure and sudden arrhythmic death. Connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junctions are significantly reduced in the heart after depleting N-cadherin, therefore we hypothesized that animals expressing half the normal levels of N-cadherin would exhibit an intermediate phenotype. We examined the effect of N-cadherin haploinsufficiency on Cx43 expression and susceptibility to induced arrhythmias in mice either wild-type or heterozygous for the Cx43 (Gja1)-null allele. An increase in hypophosphorylated Cx43 accompanied by a modest decrease in total Cx43 protein levels was observed in the N-cadherin heterozygous mice. Consistent with these findings N-cadherin heterozygotes exhibited increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias compared to wild-type mice. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a reduction in size of large Cx43-containing plaques in the N-cadherin heterozygous animals compared to wild-type. Gap junctions were further decreased in number and size in the N-cad/Cx43 compound heterozygous mice with increased arrhythmic susceptibility compared to the single mutants. The scaffold protein, ZO-1, was reduced at the ICD in N-cadherin heterozygous cardiomyocytes providing a possible explanation for the reduction in Cx43 plaque size. These data provide further support for the intimate relationship between N-cadherin and Cx43 in the heart, and suggest that germline mutations in the human N-cadherin (Cdh2) gene may predispose patients to increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:18201716

  5. N-Cadherin in Neuroblastoma Disease: Expression and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Derycke, Lara; De Craemer, Annemie; De Brouwer, Sara; De Preter, Katleen; Van Roy, Nadine; Vandesompele, Jo; Speleman, Frank; Philippé, Jan; Benoit, Yves; Beiske, Klaus; Bracke, Marc; Laureys, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    One of the first and most important steps in the metastatic cascade is the loss of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. N-cadherin, a crucial mediator of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interactions, might play a central role in the metastasis of neuroblastoma (NB), a solid tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Using Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), Western blot, immunocytochemistry and Tissue MicroArrays (TMA) we demonstrate the expression of N-cadherin in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. All neuroblastic tumors (n = 356) and cell lines (n = 10) expressed various levels of the adhesion protein. The N-cadherin mRNA expression was significantly lower in tumor samples from patients suffering metastatic disease. Treatment of NB cell lines with the N-cadherin blocking peptide ADH-1 (Exherin, Adherex Technologies Inc.), strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro by inducing apoptosis. Our results suggest that N-cadherin signaling may play a role in neuroblastoma disease, marking involvement of metastasis and determining neuroblastoma cell viability. PMID:22355346

  6. P120-Catenin Regulates Early Trafficking Stages of the N-Cadherin Precursor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wehrendt, Diana P.; Carmona, Fernando; González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Martínez, Juan M. Lázaro; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that binding of p120 catenin to the cytoplasmic domain of surface cadherin prevents cadherin endocytosis and degradation, contributing to cell-cell adhesion. In the present work we show that p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor, contributes to its anterograde movement from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. In HeLa cells, depletion of p120 expression, or blocking its binding to N-cadherin, increased the accumulation of the precursor in the ER, while it decreased the localization of mature N-cadherin at intercellular junctions. Reconstitution experiments in p120-deficient SW48 cells with all three major isoforms of p120 (1, 3 and 4) had similar capacity to promote the processing of the N-cadherin precursor to the mature form, and its localization at cell-cell junctions. P120 catenin and protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B facilitated the recruitment of the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase involved in vesicular trafficking, to the N-cadherin precursor complex. Dominant negative NSF E329Q impaired N-cadherin trafficking, maturation and localization at cell-cell junctions. Our results uncover a new role for p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor ensuring its trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway towards the cell surface. PMID:27254316

  7. N-cadherin regulates molecular organization of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in adult hippocampus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nikitczuk, Jessica S.; Patil, Shekhar B.; Matikainen-Ankney, Bridget A.; Scarpa, Joseph; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    N-cadherin and β-catenin form a transsynaptic adhesion complex required for spine and synapse development. In adulthood, N-cadherin mediates persistent synaptic plasticity, but whether the role of N-cadherin at mature synapses is similar to that at developing synapses is unclear. To address this, we conditionally ablated N-cadherin from excitatory forebrain synapses in mice starting in late postnatal life and examined hippocampal structure and function in adulthood. In the absence of N-cadherin, β-catenin levels were reduced, but numbers of excitatory synapses were unchanged, and there was no impact on number or shape of dendrites or spines. However, the composition of synaptic molecules was altered. Levels of GluA1 and its scaffolding protein PSD95 were diminished and the density of immunolabeled puncta was decreased, without effects on other glutamate receptors and their scaffolding proteins. Additionally, loss of N-cadherin at excitatory synapses triggered increases in the density of markers for inhibitory synapses and decreased severity of hippocampal seizures. Finally, adult mutant mice were profoundly impaired in hippocampal-dependent memory for spatial episodes. These results demonstrate a novel function for the N-cadherin/β-catenin complex in regulating ionotropic receptor composition of excitatory synapses, an appropriate balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins and the maintenance of neural circuitry necessary to generate flexible yet persistent cognitive and synaptic function. PMID:24753442

  8. ICAM-2 regulates vascular permeability and N-cadherin localization through ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and Rac-1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial junctions control functions such as permeability, angiogenesis and contact inhibition. VE-Cadherin (VECad) is essential for the maintenance of intercellular contacts. In confluent endothelial monolayers, N-Cadherin (NCad) is mostly expressed on the apical and basal membrane, but in the absence of VECad it localizes at junctions. Both cadherins are required for vascular development. The intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-2, also localized at endothelial junctions, is involved in leukocyte recruitment and angiogenesis. Results In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), both VECad and NCad were found at nascent cell contacts of sub-confluent monolayers, but only VECad localized at the mature junctions of confluent monolayers. Inhibition of ICAM-2 expression by siRNA caused the appearance of small gaps at the junctions and a decrease in NCad junctional staining in sub-confluent monolayers. Endothelioma lines derived from WT or ICAM-2-deficient mice (IC2neg) lacked VECad and failed to form junctions, with loss of contact inhibition. Re-expression of full-length ICAM-2 (IC2 FL) in IC2neg cells restored contact inhibition through recruitment of NCad at the junctions. Mutant ICAM-2 lacking the binding site for ERM proteins (IC2 ΔERM) or the cytoplasmic tail (IC2 ΔTAIL) failed to restore junctions. ICAM-2-dependent Rac-1 activation was also decreased in these mutant cell lines. Barrier function, measured in vitro via transendothelial electrical resistance, was decreased in IC2neg cells, both in resting conditions and after thrombin stimulation. This was dependent on ICAM-2 signalling to the small GTPase Rac-1, since transendothelial electrical resistance of IC2neg cells was restored by constitutively active Rac-1. In vivo, thrombin-induced extravasation of FITC-labeled albumin measured by intravital fluorescence microscopy in the mouse cremaster muscle showed that permeability was increased in ICAM-2-deficient mice compared to controls

  9. N-cadherin expression is regulated by UTP in schwannoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martiáñez, Tania; Lamarca, Aloa; Casals, Nuria; Gella, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are peripheral myelinating glial cells that express the neuronal Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule, neural cadherin (N-cadherin). N-cadherin is involved in glia-glia and axon-glia interactions and participates in many key events, which range from the control of axonal growth and guidance to synapse formation and plasticity. Extracellular UTP activates P2Y purinergic receptors and exerts short- and long-term effects on several tissues to promote wound healing. Nevertheless, the contribution of P2Y receptors in peripheral nervous system functions is not completely understood. The current study demonstrated that UTP induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in N-cadherin expression in SCs. Furthermore, N-cadherin expression was blocked by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin. The increased N-cadherin expression induced by UTP was mediated by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular-regulated kinase and p38 kinase. Moreover, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C attenuated the UTP-induced activation of MAPKs significantly. Extracellular UTP also modulated increased in the expression of the early transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun. We also demonstrated that the region of the N-cadherin promoter between nucleotide positions -3698 and -2620, which contained one activator protein-1-binding site, was necessary for UTP-induced gene expression. These results suggest a novel role for P2Y purinergic receptors in the regulation of N-cadherin expression in SCs. PMID:23271561

  10. Cortactin Is Required for N-cadherin Regulation of Kv1.5 Channel Function*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lan; Yung, Aaron; Covarrubias, Manuel; Radice, Glenn L.

    2011-01-01

    The intercalated disc serves as an organizing center for various cell surface components at the termini of the cardiomyocyte, thus ensuring proper mechanoelectrical coupling throughout the myocardium. The cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, is an essential component of the intercalated disc. Cardiac-specific deletion of N-cadherin leads to abnormal electrical conduction and sudden arrhythmic death in mice. The mechanisms linking the loss of N-cadherin in the heart and spontaneous malignant ventricular arrhythmias are poorly understood. To investigate whether ion channel remodeling contributes to arrhythmogenesis in N-cadherin conditional knock-out (N-cad CKO) mice, cardiac myocyte excitability and voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv), as well as inwardly rectifying K+ channel remodeling, were investigated in N-cad CKO cardiomyocytes by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Action potential duration was prolonged in N-cad CKO ventricle myocytes compared with wild type. Relative to wild type, IK,slow density was significantly reduced consistent with decreased expression of Kv1.5 and Kv accessory protein, Kcne2, in the N-cad CKO myocytes. The decreased Kv1.5/Kcne2 expression correlated with disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cortactin at the sarcolemma. Biochemical experiments revealed that cortactin co-immunoprecipitates with Kv1.5. Finally, cortactin was required for N-cadherin-mediated enhancement of Kv1.5 channel activity in a heterologous expression system. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic link among the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, the actin-binding scaffold protein, cortactin, and Kv channel remodeling in the heart. These data suggest that in addition to gap junction remodeling, aberrant Kv1.5 channel function contributes to the arrhythmogenic phenotype in N-cad CKO mice. PMID:21507952

  11. Tetraspanin CD82 regulates bone marrow homing of acute myeloid leukemia by modulating the molecular organization of N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Marjon, K D; Termini, C M; Karlen, K L; Saito-Reis, C; Soria, C E; Lidke, K A; Gillette, J M

    2016-08-01

    Communication between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the bone marrow microenvironment is known to control disease progression. Therefore, regulation of AML cell trafficking and adhesion to the bone marrow is of significant interest. In this study, we demonstrate that differential expression of the membrane scaffold CD82 modulates the bone marrow homing of AML cells. By combining mutational analysis and super-resolution imaging, we identify membrane protein clustering by CD82 as a regulator of AML cell adhesion and bone marrow homing. Cluster analysis of super-resolution data indicates that N-linked glycosylation and palmitoylation of CD82 are both critical modifications that control the microdomain organization of CD82 as well as the nanoscale clustering of associated adhesion protein, N-cadherin. We demonstrate that the inhibition of CD82 glycosylation increases the molecular packing of N-cadherin and promotes the bone marrow homing of AML cells. In contrast, we find that the inhibition of CD82 palmitoylation disrupts the formation and organization of N-cadherin clusters and significantly diminishes bone marrow trafficking of AML. Taken together, these data establish a mechanism where the membrane organization of CD82, through specific posttranslational modifications, regulates N-cadherin clustering and membrane density, which impacts the in vivo trafficking of AML cells. As such, these observations provide an alternative model for targeting AML where modulation of protein organization within the membrane may be an effective treatment therapy to disrupt the bone marrow homing potential of AML cells. PMID:26592446

  12. Tetraspanin CD82 regulates bone marrow homing of acute myeloid leukemia by modulating the molecular organization of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Marjon, Kristopher D.; Termini, Christina M.; Karlen, Karin L.; Saito-Reis, Chelsea; Soria, Cesar E.; Lidke, Keith A.; Gillette, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Communication between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the bone marrow microenvironment is known to control disease progression. Therefore, regulation of AML cell trafficking and adhesion to the bone marrow is of significant interest. In this study, we demonstrate that differential expression of the membrane scaffold CD82 modulates the bone marrow homing of AML cells. By combining mutational analysis and super-resolution imaging, we identify membrane protein clustering by CD82 as a regulator of AML cell adhesion and bone marrow homing. Cluster analysis of super-resolution data indicates that N-linked glycosylation and palmitoylation of CD82 are both critical modifications that control the microdomain organization of CD82 as well as the nanoscale clustering of associated adhesion protein, N-cadherin. We demonstrate that inhibition of CD82 glycosylation increases the molecular packing of N-cadherin and promotes the bone marrow homing of AML cells. In contrast, we find that inhibition of CD82 palmitoylation disrupts the formation and organization of N-cadherin clusters and significantly diminishes bone marrow trafficking of AML. Taken together, these data establish a mechanism where the membrane organization of CD82, through specific post-translational modifications, regulates N-cadherin clustering and membrane density, which impacts the in vivo trafficking of AML cells. As such, these observations provide an alternative model for targeting AML where modulation of protein organization within the membrane may be an effective treatment therapy to disrupt the bone marrow homing potential of AML cells. PMID:26592446

  13. N-cadherin relocalization during cardiac trabeculation.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Anoop V; Fukuda, Ryuichi; Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-07-01

    During cardiac trabeculation, cardiomyocytes delaminate from the outermost (compact) layer to form complex muscular structures known as trabeculae. As these cardiomyocytes delaminate, the remodeling of adhesion junctions must be tightly coordinated so cells can extrude from the compact layer while remaining in tight contact with their neighbors. In this study, we examined the distribution of N-cadherin (Cdh2) during cardiac trabeculation in zebrafish. By analyzing the localization of a Cdh2-EGFP fusion protein expressed under the control of the zebrafish cdh2 promoter, we initially observed Cdh2-EGFP expression along the lateral sides of embryonic cardiomyocytes, in an evenly distributed pattern, and with the occasional appearance of punctae. Within a few hours, Cdh2-EGFP distribution on the lateral sides of cardiomyocytes evolves into a clear punctate pattern as Cdh2-EGFP molecules outside the punctae cluster to increase the size of these aggregates. In addition, Cdh2-EGFP molecules also appear on the basal side of cardiomyocytes that remain in the compact layer. Delaminating cardiomyocytes accumulate Cdh2-EGFP on the surface facing the basal side of compact layer cardiomyocytes, thereby allowing tight adhesion between these layers. Importantly, we find that blood flow/cardiac contractility is required for the transition from an even distribution of Cdh2-EGFP to the formation of punctae. Furthermore, using time-lapse imaging of beating hearts in conjunction with a Cdh2 tandem fluorescent protein timer transgenic line, we observed that Cdh2-EGFP molecules appear to move from the lateral to the basal side of cardiomyocytes along the cell membrane, and that Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Erbb2) function is required for this relocalization. PMID:27339140

  14. Linkage of N-cadherin to multiple cytoskeletal elements revealed by a proteomic approach in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Taguchi, Akihiko; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Nagamori, Shushi; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2012-07-01

    The CNS synapse is an adhesive junction differentiated for chemical neurotransmission and is equipped with presynaptic vesicles and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Cell adhesion molecule cadherins not only maintain connections between pre- and postsynaptic membranes but also modulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although the components of the cadherin-mediated adhesive apparatus have been studied extensively in various cell systems, the complete picture of these components, particularly at the synaptic junction, remains elusive. Here, we describe the proteomic assortment of the N-cadherin-mediated synaptic adhesion apparatus in cultured hippocampal neurons. N-cadherin immunoprecipitated from Triton X-100-solubilized neuronal extract contained equal amounts of β- and α-catenins, as well as F-actin-related membrane anchor proteins such as integrins bridged with α-actinin-4, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase bridged with spectrins. A close relative of β-catenin, plakoglobin, and its binding partner, desmoplakin, were also found, suggesting that a subset of the N-cadherin-mediated adhesive apparatus also anchors intermediate filaments. Moreover, dynein heavy chain and LEK1/CENPF/mitosin were found. This suggests that internalized pools of N-cadherin in trafficking vesicles are conveyed by dynein motors on microtubules. In addition, ARVCF and NPRAP/neurojungin/δ2-catenin, but not p120ctn/δ1-catenin or plakophilins-1, -2, -3, -4 (p0071), were found, suggesting other possible bridges to microtubules. Finally, synaptic stimulation by membrane depolarization resulted in an increased 93-kDa band, which corresponded to proteolytically truncated β-catenin. The integration of three different classes of cytoskeletal systems found in the synaptic N-cadherin complex may imply a dynamic switching of adhesive scaffolds in response to synaptic activity. PMID:22609377

  15. N-cadherin prodomain cleavage regulates synapse formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Latefi, Nazlie S; Pedraza, Liliana; Schohl, Anne; Li, Ziwei; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2009-07-01

    Cadherins are initially synthesized bearing a prodomain that is thought to limit adhesion during early stages of biosynthesis. Functional cadherins lack this prodomain, raising the intriguing possibility that cells may utilize prodomain cleavage as a means to temporally or spatially regulate adhesion after delivery of cadherin to the cell surface. In support of this idea, immunostaining for the prodomain of zebrafish N-cadherin revealed enriched labeling at neuronal surfaces at the soma and along axonal processes. To determine whether post-translational cleavage of the prodomain affects synapse formation, we imaged Rohon-Beard cells in zebrafish embryos expressing GFP-tagged wild-type N-cadherin (NCAD-GFP) or a GFP-tagged N-cadherin mutant expressing an uncleavable prodomain (PRON-GFP) rendering it nonadhesive. NCAD-GFP accumulated at synaptic microdomains in a developmentally regulated manner, and its overexpression transiently accelerated synapse formation. PRON-GFP was much more diffusely distributed along the axon and its overexpression delayed synapse formation. Our results support the notion that N-cadherin serves to stabilize pre- to postsynaptic contacts early in synapse development and suggests that regulated cleavage of the N-cadherin prodomain may be a mechanism by which the kinetics of synaptogenesis are regulated. PMID:19365814

  16. N-cadherin is essential for retinal lamination in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Bettina; Kirsch, Frank-P; Rathjen, Fritz G; Moré, Margret I

    2003-03-01

    N-cadherin is one of the major Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion proteins in the developing nervous system. Here, we analyze eye development in the zebrafish N-cadherin loss-of-function mutant parachute(paR2.10) (pac(paR2.10)). The zebrafish visual system is fully developed by the time pac(paR2.10) mutants show lethality at day 5. Already at 24 hr postfertilization (hpf), mutant retinal cells are more disorganized and more rounded than in wild-type. At later stages, mutant retinae display a severe lamination defect with rosette formation (mostly islands of plexiform layer tissue surrounded by inner nuclear layer or photoreceptor cells), even though all major classes of cell types appear to be present as determined by histology. Of interest, electron microscopy reveals that the islands of plexiform layer tissue contain a normal amount of synapses with normal morphology. Although mutant photoreceptor cells are sometimes deformed, all typical structural components are present, including the membranous discs for rhodopsin storage. The lens fibers of the pac(paR2.10) mutants develop completely normally, but in some cases, lens epithelial cells round up and become multilayered. We conclude that cell adhesion mediated by N-cadherin is of major importance for retinal lamination and involved in maintenance of the lens epithelial sheet, but is not essential for the formation of photoreceptor ultrastructure or for synaptogenesis. PMID:12619142

  17. Effects of N-Cadherin Disruption on Spine Morphological Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Shreesh P.; Tai, Chin-Yin; Schuman, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes at synapses are thought to be a key mechanism for the encoding of memories in the brain. Recent studies have shown that changes in the dynamic behavior of dendritic spines accompany bidirectional changes in synaptic plasticity, and that the disruption of structural constraints at synapses may play a mechanistic role in spine plasticity. While the prolonged disruption of N-cadherin, a key synaptic adhesion molecule, has been shown to alter spine morphology, little is known about the short-term regulation of spine morphological dynamics by N-cadherin. With time-lapse, confocal imaging in cultured hippocampal neurons, we examined the progression of structural changes in spines following an acute treatment with AHAVD, a peptide known to interfere with the function of N-cadherin. We characterized fast and slow timescale spine dynamics (minutes and hours, respectively) in the same population of spines. We show that N-cadherin disruption leads to enhanced spine motility and reduced length, followed by spine loss. The structural effects are accompanied by a loss of functional connectivity. Further, we demonstrate that early structural changes induced by AHAVD treatment, namely enhanced motility and reduced length, are indicators for later spine fate, i.e., spines with the former changes are more likely to be subsequently lost. Our results thus reveal the short-term regulation of synaptic structure by N-cadherin and suggest that some forms of morphological dynamics may be potential readouts for subsequent, stimulus-induced rewiring in neuronal networks. PMID:18946519

  18. Role of N-cadherin in proliferation, migration, and invasion of germ cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Hubertus; Küffer, Stefan; Kaulfuss, Silke; Burfeind, Peter; Strauβ, Arne; Thelen, Paul; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Honecker, Friedemann; Behnes, Carl Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common malignancies in young men. Most patients with GCT can be cured with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, even in metastatic disease. In case of therapy resistance, prognosis is usually poor. We investigated the potential of N-cadherin inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. We analyzed the GCT cell lines NCCIT, NTERA-2, TCam-2, and the cisplatin-resistant sublines NCCIT-R and NTERA-2R. Effects of a blocking antibody or siRNA against N-cadherin on proliferation, migration, and invasion were investigated. Mouse xenografts of GCT cell lines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for N-cadherin expression. All investigated GCT cell lines were found to express N-cadherin protein in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of N-cadherin in vitro leads to a significant inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion. N-cadherin-downregulation leads to a significantly higher level of pERK. N-cadherin-inhibition resulted in significantly higher rates of apoptotic cells in caspase-3 staining. Expression of N-cadherin is preserved in cisplatin-resistant GCT cells, pointing to an important physiological role in cell survival. N-cadherin-downregulation results in a significant decrease of proliferation, migration, and invasion and stimulates apoptosis in cisplatin-naive and resistant GCT cell lines. Therefore, targeting N-cadherin may be a promising therapeutic approach, particularly in cisplatin-resistant, therapy refractory and metastatic GCT. PMID:26451610

  19. A novel o-naphtoquinone inhibits N-cadherin expression and blocks melanoma cell invasion via AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Barbosa, Gleyce Dos Santos; Burbano, Rommel M R; Souza, Luciana G S; Lemos, Telma L G; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2013-10-01

    The down-regulation or loss of epithelial markers is often accompanied by the up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. E-cadherin generally suppresses invasiveness, whereas N-cadherin promotes invasion and metastasis in vitro. The aim of this work is to investigate the role of biflorin, a naphthoquinone with proven anticancer properties, on the expression of N-cadherin and AKT proteins in MDA-MB-435 invasive melanoma cancer cells after 12h of exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin. Biflorin inhibited MDA-MB-435 invasion in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). Likewise, biflorin down-regulated N-cadherin and AKT-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Biflorin did not inhibit the adhesion of MDA-MB-435 cells to any tested substrates. Additionally, biflorin blocked the invasiveness of cells by down-regulating N-cadherin, most likely via AKT-1 signaling. As such, biflorin may be a novel anticancer agent and a new prototype for drug design. PMID:23912027

  20. N-cadherin-catenin complexes form prior to cleavage of the proregion and transport to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Wahl, James K; Kim, Young J; Cullen, Janet M; Johnson, Keith R; Wheelock, Margaret J

    2003-05-01

    Cadherins are calcium-dependent glycoproteins that function as cell-cell adhesion molecules and are linked to the actin cytoskeleton via catenins. Newly synthesized cadherins contain a prosequence that must be proteolytically removed to generate a functional adhesion molecule. The goal of this study was to examine the proteolytic processing of N-cadherin and the assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex in cells that express endogenous N-cadherin. A monoclonal antibody specific for the proregion of human N-cadherin was generated and used to examine N-cadherin processing. Our data show that newly synthesized proN-cadherin is phosphorylated and proteolytically processed prior to transport to the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that beta-catenin and plakoglobin associate only with phosphorylated proN-cadherin, whereas p120(ctn) can associate with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proN-cadherin. Immunoprecipitations using anti-proN-cadherin showed that cadherin-catenin complexes are assembled prior to localization at the plasma membrane. These data suggest that a core N-cadherin-catenin complex assembles in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi compartment and is transported to the plasma membrane where linkage to the actin cytoskeleton can be established. PMID:12604612

  1. Essential cooperation of N-cadherin and neuroligin-1 in the transsynaptic control of vesicle accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stan, A; Pielarski, K N; Brigadski, T; Wittenmayer, N; Fedorchenko, O; Gohla, A; Lessmann, V; Dresbach, T; Gottmann, K

    2010-06-15

    Cell adhesion molecules are key players in transsynaptic communication, precisely coordinating presynaptic differentiation with postsynaptic specialization. At glutamatergic synapses, their retrograde signaling has been proposed to control presynaptic vesicle clustering at active zones. However, how the different types of cell adhesion molecules act together during this decisive step of synapse maturation is largely unexplored. Using a knockout approach, we show that two synaptic adhesion systems, N-cadherin and neuroligin-1, cooperate to control vesicle clustering at nascent synapses. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments at individual synaptic boutons revealed a strong impairment of vesicle accumulation in the absence of N-cadherin, whereas the formation of active zones was largely unaffected. Strikingly, also the clustering of synaptic vesicles triggered by neuroligin-1 overexpression required the presence of N-cadherin in cultured neurons. Mechanistically, we found that N-cadherin acts by postsynaptically accumulating neuroligin-1 and activating its function via the scaffolding molecule S-SCAM, leading, in turn, to presynaptic vesicle clustering. A similar cooperation of N-cadherin and neuroligin-1 was observed in immature CA3 pyramidal neurons in an organotypic hippocampal network. Moreover, at mature synapses, N-cadherin was required for the increase in release probability and miniature EPSC frequency induced by expressed neuroligin-1. This cooperation of two cell adhesion systems provides a mechanism for coupling bidirectional synapse maturation mediated by neuroligin-1 to cell type recognition processes mediated by classical cadherins. PMID:20534458

  2. Identification of plakoglobin domains required for association with N-cadherin and alpha-catenin.

    PubMed

    Sacco, P A; McGranahan, T M; Wheelock, M J; Johnson, K R

    1995-08-25

    Cadherins are calcium-dependent, cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion. To function in cell-cell adhesion, the transmembrane cadherin molecule must be associated with the cytoskeleton via cytoplasmic proteins known as catenins. Three catenins, alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and gamma-catenin (also known as plakoglobin), have been identified. The domain of the cadherin molecule important for its interaction with the catenins has been mapped to the COOH-terminal 70 amino acids, but less is known about regions of the catenins that allow them to associate with one another or with the cadherin molecule. In this study we have transfected carboxyl-terminal deletions of plakoglobin into the human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and used immunofluorescence localization and co-immunoprecipitation to map the regions of plakoglobin that allow it to associate with N-cadherin and with alpha-catenin. Plakoglobin is an armadillo family member containing 13 weakly similar internal repeats. These data show that the alpha-catenin-binding region maps within the first repeat and the N-cadherin-binding region maps within repeats 7 and 8. PMID:7650039

  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor regulation of N-cadherin mediates vascular stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ji-Hye; Skoura, Athanasia; Chae, Sung-Suk; Cowan, Ann E.; Han, David K.; Proia, Richard L.; Hla, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Vascular stabilization, a process by which nascent vessels are invested with mural cells, is important in angiogenesis. Here we describe the molecular basis of vascular stabilization regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a platelet-derived lipid mediator. S1P1 receptor-dependent cell-surface trafficking and activation of the cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin is essential for interactions between endothelial and mural cells. Endothelial cell S1P1/Gi/Rac pathway induces microtubule polymerization, resulting in trafficking of N-cadherin to polarized plasma membrane domains. S1P treatment modulated the phosphorylation of N-cadherin as well as p120-catenin and induced the formation of cadherin/catenin/actin complexes containing novel regulatory and trafficking factors. The net result of endothelial cell S1P1 receptor activation is the proper trafficking and strengthening of N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion with mural cells. Perturbation of N-cadherin expression with small interfering RNA profoundly attenuated vascular stabilization in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced trafficking and activation of N-cadherin provides a novel mechanism for the stabilization of nascent blood vessels by mural cells and may be exploited to control angiogenesis and vascular diseases. PMID:15371328

  4. MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-Cadherin Act in Concert To Facilitate Synapse Reorganization after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kelly M.; Reeves, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) influence synaptic recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Membrane type 5-matrix metalloproteinase (MT5-MMP) and a distintegrin and metalloproteinase-10 (ADAM-10) are membrane-bound MMPs that cleave N-cadherin, a protein critical to synapse stabilization. This study examined protein and mRNA expression of MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin after TBI, contrasting adaptive and maladaptive synaptogenesis. The effect of MMP inhibition on MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin was assessed during maladaptive plasticity and correlated with synaptic function. Rats were subjected to adaptive unilateral entorhinal cortical lesion (UEC) or maladaptive fluid percussion TBI+bilateral entorhinal cortical lesion (TBI+BEC). Hippocampal MT5-MMP and ADAM-10 protein was significantly elevated 2 and 7 days post-injury. At 15 days after UEC, each MMP returned to control level, while TBI+BEC ADAM-10 remained elevated. At 2 and 7 days, N-cadherin protein was below control. By the 15-day synapse stabilization phase, UEC N-cadherin rose above control, a shift not seen for TBI+BEC. At 7 days, increased TBI+BEC ADAM-10 transcript correlated with protein elevation. UEC ADAM-10 mRNA did not change, and no differences in MT5-MMP or N-cadherin mRNA were detected. Confocal imaging showed MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin localization within reactive astrocytes. MMP inhibition attenuated ADAM-10 protein 15 days after TBI+BEC and increased N-cadherin. This inhibition partially restored long-term potentiation induction, but did not affect paired-pulse facilitation. Our results confirm time- and injury-dependent expression of MT5-MMP, ADAM-10, and N-cadherin during reactive synaptogenesis. Persistent ADAM-10 expression was correlated with attenuated N-cadherin level and reduced functional recovery. MMP inhibition shifted ADAM-10 and N-cadherin toward adaptive expression and improved synaptic function. PMID:22489706

  5. N-cadherin mediated distribution of beta-catenin alters MAP kinase and BMP-2 signaling on chondrogenesis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Modarresi, Rozbeh; Lafond, Toulouse; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Danielson, Keith G; Tuan, Rocky S; Seghatoleslami, M Reza

    2005-05-01

    We have examined the effect of calcium-dependent adhesion, mediated by N-cadherin, on cell signaling during chondrogenesis of multipotential embryonic mouse C3H10T1/2 cells. The activity of chondrogenic genes, type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 were examined in monolayer (non-chondrogenic), and micromass (chondrogenic) cultures of parental C3H10T1/2 cells and altered C3H10T1/2 cell lines that express a dominant negative form of N-cadherin (delta390-T1/2) or overexpress normal N-cadherin (MNCD2-T1/2). Our findings show that missexpression or inhibition of N-cadherin in C3H10T1/2 cells results in temporal and spatial changes in expression of the chondrogenic genes Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II. We have also analyzed activity of the serum response factor (SRF), a nuclear target of MAP kinase signaling implicated in chondrogenesis. In semi-confluent monolayer cultures (minimum cell-cell contact) of C3H10T1/2, MNCD2-T1/2, or delta390-T1/2 cells, there was no significant change in the pattern of MAP kinase or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) regulation of SRF. However, in micromass cultures, the effect of MAP kinase and BMP-2 on SRF activity was proportional to the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a Wnt stabilized cytoplasmic factor that can associate with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF) to serve as a transcription factor. Our findings suggest that the extent of adherens junction formation mediated by N-cadherin can modulate the potential Wnt-induced nuclear activity of beta-catenin. PMID:15723280

  6. Myosin X regulates neuronal radial migration through interacting with N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Mingming; Guo, Ye; Ma, Jun; Yu, Huali; Zhao, Dongdong; Fan, Wenqiang; Ju, Xingda; Sheikh, Muhammad A.; Malik, Yousra S.; Xiong, Wencheng; Guo, Weixiang; Zhu, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Proper brain function depends on correct neuronal migration during development, which is known to be regulated by cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-cell adhesion. Myosin X (Myo10), an uncharacteristic member of the myosin family, is an important regulator of cytoskeleton that modulates cell motilities in many different cellular contexts. We previously reported that Myo10 was required for neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex, but the underlying mechanism was still largely unknown. Here, we found that knockdown of Myo10 expression disturbed the adherence of migrating neurons to radial glial fibers through abolishing surface Neuronal cadherin (N-cadherin) expression, thereby impaired neuronal migration in the developmental cortex. Next, we found Myo10 interacted with N-cadherin cellular domain through its FERM domain. Furthermore, we found knockdown of Myo10 disrupted N-cadherin subcellular distribution and led to localization of N-cadherin into Golgi apparatus and endosomal sorting vesicle. Taking together, these results reveal a novel mechanism of Myo10 interacting with N-cadherin and regulating its cell-surface expression, which is required for neuronal adhesion and migration. PMID:26347613

  7. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  8. Conserved alternative splicing and expression patterns of arthropod N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Ning; Yonekura, Shinichi; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Robertson, Hugh M; Iwai, Youichi; Uemura, Tadashi; Lee, Chi-Hon; Chiba, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Metazoan development requires complex mechanisms to generate cells with diverse function. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA not only expands proteomic diversity but also provides a means to regulate tissue-specific molecular expression. The N-Cadherin gene in Drosophila contains three pairs of mutually-exclusive alternatively-spliced exons (MEs). However, no significant differences among the resulting protein isoforms have been successfully demonstrated in vivo. Furthermore, while the N-Cadherin gene products exhibit a complex spatiotemporal expression pattern within embryos, its underlying mechanisms and significance remain unknown. Here, we present results that suggest a critical role for alternative splicing in producing a crucial and reproducible complexity in the expression pattern of arthropod N-Cadherin. We demonstrate that the arthropod N-Cadherin gene has maintained the three sets of MEs for over 400 million years using in silico and in vivo approaches. Expression of isoforms derived from these MEs receives precise spatiotemporal control critical during development. Both Drosophila and Tribolium use ME-13a and ME-13b in "neural" and "mesodermal" splice variants, respectively. As proteins, either ME-13a- or ME-13b-containing isoform can cell-autonomously rescue the embryonic lethality caused by genetic loss of N-Cadherin. Ectopic muscle expression of either isoform beyond the time it normally ceases leads to paralysis and lethality. Together, our results offer an example of well-conserved alternative splicing increasing cellular diversity in metazoans. PMID:19343204

  9. Recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin is necessary for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ruping; Cleary, Rachel A; Gannon, Olivia J; Tang, Dale D

    2015-04-01

    β-Catenin is a key component that connects transmembrane cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton at the cell-cell interface. However, the role of the β-catenin/cadherin interaction in smooth muscle has not been well characterized. Here stimulation with acetylcholine promoted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Knockdown of β-catenin by lentivirus-mediated shRNA attenuated smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, myosin light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19 and actin polymerization in response to contractile activation were not reduced by β-catenin knockdown. In addition, the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain disrupted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin. Force development, but not myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin polymerization, was reduced by the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain. Furthermore, actin polymerization and microtubules have been implicated in intracellular trafficking. In this study, the treatment with the inhibitor latrunculin A diminished the interaction of β-catenin with N-cadherin in smooth muscle. In contrast, the exposure of smooth muscle to the microtubule depolymerizer nocodazole did not affect the protein-protein interaction. Together, these findings suggest that smooth muscle contraction is mediated by the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin, which may facilitate intercellular mechanotransduction. The association of β-catenin with N-cadherin is regulated by actin polymerization during contractile activation. PMID:25713069

  10. N-Cadherin-Mediated Signaling Regulates Cell Phenotype for Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Priscilla Y.; Jing, Liufang; Michael, Keith W.; Richardson, William J.; Chen, Jun; Setton, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the intervertebral disc (IVD) are large, vacuolated cells that form cell clusters with strong cell–cell interactions. With maturation and aging, NP cells lose their ability to form these cell clusters, with aging-associated changes in NP cell phenotype, morphology, and proteoglycan synthesis that may contribute to IVD degeneration. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms governing juvenile NP cell cluster behavior towards the goal of revealing factors that can promote juvenile, healthy NP cell phenotypes. N-cadherin has been identified as a cell–cell adhesion marker that is present in juvenile NP cells, but disappears with age. The goal of this study was to reveal the importance of N-cadherin in regulating cell–cell interactions in juvenile NP cell cluster formation and test for a regulatory role in maintaining a juvenile NP phenotype in vitro. Juvenile porcine IVD cells, of notochordal origin, were promoted to form cell clusters in vitro, and analyzed for preservation of the juvenile NP phenotype. Additionally, cadherin-blocking experiments were performed to prevent cluster formation in order to study the importance of cluster formation in NP cell signaling. Findings reveal N-cadherin-mediated cell–cell contacts promote cell clustering behavior and regulate NP cell matrix production and preservation of NP-specific markers. Inhibition of N-cadherin-mediated contacts resulted in loss of all features of the juvenile NP cell. These results establish a regulatory role for N-cadherin in juvenile NP cells, and suggest that preservation of the N-cadherin mediated cell–cell contact is important for preserving juvenile NP cell phenotype and morphology. PMID:25848407

  11. N-cadherin Determines Individual Variations in the Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Eue-Keun; Kang, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Park, Ju Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Sae-Won; Kim, Keum-Hyun; Kwon, Jin Sook; Lee, Ki Hong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Lee, Ho-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Won Il; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we established and characterized human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) from four different donors. However, the hUCB-MSCs showed remarkable variations in their therapeutic efficacy for repairing rat infarcted myocardium (including the process of angiogenesis) 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, we observed that the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is correlated with the therapeutic efficacy of the four hUCB-MSCs. Next, to investigate the practical application of hUCB-MSCs, we searched for surface signature molecules that could serve as indicators of therapeutic efficacy. The gene for N-cadherin was the only cell surface gene that was highly expressed in the most effective hUCB-MSCs, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. We observed downregulation and upregulation of VEGF in response to N-cadherin blocking and N-cadherin overexpression, respectively. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not protein kinase B, was increased when N-cadherin expression was increased, whereas disruption of N-cadherin-mediated cell–cell contact induced suppression of ERK activation and led to VEGF downregulation. Moreover, by investigating hUCB-MSCs overexpressing N-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown hUCB-MSCs, we confirmed the in vivo function of N-cadherin. In addition, we observed that DiI-labeled hUCB-MSCs express N-cadherin in the peri-infarct area and interact with cardiomyocytes. PMID:22068423

  12. Lateral assembly of N-cadherin drives tissue integrity by stabilizing adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Garg, S.; Fischer, S. C.; Schuman, E. M.; Stelzer, E. H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherin interactions ensure the correct registry and anchorage of cells during tissue formation. Along the plasma membrane, cadherins form inter-junctional lattices via cis- and trans-dimerization. While structural studies have provided models for cadherin interactions, the molecular nature of cadherin binding in vivo remains unexplored. We undertook a multi-disciplinary approach combining live cell imaging of three-dimensional cell assemblies (spheroids) with a computational model to study the dynamics of N-cadherin interactions. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we demonstrate that each N-cadherin interface plays a distinct role in spheroid formation. We found that cis-dimerization is not a prerequisite for trans-interactions, but rather modulates trans-interfaces to ensure tissue stability. Using a model of N-cadherin junction dynamics, we show that the absence of cis-interactions results in low junction stability and loss of tissue integrity. By quantifying the binding and unbinding dynamics of the N-cadherin binding interfaces, we determined that mutating either interface results in a 10-fold increase in the dissociation constant. These findings provide new quantitative information on the steps driving cadherin intercellular adhesion and demonstrate the role of cis-interactions in junction stability. PMID:25589573

  13. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  14. E-cadherin, N-cadherin Expression and Histologic Characterization of Canine Choroid Plexus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Reginato, A; Girolami, D; Menchetti, L; Foiani, G; Mandara, M T

    2016-07-01

    Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are reported with an increasing incidence in dogs, and they call for a reexamination of histologic features and criteria of classification corresponding to their biological behavior. In this study, the human World Health Organization classification was applied to 16 canine CPTs, and the expression of molecules involved in neoplastic cell adhesion (E-cadherin, N-cadherin), invasion (doublecortin), and proliferation (Ki-67) was investigated. Mitotic index was found to be the main criterion for grading CPTs. Cell density and multilayering of papillae were also statistically associated with histologic grade. Intraventricular spread and parenchymal invasion was observed for tumors showing histologic benign features. E-cadherin was expressed in all CPT grades, independent of tumor invasion. N-cadherin immunolabeling was more expressed in grade I than high-grade CPTs, whereas doublecortin expression was not detected in CPTs. An increasing proliferative activity was observed in relation with histologic grade. PMID:26792846

  15. Glioma stem cell invasion through regulation of the interconnected ERK, integrin α6 and N-cadherin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Rehman, Azeem A; Chelluboina, Bharath; Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Gondi, Christopher S; Rao, Jasti S; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar

    2012-11-01

    The recent characterization of glioma stem cells (GSCs) prompts a necessary examination of the signaling pathways that facilitate invasiveness. Molecular crosstalk between expression mechanisms has been identified in a range of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme. However, hardly any literature exists that addresses whether cancer stem cells utilize these same interconnected pathways. Protein factors commonly implicated in malignant tumors include extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), N-cadherin, and integrin α6. Although studies have reported the molecular crosstalk involved among these proteins, the present study illustrates the importance of the ERK transduction pathway in N-cadherin and integrin α6 regulated invasion in GSCs. Conversely, the data also suggests that GSCs rely on N-cadherin and integrin α6 interaction to regulate ERK signaling. Moreover, confocal visualization revealed the co-localization of N-cadherin and integrin α6 in GSCs and clinical surgical biopsies extracted from glioma patients. Interestingly, ERK knockdown reduced this co-localization. Upon co-culturing GSCs with human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs), we observed a subsequent decrease in pERK, N-cadherin and integrin α6 expression. In addition, co-culturing hUCBSCs with GSCs decreased co-localization of N-cadherin and integrin α6 in GSCs. Our results demonstrate the dynamic interplay among ERK, N-cadherin and integrin α6 in GSC invasion and also reveal the therapeutic potential of hUCBSCs in treating the molecular crosstalk observed in GSC-regulated invasion. PMID:22789454

  16. Opposite Roles of Furin and PC5A in N-Cadherin Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Deborah; Sadr, Mohamad Seyed; Sadr, Emad Seyed; Colman, David R; Del Maestro, Rolando F; Seidah, Nabil G

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lack of Furin-processing of the N-cadherin precursor (proNCAD) in highly invasive melanoma and brain tumor cells results in the cell-surface expression of a nonadhesive protein favoring cell migration and invasion in vitro. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of malignant human brain tumor cells revealed that of all proprotein convertases (PCs) only the levels of Furin and PC5A are modulated, being inversely (Furin) or directly (PC5A) correlated with brain tumor invasive capacity. Intriguingly, the N-terminal sequence following the Furin-activated NCAD site (RQKR↓DW161, mouse nomenclature) reveals a second putative PC-processing site (RIRSDR↓DK189) located in the first extracellular domain. Cleavage at this site would abolish the adhesive functions of NCAD because of the loss of the critical Trp161. This was confirmed upon analysis of the fate of the endogenous prosegment of proNCAD in human malignant glioma cells expressing high levels of Furin and low levels of PC5A (U343) or high levels of PC5A and negligible Furin levels (U251). Cellular analyses revealed that Furin is the best activating convertase releasing an ∼17-kDa prosegment, whereas PC5A is the major inactivating enzyme resulting in the secretion of an ∼20-kDa product. Like expression of proNCAD at the cell surface, cleavage of the NCAD molecule at RIRSDR↓DK189 renders the U251 cancer cells less adhesive to one another and more migratory. Our work modifies the present view on posttranslational processing and surface expression of classic cadherins and clarifies how NCAD possesses a range of adhesive potentials and plays a critical role in tumor progression. PMID:23097623

  17. Hydrogels functionalized with N-cadherin mimetic peptide enhance osteogenesis of hMSCs by emulating the osteogenic niche.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meiling; Lin, Sien; Sun, Yuxin; Feng, Qian; Li, Gang; Bian, Liming

    2016-01-01

    N-cadherin is considered to be the key factor in directing cell-cell interactions during mesenchymal condensation, which is essential to osteogenesis. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels are biofunctionalized with an N-cadherin mimetic peptide to mimic the pro-osteogenic niche in the endosteal space to promote the osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Results show that the conjugation of the N-cadherin peptide in the HA hydrogels enhances the expression of the osteogenic marker genes in the seeded hMSCs. Furthermore, the biofunctionalized HA hydrogels promote the alkaline phosphatase activity, type I collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization by the seeded hMSCs under both in vitro and in vivo condition. We postulate that the biofunctionalized hydrogels emulates the N-cadherin-mediated homotypic cell-cell adhesion among MSCs and the "orthotypic" interaction between the osteoblasts and MSCs. These findings demonstrate that the biofunctionalized HA hydrogels provide a supportive niche microenvironment for the osteogenesis of hMSCs. PMID:26580785

  18. Myocardial connexin-43 and N-Cadherin decrease during vanadium inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, Teresa I; Soto-Mota, Adrian; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rodriguez-Lara, Vianey; Gonzalez-Villalva, Adriana; Montaño, Luis F; Paez, Araceli; Colin-Barenque, Laura; López-Valdez, Nelly; Cano-Gutiérrez, Gumaro; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Ustarroz-Cano, Martha

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution has considerably increased during the last decades; vanadium is a transition element adhered to this particulate matter, and the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source in the atmosphere. It has been reported that air pollution and specifically vanadium exposure increases the probability of suffering arrhythmias; however the biological mechanism of such a relationship remains unknown. It has been established that a diminished presence of N-Cadherin alters the Connexin-43 arrangement, and the consequent altered presence of these proteins predisposes to ventricular heart rate problems. We analyzed myocardial histology and the expression of N-Cadherin and Connexin-43 by immunohistochemistry in mouse that inhaled vanadium. Our results showed a significant and progressive reduction in both N-Cadherin and Connexin-43, as well as the presence of meganucleus; myofibrils disruption, and clumping in the exposed groups were also observed. Our findings add more information about a possible explanation for the arrythmogenic effect observed in dwellers of cities with high particulate matter atmospheric pollution. PMID:26568576

  19. Identification of two structural types of calcium-dependent adhesion molecules in the chicken embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, S L; Rutishauser, U; Lilien, J

    1988-01-01

    By using an immunological and peptide mapping approach two calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules (calCAMs) in the embryonic chicken are compared. A third closely related molecule is identified and compared to the two calCAMs. One of the calCAMs appears to be identical to the previously identified adhesion molecule N-cadherin, originally identified in chicken retina and localized to neural tissues. The second is the same as L-CAM, originally identified in chicken liver but localized to a variety of epithelial tissues. The third, also found in liver, is similar to L-CAM but is much closer in structure to N-cadherin. It is, however, immunologically distinct from N-cadherin. We therefore refer to this newly identified molecule as CRM-L for cadherin-related molecule in liver. CRM-L, N-cadherin, and L-CAM are all cell-surface proteins with a similar stability to tryptic digestion in the presence of calcium. CRM-L has the same molecular mass and isoelectric point as N-cadherin but is distinct from L-CAM in these properties. Two-dimensional peptide maps of complete tryptic digests reveal that CRM-L shares 69% of its peptides with N-cadherin and 20% with L-CAM. On the basis of these data, we suggest that there are at least two distinguishable types of calCAMs in the chicken embryo: one represented by the closely related molecules N-cadherin and CRM-L, and another represented by L-CAM. Images PMID:3368455

  20. Cortical interneurons migrating on a pure substrate of N-cadherin exhibit fast synchronous centrosomal and nuclear movements and reduced ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luccardini, Camilla; Leclech, Claire; Viou, Lucie; Rio, Jean-Paul; Métin, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic development of the cortex involves a phase of long distance migration of interneurons born in the basal telencephalon. Interneurons first migrate tangentially and then reorient their trajectories radially to enter the developing cortex. We have shown that migrating interneurons can assemble a primary cilium, which maintains the centrosome to the plasma membrane and processes signals to control interneuron trajectory (Baudoin et al., 2012). In the developing cortex, N-cadherin is expressed by migrating interneurons and by cells in their migratory pathway. N-cadherin promotes the motility and maintains the polarity of tangentially migrating interneurons (Luccardini et al., 2013). Because N-cadherin is an important factor that regulates the migration of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells in vivo, we further characterized the motility and polarity of MGE cells on a substrate that only comprises this protein. MGE cells migrating on a N-cadherin substrate were seven times faster than on a laminin substrate and two times faster than on a substrate of cortical cells. A primary cilium was much less frequently observed on MGE cells migrating on N-cadherin than on laminin. Nevertheless, the mature centriole (MC) frequently docked to the plasma membrane in MGE cells migrating on N-cadherin, suggesting that plasma membrane docking is a basic feature of the centrosome in migrating MGE cells. On the N-cadherin substrate, centrosomal and nuclear movements were remarkably synchronous and the centrosome remained near the nucleus. Interestingly, MGE cells with cadherin invalidation presented centrosomal movements no longer coordinated with nuclear movements. In summary, MGE cells migrating on a pure substrate of N-cadherin show fast, coordinated nuclear and centrosomal movements, and rarely present a primary cilium. PMID:26283922

  1. Surface Expression of Precursor N-cadherin Promotes Tumor Cell Invasion12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Deborah; Gruzglin, Eugenia; Sadr, Mohamad Seyed; Siu, Vincent; Shan, Weisong; Koch, Alexander W; Seidah, Nabil G; Del Maestro, Rolando F; Colman, David R

    2010-01-01

    The expression of N-cadherin (NCAD) has been shown to correlate with increased tumor cell motility and metastasis. However, NCAD-mediated adhesion is a robust phenomenon and therefore seems to be inconsistent with the “release” from intercellular adhesion required for invasion. We show that in the most invasive melanoma and brain tumor cells, altered posttranslational processing results in abundant nonadhesive precursor N-cadherin (proNCAD) at the cell surface, although total NCAD levels remain constant. We demonstrate that aberrantly processed proNCAD promotes cell migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, in human tumor specimens, we find high levels of proNCAD as well, supporting an overall conclusion that proNCAD and mature NCAD coexist on these tumor cell surfaces and that it is the ratio between these functionally antagonistic moieties that directly correlates with invasion potential. Our work provides insight into what may be a widespread mechanism for invasion and metastasis and challenges the current dogma of the functional roles played by classic cadherins in tumor progression. PMID:21170270

  2. Differential Function of N-Cadherin and Cadherin-7 in the Control of Embryonic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sylvie; Beauvais-Jouneau, Alice; Delouvée, Annie; Thiery, Jean Paul

    1999-01-01

    Similar amounts of N-cadherin and cadherin-7, the prototypes of type I and type II cadherin, induced cell-cell adhesion in murine sarcoma 180 transfectants, Ncad-1 and cad7-29, respectively. However, in the initial phase of aggregation, Ncad-1 cells aggregated more rapidly than cad7-29 cells. Isolated Ncad-1 and cad7-29 cells adhered and spread in a similar manner on fibronectin (FN), whereas aggregated cad7-29 cells were more motile and dispersed than aggregated Ncad-1 cells. cad7-29 cells established transient contacts with their neighbors which were stabilized if FN-cell interactions were perturbed. In contrast, Ncad-1 cells remained in close contact when they migrated on FN. Both β-catenin and cadherin were more rapidly downregulated in cad7-29 than in Ncad-1 cells treated with cycloheximide, suggesting a higher turnover rate for cadherin-7–mediated cell-cell contacts than for those mediated by N-cadherin. The extent of FN-dependent focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation was much lower if the cells had initiated N-cadherin–mediated rather than cadherin-7–mediated cell adhesion before plating. On grafting into the embryo, Ncad-1 cells did not migrate and remained at or close to the graft site, even after 48 h, whereas grafted cad7-29 cells dispersed efficiently into embryonic structures. Thus, the adhesive phenotype of cadherin-7–expressing cells is regulated by the nature of the extracellular matrix environment which also controls the migratory behavior of the cells. In addition, adhesions mediated by different cadherins differentially regulate FN-dependent signaling. The transient contacts specifically observed in cadherin- 7–expressing cells may also be important in the control of cell motility. PMID:10427101

  3. N-Cadherin Aided in Maintaining the Characteristics of Leukemic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lei; Gao, Ying; Yu, Chunyan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Jie; Yao, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, it has been revealed that N-cadherin(+) and leukemic stem cells (LSCs, CD34(+) /CD38(-) /CD123(+) ) could be enriched by chemotherapy because of their resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we found that N-cadherin mRNA was highly expressed in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) of patients with t(8;21) translocation. To determine the role of N-cadherin in maintaining LSCs self-renewal and stationary properties, colony-forming assay, cell cycle analysis, and engraftment in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice were used to compare N-cadherin(+) and N-cadherin(-) cells. Both leukemic cell lines KG1a and CD34(+) /CD38(-) BMMNCs derived from acute myeloid leukemia patients were used, and cells were divided into N-cadherin(+) and N-cadherin(-) fraction after sorting by FACS. The results showed that N-cadherin(+) cells had remarkable increased numbers of colonies with cytokines stimulation when compared with the negative control, suggesting a higher proliferative capacity of N-cadherin(+) cells with cytokines stimulation. The results also showed that most cells in N-cadherin(+) fraction stayed in the G0 -G1 stage, indicating the involvement of N-cadherin in maintaining the quiescent state of LSCs in niche. The results of engraftment showed that there was a higher proportion of hCD45(+) cells in mice transplanted with N-cadherin(+) cells than N-cadherin(-) cells. In addition, it was obvious that NOD/SCID mice transplanted with N-cadherin(+) cells had a shorter lifetime than the negative control, suggesting that LSCs self-renewal capacity resides predominantly in N-cadherin(+) fraction. In summary, N-cadherin might play an important role in maintaining the self-renewal and stationary properties of LSCs. Anat Rec, 299:990-998, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27064800

  4. Alterations in cell adhesion proteins and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifen

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesive junction is specialized intercellular structure composed of cell adhesion proteins. They are essential to connect adjacent heart muscle cell and make heart contraction effectively and properly. Clinical and genetic studies have revealed close relationship between cell adhesive proteins and the occurrence of various cardiomyopathies. Here we will review recent development on the disease phenotype, potential cellular and molecular mechanism related to cell adhesion molecules, with particular disease pathogenesis learned from genetic manipulated murine models. PMID:24944760

  5. Loss of N-Cadherin Expression in Tumor Transplants Produced From As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial (UROtsa) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Elizabeth J.; Somji, Seema; Dunlevy, Jane R.; Garrett, Scott H.; Zhou, Xu Dong; Slusser-Nore, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a process in which a cell experiences a loss of epithelial cell characteristics and acquires a more mesenchymal cell phenotype. In cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been proposed to play an important role during specific stages of tumor progression. The role epithelial to mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal to epithelial transition might play in toxicant-induced urothelial cancer is unknown. Methods Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-fluorescence were used to determine the expression of E- and N-cadherin in the UROtsa parent, the As+3- and Cd+2-transformed cell lines, the spheroids isolated from these cell lines as well as the tumor heterotransplants that were produced by the injection of the transformed cells into immune compromised mice. Results This study showed that N-cadherin expression was increased in 6 As+3- and 7 Cd+2- transformed cell lines generated from human urothelial cells (UROtsa). The expression varied within each cell line, with 10% to 95% of the cells expressing N-cadherin. Tumors produced from these cell lines showed no expression of the N-cadherin protein. Spheroids which are made up of putative cancer initiating cells produced from these cell lines showed only background expression of N-cadherin mRNA, increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 mRNA and produced tumors which did not express N-cadherin. There was no change in the expression of E-cadherin in the tumors, and the tumors formed by all the As+3 and Cd+2-transformed cell lines and cancer initiating cells stained intensely and uniformly for E-cadherin. Conclusions The finding that the cells expressing N-cadherin gave rise to tumors with no expression of N-cadherin is in agreement with the classical view of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and N-cadherin are associated with dissemination and not with the ability to establish new tumor growth

  6. Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie; Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2011-05-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and {beta}-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

  7. Plakoglobin Reduces the in vitro Growth, Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing N-Cadherin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Alaee, Mahsa; Danesh, Ghazal; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cadherins and catenins plays pivotal roles in ovarian cancer development and progression. Plakoglobin (PG, γ-catenin) is a paralog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. While β-catenin has known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. We recently showed that PG interacted with p53 and that its growth/metastasis inhibitory function may be mediated by this interaction. Very little is known about the role of PG in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the in vitro tumor/metastasis suppressor effects of PG in ovarian cancer cell lines with mutant p53 expression and different cadherin profiles. We showed that the N-cadherin expressing and E-cadherin and PG deficient ES-2 cells were highly migratory and invasive, whereas OV-90 cells that express E-cadherin, PG and very little/no N-cadherin were not. Exogenous expression of PG or E-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown in ES-2 cells (ES-2-E-cad, ES-2-PG and ES-2-shN-cad) significantly reduced their migration and invasion. Also, PG expression or N-cadherin knockdown significantly decreased ES-2 cells growth. Furthermore, PG interacted with both cadherins and with wild type and mutant p53 in normal ovarian and ES-2-PG cell lines, respectively. PMID:27144941

  8. An occludin-focal adhesion kinase protein complex at the blood-testis barrier: a study using the cadmium model.

    PubMed

    Siu, Erica R; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Sze, K L; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-07-01

    Several integral membrane proteins that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in mammalian testes, in particular rodents, are known to date. These include tight junction (TJ) proteins (e.g. occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudins), basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins (e.g. N-cadherin), and gap junction proteins (e.g. connexin43). However, the regulators (e.g. protein kinases and phosphatases) that affect these proteins, such as their interaction with the cytoskeletal actin, which in turn confer cell adhesion at the TJ, remain largely unknown. We report herein that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a putative interacting partner of occludin, but not claudin-11 or junctional adhesion molecule-A. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy studies illustrated that the expression of FAK in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes was stage specific. FAK colocalized with occludin at the BTB in virtually all stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle but considerably diminished in stages VIII-IX, at the time of BTB restructuring to facilitate the transit of primary leptotene spermatocytes. Using Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with established TJ-permeability barrier and ultrastructures of TJ, basal ectoplasmic specialization and desmosome-like junction that mimicked the BTB in vivo, FAK was shown to colocalize with occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. When these Sertoli cell cultures were treated with CdCl(2) to perturb the TJ-barrier function, occludin underwent endocytic-mediated internalization in parallel with FAK and ZO-1. Thus, these findings demonstrate that FAK is an integrated regulatory component of the occludin-ZO-1 protein complex, suggesting that functional studies can be performed to study the role of FAK in BTB dynamics. PMID:19213829

  9. An Occludin-Focal Adhesion Kinase Protein Complex at the Blood-Testis Barrier: A Study Using the Cadmium Model

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Sze, K. L.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Several integral membrane proteins that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in mammalian testes, in particular rodents, are known to date. These include tight junction (TJ) proteins (e.g. occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudins), basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins (e.g. N-cadherin), and gap junction proteins (e.g. connexin43). However, the regulators (e.g. protein kinases and phosphatases) that affect these proteins, such as their interaction with the cytoskeletal actin, which in turn confer cell adhesion at the TJ, remain largely unknown. We report herein that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a putative interacting partner of occludin, but not claudin-11 or junctional adhesion molecule-A. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy studies illustrated that the expression of FAK in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes was stage specific. FAK colocalized with occludin at the BTB in virtually all stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle but considerably diminished in stages VIII–IX, at the time of BTB restructuring to facilitate the transit of primary leptotene spermatocytes. Using Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with established TJ-permeability barrier and ultrastructures of TJ, basal ectoplasmic specialization and desmosome-like junction that mimicked the BTB in vivo, FAK was shown to colocalize with occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. When these Sertoli cell cultures were treated with CdCl2 to perturb the TJ-barrier function, occludin underwent endocytic-mediated internalization in parallel with FAK and ZO-1. Thus, these findings demonstrate that FAK is an integrated regulatory component of the occludin-ZO-1 protein complex, suggesting that functional studies can be performed to study the role of FAK in BTB dynamics. PMID:19213829

  10. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cadherin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cadherin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27041467

  11. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  12. The planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 is involved in postsynaptic compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Kishi, Masashi

    2016-01-26

    The excitatory postsynaptic region of the vertebrate hippocampus is usually compartmentalized into the postsynaptic density (PSD) and N-cadherin-rich domain, which is important for synaptic adhesion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the compartment formation are unknown. In the present report, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) plays a role in this regionalization. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons that were subjected to Vangl2 expression silencing, the formed clusters of PSD-95, one of the major scaffolding proteins in PSD, tended to overlap with those of N-cadherin. Further, in the dendrites of these neurons, the immunofluorescence of PSD-95 was to some extent diffused, without a significant change in the total signal. Because Vangl2 physically interacts with both PSD-95 and N-cadherin in vivo, these results suggest that a PCP-related direct molecular mechanism underlies the horizontal polarization of the postsynaptic regions. PMID:26683906

  13. A self-renewing division of zebrafish Müller glial cells generates neuronal progenitors that require N-cadherin to regenerate retinal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Mikiko; Barthel, Linda K.; Raymond, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Müller glia function as retinal stem cells in adult zebrafish. In response to loss of retinal neurons, Müller glia partially dedifferentiate, re-express neuroepithelial markers and re-enter the cell cycle. We show that the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Alcama is a novel marker of multipotent retinal stem cells, including injury-induced Müller glia, and that each Müller glial cell divides asymmetrically only once to produce an Alcama-negative, proliferating retinal progenitor. The initial mitotic division of Müller glia involves interkinetic nuclear migration, but mitosis of retinal progenitors occurs in situ. Rapidly dividing retinal progenitors form neurogenic clusters tightly associated with Alcama/N-cadherin-labeled Müller glial radial processes. Genetic suppression of N-cadherin function interferes with basal migration of retinal progenitors and subsequent regeneration of HuC/D+ inner retinal neurons. PMID:24154521

  14. Soy and cottonseed protein blends as wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As an environmentally friendlier alternative to adhesives from petroleum feedstock, soy proteins are currently being formulated as wood adhesives. Cottonseed proteins have also been found to provide good adhesive properties. In at least some cases, cottonseed proteins appear to form greater shear ...

  15. Angiomotin like-1 is a novel component of the N-cadherin complex affecting endothelial/pericyte interaction in normal and tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yujuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Barutello, Giuseppina; Chiu, Kungchun; Arigoni, Maddalena; Giampietro, Costanza; Cavallo, Federica; Holmgren, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical force via cell junctions is an important component that molds cells into shapes consistent with proper organ function. Of particular interest are the cadherin transmembrane proteins, which play an essential role in connecting cell junctions to the intra-cellular cytoskeleton. Understanding how these biomechanical complexes orchestrate intrinsic and extrinsic forces is important for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving morphogenesis. We have previously identified the Amot protein family, which are scaffold proteins that integrate polarity, junctional, and cytoskeletal cues to modulate cellular shape in endothelial as well as epithelial cells. In this report, we show that AmotL1 is a novel partner of the N-cadherin protein complex. We studied the role of AmotL1 in normal retinal as well as tumor angiogenesis using inducible endothelial-specific knock-out mice. We show that AmotL1 is essential for normal establishment of vascular networks in the post-natal mouse retina as well as in a transgenic breast cancer model. The observed phenotypes were consistent with a non-autonomous pericyte defect. We show that AmotL1 forms a complex with N-cadherin present on both endothelial cells and pericytes. We propose that AmotL1 is an essential effector of the N-cadherin mediated endothelial/pericyte junctional complex. PMID:27464479

  16. N-cadherin regulates primary motor axon growth and branching during zebrafish embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Brusés, Juan L

    2011-06-15

    N-cadherin is a classical type I cadherin that contributes to the formation of neural circuits by regulating growth cone migration and the formation of synaptic contacts. This study analyzed the role of N-cadherin in primary motor axons growth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. After exiting the spinal cord, primary motor axons migrate ventrally through a common pathway and form the first neuromuscular junction with the muscle pioneer cells located at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a choice point for cell-type-specific pathway selection. Analysis of N-cadherin mutants (cdh2(hi3644Tg) ) and embryos injected with N-cadherin antisense morpholinos showed primary motor axons extending aberrant axonal branches at the choice point in ∼40% of the somitic hemisegments and an ∼150% increase in the number of branches per axon length within the ventral myotome. Analysis of individual axons trajectories showed that the caudal (CaP) and rostral (RoP) motor neurons axons formed aberrant branches at the choice point that abnormally extended in the rostrocaudal axis and ventrally to the horizontal myoseptum. Expression of a dominant-interfering N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain in primary motor neurons caused some axons to stall abnormally at the horizontal myoseptum and to impair their migration into the ventral myotome. However, in N-cadherin-depleted embryos, the majority of primary motor axons innervated their appropriate myotomal territories, indicating that N-cadherin regulates motor axon growth and branching without severely affecting the mechanisms that control axonal target selection. PMID:21452216

  17. N-cadherin regulates primary motor axons growth and branching during zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Brusés, Juan L

    2013-01-01

    N-cadherin is a classical type I cadherin that contributes to the formation of neural circuits by regulating growth cone migration and the formation of synaptic contacts. This study analyzed the role of N-cadherin in primary motor axons growth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. After exiting the spinal cord, primary motor axons migrate ventrally through a common pathway and form the first neuromuscular junction with the muscle pioneer cells located at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a choice point for cell-type specific pathway selection. Analysis of N-cadherin mutants (cdh2hi3644Tg) and embryos injected with N-cadherin antisense morpholinos showed primary motor axons extending aberrant axonal branches at the choice point in ~40% of the somitic hemisegments, and an ~150% increase in the number of branches per axon length within the ventral myotome. Analysis of individual axons trajectories showed that the caudal (CaP) and rostral (RoP) motor neurons axons formed aberrant branches at the choice point which abnormally extended in the rostrocaudal axis and ventrally to the horizontal myoseptum. Expression of a dominant-interfering N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain in primary motor neurons caused some axons to abnormally stall at the horizontal myoseptum and to impair their migration into the ventral myotome. However, in N-cadherin depleted embryos the majority of primary motor axons innervated their appropriate myotomal territories indicating that N-cadherin regulates motor axon growth and branching without severely affecting the mechanisms that control axonal target selection. PMID:21452216

  18. How to develop globular proteins into adhesives.

    PubMed

    van der Leeden, M C; Rutten, A A; Frens, G

    2000-05-26

    To make globular proteins suitable for application in adhesives, the specific bonds and interactions which shape their structure have to broken. Only then, a layer of relatively large, flexible and interwoven polymer chains, which are firmly attached to the solid surface by adsorption, can be created. Such a network layer is essential to save the adhesive bond under an applied force, because it can distribute the concentration of stresses generated at the interface into the bulk. Unfolding and swelling of a protein can be achieved by changing the solvent quality. For the globular whey protein beta-lactoglobulin, the optimal conditions for unfolding and swelling is found with 98% formic acid as a solvent. In formic acid, beta-lactoglobulin looses its amphoteric character (it is protonated, probably for approximately 20%). In addition, formic acid is less polar than water and thus a better solvent for the apolar parts of the protein. The swelling and unfolding behaviour of beta-lactoglobulin is studied by viscosity and CD-spectroscopy measurements. For the interpretation of the results we apply the Kuhn formalism that the conformation of a protein can be described in terms of a statistical chain which consists of segments of an average persistence length P. The statistical segment length P, which varies with the experimental conditions, is directly related to the adsorption energy required for a strong adhesion between coil and surface. It determines the depletion energy kT P(-2) m(-2) which must be overcome by specific attraction between side groups of the protein chain and the surface. For beta-lactoglobulin in 98% formic acid, we find a P value of approximately 2.2 nm, pointing at a relatively flexible chain. The minimum net adsorption energy kT P(-2) is then approximately 1 mJ m(-2), a relatively small value to be exceeded. Preliminary results of destructive adhesion tests on beech wood lap-shear joints reveal promising tensile strengths of approximately 2

  19. N-cadherin deficiency impairs pericyte recruitment, and not endothelial differentiation or sprouting, in embryonic stem cell-derived angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tillet, Emmanuelle . E-mail: emmanuelle.tillet@cea.fr; Vittet, Daniel; Feraud, Olivier; Moore, Robert; Kemler, Rolf; Huber, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    Endothelial cells express two classical cadherins, VE-cadherin and N-cadherin. VE-cadherin is absolutely required for vascular morphogenesis, but N-cadherin is thought to participate in vessel stabilization by interacting with periendothelial cells during vessel formation. However, recent data suggest a more critical role for N-cadherin in endothelium that would regulate angiogenesis, in part by controlling VE-cadherin expression. In this study, we have assessed N-cadherin function in vascular development using an in vitro model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show that pluripotent ES cells genetically null for N-cadherin can differentiate normally into endothelial cells. In addition, sprouting angiogenesis was unaltered, suggesting that N-cadherin is not essential for the early events of angiogenesis. However, the lack of N-cadherin led to an impairment in pericyte covering of endothelial outgrowths. We conclude that N-cadherin is necessary neither for vasculogenesis nor proliferation and migration of endothelial cells but is required for the subsequent maturation of endothelial sprouts by interacting with pericytes.

  20. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  1. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  2. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  3. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several modified cottonseed protein isolates were studied and compared to corresponding soy protein isolates for their adhesive properties when bonded to wood composites. Modifications included treatments with alkali, guanidine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea. Wood composites...

  4. Adhesion of mussel foot proteins to different substrate surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qingye; Danner, Eric; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2013-01-01

    Mussel foot proteins (mfps) have been investigated as a source of inspiration for the design of underwater coatings and adhesives. Recent analysis of various mfps by a surface forces apparatus (SFA) revealed that mfp-1 functions as a coating, whereas mfp-3 and mfp-5 resemble adhesive primers on mica surfaces. To further refine and elaborate the surface properties of mfps, the force–distance profiles of the interactions between thin mfp (i.e. mfp-1, mfp-3 or mfp-5) films and four different surface chemistries, namely mica, silicon dioxide, polymethylmethacrylate and polystyrene, were measured by an SFA. The results indicate that the adhesion was exquisitely dependent on the mfp tested, the substrate surface chemistry and the contact time. Such studies are essential for understanding the adhesive versatility of mfps and related/similar adhesion proteins, and for translating this versatility into a new generation of coatings and (including in vivo) adhesive materials. PMID:23173195

  5. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  6. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2013-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII–IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research. PMID:23169788

  7. N-cadherin{sup +} HSCs in fetal liver exhibit higher long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity than N-cadherin{sup -} HSCs

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Fumio; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Ikushima, Yoshiko Matsumoto; Suda, Toshio

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High N-cad expression was detected in E12.5 mouse FL LT-HSCs (EPCR{sup +} LSK cells). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immunohistochemically, N-cad{sup +} HSCs co-localized with sinusoidal ECs (Lyve-1{sup +} cells) in E12.5 FL, but these gradually detached in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad{sup +} LSK cells in E12.5 FL exhibited higher LTR activity versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells, which decreased in E15.5 and E18.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad expression may confer high LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche in FL. -- Abstract: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. The regulation of HSCs in fetal liver (FL) and their niche, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in the maintenance of HSCs during FL hematopoiesis. By using anti-N-cad antibodies (Abs) produced by our laboratory, we detected high N-cad expression in embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) mouse FL HSCs, but not in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that N-cad{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} and N-cad{sup +} endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR){sup +} HSCs co-localized with Lyve-1{sup +} sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) in E12.5 FL and that some of these cells also expressed N-cad. However, N-cad{sup +} HSCs were also observed to detach from the perisinusoidal niche at E15.5 and E18.5, concomitant with a down-regulation of N-cad and an up-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in hepatic cells. Moreover, EPCR{sup +} long-term (LT)-HSCs were enriched in the N-cad{sup +}Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) fraction in E12.5 FL, but not in E15.5 or E18.5 FL. In a long-term reconstitution (LTR) activity assay, higher engraftment associated with N-cad{sup +} LSK cells versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells in E12.5 FL when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice. However, the

  8. Spatial distribution of proteins in the quagga mussel adhesive apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rees, David J; Hanifi, Arash; Manion, Joseph; Gantayet, Arpita; Sone, Eli D

    2016-01-01

    The invasive freshwater mollusc Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel) sticks to underwater surfaces via a proteinacious 'anchor' (byssus), consisting of a series of threads linked to adhesive plaques. This adhesion results in the biofouling of crucial underwater industry infrastructure, yet little is known about the proteins responsible for the adhesion. Here the identification of byssal proteins extracted from freshly secreted byssal material is described. Several new byssal proteins were observed by gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to characterize proteins in different regions of the byssus, particularly those localized to the adhesive interface. Byssal plaques and threads contain in common a range of low molecular weight proteins, while several proteins with higher mass were observed only in the plaque. At the adhesive interface, a plaque-specific ~8.1 kDa protein had a relative increase in signal intensity compared to the bulk of the plaque, suggesting it may play a direct role in adhesion. PMID:26825294

  9. Intrinsic Surface-Drying Properties of Bio-adhesive Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Akdogan, Yasar; Wei, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Danner, Eric W.; Miller, Dusty R.; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Herbert Waite, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sessile marine mussels must “dry” underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bio-inspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces but these are poor predictors of an adhesive’s ability to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction via the surface water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were found to have differential abilities to evict hydration layers from the surfaces—a necessary step for adsorption and adhesion. It was anticipated that Dopa would mediate dehydration given its efficacy forbio-inspired wet adhesion. Instead, hydrophobic side-chains are found to be a critical component in bringing about protein-surface intimacy. This is the first direct measurement of interfacial water dynamics during force-free adsorptive interactions at solid surfaces, and offers guidance for engineering wet adhesives and coatings. PMID:25168789

  10. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D.; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cad-herin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cad-herin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27041467

  11. Characteristics of bladder transitional cell carcinoma with E-cadherin and N-cadherin double-negative expression

    PubMed Central

    LUO, YANG; ZHU, YONG-TONG; MA, LI-LI; PANG, SHI-YU; WEI, LI-JIE; LEI, CHENG-YONG; HE, CHENG-WU; TAN, WAN-LONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the characteristics of bladder transitional cell carcinoma with E-cadherin and N-cadherin double-negative expression. An immunofluorescence assay was used to detect E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression in infiltrative bladder cancer tissues, and immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to detect E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression in human urinary bladder grade II carcinoma 5637, transitional cell carcinoma UMUC-3 and invasive bladder carcinoma EJ cells. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion and plate colony formation assays were used to detect the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities and the efficiency of plate colony formation of 5637, UMUC3 and EJ cells. A tumor xenograft formation assay was used to evaluate the tumorigenic abilities of 5637, UMUC-3 and EJ cells in vivo. E-cadherin and N-cadherin double-negative expression was identified in various pathological grades of infiltrative bladder cancers. E-cadherin positive and N-cadherin negative expression was exhibited by 5637 cells. By contrast, E-cadherin negative and N-cadherin positive expression was exhibited by EJ cells, and E-cadherin and N-cadherin double-negative expression was exhibited by UMUC-3 cells. The ability of cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, and the efficiency of plate colony formation and tumorigenic abilities of the cells were significantly different among 5637, UMUC-3 and EJ cells. These cell characteristics were significantly increased in UMUC-3 cells compared with 5637 cells; however, the characteristics were significantly decreased compared with EJ cells. The biological characteristics of bladder cancer cells with E-cadherin and N-cadherin double-negative expression was between bladder cancer cells that exhibited a E-cadherin positive and N-cadherin negative expression, and bladder cancer cells that exhibited E-cadherin negative and N-cadherin positive expression. The present study deduces that the status of E

  12. Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-05-12

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications. PMID:24650082

  13. Polymer adhesion at surfaces: biological adhesive proteins and their synthetic mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messersmith, Phillip

    2008-03-01

    Mussels are famous for their ability to permanently adhere to a wide variety of wet surfaces, such as rocks, metal and polymer ship hulls, and wood structures. They accomplish this through specialized proteins collectively referred to as mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). The biophysical aspects of MAP adhesion is being revealed through the use of single molecule force measurements. The results provide insight into the adhesive roles of key amino acids found in these proteins, including the magnitude of adhesive forces, cooperative effects, and their self-healing properties. This molecular-level information is being incorporated into designs of biomimetic polymer coatings for a variety of applications. Our biomimetic approach to polymer design will be illustrated by a few examples where adhesive constituents found in MAPs are exploited to make wet-adhesive polymer coatings. In addition, small molecule analogs of MAPs can be used to apply thin functional films onto virtually any material surface using a facile approach. These coatings have a variety of potential uses in microelectronics, water treatment, prevention of environmental biofouling, and for control of biointerfacial phenomena at the surfaces of medical/diagnostic devices.

  14. Novel protein-repellent dental adhesive containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Biofilms at tooth-restoration margins can produce acids and cause secondary caries. A protein-repellent adhesive resin can potentially inhibition bacteria attachment and biofilm growth. However, there has been no report on protein-repellent dental resins. The objectives of this study were to develop a protein-repellent bonding agent incorporating 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), and to investigate its resistance to protein adsorption and biofilm growth for the first time. Methods MPC was incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) at 0%, 3.75%, 7.5%, 11.25%, and 15% by mass. Extracted human teeth were used to measure dentin shear bond strengths. Protein adsorption onto resins was determined by a micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to measure biofilm metabolic activity and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Adding 7.5% MPC into primer and adhesive did not decrease the dentin bond strength, compared to control (p > 0.1). Incorporation of 7.5% of MPC achieved the lowest protein adsorption, which was 20-fold less than that of control. Incorporation of 7.5% of MPC greatly reduced bacterial adhesion, yielding biofilm total microorganism, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci CFU that were an order of magnitude less than control. Conclusions A protein-repellent dental adhesive resin was developed for the first time. Incorporation of MPC into primer and adhesive at 7.5% by mass greatly reduced the protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The novel protein-repellent primer and adhesive are promising to inhibit biofilm formation and acid production, to protect the tooth-restoration margins and prevent secondary caries. PMID:25234652

  15. The focal adhesion protein PINCH-1 associates with EPLIN at integrin adhesion sites

    PubMed Central

    Karaköse, Esra; Geiger, Tamar; Flynn, Kevin; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Zent, Roy; Mann, Matthias; Fässler, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PINCH-1 is a LIM-only domain protein that forms a ternary complex with integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and parvin (to form the IPP complex) downstream of integrins. Here, we demonstrate that PINCH-1 (also known as Lims1) gene ablation in the epidermis of mice caused epidermal detachment from the basement membrane, epidermal hyperthickening and progressive hair loss. PINCH-1-deficient keratinocytes also displayed profound adhesion, spreading and migration defects in vitro that were substantially more severe than those of ILK-deficient keratinocytes indicating that PINCH-1 also exerts functions in an ILK-independent manner. By isolating the PINCH-1 interactome, the LIM-domain-containing and actin-binding protein epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN, also known as LIMA1) was identified as a new PINCH-1-associated protein. EPLIN localized, in a PINCH-1-dependent manner, to integrin adhesion sites of keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro and its depletion severely attenuated keratinocyte spreading and migration on collagen and fibronectin without affecting PINCH-1 levels in focal adhesions. Given that the low PINCH-1 levels in ILK-deficient keratinocytes were sufficient to recruit EPLIN to integrin adhesions, our findings suggest that PINCH-1 regulates integrin-mediated adhesion of keratinocytes through the interactions with ILK as well as EPLIN. PMID:25609703

  16. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  17. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  18. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. PMID:27223053

  19. MODULATION OF N-CADHERIN JUNCTIONS AND THEIR ROLE AS EPICENTERS OF DIFFERENTIATION-SPECIFIC ACTIN REGULATION IN THE DEVELOPING LENS

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michelle; Zhang, Liping; Zhai, Ni; Cader, Ahmad; Chan, Yim; Nowak, Roberta B.; Fowler, Velia M.; Menko, A. Sue

    2010-01-01

    Extensive elongation of lens fiber cells is a central feature of lens morphogenesis. Our study investigates the role of N-cadherin junctions in this process in vivo. We investigate both the molecular players involved in N-cadherin junctional maturation and the subsequent function of these junctions as epicenters for the assembly of an actin cytoskeleton that drives morphogenesis. We present the first evidence of nascent cadherin junctions in vivo, and show they are a prominent feature along lateral interfaces of undifferentiated lens epithelial cells. Maturation of these N-cadherin junctions, required for lens cell differentiation, preceded organization of a cortical actin cytoskeleton along the cells’ lateral borders, but was linked to recruitment of α-catenin and dephosphorylation of N-cadherin-linked β-catenin. Biochemical analysis revealed differentiation-specific recruitment of actin regulators cortactin and Arp3 to maturing N-cadherin junctions of differentiating cells, linking N-cadherin junctional maturation with actin cytoskeletal assembly during fiber cell elongation. Blocking formation of mature N-cadherin junctions led to reduced association of α-catenin with N-cadherin, prevented organization of actin along lateral borders of differentiating lens fiber cells and blocked their elongation. These studies provide a molecular link between N-cadherin junctions and the organization of an actin cytoskeleton that governs lens fiber cell morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:20969840

  20. Cranial sensory ganglia neurons require intrinsic N-cadherin function for guidance of afferent fibers to their final targets

    PubMed Central

    LaMora, Angela; Voigt, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin (cdh2), are essential for normal neuronal development, and as such have been implicated in an array of processes including neuronal differentiation and migration, and axon growth and fasciculation. Cdh2 is expressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system during development, but its role in these cells during this time is poorly understood. Using the transgenic zebrafish line, tg(p2xr3.2:eGFPsl1), we have examined the involvement of cdh2 in the formation of sensory circuits by the peripheral nervous system. The tg(p2xr3.2:eGFPsl1) fish allows visualization of neurons comprising gV, gVII, gIX and gX and their axons throughout development. Reduction of cdh2 in this line was achieved by either crosses to the cdh2-mutant strain, glass onion (glo) or injection of a cdh2 morpholino (MO) into single-cell embryos. Here we show that cdh2 function is required to alter the directional vectors of growing axons upon reaching intermediate targets. The central axons enter the hindbrain appropriately but fail to turn caudally towards their final targets. Similarly, the peripheral axons extend ventrally, but fail to turn and project along a rostral/caudal axis. Furthermore, by expressing dominant negative cdh2 constructs selectively within cranial sensory ganglia (CSG) neurons, we found that cdh2 function is necessary within the axons to elicit these stereotypic turns, thus demonstrating that cdh2 acts cell autonomously. Together, our in vivo data reveal a novel role for cdh2 in the establishment of circuits by peripheral sensory neurons. PMID:19356698

  1. Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Grace K W; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Norden, Caren; Leung, Louis; Harris, William A.

    2012-01-01

    When neurons exit the cell cycle after their terminal mitosis, they detach from the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Despite the fact that this detachment is crucial for further neurogenesis and neuronal migration, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, taking advantage of the genetics and imaging possibilities of the zebrafish retina as a model system, we show by knock down experiments that the guidance molecule Slit1b as well as its receptor Robo3 are required for apical retraction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, N-cadherin seems to be responsible for maintenance of apical attachment as expression of dominant-negative N-cadherin causes RGCs to lose apical attachments prematurely and rescues retraction in slit1b morphants. These results suggest that Slit-Robo signaling downregulates N-cadherin activity to allow apical retraction in newly generated RGCs. PMID:22219284

  2. Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace K W; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Norden, Caren; Leung, Louis; Harris, William A

    2012-01-01

    When neurons exit the cell cycle after their terminal mitosis, they detach from the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Despite the fact that this detachment is crucial for further neurogenesis and neuronal migration, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, taking advantage of the genetics and imaging possibilities of the zebrafish retina as a model system, we show by knockdown experiments that the guidance molecule Slit1b and its receptor Robo3 are required for apical retraction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, N-cadherin seems to be responsible for maintenance of apical attachment, as expression of dominant-negative N-cadherin causes RGCs to lose apical attachments prematurely and rescues retraction in slit1b morphants. These results suggest that Slit-Robo signaling downregulates N-cadherin activity to allow apical retraction in newly generated RGCs. PMID:22219284

  3. Dancing to Another Tune—Adhesive Moonlighting Proteins in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kainulainen, Veera; Korhonen, Timo K.

    2014-01-01

    Biological moonlighting refers to proteins which express more than one function. Moonlighting proteins occur in pathogenic and commensal as well as in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The canonical functions of moonlighting proteins are in essential cellular processes, i.e., glycolysis, protein synthesis, chaperone activity, and nucleic acid stability, and their moonlighting functions include binding to host epithelial and phagocytic cells, subepithelia, cytoskeleton as well as to mucins and circulating proteins of the immune and hemostatic systems. Sequences of the moonlighting proteins do not contain known motifs for surface export or anchoring, and it has remained open whether bacterial moonlighting proteins are actively secreted to the cell wall or whether they are released from traumatized cells and then rebind onto the bacteria. In lactobacilli, ionic interactions with lipoteichoic acids and with cell division sites are important for surface localization of the proteins. Moonlighting proteins represent an abundant class of bacterial adhesins that are part of bacterial interactions with the environment and in responses to environmental changes. Multifunctionality in bacterial surface proteins appears common: the canonical adhesion proteins fimbriae express also nonadhesive functions, whereas the mobility organelles flagella as well as surface proteases express adhesive functions. PMID:24833341

  4. Fibroblast adhesion to recombinant tropoelastin expressed as a protein A-fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, L E; Parks, W C; Wu, L J; Mecham, R P

    1991-01-01

    A bovine tropoelastin cDNA encoding exons 15-36 that includes the elastin-receptor binding site was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus. After isolation of the fusion protein by affinity chromatography on Ig-Sepharose, the tropoelastin domain was separated from plasmid-pR1T2T-encoded Protein A (Protein A') by CNBr cleavage. Cell-adhesion assays demonstrated specific adhesion to the recombinant tropoelastin. Furthermore, the data indicate that interactions involving the bovine elastin receptor mediate nuchalligament fibroblast adhesion to the recombinant protein. In agreement with earlier studies of fibroblast chemotaxis to bovine tropoelastin, nuchal-ligament fibroblast adhesion demonstrated developmental regulation of the elastin receptor. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1996952

  5. Glycosylated Hydroxytryptophan in a Mussel Adhesive Protein from Perna viridis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Sagert, Jason; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of mussel byssus play a critical role in wet adhesion and have inspired versatile new synthetic strategies for adhesives and coatings. Apparently, however, not all mussel adhesive proteins are beholden to Dopa chemistry. The cDNA-deduced sequence of Pvfp-1, a highly aromatic and redox active byssal coating protein in the green mussel Perna viridis, suggests that Dopa may be replaced by a post-translational modification of tryptophan. The N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain of Pvfp-1 contains 42 decapeptide repeats with the consensus sequences ATPKPW1TAW2K and APPPAW1TAW2K. A small collagen domain (18 Gly-X-Y repeats) is also present. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated tryptic decapeptides has detected both C2-hexosylated tryptophan (W1) and C2-hexosylated hydroxytryptophan (W2), the latter of which is redox active. The UV absorbance spectrum of W2 is consistent with 7-hydroxytryptophan, which represents an intriguing new theme for bioinspired opportunistic wet adhesion. PMID:19584055

  6. Soluble N-cadherin: A novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and intimal thickening

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Cressida A.; Wadey, Kerry S.; George, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Reoccurrence of symptoms occurs in 30–50% of coronary artery disease patients receiving vein grafts or bare-metal stents due to intimal thickening (restenosis). Restenosis is caused by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. New therapeutic approaches that reduce VSMC migration and proliferation while promoting endothelial cell (EC) coverage are required. We assessed the effect of a soluble form of N-cadherin (SNC-Fc, a fusion of the extracellular portion of N-Cadherin to a mutated Fc fragment of IgG), a cell–cell junction molecule, on human saphenous VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. We also assessed its effect on intimal thickening in a validated human ex vivo organ culture model. We observed that SNC-Fc significantly inhibited VSMC proliferation and to a lesser extent migration. The anti-proliferative effect of SNC-Fc was mediated by the interaction of SNC-Fc with the FGFR, rather than through inhibition of β-catenin signalling. SNC-Fc also significantly reduced intimal thickening by ~ 85% in the ex vivo organ culture model. SNC-Fc treatment inhibited proliferation of the intimal cells but did not affect migration. SNC-Fc reduced EC apoptosis, without detrimental effects on EC proliferation and migration in vitro. Importantly SNC-Fc increased EC coverage in the ex vivo model of intimal thickening. In conclusion, we suggest that SNC-Fc may have potential as an anti-proliferative therapeutic agent for reducing restenosis which has no detrimental effects on endothelial cells. PMID:26586312

  7. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesions Ovarian cyst References Munireddy S, Kavalukas SL, Barbul A. Intra-abdominal healing: gastrointestinal tract and adhesions. Surg Clin N Am Kulaylat MN, Dayton, MT. Surgical complications. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, ...

  8. Silk Fibroin Aqueous-Based Adhesives Inspired by Mussel Adhesive Proteins.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kelly A; Roberts, Dane C; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-11

    Silk fibroin from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori is a naturally occurring biopolymer with charged hydrophilic terminal regions that end-cap a hydrophobic core consisting of repeating sequences of glycine, alanine, and serine residues. Taking inspiration from mussels that produce proteins rich in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to adhere to a variety of organic and inorganic surfaces, the silk fibroin was functionalized with catechol groups. Silk fibroin was selected for its high molecular weight, tunable mechanical and degradation properties, aqueous processability, and wide availability. The synthesis of catechol-functionalized silk fibroin polymers containing varying amounts of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG, 5000 g/mol) side chains was carried out to balance silk hydrophobicity with PEG hydrophilicity. The efficiency of the catechol functionalization reaction did not vary with PEG conjugation over the range studied, although tuning the amount of PEG conjugated was essential for aqueous solubility. Adhesive bonding and cell compatibility of the resulting materials were investigated, where it was found that incorporating as little as 6 wt % PEG prior to catechol functionalization resulted in complete aqueous solubility of the catechol conjugates and increased adhesive strength compared with silk lacking catechol functionalization. Furthermore, PEG-silk fibroin conjugates maintained their ability to form β-sheet secondary structures, which can be exploited to reduce swelling. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferated on the silks, regardless of PEG and catechol conjugation. These materials represent a protein-based approach to catechol-based adhesives, which we envision may find applicability as biodegradable adhesives and sealants. PMID:26674175

  9. M protein mediates streptococcal adhesion to HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J R; Stinson, M W

    1994-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes adheres to human epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. To identify adhesins, cell wall components were extracted from S. pyogenes M6 with alkali or by treatment with mutanolysin and lysozyme. HEp-2 cells were incubated with extracts of S. pyogenes M6 and then analyzed by Western blot (immunoblot) assays, using antibodies to S. pyogenes. Only one streptococcal component (62 kDa) was bound to HEp-2 cells and was identified serologically as M6 protein. Experiments with pepsin-cleaved fragments of M protein indicated that the binding site was located at the N-terminal half of the molecule. M protein was bound selectively to two trypsin-sensitive surface components, 97 and 205 kDa, of HEp-2 cells on nitrocellulose blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Tritium-labeled lipoteichoic acid bound to different HEp-2 cell components, 34 and 35 kDa, in a parallel experiment, indicating that lipoteichoic acid was not complexed with M protein and does not mediate M-protein binding. The four HEp-2 components were unrelated to fibronectin since they did not react with specific antibodies. An M-protein-deficient (M-) strain of streptococcus (JRS75), grown in chemically defined medium, showed 73% less adhesion activity to HEp-2 monolayers than an M+ strain (JRS4). Streptococcal adhesion was insensitive to competitive inhibition by selected monosaccharides. These results indicate that M protein binds directly to certain HEp-2 cell membrane components and mediates streptococcal adhesion. PMID:8300205

  10. LINKIN, a new transmembrane protein necessary for cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mihoko; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Yu, Collin Z; DeModena, John; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    In epithelial collective migration, leader and follower cells migrate while maintaining cell–cell adhesion and tissue polarity. We have identified a conserved protein and interactors required for maintaining cell adhesion during a simple collective migration in the developing C. elegans male gonad. LINKIN is a previously uncharacterized, transmembrane protein conserved throughout Metazoa. We identified seven atypical FG–GAP domains in the extracellular domain, which potentially folds into a β-propeller structure resembling the α-integrin ligand-binding domain. C. elegans LNKN-1 localizes to the plasma membrane of all gonadal cells, with apical and lateral bias. We identified the LINKIN interactors RUVBL1, RUVBL2, and α-tubulin by using SILAC mass spectrometry on human HEK 293T cells and testing candidates for lnkn-1-like function in C. elegans male gonad. We propose that LINKIN promotes adhesion between neighboring cells through its extracellular domain and regulates microtubule dynamics through RUVBL proteins at its intracellular domain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04449.001 PMID:25437307

  11. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy in adhesion protein expression

    PubMed Central

    PACHECO-SOARES, CRISTINA; MAFTOU-COSTA, MAIRA; DA CUNHA MENEZES COSTA, CAROLINA GENÚNCIO; DE SIQUEIRA SILVA, ANDREZA CRISTINA; MORAES, KAREN C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that has clinical applications in both non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. PDT involves a light-sensitive compound (photosensitizer), light and molecular oxygen. This procedure may lead to several different cellular responses, including cell death. Alterations in the attachment of cancer cells to the substratum and to each other are important consequences of photodynamic treatment. PDT may lead to changes in the expression of cellular adhesion structure and cytoskeleton integrity, which are key factors in decreasing tumor metastatic potential. HEp-2 cells were photosensitized with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and zinc phthalocyanine, and the proteins β1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. The verification of expression changes in the genes for FAK and β1 integrin were performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that HEp-2 cells do not express β-integrin or FAK 12 h following PDT. It was concluded that the PDT reduces the adhesive ability of HEp-2 cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the expression and organization of cellular adhesion elements and the subsequent metastatic potential of HEp-2 cells following PDT treatment. PMID:25013490

  12. Hexavalent chromium at low concentration alters Sertoli cell barrier and connexin 43 gap junction but not claudin-11 and N-cadherin in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Diane; Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Prisant, Nadia; Gilleron, Jérome; Pointis, Georges; Segretain, Dominique; Durand, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to toxic metals, specifically those belonging to the nonessential group leads to human health defects and among them reprotoxic effects. The mechanisms by which these metals produce their negative effects on spermatogenesis have not been fully elucidated. By using the Durand's validated seminiferous tubule culture model, which mimics the in vivo situation, we recently reported that concentrations of hexavalent chromium, reported in the literature to be closed to that found in the blood circulation of men, increase the number of germ cell cytogenetic abnormalities. Since this metal is also known to affect cellular junctions, we investigated, in the present study, its potential influence on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins present at this level such as connexin 43, claudin-11 and N-cadherin. Cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers expressed the three junctional proteins and ZO-1 for at least 12 days. Exposure to low concentrations of chromium (10 μg/l) increased the trans-epithelial resistance without major changes of claudin-11 and N-cadherin expressions but strongly delocalized the gap junction protein connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. The possibility that the hexavalent chromium-induced alteration of connexin 43 indirectly mediates the effect of the toxic metal on the blood–testis barrier dynamic is postulated. - Highlights: ► Influence of Cr(VI) on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins ► Use of cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers ► Low concentrations of Cr(VI) (10 μg/l) altered the trans-epithelial resistance. ► Cr(VI) did not alter claudin-11 and N-cadherin. ► Cr(VI) delocalized connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells.

  13. N-Cadherin Regulates Cell Migration Through a Rab5-Dependent Temporal Control of Macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Meng-Hsuan; Wang, Jen-Yeu; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Mei-Pin; Lee, Sue-Ping; Tai, Chin-Yin

    2016-07-01

    Macropinocytosis is a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway implicated in fluid uptake, pathogen invasion and cell migration. During collective cell migration, macropinocytosis occurs primarily at membrane ruffles arising from the leading edges of migrating cells. We report here that N-cadherin (Ncad) regulates the tempo of macropinocytosis and thereby influences wound-induced collective cell migration. Using live-cell and super-resolution imaging techniques, we observed that Ncad formed clusters at the membrane ruffles and macropinosomes. De-clustering of Ncad by an interfering antibody impaired the recruitment of Rab5-an early endosomal marker-to the macropinosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that Ncad interacts with Rab5, and laser ablation of Ncad caused Rab5 to dissociate from the macropinosomes. Although Rab5 detached from macropinosomes upon the de-clustering of Ncad, the recruitment of late endosomal marker Rab7 occurred earlier. Consequently, both centripetal trafficking of macropinosomes and collective migration were accelerated due to de-clustering of Ncad. Thus, our results suggest that Ncad is involved in the maturation of macropinocytosis through Rab5 recruitment, linking macropinocytosis and cell migration through a novel function of Ncad. PMID:27062132

  14. Expression of E-, P- and N-Cadherin and Its Clinical Significance in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Precancerous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baohua; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Fenfen; Hong, Die; Lv, Weiguo; Xie, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of classical cadherins has been observed in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its involvement in cervical carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not clear. We investigated E-, P- and N-cadherin expression and its significance in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). This retrospective study enrolled 508 patients admitted to Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University with cervical lesions between January 2006 and December 2010. Immunochemical staining was performed in 98 samples of normal cervical epithelium (NC), 283 of CIN, and 127 of early-stage SCC. The association of cadherin staining with clinical characteristics and survival of the patients was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. We found gradients of decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing P-cadherin expression from NC through CIN to SCC. Aberrant E-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with clinical parameters indicating poor prognosis and shorter patient survival. Interestingly, we found very low levels of positive N-cadherin expression in CIN and SCC tissues that were not related to CIN or cancer. Pearson chi-square tests showed that E-cadherin expression in SCC was inversely correlated with P-cadherin expression (E-P switch), and was not correlated with N-cadherin expression. More important, patients with tissues exhibiting an E-P switch in expression had highly aggressive phenotypes and poorer prognosis than those without E-P switch expression. Our findings suggest that E-cadherin and P-cadherin, but not N-cadherin staining, might be useful in diagnosing CIN and for predicting prognosis in patients with early-stage SCC. PMID:27223886

  15. Developmental changes in expression, subcellular distribution, and function of Drosophila N-cadherin, guided by a cell-intrinsic program during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kurusu, Mitsuhiko; Katsuki, Takeo; Zinn, Kai; Suzuki, Emiko

    2012-06-15

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) perform numerous functions during neural development. An individual CAM can play different roles during each stage of neuronal differentiation; however, little is known about how such functional switching is accomplished. Here we show that Drosophila N-cadherin (CadN) is required at multiple developmental stages within the same neuronal population and that its sub-cellular expression pattern changes between the different stages. During development of mushroom body neurons and motoneurons, CadN is expressed at high levels on growing axons, whereas expression becomes downregulated and restricted to synaptic sites in mature neurons. Phenotypic analysis of CadN mutants reveals that developing axons require CadN for axon guidance and fasciculation, whereas mature neurons for terminal growth and receptor clustering. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CadN downregulation can be achieved in cultured neurons without synaptic contact with other cells. Neuronal silencing experiments using Kir(2.1) indicate that neuronal excitability is also dispensable for CadN downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, downregulation of CadN can be prematurely induced by ectopic expression of a nonselective cation channel, dTRPA1, in developing neurons. Together, we suggest that switching of CadN expression during neuronal differentiation involves regulated cation influx within neurons. PMID:22542600

  16. Adhesion and structure properties of protein nanomaterials containing hydrophobic and charged amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinchun; Mo, Xiaoqun; Moore, Robyn; Frazier, Shawnalea J; Iwamoto, Takeo; Tomich, John M; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2006-03-01

    Protein polymers are being used or considered for biobased adhesives and coating materials. Most adhesives derived from macro protein molecules work through receptors or cross-links to bring about adhesion. The adhesion mechanism of protein polymers would lead to better understanding of adhesives and the discovery of new practical properties of protein polymers at both nano- and macro-scales. The objective of this research work was to study adhesion properties of protein polymers at nanoscale (a peptide adhesive with nanometer-scale units that range in size of several nanometers, defined as protein nanomaterial). Seven protein nanomaterial samples with different degrees of adhesive strength were designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All protein nanomaterials contain a common hydrophobic core flanked by charged amino acid sequences. The adhesion properties of the protein nanomaterials were investigated at different pH values and curing temperatures. The protein nanomaterials self aggregate and interact with the wood surface. The protein nanomaterial KKK-FLIVIGSII-KKK identified in this study had high adhesive strength toward wood. It had the highest shear strength at pH 12, with an amino acid sequence that was very hydrophobic and uncharged. This protein nanomaterial underwent structural analyses using circular dichroism, laser-Fourier transform infrared, and laser desorption mass spectrometry. At pH 12 this peptide adopted a pH-induced beta-like conformation. Adhesive strength reflects contributions of both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic and covalent bonds do not appear to be significant factors for adhesion in this study. PMID:16573147

  17. RP1 Is a Phosphorylation Target of CK2 and Is Involved in Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Göttig, Stephan; Henschler, Reinhard; Markuly, Norbert; Kleber, Sascha; Faust, Michael; Mischo, Axel; Bauer, Stefan; Zweifel, Martin; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Wadle, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    RP1 (synonym: MAPRE2, EB2) is a member of the microtubule binding EB1 protein family, which interacts with APC, a key regulatory molecule in the Wnt signalling pathway. While the other EB1 proteins are well characterized the cellular function and regulation of RP1 remain speculative to date. However, recently RP1 has been implicated in pancreatic cancerogenesis. CK2 is a pleiotropic kinase involved in adhesion, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Overexpression of protein kinase CK2 is a hallmark of many cancers and supports the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. In this study we investigate the interaction of protein kinase CK2 with RP1 and demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates RP1 at Ser236 in vitro. Stable RP1 expression in cell lines leads to a significant cleavage and down-regulation of N-cadherin and impaired adhesion. Cells expressing a Phospho-mimicking point mutant RP1-ASP236 show a marked decrease of adhesion to endothelial cells under shear stress. Inversely, we found that the cells under shear stress downregulate endogenous RP1, most likely to improve cellular adhesion. Accordingly, when RP1 expression is suppressed by shRNA, cells lacking RP1 display significantly increased cell adherence to surfaces. In summary, RP1 phosphorylation at Ser236 by CK2 seems to play a significant role in cell adhesion and might initiate new insights in the CK2 and EB1 family protein association. PMID:23844040

  18. Use of additives to enhance the properties of cottonseed protein as wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein is currently being used commercially as a “green” wood adhesive. Previous work in this laboratory has shown that cottonseed protein isolate, tested on maple wood veneer, produced higher adhesive strength and hot water resistance relative to soy protein. In the present study, cottonseed...

  19. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana; Eloae, Florin Zugun; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Carasevici, Eugen; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  20. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  1. Boronate Complex Formation with Dopa Containing Mussel Adhesive Protein Retards pH-Induced Oxidation and Enables Adhesion to Mica

    PubMed Central

    Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The biochemistry of mussel adhesion has inspired the design of surface primers, adhesives, coatings and gels for technological applications. These mussel-inspired systems often focus on incorporating the amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (Dopa) or a catecholic analog into a polymer. Unfortunately, effective use of Dopa is compromised by its susceptibility to auto-oxidation at neutral pH. Oxidation can lead to loss of adhesive function and undesired covalent cross-linking. Mussel foot protein 5 (Mfp-5), which contains ∼30 mole % Dopa, is a superb adhesive under reducing conditions but becomes nonadhesive after pH-induced oxidation. Here we report that the bidentate complexation of borate by Dopa to form a catecholato-boronate can be exploited to retard oxidation. Although exposure of Mfp-5 to neutral pH typically oxidizes Dopa, resulting in a>95% decrease in adhesion, inclusion of borate retards oxidation at the same pH. Remarkably, this Dopa-boronate complex dissociates upon contact with mica to allow for a reversible Dopa-mediated adhesion. The borate protection strategy allows for Dopa redox stability and maintained adhesive function in an otherwise oxidizing environment. PMID:25303409

  2. Interaction of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli protein, translocated intimin receptor (Tir), with focal adhesion proteins.

    PubMed

    Freeman, N L; Zurawski, D V; Chowrashi, P; Ayoob, J C; Huang, L; Mittal, B; Sanger, J M; Sanger, J W

    2000-12-01

    When enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) attach and infect host cells, they induce a cytoskeletal rearrangement and the formation of cytoplasmic columns of actin filaments called pedestals. The attached EPEC and pedestals move over the surface of the host cell in an actin-dependent reaction [Sanger et al., 1996: Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 34:279-287]. The discovery that EPEC inserts the protein, translocated intimin receptor (Tir), into the membrane of host cells, where it binds the EPEC outer membrane protein, intimin [Kenny et al., 1997: Cell 91:511-520], suggests Tir serves two functions: tethering the bacteria to the host cell and providing a direct connection to the host's cytoskeleton. The sequence of Tir predicts a protein of 56.8 kD with three domains separated by two predicted trans-membrane spanning regions. A GST-fusion protein of the N-terminal 233 amino acids of Tir (Tir1) binds to alpha-actinin, talin, and vinculin from cell extracts. GST-Tir1 also coprecipitates purified forms of alpha-actinin, talin, and vinculin while GST alone does not bind these three focal adhesion proteins. Biotinylated probes of these three proteins also bound Tir1 cleaved from GST. Similar associations of alpha-actinin, talin, and vinculin were also detected with the C-terminus of Tir, i.e., Tir3, the last 217 amino acids. Antibody staining of EPEC-infected cultured cells reveals the presence of focal adhesion proteins beneath the attached bacteria. Our experiments support a model in which the cytoplasmic domains of Tir recruit a number of focal adhesion proteins that can bind actin filaments to form pedestals. Since pedestals also contain villin, tropomyosin and myosin II [Sanger et al., 1996: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 34:279-287], the pedestals appear to be a novel structure sharing properties of both focal adhesions and microvilli. PMID:11093251

  3. Allosteric Coupling in the Bacterial Adhesive Protein FimH*

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victoria B.; Kidd, Brian A.; Interlandi, Gianluca; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    The protein FimH is expressed by the majority of commensal and uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli on the tips of type 1 fimbriae and mediates adhesion via a catch bond to its ligand mannose. Crystal structures of FimH show an allosteric conformational change, but it remains unclear whether all of the observed structural differences are part of the allosteric mechanism. Here we use the protein structural analysis tool RosettaDesign combined with human insight to identify and synthesize 10 mutations in four regions that we predicted would stabilize one of the conformations of that region. The function of each variant was characterized by measuring binding to the ligand mannose, whereas the allosteric state was determined using a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody. These studies demonstrated that each region investigated was indeed part of the FimH allosteric mechanism. However, the studies strongly suggested that some regions were more tightly coupled to mannose binding and others to antibody binding. In addition, we identified many FimH variants that appear locked in the low affinity state. Knowledge of regulatory sites outside the active and effector sites as well as the ability to make FimH variants locked in the low affinity state may be crucial to the future development of novel antiadhesive and antimicrobial therapies using allosteric regulation to inhibit FimH. PMID:23821547

  4. N-Cadherin Expression Is Associated with Acquisition of EMT Phenotype and with Enhanced Invasion in Erlotinib-Resistant Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoju; Liu, Guangzhi; Kang, Yi; Dong, Zhaogang; Qian, Qiyu; Ma, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth-factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been effective in non-small cell lung cancer patients. However, acquired resistance eventually develops in most patients despite an initial positive response. Emerging evidence suggests that there is a molecular connection between acquired resistance and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). N-cadherin is involved in the EMT and in the metastasis of cancer cells. Here, we analyzed N-cadherin expression and function in erlotinib-resistant lung cancer cell lines. Methods H1650 cell lines were used to establish the subline resistant to erlotinib(H1650ER). Then, induction of the EMT was analyzed using immunostaining and western blots in H1650ER cells. N-cadherin expression in the resistant cells was examined using FACS and western blot. In addition, an invasion assay was performed to characterize the resistant cells. The effects of N-cadherin on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed. The association of N-cadherin expression with the EMT phenotype was investigated using immunohistochemical analysis of 13 archived, lung adenocarcinoma tissues, before and after treatment with erlotinib. Results In H1650ER cells, N-cadherin expression was upregulated, paralleled by the reduced expression of E-cadherin. The marked histological change and the development of a spindle-like morphology suggest that H1650ER cells underwent an EMT, accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in vimentin. A change in the EMT status between pre-and post-treatment was observed in 11 out of 13 cases (79%). In biopsies of resistant cancers, N-cadherin expression was increased in 10 out of 13 cases. Induction of the EMT was consistent with aggressive characteristics. Inhibition of N-cadherin expression by siRNA was tested to reduce proliferation and invasion of H1650ER cells in vitro. Conclusions Our data provide evidence that induction of the EMT contributes to the acquired resistance to EGFR

  5. Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood adhesive.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dagang; Chen, Huihuang; Chang, Peter R; Wu, Qinglin; Li, Kaifu; Guan, Litao

    2010-08-01

    Despite the biodegradability, non-toxicity, and renewability, commercially available soy protein-based adhesives still have not been widely adopted by industry, partially due to their disappointing performances, i.e., low glue strength in the dry state and no glue strength in the wet state. In this study, biomimetic soy protein/CaCO(3) hybrid wood glue was devised and an attempt made to improve the adhesion strength. The structure and morphology of the adhesive and its fracture bonding interface and adhesion strength were investigated. Results showed that the compact rivets or interlocking links, and ion crosslinking of calcium, carbonate, hydroxyl ions in the adhesive greatly improving the water-resistance and bonding strength of soy protein adhesives. Glue strength of soy protein hybrid adhesive was higher than 6 MPa even after three water-immersion cycles. This green and sustainable proteinous hybrid adhesive, with high glue strength and good water-resistance, is a good substitute for formaldehyde wood glues. PMID:20307978

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase interacts with vinculin at focal adhesions during fatty acid-stimulated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    George, Margaret D.; Wine, Robert N.; Lackford, Brad; Kissling, Grace E.; Akiyama, Steven K.; Olden, Kenneth; Roberts, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid stimulates cell adhesion by activating α2β1 integrins in a process that depends on protein kinases, including p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Here, we describe the interaction of cytoskeletal components with key signaling molecules that contribute to spreading of, and morphological changes in, arachidonic acid-treated MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells. Arachidonic acid-treated cells showed increased attachment and spreading on collagen type IV as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Fatty acid-treated cells displayed short cortical actin filaments associated with an increased number of β1 integrin-containing pseudopodia whereas untreated cells displayed elongated stress fibers and fewer clusters of β1 integrins. Confocal microscopy of arachidonic acid-treated cells showed that vinculin and phospho-p38 both appeared enriched in pseudopodia and at the tips of actin filaments, and fluorescence ratio imaging indicated the increase was specific for the phospho-(active) form of p38. Immunoprecipitates of phospho-p38 from extracts of arachidonic acid-treated cells contained vinculin, and GST-vinculin fusion proteins carrying the central region of vinculin bound phospho-p38, whereas fusion proteins expressing the terminal portions of vinculin did not. These data suggest that phospho-p38 associates with particular domains on critical focal adhesion proteins that are involved in tumor cell adhesion and spreading and that this association can be regulated by factors in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24219282

  7. Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Mireille; Thoumine, Olivier; Brevier, Julien; Choquet, Daniel; Riveline, Daniel; Mege, Rene-Marc

    2007-11-15

    Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions.

  8. Focal adhesion linker proteins expression of fibroblast related to adhesion in response to different transmucosal abutment surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Yeon-Hee; Yoon, Mi-Kyeong; Moon, Jung-Sun; Kang, Jee-Hae; Kim, Sun-Hun; Yang, Hong-Seo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate adherence of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to transmucosal abutment of dental implant with different surface conditions with time and to investigate the roles of focal adhesion linker proteins (FALPs) involved in HGFs adhesion to abutment surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS Morphologies of cultured HGFs on titanium and ceramic discs with different surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and focal adhesion were evaluated by ultrasonic wave application and cell viability assay. FALPs expression levels were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. RESULTS There seemed to be little difference in biocompatibility and adhesion strength of HGFs depending on the surface conditions and materials. In all experimental groups, the number of cells remaining on the disc surface after ultrasonic wave application increased more than 2 times at 3 days after seeding compared to 1-day cultured cells and this continued until 7 days of culture. FALPs expression levels, especially of vinculin and paxillin, also increased in 5-day cultured cells compared to 1-day cultured fibroblasts on the disc surface. CONCLUSION These results might suggest that the strength of adhesion of fibroblasts to transmucosal abutment surfaces increases with time and it seemed to be related to expressions of FALPs. PMID:24049577

  9. Protein Recovery from Secondary Paper Sludge and Its Potential Use as Wood Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Muhammad

    Secondary sludge is an essential part of biosolids produced through the waste treatment plant of paper mills. Globally paper mills generate around 3.0 million ton of biosolids and in the absence of beneficial applications, the handling and disposal of this residual biomass poses a serious environmental and economic proposition. Secondary paper sludges were investigated in this work for recovery of proteins and their use as wood adhesive. After identifying extracellular polymeric substances as adhesion pre-cursors through analytical techniques, studies were carried out to optimize protein recovery from SS and its comprehensive characterization. A modified physicochemical protocol was developed to recover protein from secondary sludge in substantial quantities. The combined effect of French press and sonication techniques followed by alkali treatment resulted in significant improvement of 44% in the yield of solubilized protein compared to chemical methods. The characterization studies confirmed the presence of common amino acids in recovered sludge protein in significant quantities and heavy metal concentration was reduced after recovery process. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of both low and high molecular weight protein fractions in recovered sludge protein. After establishing the proof-of-concept in the use of recovered sludge protein as wood adhesive, the bonding mechanism of protein adhesives with cellulose substrate was further elucidated in a complementary protein-modification study involving soy protein isolate and its glycinin fractions. The results of this study validated the prevailing bonding theories by proving that surface wetting, protein structure, and type of wood play important role in determining final adhesive strength. Recovered sludge protein was also investigated for its compatibility to formulate hybrid adhesive blends with formaldehyde and bio-based polymers. Apart from chemical

  10. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-02-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  11. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  12. Molecular architecture of a complex between an adhesion protein from the malaria parasite and intracellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G; Higgins, Matthew K

    2013-02-22

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ∼300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBLβ domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  13. Embedded proteins and sacrificial bonds provide the strong adhesive properties of gastroliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thormann, Esben; MizunoPresent Address: Nihon L'Oreal, Research; Innovation Center, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan., Hiroyasu; Jansson, Kjell; Hedin, Niklas; Fernández, M. Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Rutland, Mark W.; PaiPresent Address: CenterFunctional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 735 Brookhaven Avenue, Upton, New York 11973., Ranjith Krishna; Bergström, Lennart

    2012-06-01

    The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO3. The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude.The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO3. The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30536d

  14. The inhibition of cell proliferation using silencing of N-cadherin gene by siRNA process in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka, D; Gil, D; Laidler, P

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a disease with high mortality rate caused by rapid metastasis. Cell motility is physically and biochemically restricted by cadherin-mediated cell interactions and signalling pathways, and alterations in cadherin expression strongly correlate with E to N-cadherin switch as well as the metastasis and progression of tumours. Contrary to E-cadherin, N-cadherin plays an important role in stimulating processes of cell division, migration, differentiation and death. In this study we investigated the role of N-cadherin in proliferation and AKT, ERK, beta-catenin signalling pathway in human melanoma cells: WM793(VGP), WM115(VGP) from the primary tumor site, as well as Lu1205(lung) and WM266-4(skin) from metastatic sites. N-cadherin, pAKT(S473), β-catenin, pERK1/2(T202/Y204), cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4, CDK6, and p15, p16, p21, p27 inhibitors expression was determined by western blot analysis. The study on proliferation of cells was performed with the use of BrdU incorporation and crystal violet staining assays. Knock-out of N-cadherin gene expression by siRNA process reduced the expression of: pAKT(S473), pERK1/2(T202/Y204), betacatenin, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4, CDK6 while increasing expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, and significantly decreased cell proliferation (50-70%). The collected data indicate that N-cadherin mediates the effect of cell cycle in G1 phase by AKT, β-catenin, and ERK signalling pathway. These results suggest that increased expression of N-cadherin significantly contributes to the increased invasive potential of melanoma cells. Silencing of N-cadherin arrests cell growth at G1 phase and inhibits the entry into S-phase which is of great importance as to its possible future use in cancer treatment. PMID:22300088

  15. Specific Adhesion of Lipid Membranes Can Simultaneously Produce Two Types of Lipid and Protein Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Orrin; Micah, Natalie; Ritzer, Max; Gordon, Vernita

    2015-03-01

    Living cells adhere to one another and their environment. Adhesion is associated with re-organization of the lipid and protein components of the cell membrane. The resulting heterogeneities are functional structures involved in biological processes. We use artificial lipid membranes that contain a single type of binding protein. Before adhesion, the lipid, protein, and dye components in the membrane are well-mixed and constitute a single disordered-liquid phase (Ld) . After adhesion, two distinct types of heterogeneities coexist in the adhesion zone: a central domain of ordered lipid phase that excludes both binding proteins and membrane dye, and a peripheral domain of disordered lipid phase that is densely packed with adhesion proteins and enriched in membrane dye relative to the non-adhered portion of the vesicle. Thus, we show that adhesion that is mediated by only one type of protein can organize the lipid and protein components of the membranes into heterogeneities that resemble those found in biology, for example the immune synapse.

  16. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  17. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  18. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier; Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine; Morel, Nicole

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

  19. Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. PMID:23890721

  20. Adhesion of Mussel Foot Protein Mefp-5 to Mica: An Underwater Superglue†

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Eric W.; Kan, Yajing; Hammer, Malte U.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Mussels have a remarkable ability to attach their holdfast, or byssus, opportunistically to a variety of substrata that are wet, saline, corroded, and/or fouled by biofilms. Mytilus edulis foot protein-5 (Mefp-5) is one of several proteins in the byssal adhesive plaque of the mussel M. edulis. The high content of 3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) (~30 mol%) and its localization near the plaque-substrate interface have often prompted speculation that Mefp-5 plays a key role in adhesion. Using the surface forces apparatus, we show that on mica surfaces Mefp-5 achieves an adhesion energy approaching Ead = ~− 14 mJ/m2. This exceeds the adhesion energy of another interfacial protein, Mefp-3, by a factor of 4–5 and is greater than the adhesion between highly oriented monolayers of biotin and streptavidin. The adhesion to mica is notable for its dependence on Dopa, which is most stable under reducing conditions and acidic pH. Mefp-5 also exhibits strong protein-protein interactions with itself as well as with Mefp-3 from M. edulis. PMID:22873939

  1. Effect of adhesion proteins and surface chemistry on the procoagulant state of adherent platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunkemeier, John Mark

    Poor hemocompatibility of a blood contacting device can lead to blood clotting, reduced blood flow, and depletion of platelets from the blood. Improved understanding of the processes by which blood-material contact leads to these responses could result in more hemocompatible materials. Platelets accelerate blood clotting by adhesion, aggregation, secretion of proteins and agonists and acceleration of thrombin generation. Platelets are said to be "procoagulant" after phosphatidylserine residues flip from the cytosolic to the extracellular face of the lipid bilayer. This then allows for the assembly of the prothrombinase complex (Xa, Va and calcium) on the platelet membrane, which can rapidly convert prothrombin to thrombin. In this study, three different methods confirmed that adhesion causes platelets to become procoagulant: shortening of clotting times of recalcified plasma, binding of FITC-annexin V, and generation of thrombin in the presence of Va, Xa and prothrombin by adherent platelets. Adherent platelets were 10--23 times more activated than bulk phase unactivated platelets and 10--24 times less activated than bulk phase platelets activated by calcium ionophore. The role of adsorbed fibrinogen, vWF, mixtures of fibrinogen and vWF, fibronectin, whole and dilute plasma, and plasma deficient in adhesion proteins in stimulating platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. The results of these experiments suggested that adhesion proteins affect procoagulant activation to varying degrees and that surfaces preadsorbed with mixtures of adhesion proteins are more activating that surfaces preadsorbed with single adhesion proteins. The hypothesis that materials that affect tightness of binding of adsorbed adhesion proteins affect platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. These studies showed that increasing fluorine content of RFGD polymerized films caused reduced platelet adhesion, but increased procoagulant activity, possibly due to their ability to adsorb

  2. Strong underwater adhesives made by self-assembling multi-protein nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A.; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M.; Lu, Timothy K.

    2014-10-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly and structure-function relationships of these natural amyloid fibres remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibres. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibres have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ m-2, which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibres taken on their own and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥ 7.0.

  3. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  4. Desmoplastic melanoma: expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Maria Concepción; Requena, Luis; Kutzner, Heinz; Ortiz, Pablo; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Peralto, José-Luis

    2014-03-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of melanoma. Most frequently, it seems as clinically ambiguous and histologically characterized by a poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of a proliferation of spindle melanocytes dispersed in a prominent collagenous stroma. It often represents a diagnostic challenge, delaying its detection. We analyzed the expression profile of 29 (28 "pure" and 1 "combined") DM. These data were compared with a series of 62 primary vertical growth phase nondesmoplastic melanomas (NDMs) using a set of proteins including melanocytic markers (S-100 protein and melan-A) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, SPARC, WT1, and PKCα). The S-100 protein confirmed the melanocytic origin of the DM (positive in 96%). The significant positive expression of N-cadherin, SPARC, and WT1 in DM (61%, 82%, and 71%) compared with NDM (28%, 43%, and 47%; P < 0.05) and a lower expression of E-cadherin in DM (14%) compared with NDM (61%) support specific adhesive and migratory properties of DM tumor cells. The study was carried out with tissue microarrays that partly limited the study of the tumor sections. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a prominent expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins in DMs and tries to be one more step in refining its knowledge and leading to a better understanding of its biological and clinical behaviors. PMID:23974224

  5. Embedded proteins and sacrificial bonds provide the strong adhesive properties of gastroliths.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Esben; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Jansson, Kjell; Hedin, Niklas; Fernández, M Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Rutland, Mark W; Pai, Ranjith Krishna; Bergström, Lennart

    2012-07-01

    The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO(3). The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. PMID:22653376

  6. Adhesion mechanism in a DOPA-deficient foot protein from green mussels†

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Zeng, Hongbo; Lu, Qingye; Israelachvili, Jacob; Waite, J. Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The holdfast or byssus of Asian green mussels, Perna viridis, contains a foot protein, pvfp-1, that differs in two respects from all other known adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfp): (1) instead of the hallmark L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues in mfp-1, for example, pvfp-1 contains C2-mannosyl-7-hydroxytryptophan (Man7OHTrp). (2) In addition, pvfp-1 chains are not monomeric like mfp-1 but trimerized by collagen and coiled-coil domains near the carboxy terminus after a typical domain of tandemly repeated decapeptides. Here, the contribution of these peculiarities to adhesion was examined using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Unlike previously studied mfp-1s, pvfp-1 showed significant adhesion to mica and, in symmetric pvfp-1 films, substantial cohesive interactions were present at pH 5.5. The role of Man7OHTrp in adhesion is not clear, and a DOPA-like role for Man7OHTrp in metal complexation (e.g., Cu2+, Fe3+) was not observed. Instead, cation–π interactions with low desolvation penalty between Man7OHTrp and lysyl side chains and conformational changes (raveling and unraveling of collagen helix and coiled-coil domains) are the best explanations for the strong adhesion between pvfp-1 monomolecular films. The strong adhesion mechanism induced by cation–π interactions and conformational changes in pvfp-1 provides new insights for the development of biomimetic underwater adhesives. PMID:23105946

  7. Anionic deep cavitands enable the adhesion of unmodified proteins at a membrane bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Yoo-Jin; Perez, Lizeth; Morgan, Melissa A; Si, Fang; Hamdy, Omar M; Beecher, Consuelo N; Larive, Cynthia K; Julian, Ryan R; Zhong, Wenwan; Cheng, Quan; Hooley, Richard J

    2014-12-28

    An anionic self-folding deep cavitand is capable of immobilizing unmodified proteins and enzymes at a supported lipid bilayer interface, providing a simple, soft bioreactive surface that allows enzymatic function under mild conditions. The adhesion is based on complementary charge interactions, and the hosts are capable of binding enzymes such as trypsin at the bilayer interface: the catalytic activity is retained upon adhesion, allowing selective reactions to be performed at the membrane surface. PMID:25366572

  8. Modulation of cationicity of chitosan for tuning mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dong; Yao, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modulate the cationicity of chitosan to influence the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) responses in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The authors prepared water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels using genipin as the crosslinking agent. The chitosan cationicity was modulated by varying the genipin content from 0.5 to 10 wt. %. The results indicated that the cationicity exerted a striking modulation effect on various MSC responses. The increase of the genipin content, i.e., decrease of the free amino group content (cationicity), overall promoted the MSC adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, proliferation, and differentiation into the osteogenic lineage. A surprising cell alignment effect was also observed on chitosan samples with high genipin concentrations (>2.5%). The chitosan sample with the highest genipin concentrations (10%) exhibited the best MSC proliferation and highest protein expression levels toward osteogenic lineages. The genipin content also showed a strong modulation effect on MSC condensation, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, as suggested by the expressions of the sry related HMG box9 (Sox9), intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and N-Cadherin. Overall, the authors have demonstrated that modulation of cationicity (amino content) of chitosan is an effective and simple approach to tuning various MSC responses, including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell-cell interactions. Such findings might have important implications in biomaterial design for various biomedical applications. PMID:26433366

  9. Use of adhesion-defective mutants of Staphylococcus aureus to define the role of specific plasma proteins in promoting bacterial adhesion to canine arteriovenous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Vaudaux, P E; François, P; Proctor, R A; McDevitt, D; Foster, T J; Albrecht, R M; Lew, D P; Wabers, H; Cooper, S L

    1995-01-01

    We used an ex vivo canine arteriovenous shunt model, previously developed to study plasma protein adsorption and thrombogenesis on polymeric biomaterials, to define the role of host proteins in promoting adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Either polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride tubings were exposed to canine blood for 5, 15, or 60 min at a flow rate of 300 ml/min and then were flushed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), cut into 1.5-cm segments, and stored at -70 degrees C. After thawing, each segment was preincubated in 0.5% albumin in PBS to prevent nonspecific staphylococcal attachment to surfaces that were not exposed to blood. Each segment was then incubated with 4 x 10(6) CFU of [3H]thymidine-labelled S. aureus per ml for 60 min at 37 degrees C in an in vitro adhesion assay. Two site-specific mutants of S. aureus were tested: one specifically defective in adhesion to surface-bound fibronectin (FnAd-def) and the other defective in adhesion to fibrinogen (FgAD-def) [corrected]. Compared with their respective parental strains, the FgAd-def, but not the FnAd-def, mutant of S. aureus showed a strong (> 80%) decrease in attachment to ex vivo tubings. The adhesion of each strain of S. aureus onto polyethylene was consistently more than twofold higher than the adhesion onto polyvinyl chloride segments exposed to flowing blood for 5 or 15 min, but adhesion became similar to that on polyvinyl chloride after 60 min of exposure. In conclusion, the specific adhesion-defective mutants of S. aureus suggested that fibrinogen was the most active adhesion-promoting protein in a short-term blood-material interaction. The experimental approach described in this study should prove useful for screening materials thought to be resistant to protein-mediated staphylococcal adhesion and colonization. PMID:7822026

  10. Cell adhesion-dependent inactivation of a soluble protein kinase during fertilization in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Luo, Y; Emmett, K; Snell, W J

    1996-01-01

    Within seconds after the flagella of mt+ and mt- Chlamydomonas gametes adhere during fertilization, their flagellar adenylyl cyclase is activated several fold and preparation for cell fusion is initiated. Our previous studies indicated that early events in this pathway, including control of adenylyl cyclase, are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we describe a soluble, flagellar protein kinase activity that is regulated by flagellar adhesion. A 48-kDa, soluble flagellar protein was consistently phosphorylated in an in vitro assay in flagella isolated from nonadhering mt+ and mt- gametes, but not in flagella isolated from mt+ and mt- gametes that had been adhering for 1 min. Although the 48-kDa protein was present in the flagella isolated from adhering gametes, we demonstrate that its protein kinase was inactivated by flagellar adhesion. Immunoblot analysis and inhibitor studies indicate that the 48-kDa protein in nonadhering gametes is phosphorylated by a protein tyrosine kinase. In vivo experiments showing that the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate inhibits fertilization suggest that protein dephosphorylation may be required for signal transduction. The 48-kDa protein and its protein kinase may be among the first elements of a novel signalling pathway that couples interaction of flagellar adhesion molecules to gamete activation. Images PMID:8730096

  11. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding. PMID:25351253

  12. Cadherin2 (N-cadherin) plays an essential role in zebrafish cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Bagatto, Brian; Francl, Jessie; Liu, Bei; Liu, Qin

    2006-01-01

    Background Cadherins are cell surface adhesion molecules that play important roles in development of vertebrate tissues and organs. We studied cadherin2 expression in developing zebrafish heart using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods, and we found that cadherin2 was strongly expressed by the myocardium of the embryonic zebrafish. To gain insight into cadherin2 role in the formation and function of the heart, we analyzed cardiac differentiation and performance in a cadherin2 mutant, glass onion (glo). Results We found that the cadherin2 mutant had enlarged pericardial cavity, disorganized atrium and ventricle, and reduced expression of a ventricular specific marker vmhc. Individual myocardiocytes in the glo mutant embryos became round shaped and loosely aggregated. In vivo measurements of cardiac performance revealed that the mutant heart had significantly reduced heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output compared to control embryos. Formation of the embryonic vascular system in the glo mutants was also affected. Conclusion Our results suggest that cadherin2 plays an essential role in zebrafish cardiovascular development. Although the exact mechanisms remain unknown as to the formation of the enlarged pericardium and reduced peripheral blood flow, it is clear that myocardiocyte differentiation and physiological cardiovascular performance is impaired when cadherin2 function is disrupted. PMID:16719917

  13. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) regulates spermatid adhesion in the testis via dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the nectin-3 adhesion protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W. P.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Development of spermatozoa in adult mammalian testis during spermatogenesis involves extensive cell migration and differentiation. Spermatogonia that reside at the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium differentiate into more advanced germ cell types that migrate toward the apical compartment until elongated spermatids are released into the tubule lumen during spermiation. Apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES; a testis-specific anchoring junction) is the only cell junction that anchors and maintains the polarity of elongating/elongated spermatids (step 8–19 spermatids) in the epithelium. Little is known regarding the signaling pathways that trigger the disassembly of the apical ES at spermiation. Here, we show that secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently down-regulated in multiple carcinomas, is a crucial regulatory protein for spermiation. The expression of sFRP1 is tightly regulated in adult rat testis to control spermatid adhesion and sperm release at spermiation. Down-regulation of sFRP1 during testicular development was found to coincide with the onset of the first wave of spermiation at approximately age 45 d postpartum, implying that sFRP1 might be correlated with elongated spermatid adhesion conferred by the apical ES before spermiation. Indeed, administration of sFRP1 recombinant protein to the testis in vivo delayed spermiation, which was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr397 and retention of nectin-3 adhesion protein at the apical ES. To further investigate the functional relationship between p-FAK-Tyr397 and localization of nectin-3, we overexpressed sFRP1 using lentiviral vectors in the Sertoli-germ cell coculture system. Consistent with the in vivo findings, overexpression of sFRP1 induced down-regulation of p-FAK-Tyr397, leading to a decline in phosphorylation of nectin-3. In summary, this report highlights the critical role of s

  14. Single Adhesive Nanofibers from a Live Diatom Have the Signature Fingerprint of Modular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Mulvaney, P.; Wetherbee, R.

    2005-01-01

    The adhesive and mechanical properties of a cell-substratum adhesive secreted by live diatom cells were examined in situ using atomic force microscopy. The resulting force curves have a regular saw-tooth pattern, the characteristic fingerprint of modular proteins, and when bridged between tip and surface can repeatedly be stretched and relaxed resulting in precisely overlaying saw-tooth curves (up to ∼600 successive cycles). The average rupture force of the peaks is 0.794 ± 0.007 (mean ± SE) nN at a loading rate of 0.8 μm/s and the average persistence length is 0.026 ± <0.001 (mean ± SE) nm (fit using the worm-like chain model). We propose that we are pulling on single adhesive nanofibers, each a cohesive unit composed of a set number of modular proteins aligned in register. Furthermore, we can observe and differentiate when up to three adhesive nanofibers are pulled based upon multimodal distributions of force and persistence length. The high force required for bond rupture, high extensibility (∼1.2 μm), and the accurate and rapid refolding upon relaxation, together provide strong and flexible properties ideally suited for the cell-substratum adhesion of this fouling diatom and allow us to understand the mechanism responsible for the strength of adhesion. PMID:16169972

  15. N-cadherin is Key to Expression of the Nucleus Pulposus Cell Phenotype under Selective Substrate Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Priscilla Y; Jing, Liufang; Chen, Jun; Lim, Foon-Lian; Tang, Ruhang; Choi, Hyowon; Cheung, Kenneth M; Risbud, Makarand V; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid; Leung, Victor Y; Setton, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the intervertebral disc are essential for synthesizing extracellular matrix that contributes to disc health and mechanical function. NP cells have a unique morphology and molecular expression pattern derived from their notochordal origin, and reside in N-cadherin (CDH2) positive cell clusters in vivo. With disc degeneration, NP cells undergo morphologic and phenotypic changes including loss of CDH2 expression and ability to form cell clusters. Here, we investigate the role of CDH2 positive cell clusters in preserving healthy, biosynthetically active NP cells. Using a laminin-functionalized hydrogel system designed to mimic features of the native NP microenvironment, we demonstrate NP cell phenotype and morphology is preserved only when NP cells form CDH2 positive cell clusters. Knockdown (CRISPRi) or blocking CDH2 expression in vitro and in vivo results in loss of a healthy NP cell. Findings also reveal that degenerate human NP cells that are CDH2 negative can be promoted to re-express CDH2 and healthy, juvenile NP matrix synthesis patterns by promoting cell clustering for controlled microenvironment conditions. This work also identifies CDH2 interactions with β-catenin-regulated signaling as one mechanism by which CDH2-mediated cell interactions can control NP cell phenotype and biosynthesis towards maintenance of healthy intervertebral disc tissues. PMID:27292569

  16. N-cadherin is Key to Expression of the Nucleus Pulposus Cell Phenotype under Selective Substrate Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Priscilla Y; Jing, Liufang; Chen, Jun; Lim, Foon-Lian; Tang, Ruhang; Choi, Hyowon; Cheung, Kenneth M; Risbud, Makarand V; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid; Leung, Victor Y; Setton, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the intervertebral disc are essential for synthesizing extracellular matrix that contributes to disc health and mechanical function. NP cells have a unique morphology and molecular expression pattern derived from their notochordal origin, and reside in N-cadherin (CDH2) positive cell clusters in vivo. With disc degeneration, NP cells undergo morphologic and phenotypic changes including loss of CDH2 expression and ability to form cell clusters. Here, we investigate the role of CDH2 positive cell clusters in preserving healthy, biosynthetically active NP cells. Using a laminin-functionalized hydrogel system designed to mimic features of the native NP microenvironment, we demonstrate NP cell phenotype and morphology is preserved only when NP cells form CDH2 positive cell clusters. Knockdown (CRISPRi) or blocking CDH2 expression in vitro and in vivo results in loss of a healthy NP cell. Findings also reveal that degenerate human NP cells that are CDH2 negative can be promoted to re-express CDH2 and healthy, juvenile NP matrix synthesis patterns by promoting cell clustering for controlled microenvironment conditions. This work also identifies CDH2 interactions with β-catenin-regulated signaling as one mechanism by which CDH2-mediated cell interactions can control NP cell phenotype and biosynthesis towards maintenance of healthy intervertebral disc tissues. PMID:27292569

  17. A focal adhesion protein-based mechanochemical checkpoint regulates cleft progression during branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Daley, William P.; Kohn, Joshua M.; Larsen, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Cleft formation is the initial step of branching morphogenesis in many organs. We previously demonstrated that ROCK 1 regulates a non-muscle myosin II-dependent mechanochemical checkpoint to transition initiated clefts to progressing clefts in developing submandibular salivary glands. Here, we report that ROCK-mediated integrin activation and subsequent formation of focal adhesion complexes comprise this mechanochemical checkpoint. Inhibition of ROCK1 and non-muscle myosin II activity decreased integrin β1 activation in the cleft region and interfered with localization and activation of focal adhesion complex proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK activity also prevented cleft progression, by disrupting recruitment of the focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin and subsequent fibronectin assembly in the cleft region while decreasing ERK1/2 activation. These results demonstrate that inside-out integrin signaling leading to a localized recruitment of active FAK-containing focal adhesion protein complexes generates a mechanochemical checkpoint that facilitates progression of branching morphogenesis. PMID:22016182

  18. Modification of human platelet adhesion on biomaterial surfaces by protein preadsorption under static and flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mike; Franzen, Arno; Hansen, Torsten; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2004-01-01

    Biomaterial-induced thrombosis remains one of the main complications of vascular implant devices. Preadsorbed proteins on the biomaterial/blood interface will modify the adhesion and activation of platelets (PTLs) during the initial contact-phase. Our results clearly show that PTL-adherence on biomaterials is influenced not only by protein preadsorption, but also by flow conditions. The covalent coating of TCPS and glass by phosphorylcholine (PC) induces a significant decrease of PTL adhesion but leads to a slight, but nevertheless significant activation of PTL, which was detected by the induction of P-selectin expression using FACS analysis. Methodologically, the visualization of PTL adhesion gave more reliable results for measurement of PTL adhesion than the cell-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for P-selectin. Human citrated plasma caused an inhibition of PTL. It is probable, that the contained sodium citrate may inhibit PTL adhesion by its calcium ion-binding capacity. The flow experiment as dynamic system is in our view absolutely essential for the evaluation of biomaterials for vascular prosthesis, and is in accordance with the international standards. The results of the experiments also suggest that investigations under static and flow conditions are needed to determine the influence of protein adsorption on mixed blood cell populations, for example, on PTL and PMN mixtures/co-cultures in order to achieve a better simulation of the in vivo situation. PMID:15338589

  19. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  20. Corneal Cell Adhesion to Contact Lens Hydrogel Materials Enhanced via Tear Film Protein Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Claire M.; Qi, Qin M.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2014-01-01

    Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), borate buffered saline (BBS), or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes), either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes) exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo. PMID:25144576

  1. N-Cadherin, ADAM-10 and Aquaporin 1 expression in lung tissue exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Imbesi, Rosa; Rapisarda, Venerando; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Castorina, Sergio; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) fibers are similar to other amphibole asbestos fibers. The scientific relevance of FE is due to its ability to lead to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in lung tissue shown after its inhalation. These fibers stimulate aberrant host cell proliferation and induce the release of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen and nitrite species, which results in DNA damage. In previous studies, we showed that FE induces functional modifications in sheep and human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells, where the overexpression of several molecules probably involved in pathological cellular mechanisms induced by FE exposition have been detected. However, the mechanisms of cellular and molecular toxicity and the cellular response to FE fibers are still not well known. N-cadherin, ADAM-10 and AQP1 are molecules involved in carcinogenesis and in inflammatory process. In this study we analyzed, through immunohistochemistry, their expression in the lung tissue of sheep exposed to FE. Our results showed different patterns of immunolabeling for N-cadherin, ADAM-10 and AQP1. N-cadherin and ADAM-10 were more expressed in FE exposed lung tissue, when compared with the control. On the contrary, AQP1 was more expressed in non exposed lung tissue. These results suggest that N-Cadherin, ADAM-10 and AQP1 are probably involved in different pathological processes induced by FE fiber exposition. The aim of the study was to better understand the mechanisms of cellular and molecular toxicity and of cellular response to FE fibers in order to identify, in the future, a possible therapeutic intervention in cases of FE-associated pathogenesis. PMID:25757887

  2. The role of serum proteins in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to ethylene glycol coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Swen; Yu, Wenqi; Nega, Mulugeta; Chu, Ya-Yun; Zorn, Stefan; Zhang, Fajun; Götz, Friedrich; Schreiber, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion on implants is a first step in the development of chronic foreign body associated infections. Finding strategies to minimize bacterial adhesion may contribute to minimize such infections. It is known that surfaces with oligo-ethylene-glycol (EG3OMe) or poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG2k) terminations decrease unspecific protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion. However, little is known about the influence of serum and its components on bacterial adhesion. We therefore prepared two coatings on gold surface with HS-(CH2)11EG3OMe (EG3OMe) and PEG2k-thiol and studied the role of bovine serum albumin (BSA), γ-globulins, and serum on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion. While BSA and lysozyme showed no adherence even when applied at very high concentrations (100 mg/ml), γ-globulins adsorbed already from 10 mg/ml on. The adsorption of γ-globulins was, however, significantly decreased when it was mixed with BSA in a ratio of 3:1, as it is in the serum. Pretreatment of EG3OMe and PEG2k coatings with γ-globulins or serum strongly promoted adherence of S. aureus when resuspended in buffer, suggesting that γ-globulins play a pivotal role in promoting S. aureus adhesion by its IgG binding proteins; the finding that a spa-deletion mutant, lacking the IgG binding protein A, showed decreased adherence corroborated this. Similarly, when S. aureus was pretreated with serum or γ-globulins its adherence was also significantly decreased. Our findings show that particularly γ-globulins bind to the coated surfaces thus mediating adherence of S. aureus via its protein A. As pretreatment of S. aureus with serum or γ-globulins significantly decreased adherence, treatment of patients with γ-globulins before implant surgery might lower the risk of implant-associated infections. PMID:24980510

  3. Reduced bacterial adhesion to hydrocephalus shunt catheters mediated by cerebrospinal fluid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Brydon, H L; Bayston, R; Hayward, R; Harkness, W

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Prosthetic infections are a major problem, requiring complex and lengthy management. The role of blood proteins in the pathogenesis of implant infection has been investigated, but research into the role of CSF protein in shunt infections has not been undertaken, even though a high CSF protein has been assumed to increase the risk of such infections. METHODS--New shunt catheters were exposed to either CSF or individual protein solutions, and the numbers of radiolabelled staphylococci that adhered to them were compared with controls that had been exposed to saline only. RESULTS--A significant reduction in bacteria adhering to the test catheter was found in each instance. Furthermore, the CSF with the highest protein content, from a patient with intraventricular haemorrhage, had the greatest inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion. The effect of the solutions on the hydrophobicity of the silicone rubber was also investigated. The silicone rubber was more hydrophilic, and bacterial adhesion was less, with solutions containing a higher protein content, and these findings were in keeping with the current theories on the mechanism of bacterial adhesion to polymers. CONCLUSIONS--A high CSF protein content does not predispose to the development of shunt infections. PMID:8648336

  4. Low-cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in glu...

  5. Low-Cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in gl...

  6. Effect of Milk Proteins on Adhesion of Bacteria to Stainless Steel Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, L.-M.; Lo, M. F.; Adams, M. R.; Chamberlain, A. H. L.

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel coupons were treated with skim milk and subsequently challenged with individual bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fragi, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Serratia marcescens. The numbers of attached bacteria were determined by direct epifluorescence microscopy and compared with the attachment levels on clean stainless steel with two different surface finishes. Skim milk was found to reduce adhesion of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and S. marcescens. P. fragi and E. coli attached in very small numbers to the clear surfaces, making the effect of any adsorbed protein layer difficult to assess. Individual milk proteins α-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, and α-lactalbumin were also found to reduce the adhesion of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. The adhesion of bacteria to samples treated with milk dilutions up to 0.001% was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the proportion of nitrogen in the adsorbed films. Attached bacterial numbers were inversely related to the relative atomic percentage of nitrogen on the surface. A comparison of two types of stainless steel surface, a 2B and a no. 8 mirror finish, indicated that the difference in these levels of surface roughness did not greatly affect bacterial attachment, and reduction in adhesion to a milk-treated surface was still observed. Cross-linking of adsorbed proteins partially reversed the inhibition of bacterial attachment, indicating that protein chain mobility and steric exclusion may be important in this phenomenon. PMID:10508087

  7. Protein Kinase C beta Mediates CD40 Ligand-Induced Adhesion of Monocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyu; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Lin; Du, Jialin; Wang, Sanming; Huang, Yijie; Ou, Jinrui; Jian, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the early involvement of monocyte/macrophage recruitment to activated endothelial cells by leukocyte adhesion molecules during atherogenesis. CD40 and its ligand CD40L are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but its impact on monocyte adhesion and the related molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the direct effect of CD40L on monocytic cell adhesion and gain mechanistic insight into the signaling coupling CD40L function to the proinflammatory response. Exposure of cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to clinically relevant concentrations of CD40L (20 to 80 ng/mL) dose-dependently increased human monocytic THP-1 cells to adhere to them under static condition. CD40L treatment induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA and protein expression in HAECs. Furthermore, exposure of HAECs to CD40L robustly increased the activation of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) in ECs. A selective inhibitor of PKCβ prevented the rise in VCAM-1 and THP-1 cell adhesion to ECs. Moreover, stimulation of ECs to CD40L induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. PKCβ inhibition abolished CD40L-induced NF-κB activation, and NF-κB inhibition reduced expression of VCAM-1, each resulting in reduced THP-1 cell adhesion. Our findings provide the evidence that CD40L increases VCAM-1 expression in ECs by activating PKCβ and NF-κB, suggesting a novel mechanism for EC activation. Finally, administration of CD40L resulted in PKCβ activation, increased VCAM-1 expression and activated monocytes adhesiveness to HAECs, processes attenuated by PKCβ inhibitor. Therefore, CD40L may contribute directly to atherogenesis by activating ECs and recruiting monocytes to them. PMID:24039784

  8. Retrograde Fluxes of Focal Adhesion Proteins in Response to Cell Migration and Mechanical Signals

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-hui

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that mechanical signals mediated by the extracellular matrix play an essential role in various physiological and pathological processes; yet, how cells respond to mechanical stimuli remains elusive. Using live cell fluorescence imaging, we found that actin filaments, in association with a number of focal adhesion proteins, including zyxin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, undergo retrograde fluxes at focal adhesions in the lamella region. This flux is inversely related to cell migration, such that it is amplified in fibroblasts immobilized on micropatterned islands. In addition, the flux is regulated by mechanical signals, including stretching forces applied to flexible substrates and substrate stiffness. Conditions favoring the flux share the common feature of causing large retrograde displacements of the interior actin cytoskeleton relative to the substrate anchorage site, which may function as a switch translating mechanical input into chemical signals, such as tyrosine phosphorylation. In turn, the stimulation of actin flux at focal adhesions may function as part of a feedback mechanism, regulating structural assembly and force production in relation to cell migration and mechanical load. The retrograde transport of associated focal adhesion proteins may play additional roles in delivering signals from focal adhesions to the interior of the cell. PMID:17804814

  9. Adhesion of MRC-5 and A549 cells on poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modified by proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuchowska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Chudy, Michal; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    PDMS is a very popular material used for fabrication of Lab-on-a-Chip systems for biological applications. Although PDMS has numerous advantages, it is a highly hydrophobic material, which inhibits adhesion and proliferation of the cells. PDMS surface modifications are used to enrich growth of the cells. However, due to the fact that each cell type has specific adhesion, it is necessary to optimize the parameters of these modifications. In this paper, we present an investigation of normal (MRC-5) and carcinoma (A549) human lung cell adhesion and proliferation on modified PDMS surfaces. We have chosen these cell types because often they are used as models for basic cancer research. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of this type of investigation. The combination of a gas-phase processing (oxygen plasma or ultraviolet irradiation) and wet chemical methods based on proteins' adsorption was used in our experiments. Different proteins such as poly-l-lysine, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, and collagen were incubated with the activated PDMS samples. To compare with other works, here, we also examined how ratio of prepolymer to curing agent (5:1, 10:1, and 20:1) influences PDMS hydrophilicity during further modifications. The highest adhesion of the tested cells was observed for the usage of collagen, regardless of PDMS ratio. However, the MRC-5 cell line demonstrated better adhesion than A549 cells. This is probably due to the difference in their morphology and type (normal/cancer). PMID:26311334

  10. Thrombolytic protein from cobra venom with anti-adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Chandrasekhar; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2016-01-15

    A metalloproteinase anticoagulant toxin of molecular weight 66 kDa has been purified from the venom of Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). This toxin named as NKV 66 cleaved fibrinogen in a dose and time dependent manner. The digestion process was specific to Aα chain and cleaved fibrinogen to peptide fragments. NKV 66 completely liquefied the fibrin clots developed in vitro in 18 h. Plasma recalcification time and thrombin time were significantly prolonged following treatment of plasma with NKV 66. NKV 66 significantly inhibited ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation in a dose dependent manner. It showed disintegrin like activity on A549 cells cultured in vitro. About 40% inhibition of adherence of A549 cells to matrix was observed following NKV 66 treatment also NKV 66 treated A549 cells were drastically inhibited from passing through the matrix in cell invasion assays in vitro, suggesting anti-adhesive properties of NKV 66. PMID:26558696

  11. Identification of proteins associated with adhesive prints from Holothuria dofleinii Cuvierian tubules.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong Y; Glattauer, Veronica; Skewes, Timothy D; McDevitt, Andrew; Elvin, Christopher M; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Graham, Lloyd D; Ramshaw, John A M

    2014-12-01

    Cuvierian tubules are expelled as a defence mechanism against predators by various species within the family Holothuridae. When the tubules are expelled, they become sticky almost immediately and ensnare the predator. The mechanism of this rapid adhesion is not clear, but proteins on the surface of the expelled tubules are widely believed to be involved. This study has examined such proteins from Holothuria dofleinii, sourced from adhesive prints left on glass after the removal of adhered tubules. Gel electrophoresis showed that seven strongly staining protein bands were consistently present in all samples, with molecular masses ranging from 89 to 17 kDa. N-terminal sequence data was obtained from two bands, while others seemed blocked. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of tryptic peptides derived from individual protein bands indicated that the proteins were unlikely to be homopolymers. PCR primers designed using the peptide sequences enabled us to amplify, clone and sequence cDNA segments relating to four gel bands; for each, the predicted translation product contained other peptide sequences observed for that band that had not been used in primer design. Database searches using the peptide and cDNA-encoded sequences suggest that two of the seven proteins are novel and one is a C-type lectin, while-surprisingly-at least three of the other four are closely related to enzymes associated with the pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. We discuss precedents in which lectins and metabolic enzymes are involved in attachment and adhesion phenomena. PMID:25086572

  12. Heat shock protein 60 acts as a receptor for the Listeria adhesion protein in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wampler, Jennifer L; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Jaradat, Ziad; Bhunia, Arun K

    2004-02-01

    The 104-kDa Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) in Listeria monocytogenes is involved in binding to various mammalian cell lines. However, the receptor that interacts with LAP in eukaryotic cells is unknown. In this study, scanning immunoelectron microscopy qualitatively demonstrated greater binding capacity of wild-type (WT) L. monocytogenes strain (F4244) than a LAP-deficient mutant strain (KB208) to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was identification of the host cell receptor for LAP. Using a Western blot ligand overlay assay, we identified a protein of 58 kDa to be the putative receptor for LAP from Caco-2 cells. N-terminal sequencing and subsequent database search identified this protein as heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Modified immunoseparation with protein A-Sepharose beads bound to the LAP-specific monoclonal antibody H7 (MAb-H7) and a sequential incubation with LAP preparation and Caco-2 lysate confirmed the receptor to be the same 58-kDa protein. Western blot analysis with anti-Hsp60 MAb of whole-cell adhesion between Caco-2 and WT also revealed the receptor protein to be a 58-kDa protein, thus corroborating the identification of Hsp60 as a host cell receptor for LAP. Furthermore, the anti-Hsp60 antibody also caused approximately 74% reduction in binding of L. monocytogenes WT to Caco-2 cells, whereas a control antibody, C11E9, had no effect on binding. The adhesion mechanism of L. monocytogenes to eukaryotic cells is a complex process, and identification of Hsp60 as a receptor for LAP adds to the list of previously discovered ligand-receptor modules that are essential to achieve successful adhesion. PMID:14742538

  13. Rapidly light-activated surgical protein glue inspired by mussel adhesion and insect structural crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun Young; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Bum Jin; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Jung, Gyu Yong; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-10-01

    Currently approved surgical tissue glues do not satisfy the requirements for ideal bioadhesives due to limited adhesion in wet conditions and severe cytotoxicity. Herein, we report a new light-activated, mussel protein-based bioadhesive (LAMBA) inspired by mussel adhesion and insect dityrosine crosslinking chemistry. LAMBA exhibited substantially stronger bulk wet tissue adhesion than commercially available fibrin glue and good biocompatibility in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Besides, the easily tunable, light-activated crosslinking enabled an effective on-demand wound closure and facilitated wound healing. Based on these outstanding properties, LAMBA holds great potential as an ideal surgical tissue glue for diverse medical applications, including sutureless wound closures of skin and internal organs. PMID:26197411

  14. Influence of Aae Autotransporter Protein on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana Carla Robatto; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans colonizes oral cavity by binding to and invading epithelial cells as well as by participating in biofilms formed on hard surfaces. Aae, an autotransporter protein, is implicated in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. Due to the multiple functions of bacterial autotransporter proteins, this study aimed to evaluate the role of aae in A. actinomycetemcomitans ability to adhere to both saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) and biofilm. An aae null mutant was constructed. Its hydrophobic properties as well as its ability to adhere to epithelial cells, SHA and to form biofilm were evaluated and compared with the parental strain, A. actinomycetemcomitans VT1169. The aae null mutant showed reduced hydrophobicity, as well as decreased binding to SHA and biofilm formation compared to the parental strain. These data suggest that aae mediates A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesion to epithelial cells and may be involved in biofilm formation and interaction with adsorbed salivary proteins. PMID:27224556

  15. Mechanical and water soaking properties of medium density fiberboard with wood fiber and soybean protein adhesive.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Yonghui; Zhong, Zhikai; Wang, Donghai; Ratto, Jo A; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2009-07-01

    Soybean protein is a renewable and abundant material that offers an alternative to formaldehyde-based resins. In this study, soybean protein was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an adhesive for wood fiber medium density fiberboard (MDF) preparation. Second-order response surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of initial moisture content (IMC) of coated wood fiber, press time (PT) and temperature on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Results showed that IMC of coated fiber was the dominant influencing factor. Mechanical and soaking properties improved as IMC increased and reached their highest point at an IMC of 35%. Press time and temperature also had a significant effect on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Second-order regression results showed that there were strong relationships between mechanical and soaking properties of MDF and processing parameters. Properties of MDF made using soybean protein adhesive are similar to those of commercial board. PMID:19329303

  16. Adhesive strength and curing rate of marine mussel protein extracts on porcine small intestinal submucosa*

    PubMed Central

    Ninan, Lal; Stroshine, R L; Wilker, J.J.; Shi, Riyi

    2008-01-01

    An adhesive protein extracted from marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used to bond strips of connective tissue for the purpose of evaluating the use of curing agents to improve adhesive curing. Specifically, mussel adhesive protein solution (MAPS, 0.5 mM dihydroxyphenylalanine) was applied, with or without the curing agents, to the ends of two overlapping strips of porcine small intestinal submucosa. The bond strength of this lap joint was determined after curing for 1 h at room temperature (25°C). The strength of joints formed using only MAPS or with only the ethyl, butyl or octyl cyanoacrylate adhesives were determined. Although joints bonded using ethyl cyanoacrylate were strongest, those using MAPS were stronger than those using butyl and octyl cyanoacrylates. The addition of 25 mM solutions of the transition metal ions V5+, Fe3+ and Cr6+, which are all oxidants, increased the bond strength of the MAPS joints. The V5+ gave the strongest bonds and the Fe3+ the second strongest. In subsequent tests with V5+ and Fe3+ solutions, the bond strength increased with V5+ concentration, but it did not increase with Fe3+ concentration. Addition of 250 mM V5+ gave a very strong bond. PMID:17434815

  17. Ubiquitous distribution of salts and proteins in spider glue enhances spider silk adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Chaurasia, Vishal; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blackledge, Todd A.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Modern orb-weaving spiders use micron-sized glue droplets on their viscid silk to retain prey in webs. A combination of low molecular weight salts and proteins makes the glue viscoelastic and humidity responsive in a way not easily achieved by synthetic adhesives. Optically, the glue droplet shows a heterogeneous structure, but the spatial arrangement of its chemical components is poorly understood. Here, we use optical and confocal Raman microscopy to show that salts and proteins are present ubiquitously throughout the droplet. The distribution of adhesive proteins in the peripheral region explains the superior prey capture performance of orb webs as it enables the entire surface area of the glue droplet to act as a site for prey capture. The presence of salts throughout the droplet explains the recent Solid-State NMR results that show salts directly facilitate protein mobility. Understanding the function of individual glue components and the role of the droplet's macro-structure can help in designing better synthetic adhesives for humid environments. PMID:25761668

  18. Mussel adhesive protein provides cohesive matrix for collagen type-1α

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Wei, Wei; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between collagen and adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfps) can lead to improved medical and dental adhesives, particularly for collagen-rich tissues. Here we investigated interactions between collagen type-1, the most abundant loadbearing animal protein, and mussel foot protein-3 (mfp-3) using a quartz crystal microbalance and surface forces apparatus (SFA). Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic variants of mfp-3 were exploited to probe the nature of the interaction between the protein and collagen. Our chief findings are: 1) mfp-3 is an effective chaperone for tropocollagen adsorption to TiO2 and mica surfaces; 2) at pH 3, collagen addition between two mfp-3 films (Wc = 5.4 ± 0.2 mJ/m2) increased their cohesion by nearly 35%; 3) oxidation of Dopa in mfp-3 by periodate did not abolish the adhesion between collagen and mfp-3 films, and 4) collagen bridging between both hydrophilic and hydrophobic mfp-3 variant films is equally robust, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a minor role. Extensive H-bonding, π-cation and electrostatic interactions are more plausible to explain the reversible bridging of mfp-3 films by collagen. PMID:25770997

  19. Ubiquitous distribution of salts and proteins in spider glue enhances spider silk adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Chaurasia, Vishal; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blackledge, Todd A.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Modern orb-weaving spiders use micron-sized glue droplets on their viscid silk to retain prey in webs. A combination of low molecular weight salts and proteins makes the glue viscoelastic and humidity responsive in a way not easily achieved by synthetic adhesives. Optically, the glue droplet shows a heterogeneous structure, but the spatial arrangement of its chemical components is poorly understood. Here, we use optical and confocal Raman microscopy to show that salts and proteins are present ubiquitously throughout the droplet. The distribution of adhesive proteins in the peripheral region explains the superior prey capture performance of orb webs as it enables the entire surface area of the glue droplet to act as a site for prey capture. The presence of salts throughout the droplet explains the recent Solid-State NMR results that show salts directly facilitate protein mobility. Understanding the function of individual glue components and the role of the droplet's macro-structure can help in designing better synthetic adhesives for humid environments.

  20. Mussel adhesive protein provides cohesive matrix for collagen type-1α.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Wei, Wei; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the interactions between collagen and adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfps) can lead to improved medical and dental adhesives, particularly for collagen-rich tissues. Here we investigated interactions between collagen type-1, the most abundant load-bearing animal protein, and mussel foot protein-3 (mfp-3) using a quartz crystal microbalance and surface forces apparatus (SFA). Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic variants of mfp-3 were exploited to probe the nature of the interaction between the protein and collagen. Our chief findings are: 1) mfp-3 is an effective chaperone for tropocollagen adsorption to TiO2 and mica surfaces; 2) at pH 3, collagen addition between two mfp-3 films (Wc = 5.4 ± 0.2 mJ/m(2)) increased their cohesion by nearly 35%; 3) oxidation of Dopa in mfp-3 by periodate did not abolish the adhesion between collagen and mfp-3 films, and 4) collagen bridging between both hydrophilic and hydrophobic mfp-3 variant films is equally robust, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a minor role. Extensive H-bonding, π-cation and electrostatic interactions are more plausible to explain the reversible bridging of mfp-3 films by collagen. PMID:25770997

  1. Adhesion properties of a putative polymorphic fimbrial subunit protein from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenta; Nishiyama, Keita; Miyajima, Hiroki; Osawa, Ro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that the open reading frame bl0675 in the genome of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum isolated from human feces encoded a novel putative fimbrial protein, was highly polymorphic, and had five variants (A, B, C, D, and E types). The aim of this study was to evaluate the affinity of these variants to porcine colonic mucins (PCMs). Protein-binding properties were examined using the recombinant BL0675 protein containing a C-terminal 6 × His tag (His-BL0675). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the His-BL0675 A type had strong affinity to PCMs (KD = 9.82 × 10(-8) M), whereas the B, C, D, and E types exhibited little or no binding. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, His-BL0675 A type binding was reduced by addition of mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting that the binding occurs via carbohydrate chains of PCMs. The localization of BL0675 to the B. longum subsp. longum cell surface was confirmed by western blot analysis using A type polyclonal antibodies. Bacterial adhesion of B. longum subsp. longum to PCMs was also blocked by A type-specific antibodies; however, its adhesion properties were strain specific. Our results suggest that the BL0675 variants significantly contribute to the adhesion of B. longum subsp. longum strains. The expression and the adhesive properties of this protein are affected by genetic polymorphisms and are specific for B. longum subsp. longum strains. However, further studies are required on the properties of binding of these putative fimbrial proteins to the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26858927

  2. Adhesion properties of a putative polymorphic fimbrial subunit protein from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Kenta; NISHIYAMA, Keita; MIYAJIMA, Hiroki; OSAWA, Ro; YAMAMOTO, Yuji; MUKAI, Takao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that the open reading frame bl0675 in the genome of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum isolated from human feces encoded a novel putative fimbrial protein, was highly polymorphic, and had five variants (A, B, C, D, and E types). The aim of this study was to evaluate the affinity of these variants to porcine colonic mucins (PCMs). Protein-binding properties were examined using the recombinant BL0675 protein containing a C-terminal 6 × His tag (His-BL0675). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the His-BL0675 A type had strong affinity to PCMs (KD = 9.82 × 10−8 M), whereas the B, C, D, and E types exhibited little or no binding. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, His-BL0675 A type binding was reduced by addition of mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting that the binding occurs via carbohydrate chains of PCMs. The localization of BL0675 to the B. longum subsp. longum cell surface was confirmed by western blot analysis using A type polyclonal antibodies. Bacterial adhesion of B. longum subsp. longum to PCMs was also blocked by A type-specific antibodies; however, its adhesion properties were strain specific. Our results suggest that the BL0675 variants significantly contribute to the adhesion of B. longum subsp. longum strains. The expression and the adhesive properties of this protein are affected by genetic polymorphisms and are specific for B. longum subsp. longum strains. However, further studies are required on the properties of binding of these putative fimbrial proteins to the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26858927

  3. Application of tung oil to improve adhesion strength and water resistance of cottonseed meal and protein adhesives on maple veneer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal-based products show promise in serving as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, their practical utilization is currently limited due to low durability and water resistant properties. In this research, we tested the improvement of adhesion strength and water resistance of cott...

  4. MicroRNA-145-5p inhibits gastric cancer invasiveness through targeting N-cadherin and ZEB2 to suppress epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shi-Bin; He, Xu-Jun; Xia, Ying-Jie; Hu, Wei-Jian; Luo, Jun-Gang; Zhang, Jun; Tao, Hou-Quan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-145-5p has been reported to function as a suppressor of cancer and plays an important role in cancer invasiveness. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in cancer invasion and migration. However, the involvement of miR-145-5p in EMT in human gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-145-5p regulates EMT in GC invasiveness. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the miR-145-5p expression level in GC and matched normal tissues. The effects of miR-145-5p on GC cell invasion and migration abilities were evaluated using Transwell models. The relationships among miR-145-5p and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), E-cadherin, and N-cadherin were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. miR-145-5p levels in primary GC tissues obtained from 60 patients were significantly downregulated, compared to those in paired normal tissues. Lauren classification, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, and tumor–node–metastasis stage were associated with miR-145-5p expression. miR-145-5p inhibits the expression of the candidate target gene ZEB2 to delay the invasion and migration of GC cells. ZEB2 acts as transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, while miR-145-5p is known to suppress N-cadherin directly to regulate EMT. Therefore, we concluded that miR-145-5p may target N-cadherin and ZEB2 directly to influence EMT. PMID:27143926

  5. Protein Adhesion and Ion Substitution (on/in)to Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Fernandez Martinez, A.; Chapron, Y.; Sahai, N.; Cuello, G.; Brendle, J.; Marichal, C.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic and pathogenic prion protein-scrapie (PrPsc) are important contaminants which may soil and water for decades, unless they are removed by sorption. Two sorption mechanisms will be discussed, namely the organics (Prp and single aminoacid) adsorption on clay and the arsenic substitution in gypsum. The elucidation of these contrasted mechanisms will be shown to request complementary molecular-mechanical simulations with experimental spectroscopic investigations. As first example, structural studies performed at ILL/ESRF on As-doped gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) using neutron and X-ray diffraction data and EXAFS were performed to determine how As fits into the bulk of gypsum structure. The combined Rietveld analysis of neutron and X-ray diffraction data shows an expansion of the unit cell volume proportional to the As concentration within the samples. to-sulfate substitution mechanisms were used as simulation starting hypotheses. DFT-based simulations (Mulliken analysis) were used to interpret charge distribution and to show that among the possible mechanisms, a sulphate substitution by either protonated, or fully deprotonated, arsenate ion, only the protonated arsenate substitution could best fit the EXAFS data. In the second example, we used Molecular Dynamics to understand the mechanism of strong binding of the pathogenic PrP peptide with clay mineral surfaces. We modeled only the infectious moiety, PrP92-138, of the whole PrPsc structure, with explicitly solvating water molecules in contact with the cleavage plane of pyrophillite, as a model for montmorillonite without any cationic substitution. Partial residual negative charges on the cleavage plane were balanced with K+ ions. The peptide anchored to the clay surface via up to 10 hydrogen bonds from lysine and histidine residues to oxygen atoms of the siloxane cavities, and a total adsorption energy of 3465 KJ.mol-1 was obtained. Our results were compared to the one obtained by chemical and thermal analysis, 23Na, 1H

  6. Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces. PMID:16361528

  7. Phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins by protein kinase C correlates with leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Valmu, L; Autero, M; Siljander, P; Patarroyo, M; Gahmberg, C G

    1991-11-01

    Adhesion of activated leukocytes to cells is of critical functional importance. The adhesion is known to be mediated mainly by the CD11/CD18 integrins, also known as leukocytic cell adhesion molecules, or Leu-CAM. We have now studied the phosphorylation of Leu-CAM by protein kinase C and the correlation of phosphorylation with the generation of the adhesive phenotype among human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes during cell activation. We here show that a good correlation exists between the phosphorylation of the beta subunit of Leu-CAM (CD18), and the extent of cell-to-cell adhesion. The phosphorylated CD18 subunit was associated with both CD11a and CD11b. Purified protein kinase C was able to phosphorylate the beta subunit of isolated Leu-CAM in vitro. The phosphorylation occurred mainly on serine residues. PMID:1682156

  8. In vitro investigation of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion on inorganic biomaterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Lü, Xiaoying; Jingwu, Ma; Huang, Nan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the surface properties, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion behaviors of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium (Ti) films. The surface energy and microstructures of these films were characterized by contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay was used to study the amount of adsorbed proteins. Platelet adhesion was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AFM results show that the DLC film is smoother than Ti. Protein adsorption results from CBB protein assay show that the ratio of adsorbed albumin (Alb) to IgG ( RA/I) on DLC is larger than Ti, which coincide with the sequence of the ratio of interfacial tension between solid surface and Alb ( γS,Alb) to interfacial tension between surface and IgG ( γS,IgG) ( γS,Alb/ γS,IgG). The DLC film has a preferential adsorption for Alb. The results suggest that the ratio of γS,Alb/ γS,IgG may indicate an Alb/IgG affinity ratio of materials. More platelets adhere on Ti film than on DLC, which may correspond to the surface roughness of materials. The conclusion is the blood compatibility of DLC seems to be better than Ti.

  9. Mapping the dynamics and nanoscale organization of synaptic adhesion proteins using monomeric streptavidin

    PubMed Central

    Chamma, Ingrid; Letellier, Mathieu; Butler, Corey; Tessier, Béatrice; Lim, Kok-Hong; Gauthereau, Isabel; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Park, Sheldon; Sainlos, Matthieu; Thoumine, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The advent of super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a need for optimized labelling strategies. We present a new method relying on fluorophore-conjugated monomeric streptavidin (mSA) to label membrane proteins carrying a short, enzymatically biotinylated tag, compatible with SRI techniques including uPAINT, STED and dSTORM. We demonstrate efficient and specific labelling of target proteins in confined intercellular and organotypic tissues, with reduced steric hindrance and no crosslinking compared with multivalent probes. We use mSA to decipher the dynamics and nanoscale organization of the synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin-1β, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1) and leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane protein 2 (LRRTM2) in a dual-colour configuration with GFP nanobody, and show that these proteins are diffusionally trapped at synapses where they form apposed trans-synaptic adhesive structures. Furthermore, Nlg1 is dynamic, disperse and sensitive to synaptic stimulation, whereas LRRTM2 is organized in compact and stable nanodomains. Thus, mSA is a versatile tool to image membrane proteins at high resolution in complex live environments, providing novel information about the nano-organization of biological structures. PMID:26979420

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A; Harty, Breanne L; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C; Monk, Kelly R; Peeters, Miriam C; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. PMID:25713288

  11. In Vivo Detection of Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 in Experimental Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Kimmo; Nikula, Tuomo; Holopainen, Riikka; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Matikainen, Marja-Terttu; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Huupponen, Risto; Halkola, Lauri; Nieminen, Lauri; Hiltunen, Jukka; Parviainen, Sakari; Clark, Michael R.; Knuuti, Juhani; Savunen, Timo; Kääpä, Pekka; Voipio-Pulkki, Liisa Maria; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2000-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein which mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. To study the pathogenetic significance of VAP-1 in inflammatory disorders, an in vivo immunodetection method was used to detect the regulation of luminally expressed VAP-1 in experimental skin and joint inflammation in the pig and dog. Moreover, VAP-1 was studied as a potential target to localize inflammation by radioimmunoscintigraphy. Up-regulation of VAP-1 in experimental dermatitis and arthritis could be visualized by specifically targeted immunoscintigraphy. Moreover, the translocation of VAP-1 to the functional position on the endothelial surface was only seen in inflamed tissues. These results suggest that VAP-1 is both an optimal candidate for anti-adhesive therapy and a potential target molecule for imaging inflammation. PMID:10934150

  12. Redox Capacity of an Extracellular Matrix Protein Associated with Adhesion in Mytilus californianus.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Spahn, Jamie E; Zhou, Hongjun; Gruian, Cristina M; Waite, J Herbert

    2016-04-01

    Adhesive mussel foot proteins (Mfps) rely in part on DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine) side chains to mediate attachment to mineral surfaces underwater. Oxidation of DOPA to Dopaquinone (Q) effectively abolishes the adsorption of Mfps to these surfaces. The thiol-rich mussel foot protein-6 (Mfp-6) rescues adhesion compromised by adventitious DOPA oxidation by reducing Q back to DOPA. The redox chemistry and kinetics of foot-extracted Mfp-6 were investigated by using a nonspecific chromogenic probe to equilibrate with the redox pool. Foot-extracted Mfp-6 has a reducing capacity of ~17 e(-) per protein; half of this comes from the cysteine residues, whereas the other half comes from other constituents, probably a cohort of four or five nonadhesive, redox-active DOPA residues in Mfp-6 with an anodic peak potential ~500 mV lower than that for oxidation of cysteine to cystine. At higher pH, DOPA redox reversibility is lost possibly due to Q scavenging by Cys thiolates. Analysis by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance identified a pronounced β-sheet structure with a hydrophobic core in foot-extracted Mfp-6 protein. The structure endows redox-active side chains in Mfp-6, i.e., cysteine and DOPA, with significant reducing power over a broad pH range, and this power is measurably diminished in recombinant Mfp-6. PMID:26998552

  13. Partial characterization of a human submandibular/sublingual salivary adhesion-promoting protein.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, S O; Dasso, M; Hay, D I; Ganeshkumar, N; Spielman, A I

    2002-05-01

    Human submandibular/sublingual saliva contains a protein that promotes adhesion of Streptococcus mutans JBP serotype-c to spheroidal hydroxyapatite in vitro. A high molecular-weight (250,000-300,000 Da) adhesion-promoting protein (APP) was purified by Trisacryl 2000 M gel-filtration chromatography and gel electroelution before it was partially characterized. Lectin blotting identified that the terminal carbohydrates include N-acetyl glucosamine-beta 1-4-N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and galactose-beta 1-3-N-acetyl galactosamine. Antibodies to APP demonstrated no difference in the immunoreactive pattern of APP from saliva of caries-active or caries-resistant individuals belonging to four different ethnic groups: Asian, African-American, Hispanic or Caucasian. No immunological similarities to salivary mucins or parotid agglutinins were detected by Western blotting using immuno-cross-reactivity as a criterion. APP appears to be a unique protein found in submandibular/sublingual saliva. Understanding such a protein could help prevent S. mutans attachment to the enamel surface. PMID:12015214

  14. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: Effect on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Coffey, Paul D.; Swann, Marcus J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  15. Antiadhesive properties of arabinogalactan protein from ribes nigrum seeds against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jutta; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2) was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with β-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ adhesion assay on sections of human gastric mucosa and by quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori strain J99 and human stomach AGS cells. Bacterial adhesins affected were identified by overlay assay with immobilized ligands. ¹²⁵I-radiolabeled F2 served for binding studies to H. pylori and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. F2 had no cytotoxic effects against H. pylori and AGS cells; but inhibited bacterial binding to human gastric cells. F2 inhibited the binding of BabA and fibronectin-binding adhesin to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled F2 bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori; and to BabA deficient mutant. F2 did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. From these data the non-specific interactions between F2 and the H. pylori lead to moderate antiadhesive effects. PMID:24662083

  16. Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein is involved in αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shigeru; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D

    2006-01-01

    The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disorder. The most common symptom seen in WAS patients is bleeding. One of the main causes of bleeding is defective platelet aggregation. The causative gene of WAS encodes WAS protein (WASP). Here, we show that WASP binds to the calcium- and integrin-binding protein (CIB) in platelets. CIB was originally identified as a protein binding to the αIIb cytoplasmic tail of platelet integrin αIIbβ3, which has a primary role in platelet aggregation. We also show that the WASP–CIB complex is important in αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion, and that in patients mutant forms of WASP are expressed at reduced levels or show lower affinities for CIB than wild-type WASP. Our results indicate that impaired complex formation between mutant WASPs and CIB reduces αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion and causes defective platelet aggregation, resulting in bleeding. PMID:16582881

  17. Amigo Adhesion Protein Regulates Development of Neural Circuits in Zebrafish Brain*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Aho, Vilma; Peltola, Marjaana A.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti; Rauvala, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The Amigo protein family consists of three transmembrane proteins characterized by six leucine-rich repeat domains and one immunoglobulin-like domain in their extracellular moieties. Previous in vitro studies have suggested a role as homophilic adhesion molecules in brain neurons, but the in vivo functions remain unknown. Here we have cloned all three zebrafish amigos and show that amigo1 is the predominant family member expressed during nervous system development in zebrafish. Knockdown of amigo1 expression using morpholino oligonucleotides impairs the formation of fasciculated tracts in early fiber scaffolds of brain. A similar defect in fiber tract development is caused by mRNA-mediated expression of the Amigo1 ectodomain that inhibits adhesion mediated by the full-length protein. Analysis of differentiated neural circuits reveals defects in the catecholaminergic system. At the behavioral level, the disturbed formation of neural circuitry is reflected in enhanced locomotor activity and in the inability of the larvae to perform normal escape responses. We suggest that Amigo1 is essential for the development of neural circuits of zebrafish, where its mechanism involves homophilic interactions within the developing fiber tracts and regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel to form functional neural circuitry that controls locomotion. PMID:24904058

  18. Cadherin adhesion depends on a salt bridge at the N-terminus.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Oliver J; Corps, Elaine M; Kilshaw, Peter J

    2005-09-15

    There is now considerable evidence that cell adhesion by cadherins requires a strand exchange process in which the second amino acid at the N-terminus of the cadherin molecule, Trp2, docks into a hydrophobic pocket in the domain fold of the opposing cadherin. Here we show that strand exchange depends on a salt bridge formed between the N-terminal amino group of one cadherin molecule and the acidic side chain of Glu89 of the other. Prevention of this bond in N-cadherin by introducing the mutation Glu89Ala or by extending the N-terminus with additional amino acids strongly inhibited strand exchange. But when the two modifications were present in opposing cadherin molecules respectively, they acted in a complementary manner, lowering activation energy for strand exchange and greatly increasing the strength of the adhesive interaction. N-cadherin that retained an uncleaved prodomain or lacked Trp2 adhered strongly to the Glu89Ala mutant but not to wild-type molecules. Similarly, N-cadherin in which the hydrophobic acceptor pocket was blocked by an isoleucine side chain adhered to a partner that had an extended N-terminus. We explain these results in terms of the free energy changes that accompany strand exchange. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of adhesion and demonstrate the feasibility of greatly increasing cadherin affinity. PMID:16118243

  19. Characterizing the modification of surface proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) to interrupt platelet adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Kaar, Joel L.; Russell, Alan J.; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Surface protein modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can inhibit acute thrombosis on damaged vascular and biomaterial surfaces by blocking surface protein–platelet interactions. However, the feasibility of employing protein reactive PEGs to limit intravascular and biomaterial thrombosis in vivo is contingent upon rapid and extensive surface protein modification. To characterize the factors controlling this potential therapeutic approach, the model protein bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces and modified with PEG-carboxymethyl succinimidyl ester (PEG-NHS), PEG-isocyanate (PEG-ISO), or PEG-diisocyanate (PEG-DISO) in aqueous buffer at varying concentrations and contact times. It was found that up to 5 PEGs could be attached per albumin molecule within one min and that adsorbed albumin PEGylation approached maximal levels by 6 min. The lability of reactive PEGs in aqueous buffer reduced total protein modification by 50% when the PEG solution was incubated for 7 min prior to application. For fibrinogen PEGylation (performed in the solution phase), PEG-NHS was more reactive than PEG-ISO or PEG-DISO. The γ peptide of fibrinogen, which contains several key platelet-binding motifs, was highly modified. A marked reduction in platelet adhesion was observed on fibrinogen-adsorbed polyurethane treated with PEG-NHS or PEG-DISO. Relative differences in platelet adhesion on PEG-NHS and PEG-DISO modified surfaces could be attributed to differences in reactivity towards fibrinogen and the size of the polymer backbone. Taken together, these findings provide insight and guidance for applying protein reactive PEGs for the interruption of acute thrombotic deposition. PMID:16457880

  20. Paradigms lost-an emerging role for over-expression of tight junction adhesion proteins in cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leech, Astrid O; Cruz, Rodrigo G B; Hill, Arnold D K; Hopkins, Ann M

    2015-08-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) are multi-protein complexes located at the apicalmost tip of the lateral membrane in polarised epithelial and endothelial cells. Their principal function is in mediating intercellular adhesion and polarity. Accordingly, it has long been a paradigm that loss of TJ proteins and consequent deficits in cell-cell adhesion are required for tumour cell dissemination in the early stages of the invasive/metastatic cascade. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that TJ proteins play important roles in not just adhesion but also intracellular signalling events, activation of which can contribute to, or even drive, tumour progression and metastasis. In this review, we shall therefore highlight cases wherein the gain of TJ proteins has been associated with signals promoting tumour progression. We will also discuss the potential of overexpressed TJ proteins to act as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. The overall purpose of this review is not to disprove the fact that loss of TJ-based adhesion contributes to the progression of several cancers, but rather to introduce the growing body of evidence that gain of TJ proteins may have adhesion-independent consequences for promoting progression in other cancers. PMID:26366401

  1. Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

  2. Nanospherical arabinogalactan proteins are a key component of the high-strength adhesive secreted by English ivy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Tan, Li; Sun, Leming; Petrosino, Jennifer; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-06-01

    Over 130 y have passed since Charles Darwin first discovered that the adventitious roots of English ivy (Hedera helix) exude a yellowish mucilage that promotes the capacity of this plant to climb vertical surfaces. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in elucidating the adhesion mechanisms underlying this high-strength adhesive. In the previous studies, spherical nanoparticles were observed in the viscous exudate. Here we show that these nanoparticles are predominantly composed of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), a superfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins present in the extracellular spaces of plant cells. The spheroidal shape of the AGP-rich ivy nanoparticles results in a low viscosity of the ivy adhesive, and thus a favorable wetting behavior on the surface of substrates. Meanwhile, calcium-driven electrostatic interactions among carboxyl groups of the AGPs and the pectic acids give rise to the cross-linking of the exuded adhesive substances, favor subsequent curing (hardening) via formation of an adhesive film, and eventually promote the generation of mechanical interlocking between the adventitious roots of English ivy and the surface of substrates. Inspired by these molecular events, a reconstructed ivy-mimetic adhesive composite was developed by integrating purified AGP-rich ivy nanoparticles with pectic polysaccharides and calcium ions. Information gained from the subsequent tensile tests, in turn, substantiated the proposed adhesion mechanisms underlying the ivy-derived adhesive. Given that AGPs and pectic polysaccharides are also observed in bioadhesives exuded by other climbing plants, the adhesion mechanisms revealed by English ivy may forward the progress toward understanding the general principles underlying diverse botanic adhesives. PMID:27217558

  3. Nanospherical arabinogalactan proteins are a key component of the high-strength adhesive secreted by English ivy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Tan, Li; Sun, Leming; Petrosino, Jennifer; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-06-01

    Over 130 y have passed since Charles Darwin first discovered that the adventitious roots of English ivy (Hedera helix) exude a yellowish mucilage that promotes the capacity of this plant to climb vertical surfaces. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in elucidating the adhesion mechanisms underlying this high-strength adhesive. In the previous studies, spherical nanoparticles were observed in the viscous exudate. Here we show that these nanoparticles are predominantly composed of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), a superfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins present in the extracellular spaces of plant cells. The spheroidal shape of the AGP-rich ivy nanoparticles results in a low viscosity of the ivy adhesive, and thus a favorable wetting behavior on the surface of substrates. Meanwhile, calcium-driven electrostatic interactions among carboxyl groups of the AGPs and the pectic acids give rise to the cross-linking of the exuded adhesive substances, favor subsequent curing (hardening) via formation of an adhesive film, and eventually promote the generation of mechanical interlocking between the adventitious roots of English ivy and the surface of substrates. Inspired by these molecular events, a reconstructed ivy-mimetic adhesive composite was developed by integrating purified AGP-rich ivy nanoparticles with pectic polysaccharides and calcium ions. Information gained from the subsequent tensile tests, in turn, substantiated the proposed adhesion mechanisms underlying the ivy-derived adhesive. Given that AGPs and pectic polysaccharides are also observed in bioadhesives exuded by other climbing plants, the adhesion mechanisms revealed by English ivy may forward the progress toward understanding the general principles underlying diverse botanic adhesives.

  4. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  5. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  6. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  7. Inhibition of fibroblast adhesion by covalently immobilized protein repellent polymer coatings studied by single cell force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Aliuos, Pooyan; Sen, Aromita; Reich, Uta; Dempwolf, Wibke; Warnecke, Athanasia; Hadler, Christoph; Lenarz, Thomas; Menzel, Henning; Reuter, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea implants (CI) restore the hearing in patients with sensorineural hearing loss by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve via an electrode array. The increase of the impedance at the electrode-tissue interface due to a postoperative connective tissue encapsulation leads to higher power consumption of the implants. Therefore, reduced adhesion and proliferation of connective tissue cells around the CI electrode array is of great clinical interest. The adhesion of cells to substrate surfaces is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Protein repellent polymers (PRP) are able to inhibit unspecific protein adsorption. Thus, a reduction of cell adhesion might be achieved by coating the electrode carriers with PRPs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different PRPs, poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAA) and poly(2-ethyloxazoline) (PEtOx), on the strength and the temporal dynamics of the initial adhesion of fibroblasts. Polymers were immobilized onto glass plates by a photochemical grafting onto method. Water contact angle measurements proved hydrophilic surface properties of both PDMAA and PEtOx (45 ± 1° and 44 ± 1°, respectively). The adhesion strength of NIH3T3 fibroblasts after 5, 30, and 180 s of interaction with surfaces was investigated by using single cell force spectroscopy. In comparison to glass surfaces, both polymers reduced the adhesion of fibroblasts significantly at all different interaction times and lower dynamic rates of adhesion were observed. Thus, both PDMAA and PEtOx represented antiadhesive properties and can be used as implant coatings to reduce the unspecific ECM-mediated adhesion of fibroblasts to surfaces. PMID:23596088

  8. Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Caccavo, F. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

  9. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-α-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. PMID:23422838

  10. The proline-rich focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP is a ligand for profilins.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M; Giehl, K; Abel, K; Haffner, C; Jarchau, T; Hoppe, V; Jockusch, B M; Walter, U

    1995-01-01

    Profilins are small proteins that form complexes with G-actin and phosphoinositides and are therefore considered to link the microfilament system to signal transduction pathways. In addition, they bind to poly-L-proline, but the biological significance of this interaction is not yet known. The recent molecular cloning of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an established in vivo substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, revealed the presence of a proline-rich domain which prompted us to investigate a possible interaction with profilins. VASP is a microfilament and focal adhesion associated protein which is also concentrated in highly dynamic regions of the cell cortex. Here, we demonstrate that VASP is a natural proline-rich profilin ligand. Human platelet VASP bound directly to purified profilins from human platelets, calf thymus and birch pollen. Moreover, VASP and a novel protein were specifically extracted from total cell lysates by profilin affinity chromatography and subsequently eluted either with poly-L-proline or a peptide corresponding to a proline-rich VASP motif. Finally, the subcellular distributions of VASP and profilin suggest that both proteins also interact within living cells. Our data support the hypothesis that profilin and VASP act in concert to convey signal transduction to actin filament formation. Images PMID:7737110

  11. Recombinant mussel adhesive protein fp-5 (MAP fp-5) as a bulk bioadhesive and surface coating material.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Lim, Seonghye; Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Chang Sup; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2011-08-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) attach to all types of inorganic and organic surfaces, even in wet environments. MAP of type 5 (fp-5), in particular, has been considered as a key adhesive material. However, the low availability of fp-5 has hampered its biochemical characterization and practical applications. Here, soluble recombinant fp-5 is mass-produced in Escherichia coli. Tyrosinase-modified recombinant fp-5 showed ∼1.11 MPa adhesive shear strength, which is the first report of a bulk-scale adhesive force measurement for purified recombinant of natural MAP type. Surface coatings were also performed through simple dip-coating of various objects. In addition, complex coacervate using recombinant fp-5 and hyaluronic acid was prepared as an efficient adhesive formulation, which greatly improved the bulk adhesive strength. Collectively, it is expected that this work will enhance basic understanding of mussel adhesion and that recombinant fp-5 can be successfully used as a realistic bulk-scale bioadhesive and an efficient surface coating material. PMID:21770718

  12. Peptide-presenting two-dimensional protein matrix on supported lipid bilayers: an efficient platform for cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Bérat, Rémi; Rémy-Zolghadry, Murielle; Gounou, Céline; Manigand, Claude; Tan, Sisareuth; Saltó, Carmen; Arenas, Ernest; Bordenave, Laurence; Brisson, Alain R

    2007-12-01

    Understanding and controlling cell adhesion to biomaterials and synthetic materials are important issues in basic research and applied sciences. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) functionalized with cell adhesion peptides linked to lipid molecules are popular platforms of cell adhesion. In this paper, an alternative approach of peptide presentation is presented in which peptides are stereo-selectively linked to proteins self-assembling in a rigid two-dimensional (2D) matrix on SLBs. Annexin-A5 (Anx5) was used as prototype protein for its known properties of forming stable and rigid 2D matrices on lipid surfaces. Two types of Anx5-peptide complexes, containing either a RGD or an IKVAV sequence, were synthesized. The authors show that both Anx5-peptide complexes present the same properties of binding and 2D organization on lipid surfaces as Anx5, when investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Anx5-RGD and Anx5-IKVAV 2D matrices were found to promote specific adhesion of human saphenous vein endothelial cells and mouse embryonic stem cells, respectively. The influence of the surface density of exposed peptides on cell adhesion was investigated, showing that cells attach to Anx5-peptide matrices when the average distance between peptides is smaller than about 60 nm. This cell adhesion platform provides control of the orientation and density of cell ligands, opening interesting possibilities for future applications. PMID:20408654

  13. Vasoconstrictor-induced endocytic recycling regulates focal adhesion protein localization and function in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Poythress, Ransom H.; Gallant, Cynthia; Vetterkind, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) is known to be critical for cell migration and adhesion of proliferative vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. However, it is often assumed that FAs in nonmigratory, differentiated VSM (dVSM) cells embedded in the wall of healthy blood vessels are stable structures. Recent work has demonstrated agonist-induced actin polymerization and Src-dependent FA phosphorylation in dVSM cells, suggesting that agonist-induced FA remodeling occurs. However, the mechanisms and extent of FA remodeling are largely unknown in dVSM. Here we show, for the first time, that a distinct subpopulation of dVSM FA proteins, but not the entire FA, remodels in response to the α-agonist phenylephrine. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and zyxin displayed the largest redistributions, while β-integrin and FA kinase showed undetectable redistribution. Vinculin, metavinculin, Src, Crk-associated substrate, and paxillin displayed intermediate degrees of redistribution. Redistributions into membrane fractions were especially prominent, suggesting endosomal mechanisms. Deconvolution microscopy, quantitative colocalization analysis, and Duolink proximity ligation assays revealed that phenylephrine increases the association of FA proteins with early endosomal markers Rab5 and early endosomal antigen 1. Endosomal disruption with the small-molecule inhibitor primaquine inhibits agonist-induced redistribution of FA proteins, confirming endosomal recycling. FA recycling was also inhibited by cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, and colchicine, indicating that the redistribution is actin- and microtubule-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of endosomal recycling causes a significant inhibition of the rate of development of agonist-induced dVSM contractions. Thus these studies are consistent with the concept that FAs in dVSM cells, embedded in the wall of the aorta, remodel during the action of a vasoconstrictor. PMID:23703522

  14. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M.; Rabi, S. Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R.; Mullins, James I.; Mosier, Donald E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  15. Fabrication of three-dimensional multi-protein microstructures for cell migration and adhesion enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Da Sie, Yong; Li, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Nan-Shan; Campagnola, Paul J.; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) multi-component microstructures were precisely fabricated via multiphoton excited photochemistry using a femtosecond laser direct-writing system with proposed repetition positioning and vector scanning techniques. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as fibronectin (FN), are difficult to stack and form 3D structures larger than several-hundred microns in height due to the nature of their protein structure. Herein, to fabricate complex 3D microstructures with FN, a 3D scaffold was designed and formed from bovine serum albumin (BSA), after which human FN was inserted at specific locations on the BSA scaffold; in this manner, the fabricated ECM microstructure can guide cells in a 3D environment. A human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was used to investigate the behavior of cell migration and adhesion on the fabricated human FN and BSA protein structures. Experimental results indicate that many cells are not able to attach or climb on a 3D structure’s inclined plane without FN support; hence, the influence of cell growth in a 3D context with FN should being taken into consideration. This 3D multi-protein fabrication technique holds potential for cell studies in designed complex 3D ECM scaffolds. PMID:25780738

  16. Syntenin-1 and Ezrin Proteins Link Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule to the Actin Cytoskeleton*

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Cicerone; te Riet, Joost; Eich, Christina; Harkes, Rolf; Smisdom, Nick; Bouhuijzen Wenger, Jessica; Ameloot, Marcel; Holt, Matthew; Kanger, Johannes S.; Figdor, Carl G.; Cambi, Alessandra; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a type I transmembrane protein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. Involved in important pathophysiological processes such as the immune response, cancer metastasis, and neuronal development, ALCAM undergoes both homotypic interactions with other ALCAM molecules and heterotypic interactions with the surface receptor CD6 expressed at the T cell surface. Despite biochemical and biophysical evidence of a dynamic association between ALCAM and the actin cytoskeleton, no detailed information is available about how this association occurs at the molecular level. Here, we exploit a combination of complementary microscopy techniques, including FRET detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single-cell force spectroscopy, and we demonstrate the existence of a preformed ligand-independent supramolecular complex where ALCAM stably interacts with actin by binding to syntenin-1 and ezrin. Interaction with the ligand CD6 further enhances these multiple interactions. Altogether, our results propose a novel biophysical framework to understand the stabilizing role of the ALCAM supramolecular complex engaged to CD6 during dendritic cell-T cell interactions and provide novel information on the molecular players involved in the formation and signaling of the immunological synapse at the dendritic cell side. PMID:24662291

  17. Evaluation of Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pengxin; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a glycoprotein that mediates tissue-selective lymphocyte adhesion. The prognostic value of VAP-1 has been determined in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and the predictive value of serum VAP-1 in patients with thyroid cancer. A total of 126 patients with thyroid nodules and 53 healthy controls participated in this study. The patients were further divided into subgroup 1 (69 cases with benign thyroid nodules) and subgroup 2 (57 cases with thyroid cancer). Serum VAP-1 was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Diagnostic value of presurgical VAP-1 for thyroid cancer was conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Serum levels of VAP-1 were significantly lower in thyroid cancer group than in healthy control and benign thyroid nodule groups. VAP-1 concentrations negatively correlated with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients (r = −0.81; p < 0.001). The optimum cut-off value of VAP-1 was 456.6 ng/mL with a 77.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Serum VAP-1 decreased in thyroid cancer patients and VAP-1 could be a potential useful adjunct biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27446209

  18. Anterior Gradient Protein-2 Is a Regulator of Cellular Adhesion in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Diptiman; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Sawant, Anandi; Hensel, Jonathan A.; Isayeva, Tatyana; Reilly, Stephanie D.; Siegal, Gene P.; Smith, Claire; Grizzle, William; Singh, Raj; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2014-01-01

    Anterior Gradient Protein (AGR-2) is reported to be over-expressed in many epithelial cancers and promotes metastasis. A clear-cut mechanism for its observed function(s) has not been previously identified. We found significant upregulation of AGR-2 expression in a bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, following culturing in bone marrow-conditioned medium. Substantial AGR-2 expression was also confirmed in prostate cancer tissue specimens in patients with bone lesions. By developing stable clones of PC3 cells with varying levels of AGR-2 expression, we identified that abrogation of AGR-2 significantly reduced cellular attachment to fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin I and fibrinogen. Loss of cellular adhesion was associated with sharp decrease in the expression of α4, α5, αV, β3 and β4 integrins. Failure to undergo apoptosis following detachment is a hallmark of epithelial cancer metastasis. The AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells showed higher resistance to Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in vitro. This observation was also supported by significantly reduced Caspase-3 expression in AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells, which is a key effector of both extrinsic and intrinsic death signaling pathways. These data suggest that AGR-2 influence prostate cancer metastasis by regulation of cellular adhesion and apoptosis. PMID:24587138

  19. Characterization of the protein fraction of the temporary adhesive secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Waite, J Herbert; Flammang, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sea stars are able to make firm but temporary attachments to various substrata by secretions released by their tube feet. After tube foot detachment, the adhesive secretions remain on the substratum as a footprint. Proteins presumably play a key role in sea star adhesion, as evidenced by the removal of footprints from surfaces after a treatment with trypsin. However, until now, characterisation was hampered by their high insolubility. In this study, a non-hydrolytic method was used to render most of the proteins constituting the adhesive footprints soluble. After analysis by SDS-PAGE, the proteins separated into about 25 bands, which ranged from 25 to 450 kDa in apparent molecular weight. Using mass spectrometry and a homology-database search, it was shown that several of the proteins are known intracellular proteins, presumably resulting from contamination of footprint material with tube foot epidermal cells. However, 11 protein bands, comprising the most abundant proteins, were not identified and might correspond to novel adhesive proteins. They were named 'Sea star footprint proteins' (Sfps). Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the protein bands yielded 43 de novo-generated peptide sequences. Most of them were shared by several, if not all, Sfps. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against one of the peptides (HEASGEYYR from Sfp-115) and were used in immunoblotting. They specifically labelled Sfp-115 and other bands with lower apparent molecular weights. The different results suggest that all Sfps might belong to a single family of related proteins sharing similar motifs or, alternatively, they are the products of polymerization and/or degradation processes. PMID:22439774

  20. Novel Pyridazinone Inhibitors for Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1): Old target – New Inhibition Mode

    PubMed Central

    Bligt-Lindén, Eva; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Szatmári, István; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Smith, David J.; Lázár, László; Fülöp, Ferenc; Salminen, Tiina A.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a primary amine oxidase and a drug target for inflammatory and vascular diseases. Despite extensive attempts to develop potent, specific and reversible inhibitors of its enzyme activity, the task has proven challenging. Here we report the synthesis, inhibitory activity and molecular binding mode of novel pyridazinone inhibitors, which show specificity for VAP-1 over monoamine and diamine oxidases. The crystal structures of three inhibitor-VAP-1 complexes show that these compounds bind reversibly into a unique binding site in the active site channel. Though they are good inhibitors of human VAP-1, they do not inhibit rodent VAP-1 well. To investigate this further, we used homology modeling and structural comparison to identify amino acid differences, which explain the species-specific binding properties. Our results prove the potency and specificity of these new inhibitors and the detailed characterization of their binding mode is of importance for further development of VAP-1 inhibitors. PMID:24304424

  1. Investigation of alginate binding to germanium and polystyrene substrata conditioned with mussel adhesive protein

    SciTech Connect

    Suci, P.A.; Geesey, G.G.

    1995-06-15

    Binding of alginate from Macrocystis pyrifera (kelp) to germanium and polystyrene substrata conditioned with mussel adhesive protein (MAP) from Mytilis edulis, to germanium substrata conditioned with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and polylysine, and to germanium substrata coated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) was investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Binding of alginate to MAP appears to be proportional to surface coverage for levels tested. Distinct spectral features appear in the region associated with pyranose ring vibrations upon binding of alginate to MAP, polylysine, and APS, indicating that lysine residues play a prominent role in promoting irreversible adsorption with perturbation of pyranose ring atoms. BSA does not appear to enhance alginate adsorption over that observed on clean germanium and no new spectral features appear as a result of binding. The level of irreversible binding of alginate to germanium and polystyrene substrata conditioned with MAP is similar.

  2. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors in nervous system development and disease.

    PubMed

    Langenhan, Tobias; Piao, Xianhua; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-09-01

    Members of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) class have emerged as crucial regulators of nervous system development, with important implications for human health and disease. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of aGPCR functions during key steps in neural development, including cortical patterning, dendrite and synapse formation, and myelination. We focus on aGPCR modulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and signalling to control these varied aspects of neural development, and we discuss how impaired aGPCR function leads to neurological disease. We further highlight the emerging hypothesis that aGPCRs can be mechanically activated and the implications of this property in the nervous system. PMID:27466150

  3. Pleiotrophin disrupts calcium-dependent homophilic cell–cell adhesion and initiates an epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Pinera, P.; Alcantara, S.; Dimitrov, T.; Vega, J. A.; Deuel, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Regulation of the levels of tyrosine phosphorylation is essential to maintain the functions of proteins in different signaling pathways and other cellular systems, but how the steady-state levels of tyrosine phosphorylation are coordinated in different cellular systems to initiate complex cellular functions remains a formidable challenge. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)β/ζ is a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase whose substrates include proteins important in intracellular and transmembrane protein-signaling pathways, cytoskeletal structure, cell–cell adhesion, endocytosis, and chromatin remodeling. Pleiotrophin (PTN the protein and Ptn the gene) is a ligand for RPTPβ/ζ; PTN inactivates RPTPβ/ζ, leaving unchecked the continued endogenous activity of tyrosine kinases that increase phosphorylation of the substrates of RPTPβ/ζ at sites dephosphorylated by RPTPβ/ζ in cells not stimulated by PTN. Thus, through the regulation of the tyrosine phosphatase activity of RPTPβ/ζ, the PTN/RPTPβ/ζ signaling pathway coordinately regulates the levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in many cellular systems. We now demonstrate that PTN disrupts cytoskeletal protein complexes, ablates calcium-dependent homophilic cell–cell adhesion, stimulates ubiquitination and degradation of N-cadherin, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton, and induces a morphological epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PTN-stimulated U373 cells. The data suggest that increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the different substrates of RPTPβ/ζ in PTN-stimulated cells alone is sufficient to coordinately stimulate the different functions needed for an EMT; it is possible that PTN initiates an EMT in cells at sites where PTN is expressed in development and in malignant cells that inappropriately express Ptn. PMID:17098867

  4. Focal adhesion kinases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases regulate protein tyrosine phosphorylation in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Lauro; Macías-García, Beatriz; Loux, Shavahn C; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2013-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) is a hallmark of sperm capacitation. In stallion sperm, calcium inhibits PY at pH <7.8, mediated by calmodulin. To explore the mechanism of that inhibition, we incubated stallion sperm in media without added calcium, with calcium, or with calcium plus the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (Ca/W-7 treatment). Treatment with inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, protein kinase A (PRKA), or Src family kinases suppressed the PY induced by the absence of added calcium, but not that induced by the Ca/W-7 treatment, indicating that PY in the absence of added calcium occurred via the canonical PRKA pathway, but that PY in the Ca/W-7 treatment did not. This suggested that when calmodulin was inhibited, calcium stimulated PY via a noncanonical pathway. Incubation with PF-431396, an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinases (FAKs), a family of calcium-induced protein tyrosine kinases, inhibited the PY induced both by the absence of added calcium and by the Ca/W-7 treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that both FAK family members, protein tyrosine kinases 2 and 2B, were phosphorylated in the absence of added calcium and in the Ca/W-7 treatment, but not in the presence of calcium without calmodulin inhibitors. Inhibition of FAK proteins inhibited PY in stallion sperm incubated under capacitating conditions (in the presence of calcium, bovine serum albumin, and bicarbonate at pH >7.8). These results show for the first time a role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in PRKA-dependent sperm PY; a non-PRKA-dependent pathway regulating sperm PY; and the apparent involvement of the FAK family of protein tyrosine kinases downstream in both pathways. PMID:23595906

  5. Effect of dispersion method and CNT loading on the quality and performance of nanocomposite soy protein/CNTs adhesive for wood application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolabi, Ayo Samuel; Oluwafolakemi Sadare, Olawumi; Olawale Daramola, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this article the effect of dispersion method and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading on the quality and performance of a nanocomposite adhesive is reported. The nanocomposite soy protein isolate adhesive was successfully developed by incorporating CNTs into the soy protein isolate (SPI) for enhanced bond strength and water resistance. Dispersion methods, namely mechanical (shear) mixing and mechanical/sonication were employed to aid good dispersion and interfacial interaction between soy protein matrix and the carbon nanofillers during the preparation of the adhesive. The concentration of the CNT was varied from 0.1–0.7 wt% in the nanocomposite adhesive. The morphology and the surface chemistry of the adhesives were checked with SEM and FTIR, respectively. The shear strength of the developed adhesives was investigated according to European standard (EN-204) for interior wood application on a tensile testing machine. The morphological structure of the nanocomposite adhesive obtained from SEM images showed homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in SPI using the two dispersion methods; shear mixing and sonication/shear mixing. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed chemical functionalities and successful interaction between CNTs and SPI adhesive. Thermogravimetric profile of the adhesive samples showed that the newly developed nanocomposite adhesive was thermally stable at a temperature up to about 600 °C at a higher percentage loading of 0.5 wt% CNTs. The result showed that sonication method of dispersion of CNTs into the SPI adhesive had a higher shear strength compared to the mechanical method of dispersion both at dry and wet state.

  6. Diamagnetic levitation causes changes in the morphology, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion proteins expression in osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Qian, A R; Wang, L; Gao, X; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Han, J; Li, J B; Di, S M; Shang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation technology is a novel simulated weightless technique and has recently been applied in life-science research. We have developed a superconducting magnet platform with large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels, namely, μg (diamagnetic levitation), 1g, and 2g for diamagnetic materials. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on the activity, morphology, and cytoskeleton (actin filament, microtubules, and vimentin intermediate filaments) in osteocyte - like cell line MLO-Y4 were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), respectively. The changes induced by LG-HMF in distribution and expression of focal adhesion (FA) proteins, including vinculin, paxillin, and talin in MLO-Y4 were determined by LSCM and Western blotting. The results showed that LG-HMF produced by superconducting magnet had no lethal effects on MLO-Y4. Compared to control, diamagnetic levitation (μg) affected MLO-Y4 morphology, nucleus size, cytoskeleton architecture, and FA proteins distribution and expression. The study indicates that osteocytes are sensitive to altered gravity and FA proteins (vinculin, paxillin, and talin) may be involved in osteocyte mechanosensation. The diamagnetic levitation may be a novel ground-based space-gravity simulator and can be used for biological experiment at cellular level. PMID:21216704

  7. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications. PMID:19766482

  8. [AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism].

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and underlying molecular mechanism. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with different concentrations of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) or AMPK inhibitor compound C. And other HAECs were overexpressed with constitutive active or dominant negative AMPK protein and then treated with TNFα. The rates of monocytes adhering to endothelial cells were detected by fluorescent staining. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA levels and protein secretions were detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Acetylation of NF-κB p65 at lysine 221 site was assessed by Western blot. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by an ELISA-based method. By using small interfering RNA based strategy, p300 expression in HAECs was down-regulated and then cells were incubated with TNFα. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions and adhesion rates were detected, respectively. The activity of p300 was also detected by ELISA. The results showed that AICAR treatment significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion rate, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels and protein secretions, in TNFα-activated HAECs. Moreover, transfection of constitutive active AMPKα but not dominant negative AMPKα strongly diminished TNFα-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions and secretions, as well as monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Furthermore, AMPK activation decreased TNFα-mediated acetylation of NF-κB p65 at Lys221 site and reduced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Silencing p300 by siRNA significantly abolished the effect of TNFα- induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Blocking AMPK activation by compound C almost

  9. The Terminal A Domain of the Fibrillar Accumulation-Associated Protein (Aap) of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mediates Adhesion to Human Corneocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Robin L.; Brittan, Jane L.; Bhattacharya, Ritwika; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Derrick, Jeremy; Upton, Mathew; Handley, Pauline S.

    2009-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizes indwelling medical devices by biofilm formation but is primarily a skin resident. In many S. epidermidis strains biofilm formation is mediated by a cell wall-anchored protein, the accumulation-associated protein (Aap). Here, we investigate the role of Aap in skin adhesion. Aap is an LPXTG protein with a domain architecture including a terminal A domain and a B-repeat region. S. epidermidis NCTC 11047 expresses Aap as localized, lateral tufts of fibrils on one subpopulation of cells (Fib+), whereas a second subpopulation does not express these fibrils of Aap (Fib−). Flow cytometry showed that 72% of NCTC 11047 cells expressed Aap and that 28% of cells did not. Aap is involved in the adhesion of Fib+ cells to squamous epithelial cells from the hand (corneocytes), as the recombinant A-domain protein partially blocked binding to corneocytes. To confirm the role of the Aap A domain in corneocyte attachment, Aap was expressed on the surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 as sparsely distributed, peritrichous fibrils. The expression of Aap increased corneocyte adhesion 20-fold compared to L. lactis carrying Aap without an A domain. S. epidermidis isolates from catheters, artificial joints, skin, and the nose also used the A domain of Aap to adhere to corneocytes, emphasizing the role of Aap in skin adhesion. In addition, L. lactis expressing Aap with different numbers of B repeats revealed a positive correlation between the number of B repeats and adhesion to corneocytes, suggesting an additional function for the B region in enhancing A-domain-dependent attachment to skin. Therefore, in addition to its established role in biofilm formation, Aap can also promote adhesion to corneocytes and is likely to be an important adhesin in S. epidermidis skin colonization. PMID:19749046

  10. A protein interaction map for cell-cell adhesion regulators identifies DUSP23 as a novel phosphatase for β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa Leon; Ng, Mei Rosa; Sowa, Mathew E.; Selfors, Laura M.; White, Anne; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Singh, Pragya; Dhakal, Sabin; Harper, J. Wade; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is central to morphogenesis and maintenance of epithelial cell state. We previously identified 27 candidate cell-cell adhesion regulatory proteins (CCARPs) whose down-regulation disrupts epithelial cell-cell adhesion during collective migration. Using a protein interaction mapping strategy, we found that 18 CCARPs link to core components of adherens junctions or desmosomes. We further mapped linkages between the CCARPs and other known cell-cell adhesion proteins, including hits from recent screens uncovering novel components of E-cadherin adhesions. Mechanistic studies of one novel CCARP which links to multiple cell-cell adhesion proteins, the phosphatase DUSP23, revealed that it promotes dephosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr 142 and enhances the interaction between α- and β-catenin. DUSP23 knockdown specifically diminished adhesion to E-cadherin without altering adhesion to fibronectin matrix proteins. Furthermore, DUSP23 knockdown produced “zipper-like” cell-cell adhesions, caused defects in transmission of polarization cues, and reduced coordination during collective migration. Thus, this study identifies multiple novel connections between proteins that regulate cell-cell interactions and provides evidence for a previously unrecognized role for DUSP23 in regulating E-cadherin adherens junctions through promoting the dephosphorylation of β-catenin. PMID:27255161

  11. Dihydromunduletone Is a Small-Molecule Selective Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stoveken, Hannah M; Bahr, Laura L; Anders, M W; Wojtovich, Andrew P; Smrcka, Alan V; Tall, Gregory G

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) have emerging roles in development and tissue maintenance and is the most prevalent GPCR subclass mutated in human cancers, but to date, no drugs have been developed to target them in any disease. aGPCR extracellular domains contain a conserved subdomain that mediates self-cleavage proximal to the start of the 7-transmembrane domain (7TM). The two receptor protomers, extracellular domain and amino terminal fragment (NTF), and the 7TM or C-terminal fragment remain noncovalently bound at the plasma membrane in a low-activity state. We recently demonstrated that NTF dissociation liberates the 7TM N-terminal stalk, which acts as a tethered-peptide agonist permitting receptor-dependent heterotrimeric G protein activation. In many cases, natural aGPCR ligands are extracellular matrix proteins that dissociate the NTF to reveal the tethered agonist. Given the perceived difficulty in modifying extracellular matrix proteins to create aGPCR probes, we developed a serum response element (SRE)-luciferase-based screening approach to identify GPR56/ADGRG1 small-molecule inhibitors. A 2000-compound library comprising known drugs and natural products was screened for GPR56-dependent SRE activation inhibitors that did not inhibit constitutively active Gα13-dependent SRE activation. Dihydromunduletone (DHM), a rotenoid derivative, was validated using cell-free aGPCR/heterotrimeric G protein guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding reconstitution assays. DHM inhibited GPR56 and GPR114/ADGRG5, which have similar tethered agonists, but not the aGPCR GPR110/ADGRF1, M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, or β2 adrenergic GPCRs. DHM inhibited tethered peptide agonist-stimulated and synthetic peptide agonist-stimulated GPR56 but did not inhibit basal activity, demonstrating that it antagonizes the peptide agonist. DHM is a novel aGPCR antagonist and potentially useful chemical probe that may be developed as a future aGPCR therapeutic. PMID:27338081

  12. Osteoblast-specific factor 2: cloning of a putative bone adhesion protein with homology with the insect protein fasciclin I.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Kikuno, R; Tezuka, K; Amann, E

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA library prepared from the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was screened for the presence of specifically expressed genes by employing a combined subtraction hybridization/differential screening approach. A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. OSF-2 has a typical signal sequence, followed by a cysteine-rich domain, a fourfold repeated domain and a C-terminal domain. The protein lacks a typical transmembrane region. The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. Mouse OSF-2 cDNA was subsequently used as a probe to clone the human counterpart. Mouse and human OSF-2 show a high amino acid sequence conservation except for the signal sequence and two regions in the C-terminal domain in which 'in-frame' insertions or deletions are observed, implying alternative splicing events. On the basis of the amino acid sequence homology with fasciclin I, we suggest that OSF-2 functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule in bone formation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8363580

  13. Cell adhesion and growth enabled by biomimetic oligopeptide modification of a polydopamine-poly(ethylene oxide) protein repulsive surface.

    PubMed

    Musilkova, Jana; Kotelnikov, Ilya; Novotna, Katarina; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Rypacek, Frantisek; Bacakova, Lucie; Proks, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Protein-repulsive surfaces modified with ligands for cell adhesion receptors have been widely developed for controlling the cell adhesion and growth in tissue engineering. However, the question of matrix production and deposition by cells on these surfaces has rarely been addressed. In this study, protein-repulsive polydopamine-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDA-PEO) surfaces were functionalized with an RGD-containing peptide (RGD), with a collagen-derived peptide binding fibronectin (Col), or by a combination of these peptides (RGD + Col, ratio 1:1) in concentrations of 90 fmol/cm(2) and 700 fmol/cm(2) for each peptide type. When seeded with vascular endothelial CPAE cells, the PDA-PEO surfaces proved to be completely non-adhesive for cells. On surfaces with lower peptide concentrations and from days 1 to 3 after seeding, cell adhesion and growth was restored practically only on the RGD-modified surface. However, from days 3 to 7, cell adhesion and growth was improved on surfaces modified with Col and with RGD + Col. At higher peptide concentrations, the cell adhesion and growth was markedly improved on all peptide-modified surfaces in both culture intervals. However, the collagen-derived peptide did not increase the expression of fibronectin in the cells. The deposition of fibronectin on the material surface was generally very low and similar on all peptide-modified surfaces. Nevertheless, the RGD + Col surfaces exhibited the highest cell adhesion stability under a dynamic load, which correlated with the highest expression of talin and vinculin in the cells on these surfaces. A combination of RGD + Col therefore seems to be the most promising for surface modification of biomaterials, e.g. vascular prostheses. PMID:26449443

  14. Adsorption and adhesion of common serum proteins to nanotextured gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Lauren E.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    , particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures demonstrating the adhesion force magnitude (Fig. S1) and lateral steppe surface topography (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06353h

  15. Adsorption of parotid saliva proteins and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 21752 to dental fiber-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Johanna; Carlén, Anette; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2003-07-15

    The use of fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) in dentistry has increased during recent years. In marginal areas of crowns and removable partial dentures the fibers may become exposed and come into contact with oral tissues, saliva, and microbes. To date, few articles have been published on oral microbial adhesion to FRCs. The aim of this study was to compare different FRCs, their components, and conventional restorative materials with respect to S. mutans ATCC 21752 adhesion and adsorption of specific S. mutans binding proteins. Surface roughness of the materials was also determined. Four different FRCs, a restorative composite, and a high-leucite ceramic material were studied. Polyethylene FRC was found to be significantly rougher than all other materials. Aramid FRC also showed higher surface roughness in comparison with all materials but polyethylene FRC. Without a saliva pellicle, adhesion of S. mutans coincided with surface roughness and polyethylene and aramid FRC promoted S. mutans adhesion better than the other smoother materials. In the presence of salivary pellicle, ceramic and polyethylene FRC bound more bacteria than the other materials studied. Higher quantities of S. mutans binding proteins in the pellicles may in part account for the higher S. mutans adhesion to saliva-coated ceramic and polyethylene FRC. PMID:12808599

  16. Scaffold-forming and Adhesive Contributions of Synthetic Laminin-binding Proteins to Basement Membrane Assembly.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Capizzi, Stephanie; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2009-03-27

    Laminins that possess three short arms contribute to basement membrane assembly by anchoring to cell surfaces, polymerizing, and binding to nidogen and collagen IV. Although laminins containing the alpha4 and alpha5 subunits are expressed in alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, they may be ineffective substitutes because they bind weakly to cell surfaces and/or because they lack the third arm needed for polymerization. We asked whether linker proteins engineered to bind to deficient laminins that provide such missing activities would promote basement membrane assembly in a Schwann cell model. A chimeric fusion protein (alphaLNNd) that adds a short arm terminus to laminin through the nidogen binding locus was generated and compared with the dystrophy-ameliorating protein miniagrin (mAgrin) that binds to the laminin coiled-coil dystroglycan and sulfatides. alphaLNNd was found to mediate laminin binding to collagen IV, to bind to galactosyl sulfatide, and to selectively convert alpha-short arm deletion-mutant laminins LmDeltaalphaLN and LmDeltaalphaLN-L4b into polymerizing laminins. This protein enabled polymerization-deficient laminin but not an adhesion-deficient laminin lacking LG domains (LmDeltaLG) to assemble an extracellular matrix on Schwann cell surfaces. mAgrin, on the other hand, enabled LmDeltaLG to form an extracellular matrix on cell surfaces without increasing accumulation of non-polymerizing laminins. These gain-of-function studies reveal distinct polymerization and anchorage contributions to basement membrane assembly in which the three different LN domains mediate the former, and the LG domains provide primary anchorage with secondary contributions from the alphaLN domain. These findings may be relevant for an understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of laminin deficiency states. PMID:19189961

  17. Overexpression of vascular adhesion protein-1 is associated with poor prognosis of astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Kostoro, Joanna; Chang, Shu-Jyuan; Clark Lai, Yen-Chang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2016-06-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is one of the endothelial adhesion molecules that is believed to play a role in tumor progression and metastasis, supporting cancer cell extravasation. Very few studies have been performed on analyzing the contribution of VAP-1 in brain tumor. Astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumors, which are classified by World Health Organization (WHO) into four grades according to the degree of malignancy. This study was designed to investigate VAP-1 expression level in different astrocytoma grades and its correlation with clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of astrocytoma patients. Eighty-seven patients with different grades of astrocytoma (WHO Grade I-Grade IV) were enrolled in this study. The expression of VAP-1 was assayed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between VAP-1 expression and clinicopathological features was evaluated by Chi-square test, and overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was applied to analyze the independent influence of each parameter on overall survival. The expression level of VAP-1 was significantly higher in diffuse astrocytoma than those of pilocytic astrocytoma (p < 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, upregulated VAP-1 expression was frequently found in older age patients (≥50 years). The VAP-1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with the overall survival (p = 0.0002). There was a statistical correlation between VAP-1(high) tumors in diffuse astrocytoma and VAP-1(low) tumors in pilocytic astrocytoma (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated VAP-1 was an independent predictive marker for poorer prognosis (p = 0.0036). Therefore, VAP-1 could be a promising prognostic biomarker in astrocytoma. PMID:26935340

  18. Scanning-force techniques to monitor time-dependent changes in topography and adhesion force of proteins on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mondon, M; Berger, S; Ziegler, C

    2003-04-01

    Scanning-force microscopy (SFM) investigations were conducted to probe the influences of the interactions of proteins with surfaces relevant in medicine. These interactions are an important feature in the area of biofilm formation. The adsorption of proteins leads to changes in topography, which was monitored for the build up of protein layers of hen egg-white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on mica in real time in phosphate-buffered aqueous solution over a time period of 10 min. Phase imaging was additionally applied to compare material contrasts and to evaluate this method for further application in this field. The adhesion forces that develop on a time scale below 20 s between a protein-modified SFM tip and titanium surfaces (TiO(2), TiAl6V4 and TiAl6Nb7) were investigated. The influences of the parameters loading force and interaction time between the protein and the surface were monitored as well as the influence of protein structure. The interaction time dependency of the adhesion force could be described with a kinetic model of two consecutive first-order reactions. For the maximal adhesion force a correlation to the ratio of the amino acids cysteine, proline and glycine has been proposed. PMID:12707750

  19. Early Growth Response Protein 1 Promotes Restenosis by Upregulating Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Vein Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kui; Cao, Jian; Dong, Ran; Du, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To verify the relationship between Egr-1 and vein graft restenosis and investigate the related mechanisms. Methods. Mouse vein graft models were established in Egr-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The vein grafts in the mice were taken for pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The endothelial cells (ECs) were stimulated by using a computer-controlled cyclic stress unit. BrdU staining and PCR were used to detect ECs proliferation activity and Egr-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, respectively. Western-blot analysis was also used to detect expression of Egr-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins. Results. The lumens of vein grafts in Egr-1 KO mice were wider than in WT mice. ECs proliferation after mechanical stretch stimulation was suppressed by Egr-1 knockout (P < 0.05). Both in vein grafts and ECs from WT mice after mechanical stretch stimulation, mRNA expression and protein of Egr-1 and ICAM-1 showed increases (P < 0.05). However, ICAM-1 expression was significantly suppressed in ECs from Egr-1 knockout mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Egr-1 may promote ECs proliferation and result in vein graft restenosis by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1. As a key factor of vein graft restenosis, it could be a target for the prevention of restenosis after CABG surgery. PMID:24386503

  20. Neural Cell Adhesion Protein CNTN1 Promotes the Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Judy; Ojo, Diane; Kapoor, Anil; Lin, Xiaozeng; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Aziz, Tariq; Bismar, Tarek A; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; De Melo, Jason; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Major, Pierre; Wood, Geoffrey; Peng, Hao; Tang, Damu

    2016-03-15

    Prostate cancer metastasis is the main cause of disease-related mortality. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is critical for effective therapeutic intervention. In this study, we performed gene-expression profiling of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSC) derived from DU145 human prostate cancer cells to identify factors involved in metastatic progression. Our studies revealed contactin 1 (CNTN1), a neural cell adhesion protein, to be a prostate cancer-promoting factor. CNTN1 knockdown reduced PCSC-mediated tumor initiation, whereas CNTN1 overexpression enhanced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and promoted xenograft tumor formation and lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, CNTN1 overexpression in DU145 cells and corresponding xenograft tumors resulted in elevated AKT activation and reduced E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. CNTN1 expression was not readily detected in normal prostate glands, but was clearly evident on prostate cancer cells in primary tumors and lymph node and bone metastases. Tumors from 637 patients expressing CNTN1 were associated with prostate cancer progression and worse biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05). Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CNTN1 promotes prostate cancer progression and metastasis, prompting further investigation into the mechanisms that enable neural proteins to become aberrantly expressed in non-neural malignancies. PMID:26795349

  1. Interfacial tension of complex coacervated mussel adhesive protein according to the Hofmeister series.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seonghye; Moon, Dustin; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, In Seok; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-02-01

    Complex coacervation is a liquid-liquid phase separation in a colloidal system of two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes or colloids. The interfacial tension of the coacervate phase is the key parameter for micelle formation and interactions with the encapsulating material. However, the relationship between interfacial tensions and various salt solutions is poorly understood in complex coacervation. In the present work, the complex coacervate dynamics of recombinant mussel adhesive protein (MAP) with hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in the presence of Hofmeister series salt ions. Using measurements of absorbance, hydrodynamic diameter, capillary force, and receding contact angle in the bulk phase, the interfacial tensions of complex coacervated MAP/HA were determined to be 0.236, 0.256, and 0.287 mN/m in 250 mM NaHCOO, NaCl, and NaNO3 solutions, respectively. The sequences of interfacial tensions and contact angles of the complex coacervates in the presence of three sodium salts with different anions were found to follow the Hofmeister ordering. The tendency of interfacial tension between the coacervate and dilute phases in the presence of different types of Hofmeister salt ions could provide a better understanding of Hofmeister effects on complex coacervated materials based on the protein-polysaccharide system. This information can also be utilized for microencapsulation and adsorption by controlling intramolecular interactions. In addition, the injection molding dynamics of mussel byssus formation was potentially explained based on the measured interfacial tension of coacervated MAP. PMID:24490867

  2. Proteinaceous determinants of surface colonization in bacteria: bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation from a protein secretion perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chagnot, Caroline; Zorgani, Mohamed A.; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of biotic or abiotic surfaces results from two quite distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Broadly speaking, a biofilm is defined as the sessile development of microbial cells. Biofilm formation arises following bacterial adhesion but not all single bacterial cells adhering reversibly or irreversibly engage inexorably into a sessile mode of growth. Among molecular determinants promoting bacterial colonization, surface proteins are the most functionally diverse active components. To be present on the bacterial cell surface, though, a protein must be secreted in the first place. Considering the close association of secreted proteins with their cognate secretion systems, the secretome (which refers both to the secretion systems and their protein substrates) is a key concept to apprehend the protein secretion and related physiological functions. The protein secretion systems are here considered in light of the differences in the cell-envelope architecture between diderm-LPS (archetypal Gram-negative), monoderm (archetypal Gram-positive) and diderm-mycolate (archetypal acid-fast) bacteria. Besides, their cognate secreted proteins engaged in the bacterial colonization process are regarded from single protein to supramolecular protein structure as well as the non-classical protein secretion. This state-of-the-art on the complement of the secretome (the secretion systems and their cognate effectors) involved in the surface colonization process in diderm-LPS and monoderm bacteria paves the way for future research directions in the field. PMID:24133488

  3. [Expression and purification of an adhesive protein of rabbit Pasteurella multocida C51-3 and detection of its antigenicity].

    PubMed

    Nazierbieke, Wulumuhan; Yan, Fang; He, Cui; Zhang, Lei; Borrathybay, Entomack

    2008-08-01

    The cp36 gene encoding an adhesive protein was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of rabbit P. multocida C51-3 strain, and cloned into the pMD18-T vector and then sequenced. The mature adhesive protein without a signal peptide of cpm36 gene was amplified by PCR from the recombinant plasmid pMD18-cp36, then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE30 to provide a recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36. The recombinant protein of CPM36 was produced in Escherichia coli M15 harboring the recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36 by IPTG induction, and the recombinant protein purified by the affinity chromatography with Ni(2+)-NTA resin. The sequence analyses showed that the ORF of cp36 gene was 1032 bp in length, and DNA homology of the cp36 genes between the C51-3 strain and the previously reported different serotype strains of P. multocida in GenBank was 76.9 to 100%. The SDS-PAGE analyses revealed a single fusion protein band with a molecular weight of 37 kD, and the Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the recombinant protein CPM36 and native 36 kD protein of C51-3 were recognized specifically by an antiserum against the recombinant protein, suggesting that the recombinant protein is an antigenic protein. PMID:18998549

  4. Multiscale approaches to protein-mediated interactions between membranes—relating microscopic and macroscopic dynamics in radially growing adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihr, Timo; Seifert, Udo; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2015-08-01

    Macromolecular complexation leading to coupling of two or more cellular membranes is a crucial step in a number of biological functions of the cell. While other mechanisms may also play a role, adhesion always involves the fluctuations of deformable membranes, the diffusion of proteins and the molecular binding and unbinding. Because these stochastic processes couple over a multitude of time and length scales, theoretical modeling of membrane adhesion has been a major challenge. Here we present an effective Monte Carlo scheme within which the effects of the membrane are integrated into local rates for molecular recognition. The latter step in the Monte Carlo approach enables us to simulate the nucleation and growth of adhesion domains within a system of the size of a cell for tens of seconds without loss of accuracy, as shown by comparison to 106 times more expensive Langevin simulations. To perform this validation, the Langevin approach was augmented to simulate diffusion of proteins explicitly, together with reaction kinetics and membrane dynamics. We use the Monte Carlo scheme to gain deeper insight to the experimentally observed radial growth of micron sized adhesion domains, and connect the effective rate with which the domain is growing to the underlying microscopic events. We thus demonstrate that our technique yields detailed information about protein transport and complexation in membranes, which is a fundamental step toward understanding even more complex membrane interactions in the cellular context.

  5. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA. PMID:22066472

  6. Actions of translocator protein ligands on neutrophil adhesion and motility induced by G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Camila Bento; Tamura, Eduardo K; Montero-Melendez, Trindad; Palermo-Neto, João; Perretti, Mauro; Markus, Regina P; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2012-01-13

    The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), mediates the transportation of cholesterol and anions from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane in different cells types. Although recent evidences indicate a potential role for TSPO in the development of inflammatory processes, the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. The present study investigated the ability of the specific TSPO ligands, the isoquinoline carboxamide PK11195 and benzodiazepine Ro5-4864, on neutrophil recruitment promoted by the N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptide (fMLP), an agonist of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Pre-treatment with Ro5-4864 abrograted fMLP-induced leukocyte-endothelial interactions in mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. Moreover, in vitro Ro5-4864 treatment prevented fMLP-induced: (i) L-selectin shedding and overexpression of PECAM-1 on the neutrophil cell surface; (ii) neutrophil chemotaxis and (iii) enhancement of intracellular calcium cations (iCa(+2)). Intriguingly, the two latter effects were augmented by cell treatment with PK11195. An allosteric agonist/antagonist relation may be suggested, as the effects of Ro5-4864 on fMLP-stimulated neutrophils were reverted by simultaneous treatment with PK11195. Taken together, these data highlight TSPO as a modulator of pathways of neutrophil adhesion and locomotion induced by GPCR, connecting TSPO actions and the onset of an innate inflammatory response. PMID:22209795

  7. Composites containing albumin protein or cyanoacrylate adhesives and biodegradable scaffolds: II. In vivo wound closure study in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Soller, Eric C.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Hoffman, Grant T.; Edward, Deepak

    2004-07-01

    Our Scaffold-Enhanced Biological Adhesive (SEBA) system was investigated as an alternative to sutures or adhesives alone for repair of wounds. Two scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biologic material, small intestinal submucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. Two adhesive materials were also investigated: (i) a biologic adhesive composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser; and (ii) Ethicon"s Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength and time-to-failure of skin incisions repaired in vivo in a rat model were measured at seven days postoperative. Incisions closed by protein solder alone, by Dermabond alone, or by suture, were also tested for comparison. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the SEBA system were 50% to 65% stronger than repairs formed by suture or either adhesive alone, with significantly less variations within each experimental group (average standard deviations of 15% for SEBA versus 38% for suture and 28% for adhesive alone). In addition, the time-to-failure curves showed a longevity not previously seen with the suture or adhesive alone techniques. The SEBA system acts to keep the dermis in tight apposition during the critical early phase of wound healing when tissue gaps are bridged by scar and granulation tissue. It has the property of being more flexible than either of the adhesives alone and may allow the apposed edges to move in conjunction with each other as a unit for a longer period of time and over a greater range of stresses than adhesives alone. This permits more rapid healing and establishment of integrity since the microgaps between the dermis edges are significantly reduced. By the time the scaffolds are sloughed from the wound site, there is greater strength and healing than that produced by adhesive alone or

  8. Lymphocyte binding to vascular endothelium in inflamed skin revisited: a central role for vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1).

    PubMed

    Arvilommi, A M; Salmi, M; Kalimo, K; Jalkanen, S

    1996-04-01

    The binding of leukocytes to vascular endothelium and their migration into tissues is mediated by adhesion molecules on the endothelial cells and leukocytes. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a 170-180/90-kDa endothelial molecule expressed most prominently in high endothelial venules in peripheral lymph node (PLN) type lymphatic tissues. VAP-1 mediates lymphocyte binding to PLN, tonsil and synovium. The expression of VAP-1 is induced in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and gut inflammation. We examined the expression, structure and function of VAP-1 in normal and inflamed skin and compared it to those of other adhesion molecules implicated in skin homing. In psoriasis lichen ruber planus, pemphigoid and allergic lesions, VAP-1 was markedly upregulated. The expression of VAP-1 was also increased in biopsies of healthy skin of the patients. The VAP-1 molecule induced in skin is decorated with abundant sialic acids. VAP-1 inflamed skin is functional, since inhibition with anti-VAP-1 monoclonal antibodies caused a 60% reduction in lymphocytes adhesion to vascular endothelium. Antibodies against E-selectin, which has been regarded as the major vascular addressin directing cutaneous lymphocyte traffic, and, surprisingly, against peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd), caused inhibitions of 30% and 60%, respectively, in the frozen section adhesion assay. These findings suggest important roles also for VAP-1 and PNAd in lymphocyte homing into inflamed skin. PMID:8625974

  9. Different forms of human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) in blood vessels in vivo and in cultured endothelial cells: implications for lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion models.

    PubMed

    Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S

    1995-10-01

    Vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in controlling leukocyte extravasation from the blood into the tissues. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a novel endothelial cell molecule which mediates lymphocyte binding to the vascular lining (Salmi, M., and Jalkanen, S., Science 1992. 257:1407). In this study, we analyzed endothelial cell type-specific differences of VAP-1. In vivo, VAP-1 is a 90/170-kDa molecule which is mainly expressed on the lumenal surface and in cytoplasmic granules of peripheral lymph node-type postcapillary venules (high endothelial venules, HEV). In tonsil HEV, VAP-1 is modified with abundant sialic acids. VAP-1 is also detectable in the cytoplasm of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in an endothelial cell hybrid EaHy-926, although both cell types lack detectable surface VAP-1. Cultured endothelial cells do not express MECA-79-defined peripheral lymph node addressins either. VAP-1 was not translocated onto the endothelial cell surface after stimulation with multiple cytokines, mitogens or secretagogues which induced expression of other known endothelial adhesion molecules. Biochemical analyses revealed that VAP-1 is a approximately 180-kDa protein in these endothelial cell types. Digestions with neuraminidase, O-glycanase and N-glycanase, as well as treatment of cells with tunicamycin and benzyl-N-acetylgalactosaminide, did not alter the molecular mass of VAP-1 in EaHy-926. Pulse-chase experiments showed that VAP-1 is directly synthesized as a 180-kDa molecule without any detectable precursors. Thus, in cultured endothelial cells, VAP-1 is a 180-kDa protein which is devoid of post-translational modifications, and in particular, lacks the sialic acids crucial for the function of VAP-1 in tonsil vessels. Notably, the endothelial cell types commonly used as a model in studying lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions lack surface expression of VAP-1 and peripheral node addressins, and hence are inherently of limited use in

  10. Nanoscale visualization of functional adhesion/excitability nodes at the intercalated disc

    PubMed Central

    Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Agullo-Pascual, Esperanza; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L.; Keegan, Sarah; Lin, Xianming; Arcos, Tatiana; Feng-Xia-Liang; Korchev, Yuri E.; Gorelik, Julia; Fenyö, David; Rothenberg, Eli; Delmar, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion and electrical excitability are considered separate cellular properties. Studies of myelinated fibres, however, show that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) aggregate with cell adhesion molecules at discrete subcellular locations, such as the nodes of Ranvier. Demonstration of similar macromolecular organization in cardiac muscle is missing. Here we combine nanoscale-imaging (single-molecule localization microscopy; electron microscopy; and ‘angle view' scanning patch clamp) with mathematical simulations to demonstrate distinct hubs at the cardiac intercalated disc, populated by clusters of the adhesion molecule N-cadherin and the VGSC NaV1.5. We show that the N-cadherin-NaV1.5 association is not random, that NaV1.5 molecules in these clusters are major contributors to cardiac sodium current, and that loss of NaV1.5 expression reduces intercellular adhesion strength. We speculate that adhesion/excitability nodes are key sites for crosstalk of the contractile and electrical molecular apparatus and may represent the structural substrate of cardiomyopathies in patients with mutations in molecules of the VGSC complex. PMID:26787348

  11. Focal adhesions are foci for tyrosine-based signal transduction via GIV/Girdin and G proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas; Lo, I-Chung; Kabir, Firooz; Midde, Krishna K.; Wang, Honghui; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    GIV/Girdin is a multimodular signal transducer and a bona fide metastasis-related protein. As a guanidine exchange factor (GEF), GIV modulates signals initiated by growth factors (chemical signals) by activating the G protein Gαi. Here we report that mechanical signals triggered by the extracellular matrix (ECM) also converge on GIV-GEF via β1 integrins and that focal adhesions (FAs) serve as the major hubs for mechanochemical signaling via GIV. GIV interacts with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ligand-activated β1 integrins. Phosphorylation of GIV by FAK enhances PI3K-Akt signaling, the integrity of FAs, increases cell–ECM adhesion, and triggers ECM-induced cell motility. Activation of Gαi by GIV-GEF further potentiates FAK-GIV-PI3K-Akt signaling at the FAs. Spatially restricted signaling via tyrosine phosphorylated GIV at the FAs is enhanced during cancer metastasis. Thus GIV-GEF serves as a unifying platform for integration and amplification of adhesion (mechanical) and growth factor (chemical) signals during cancer progression. PMID:26446841

  12. Synergic interaction between amyloid precursor protein and neural cell adhesion molecule promotes neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keping; Lu, Huixia; Gao, Tianli; Xue, Xiulei; Wang, Chunling; Miao, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. The main features of AD are the pathological changes of density and distribution of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques. The processing of amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) to β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is one of the critical events in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we evaluated the role of the interaction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and APP in neurite outgrowth using two different experimental systems: PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons that were isolated from wild type, APP knock-in and APP knock-out mice. PC12E2 cells or hippocampal neurons were co-cultured with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts L929 cells. We found that APP promoted neurite outgrowth of PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons in either the presence or absence of NCAM. Secreted APP can rescue the neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons from APP knock-out mice. The interaction of APP and NCAM had synergic effect in promoting neurite outgrowth in both PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons. Our results suggested that the interaction of APP with NCAM played an important role in AD development and therefore could be a potential therapeutic target for AD treatment. PMID:26883101

  13. Myelin Basic Protein Cleaves Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 and Improves Regeneration After Injury.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David; Kataria, Hardeep; Kleene, Ralf; Loers, Gabriele; Chaudhary, Harshita; Guseva, Daria; Wu, Bin; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a serine protease that cleaves neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and generates a transmembrane L1 fragment which facilitates L1-dependent functions in vitro, such as neurite outgrowth, neuronal cell migration and survival, myelination by Schwann cells as well as Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and process formation. Ablation and blocking of MBP or disruption of its proteolytic activity by mutation of a proteolytically active serine residue abolish L1-dependent cellular responses. In utero injection of adeno-associated virus encoding proteolytically active MBP into MBP-deficient shiverer mice normalizes differentiation, myelination, and synaptogenesis in the developing postnatal spinal cord, in contrast to proteolytically inactive MBP. Application of active MBP to the injured wild-type spinal cord and femoral nerve augments levels of a transmembrane L1 fragment, promotes remyelination, and improves functional recovery after injury. Application of MBP antibody impairs recovery. Virus-mediated expression of active MBP in the lesion site after spinal cord injury results in improved functional recovery, whereas injection of virus encoding proteolytically inactive MBP fails to do so. The present study provides evidence for a novel L1-mediated function of MBP in the developing spinal cord and in the injured adult mammalian nervous system that leads to enhanced recovery after acute trauma. PMID:26081148

  14. β1 Integrin is an Adhesion Protein for Sperm Binding to Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Baessler, Keith A.; Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of β1 integrin in mammalian fertilization and the mode of inhibition of fertilinβ-derived polymers. We determined that polymers displaying the Glu-Cys-Asp peptide from the fertilinβ disintegrin domain mediate inhibition of mammalian fertilization through a β1 integrin receptor on the egg surface. Inhibition of fertilization is a consequence of competition with sperm binding to the cell surface, not activation of an egg-signaling pathway. The presence of the β1 integrin on the egg surface increases the rate of sperm attachment, but does not alter the total number of sperm that can attach or fuse to the egg. We conclude that the presence of β1 integrin enhances the initial adhesion of sperm to the egg plasma membrane and that subsequent attachment and fusion are mediated by additional egg and sperm proteins present in the β1 integrin complex. Therefore, the mechanisms by which sperm fertilize wild-type and β1 knockout eggs are different. PMID:19338281

  15. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  16. Maximizing Fibroblast Adhesion on Protein-Coated Surfaces Using Microfluidic Cell Printing

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, S.N.; Au, D.; Gale, B.K.; Brooks, B.D.; Brooks, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    translation of in vitro cell based assays to in vivo cellular response is imprecise at best. The advent of three-dimensional cell cultures in addition to bioreactor type microfluidics has improved the situation. However, these technical advances cannot be easily combined due to practical limitations. Development of a vertical microfluidic cell printer overcomes this obstacle, providing the ability to more closely recapitulate complex cellular environments and responses. As a proof of concept, we investigated the adhesion of fibroblasts under flow on protein-coated surfaces using a novel vertical microfluidic print head to isolate and manipulate both mechanical and biological factors as a model of fibroblast behavior during the foreign body response following implant insertion. A low flow rate with larger microfluidic channels onto a serum-coated surface has been determined to allow the highest density of viable fibroblasts to attach to the surface. While these insights into fibroblast surface attachment may lead to better material designs, the methods developed herein will certainly be useful as a biomaterials testing platform. PMID:26989480

  17. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  18. Inhibition of protein adsorption and cell adhesion on PNIPAAm-grafted polyurethane surface: effect of graft molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tieliang; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Jun; Yu, Qian; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Yuan, Lin

    2011-06-15

    In this work, the effect of molecular weight (MW) of surface grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) on protein adsorption and cell adhesion was investigated systematically. PNIPAAm-grafted polyurethane (PU) surfaces of varying graft MW were prepared via conventional radical polymerization. The MW was controlled by adjusting the monomer concentration. Fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA) were selected as model proteins and their adsorption from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and blood plasma at 37°C was measured using a radiolabeling method and immunoblot analysis respectively. It was found that in both media, as the MW increased, the adsorption of these two proteins decreased gradually reaching a plateau value at MW above 7.9×10(4). Compared to the unmodified PU, the surface grafted with PNIPAAm of MW 14.6×10(4) reduced the adsorption of Fg and HSA in PBS by 91% and 86%, respectively. Moreover, the surfaces with higher MW PNIPAAm showed minimal adhesion of L929 cells presumably due to the absence of cell-adhesive proteins on the surfaces. PMID:21093225

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Fibronectin-Binding Protein A Mediates Cell-Cell Adhesion through Low-Affinity Homophilic Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Herman-Bausier, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Foster, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen which is a leading cause of biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. The cell surface-located fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) plays an important role in the accumulation phase of biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), but the underlying molecular interactions are not yet established. Here, we use single-cell and single-molecule atomic force microscopy to unravel the mechanism by which FnBPA mediates intercellular adhesion. We show that FnBPA is responsible for specific cell-cell interactions that involve the FnBPA A domain and cause microscale cell aggregation. We demonstrate that the strength of FnBPA-mediated adhesion originates from multiple low-affinity homophilic interactions between FnBPA A domains on neighboring cells. Low-affinity binding by means of FnBPA may be important for biofilm dynamics. These results provide a molecular basis for the ability of FnBPA to promote cell accumulation during S. aureus biofilm formation. We speculate that homophilic interactions may represent a generic strategy among staphylococcal cell surface proteins for guiding intercellular adhesion. As biofilm formation by MRSA strains depends on proteins rather than polysaccharides, our approach offers exciting prospects for the design of drugs or vaccines to inhibit protein-dependent intercellular interactions in MRSA biofilms. PMID:26015495

  20. Regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and de-adhesion by a cell surface mechanism directed by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and endogenous thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2014-01-01

    T lymphocytes are highly motile and constantly reposition themselves between a free-floating vascular state, transient adhesion and migration in tissues. The regulation behind this unique dynamic behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that T cells have a cell surface mechanism for integrated regulation of motility and adhesion and that integrin ligands and CXCL12/SDF-1 influence motility and adhesion through this mechanism. Targeting cell surface-expressed low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) with an antibody, or blocking transport of LRP1 to the cell surface, perturbed the cell surface distribution of endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) while inhibiting motility and potentiating cytoplasmic spreading on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and fibronectin. Integrin ligands and CXCL12 stimulated motility and enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1, intact TSP-1 and a 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment while preventing formation of a de-adhesion-coupled 110 000 MW TSP-1 fragment. The appearance of the 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment was inhibited by the antibody that targeted LRP1 expression, inhibited motility and enhanced spreading. The TSP-1 binding site in the LRP1-associated protein, calreticulin, stimulated adhesion to ICAM-1 through intact TSP-1 and CD47. Shear flow enhanced cell surface expression of intact TSP-1. Hence, chemokines and integrin ligands up-regulate a dominant motogenic pathway through LRP1 and TSP-1 cleavage and activate an associated adhesion pathway through the LRP1–calreticulin complex, intact TSP-1 and CD47. This regulation of T-cell motility and adhesion makes pro-adhesive stimuli favour motile responses, which may explain why T cells prioritize movement before permanent adhesion. PMID:24877199

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF CONFORMATION CHANGES DURING ADHESION OF LIPID PROTEIN (POLYLYSINE AND S-LAYER) SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adhesion forces between various surfaces were measured using the "surface forces apparatus" technique which allows for the thickness of surface layers and the adhesion force between them to be directly measured in controlled vapor or liquid environments. hree types of biologi...

  2. Organ-selective regulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 expression in man.

    PubMed

    Arvilommi, A M; Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S

    1997-07-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial molecule which mediates lymphocyte binding to endothelium in peripheral lymph nodes and at certain sites of inflammation. The expression of VAP-1 in vivo is strongly up-regulated in inflamed tissues, such as gut and skin. The purpose of this work was to examine the factors responsible for this induction of VAP-1. Since the expression of VAP-1 could not be induced in cultured endothelial cells with a large panel of mediators, we used an organ culture technique for the investigation of the regulation of VAP-1 expression in a more physiological micromilieu. Indeed, we found that the expression of endothelial VAP-1 could be up-regulated in human tonsillar tissue with interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, whereas histamine, thrombin, dibutyryl cAMP, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect. The induced VAP-1 protein was similar in molecular weight to the non-induced VAP-1, suggesting that VAP-1 synthesized de novo carries appropriate carbohydrate moieties. In contrast to tonsil organ culture, similar inductions performed with human appendix showed no up-regulation of VAP-1 expression, indicating that the regulation of VAP-1 expression exhibits organ-selective characteristics. Furthermore, in these tissues the smooth muscle cells, which constitutively express VAP-1, could not be stimulated to alter their level of expression of this molecule. In conclusion, the expression of VAP-1 can be markedly up-regulated with several mediators in tonsil but not in appendix organ culture, whereas cultured endothelial cells cannot be induced to express VAP-1. These results indicate that the expression of VAP-1 is regulated in a tissue- and cell type-selective manner, and a correct micromilieu is required for the up-regulation to occur. PMID:9247594

  3. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium falciparum: expression during sporozoite ontogeny and binding to human hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Robson, K J; Frevert, U; Reckmann, I; Cowan, G; Beier, J; Scragg, I G; Takehara, K; Bishop, D H; Pradel, G; Sinden, R

    1995-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites collected from oocysts, haemocoel and salivary glands of the mosquito show profound differences in their biological properties such as motility, ability to induce protective immune response and infectivity for vertebrate host cells. Sporozoites from salivary glands are much more infectious than those from oocysts and haemocoel. Differential expression of proteins, such as the circumsporozoite (CS) protein and the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), implicated in sporozoite recognition and entry into hepatocytes may account for the development of infectivity during ontogeny. We have carried out a series of experiments to: (i) analyse the expression and localization of TRAP in P.falciparum sporozoites during development in the mosquito; and (ii) elucidate the biochemical and adhesive properties of recombinant TRAP. Our data indicate that TRAP is not expressed in oocysts, whereas variable amounts of CS protein are found in this parasite developmental stage. Hemocoel sporozoites display the distinct phenotypes TRAP- CS protein+ and TRAP+ CS protein+ at a frequency of 98.5 and 1.5% respectively. Salivary gland sporozoites are all TRAP+ CS protein+. We also provide experimental evidence showing that recombinant TRAP binds to the basolateral cell membrane of hepatocytes in the Disse's space and that sulfated glycoconjugates function as TRAP ligands on human hepatocytes. Images PMID:7664729

  4. Negative staining and immunoelectron microscopy of adhesion-deficient mutants of Streptococcus salivarius reveal that the adhesive protein antigens are separate classes of cell surface fibril.

    PubMed Central

    Weerkamp, A H; Handley, P S; Baars, A; Slot, J W

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the cell wall-associated protein antigens of Streptococcus salivarius HB, which are involved in specific adhesive properties of the cells, was studied. Mutants which had lost the adhesive properties and lacked the antigens at the cell surface were compared with the parent strain. Immunoelectron microscopy of cryosections of cells labeled with affinity-purified, specific antisera and colloidal gold-protein A complexes was used to locate the antigens. Antigen C (AgC), a glycoprotein involved in attachment to host surfaces, was mainly located in the fibrillar layer outside the cell wall. A smaller amount of label was also found throughout the cytoplasmic area in the form of small clusters of gold particles, which suggests a macromolecular association. Mutant HB-7, which lacks the wall-associated AgC, accumulated AgC reactivity intracellularly. Intracellular AgC was often found associated with isolated areas of increased electron density, but sometimes seemed to fill the entire interior of the cell. Antigen B (AgB), a protein responsible for interbacterial coaggregation, was also located in the fibrillar layer, although its distribution differed from that of the wall-associated AgC since AgB was found predominantly in the peripheral areas. A very small amount of label was also found in the cytoplasmic area as discrete gold particles. Mutant HB-V5, which lacks wall-associated AgB, was not labeled in the fibrillar coat, but showed the same weak intracellular label as the parent strain. Immunolabeling with serum against AgD, another wall-associated protein but of unknown function, demonstrated its presence in the fibrillar layer of strain HB. Negatively stained preparations of whole cells of wild-type S. salivarius and mutants that had lost wall-associated AgB or AgC revealed that two classes of short fibrils are carried on the cell surface at the same time. AgB and AgC are probably located on separate classes of short, protease

  5. Src Kinase Determines the Dynamic Exchange of the Docking Protein NEDD9 (Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-regulated Gene 9) at Focal Adhesions*

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Peta; Bach, Cuc T.; Paul, Andre; O'Neill, Geraldine M.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic exchange of molecules between the cytoplasm and integrin-based focal adhesions provides a rapid response system for modulating cell adhesion. Increased residency time of molecules that regulate adhesion turnover contributes to adhesion stability, ultimately determining migration speed across two-dimensional surfaces. In the present study we test the role of Src kinase in regulating dynamic exchange of the focal adhesion protein NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L. Using either chemical inhibition or fibroblasts genetically null for Src together with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we find that Src significantly reduces NEDD9 exchange at focal adhesions. Analysis of NEDD9 mutant constructs with the two major Src-interacting domains disabled revealed the greatest effects were due to the NEDD9 SH2 binding domain. This correlated with a significant change in two-dimensional migratory speed. Given the emerging role of NEDD9 as a regulator of focal adhesion stability, the time of NEDD9 association at the focal adhesions is key in modulating rates of migration and invasion. Our study suggests that Src kinase activity determines NEDD9 exchange at focal adhesions and may similarly modulate other focal adhesion-targeted Src substrates to regulate cell migration. PMID:25059660

  6. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shuai; Qin, Hua-Min; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p<0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p<0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p<0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells. PMID:24817938

  7. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  8. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages. PMID:26934296

  9. Focal adhesion proteins connect IgE receptors to the cytoskeleton as revealed by micropatterned ligand arrays

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alexis J.; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Patterned surfaces that present specific ligands in spatially defined arrays are used to examine structural linkages between clustered IgE receptors (IgE-FcεRI) and the cytoskeleton in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) mast cells. We showed with fluorescence microscopy that cytoskeletal F-actin concentrates in the same regions as cell surface IgE-FcεRI that bind to the micrometer-size patterned ligands. However, the proteins mediating these cytoskeletal connections and their functional relevance were not known. We now show that whereas the adaptor proteins ezrin and moesin do not detectably concentrate with the array of clustered IgE-FcεRI, focal adhesion proteins vinculin, paxillin, and talin, which are known to link F-actin with integrins, accumulate in these regions on the same time scale as F-actin. Moreover, colocalization of these focal adhesion proteins with clustered IgE-FcεRI is enhanced after addition of fibronectin-RGD peptides. Significantly, the most prominent rat basophilic leukemia cell integrin (α5) avoids the patterned regions occupied by the ligands and associates preferentially with exposed regions of the silicon substrate. Thus, spatial separation provided by the patterned surface reveals that particular focal adhesion proteins, which connect to the actin cytoskeleton, associate with ligand-cross-linked IgE-FcεRI, independently of integrins. We investigated the functional role of one of these proteins, paxillin, in IgE-FcεRI-mediated signaling by using small interfering RNA. From these results, we determine that paxillin reduces stimulated phosphorylation of the FcεRI β subunit but enhances stimulated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The results suggest that paxillin associated with clustered IgE-FcεRI has a net positive effect on FcεRI signaling. PMID:19004813

  10. Expression of E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin in Perinatal Hamster Ovary: Possible Involvement in Primordial Follicle Formation and Regulation by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Roy, Shyamal K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the expression and hormonal regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1) and N-cadherin (CDH2) with respect to primordial follicle formation. Hamster Cdh1 and Cdh2 cDNA and amino acid sequences were more than 90% similar to those of the mouse, rat, and human. Although CDH1 expression remained exclusively in the oocytes during neonatal ovary development, CDH2 expression shifted from the oocytes to granulosa cells of primordial follicles on postnatal day (P)8. Subsequently, strong CDH2 expression was restricted to granulosa cells of growing follicles. Cdh2 mRNA levels in the ovary decreased from embryonic d 13 through P10 with a transient increase on P7, which was the day before the appearance of primordial follicles. Cdh1 mRNA levels decreased from embryonic d 13 through P3 and then showed a transient increase on P8, coinciding with the formation of primordial follicles. CDH1 and CDH2 expression were consistent with that of mRNA. Neutralization of FSH in utero impaired primordial follicle formation with an associated decrease in Cdh2 mRNA and CDH2, but an increase in Cdh1 mRNA and CDH1 expression. The altered expression was reversed by equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment on P1. Whereas a CDH2 antibody significantly reduced the formation of primordial and primary follicles in vitro, a CDH1 antibody had the opposite effect. This is the first evidence to suggest that primordial follicle formation requires a differential spatiotemporal expression and action of CDH1 and CDH2. Further, FSH regulation of primordial follicle formation may involve the action of CDH1 and CDH2. PMID:20219978