Science.gov

Sample records for adipokinetic hormone system

  1. Identification and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide signaling system in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Zandawala, Meet; Haddad, Amir S; Hamoudi, Zina; Orchard, Ian

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone is evolutionarily related to the arthropod adipokinetic hormone and the recently discovered adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide (ACP). The function of the ACP signaling system in arthropods is currently unknown. In the present study, we identify and characterize the ACP signaling system in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We isolated the complete cDNA sequence encoding R. prolixus ACP (Rhopr-ACP) and examined its expression pattern. Rhopr-ACP is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. In particular, it is found in both the brain and corpus cardiacum (CC)/corpora allata (CA) complex. To gain an insight into its role in R. prolixus, we also isolated and functionally characterized cDNA sequences of three splice variants (Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C) encoding R. prolixus ACP G protein-coupled receptor (Rhopr-ACPR). Rhopr-ACPR-A has only five transmembrane domains, whereas Rhopr-ACPR-B and C have all seven domains. Interestingly, Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C were all activated by Rhopr-ACP, albeit at different sensitivities, when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human G-protein G16 (CHO/G16). To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate a truncated receptor cDNA in invertebrates that is functional in a heterologous expression system. Moreover, Rhopr-ACPR-B and C but not Rhopr-ACPR-A can be coupled with Gq α subunits. Expression profiling indicates that Rhopr-ACPR is highly expressed in the central nervous system, as well as the CC/CA complex, suggesting that it may control the release of other hormones found in the CC in a manner analogous to gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Temporal expression profiling shows that both Rhopr-ACP and Rhopr-ACPR are upregulated after ecdysis, suggesting that this neuropeptide may be involved in processes associated with post-ecdysis. PMID:26138617

  2. New insights into adipokinetic hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Vroemen, S F; Van der Horst, D J; Van Marrewijk, W J

    1998-06-25

    Flight activity of insects comprises one of the most intense biochemical processes known in nature, and therefore provides an attractive model system to study the hormonal regulation of metabolism during physical exercise. In long-distance flying insects, such as the migratory locust, both carbohydrate and lipid reserves are utilized as fuels for sustained flight activity. The mobilization of these energy stores in Locusta migratoria is mediated by three structurally related adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which are all capable of stimulating the release of both carbohydrates and lipids from the fat body. To exert their effects intracellularly, these hormones induce a variety of signal transduction events, involving the activation of AKH receptors, GTP-binding proteins, cyclic AMP, inositol phosphates and Ca2+. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the research into AKH signaling. This not only includes the effects of the three AKHs on each of the signaling molecules, but also crosstalk between signaling cascades and the degradation rates of the hormones in the hemolymph. On the basis of the observed differences between the three AKHs, we have tried to construct a physiological model for their action in locusts, in order to answer a fundamental question in endocrinology: why do several structurally and functionally related peptide hormones co-exist in locusts (and animals in general), when apparently one single hormone would be sufficient to exert the desired effects? We suggest that the success of the migratory locust in performing long-distance flights is in part based on this neuropeptide multiplicity, with AKH-I being the strongest lipid-mobilizing hormone, AKH-II the most powerful carbohydrate mobilizer and AKH-III, a modulatory entity that predominantly serves to provide the animal with energy at rest. PMID:9723879

  3. Adipokinetic hormone-immunoreactive peptide in the endocrine and central nervous system of several insect species: a comparative immunocytochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Schooneveld, H; Romberg-Privee, H M; Veenstra, J A

    1985-02-01

    The distribution of intrinsic glandular cells containing adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-like material in the corpora cardiaca (CC) and the occurrence of immunoreactive neurons in the nervous system in 19 species belonging to nine insect orders was studied by means of an immunocytochemical method (peroxidase-antiperoxidase), with antisera raised against an AKH analogue [( Tyr1]-AKH). The CC gland cells in Locusta migratoria migratorioides and Schistocerca americana gregaria were strongly immunoreactive. Those in other orders showed less or no immunoreactivity indicating that AKH has a very restricted distribution. Neurons containing immunoreactive material were found in the brain and ventral ganglia in all species investigated. As the specificity of the antiserum has not been determined, it is not known whether this peptide is identical to AKH. Considering the distribution of their axons, these neurons may be involved with one or more of the following functions: (1) nervous communication within the central nervous system; (2) communication with the stomatogastric nervous system; (3) possible release of peptide from the CC; (4) release of neuropeptide in or from the corpus allatum. A combination of these features has been found in only a few of the species investigated. The immunocytochemical study demonstrated significant differences among species belonging to Apterygota, Hemi-, and Holometabola in the number of neurons, the length and degree of branching of their axon, and the amount of immunoreactive peptide stored therein. PMID:3979801

  4. Structural requirements for processing of pro-adipokinetic hormone I.

    PubMed

    Rayne, R C; O'Shea, M

    1993-11-01

    We found that a seven-residue sequence in pro-adipokinetic hormone I (proAKH I) which precedes the endopeptidase cleavage site is predicted to form an omega loop. Molecular modelling experiments indicated that a stable omega loop may form at this site, and suggested that loop stability may depend on the C-terminal loop residue, Lys12. The importance of this residue in proAKH I processing was confirmed by the observation that replacement of Lys12 by thialysine, a Lys analog with an altered side chain, prevented processing in vivo. In addition we showed by molecular modelling that this side-chain alteration may prevent formation of an omega loop. Together, these approaches lead us to propose that an omega loop may serve as a recognition motif in proAKH I processing. PMID:8223647

  5. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  6. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster contains a novel charged adipokinetic-hormone-family peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, M H; Noyes, B E; Slaughter, C A; Thorne, G C; Gaskell, S J

    1990-01-01

    A member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of arthropod neuropeptides was identified in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, and its structure was determined by automated Edman degradation and m.s. using fast-atom-bombardment ionization and a tandem hybrid instrument capable of high sensitivity. The sequence of this peptide, which we call 'DAKH', is pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2 (where pGlu is pyroglutamic acid and Trp-NH2 is tryptophan carboxyamide). H.p.l.c. analyses of extracts of the three body segments revealed that more than 80% of the peptide is contained in the thorax. Although DAKH is typical of family members in its general structure and distribution in the animal, it is unique in containing a residue which is charged under physiological conditions. The evolutionary significance of this change is considered. PMID:2117437

  7. Trehalose inhibits the release of adipokinetic hormones from the corpus cardiacum in the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, at the level of the adipokinetic cells.

    PubMed

    Passier, P C; Vullings, H G; Diederen, J H; Van der Horst, D J

    1997-05-01

    The effect of trehalose at various concentrations on the release of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) from the adipokinetic cells in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum of Locusta migratoria was studied in vitro. Pools of five corpora cardiaca or pools of five glandular parts of corpora cardiaca were incubated in a medium containing different concentrations of trehalose in the absence or presence of AKH-release-inducing agents. It was demonstrated that trehalose inhibits spontaneous release of AKH I in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 80 mM, which is the concentration found in the hemolymph at rest, trehalose significantly decreased the release of AKH I induced by 100 microM locustatachykinin 1, 10 microM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) or high potassium concentrations. The specificity of the effect of trehalose was studied by incubating pools of corpora cardiaca with the non-hydrolyzable disaccharide sucrose or with glucose, the degradation product of trehalose, both in the presence and absence of 10 microM IBMX. Sucrose had no effect at all on the release of AKH I, whereas glucose strongly inhibited its release. The results point to the inhibitory effect of trehalose on the release of AKH I being exerted, at least partly, at the level of the adipokinetic cells, possibly after its conversion into glucose. The data presented in this study support the hypothesis that in vivo the relatively high concentration of trehalose (80 mM) at rest strongly inhibits the release of AKHs. At the onset of flight, the demand for energy substrates exceeds the amount of trehalose that can be mobilized from the fat body and consequently the trehalose concentration in the hemolymph decreases. This relieves the inhibitory effect of trehalose on the release of AKHs, which in turn mobilize lipids from the fat body. PMID:9166120

  8. Characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor of the anautogenous flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis.

    PubMed

    Bil, Magdalena; Timmermans, Iris; Verlinden, Heleen; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-06-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is an insect neuropeptide mainly involved in fat body energy mobilization. In flies (Phormia regina, Sarcophaga crassipalpis), bugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) AKH was also demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of digestion. This makes AKH an important peptide for anautogenous female flies that need to feed on a supplementary protein meal to initiate vitellogenesis, the large scale synthesis of yolk proteins and their uptake by the developing oocytes. Flesh fly AKH, originally identified as Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosemic hormone (PhoteHrTH), functions through activation of the AKH receptor (AKHR). This is a G protein-coupled receptor that is the orthologue of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Pharmacological characterization indicated that the receptor can be activated by two related dipteran AKH ligands with an EC50 value in the low nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations of the Tribolium castaneum AKH were needed. Consistent with the energy mobilizing function of AKH, the receptor transcript levels were most abundant in the fat body tissue. Nonetheless, Sarcophaga crassipalpis AKHR transcript levels were also high in the brain, the foregut and the hindgut. Interestingly, the receptor transcript numbers were reduced in almost all measured tissues after protein feeding. These changes may enforce the use of ingested energy carrying molecules prior to stored energy mobilization. PMID:27063262

  9. Two novel tyrosine-containing peptides (Tyr(4)) of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the families Coccinellidae and Silphidae.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2015-11-01

    Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana, whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one adipokinetic hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC-MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera. PMID:26031827

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of adipokinetic hormone and its receptor in eusocial aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola.

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Veronika; Jedlička, Pavel; Lee, How-Jing

    2015-11-01

    Aphids display an extraordinary phenotypic plasticity ranging from widespread reproductive and wing polyphenisms to the occurrence of sterile or subfertile soldier morphs restricted to eusocial species of the subfamilies Eriosomatinae and Hormaphidinae. Individual morphs are specialized by their behavior, anatomy, and physiology to perform different roles in aphid societies at different stages of the life cycle. The capacity of the insects to cope with environmental stressors is under the control of a group of neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH) that bind to a specific receptor (AKHR). Here, we describe the molecular characteristics of AKH and AKHR in the eusocial aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola. The sequence of the bioactive AKH decapeptide and the intron position in P. bambucicola AKH preprohormone were found to be identical to those in a phylogenetically distant aphid Dreyfusia spp. (Adelgidae). We detected four transcript variants of AKHR that are translated into three protein isoforms. Further, we analyzed AKH/AKHR expression in different tissues and insects of different castes. In wingless females, a remarkable amount of AKH mRNA was only expressed in the heads. In contrast, AKHR transcript levels increased in the order gut

  11. Adipokinetic hormones of the two extant apterygotan insect orders, Archaeognatha and Zygentoma.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Šimek, Petr; Gäde, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Two extant apterygotan insect orders, Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, are investigated with respect to the identity of neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) peptide family; this is the first report on AKH peptide structures in the so-called primitive insects and the first of any peptide in the Archaeognatha. In the lepismatid, Thermobia domestica, and the machilid, Petrobius maritimus, a single AKH peptide is identified and sequenced from each species; neither sequence is novel and has previously been shown in corpora cardiaca (CC) of cockroaches (Peram-CAH-I) and dragonflies (Anaim-AKH), respectively. These octapeptides differ from each other only in one position (Asn(7) in the lepismatid and Ser(7) in the machilid). The biological relevance of these peptides was investigated and we speculate that they are likely involved in the mobilisation of lipids in the apterygotes. Immunocytochemistry with an antibody directed against an AKH revealed a well-developed pair of CC in T. domestica and another lepismatid, the fishmoth Ctenolepisma longicaudata; a cluster of immunopositive cells are located retrocerebrally in tissue sections of P. maritimus which may be the CC. PMID:24239888

  12. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) of sphingid Lepidoptera, including the identification of a second M. sexta AKH.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert J; Marco, Heather G; Simek, Petr; Audsley, Neil; Clark, Kevin D; Gäde, Gerd

    2012-03-01

    The adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of representative species from all three subfamilies of the Sphingidae (hawkmoths) were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS), including a re-examination of the AKH complement of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. In addition to larvae and adults of M. sexta (subfamily: Sphinginae), adults from the following subfamilies were examined: Macroglossinae (large elephant hawkmoth, Deilephila elpenor), Smerinthinae (poplar hawkmoth, Laothoe populi and eyed hawkmoth, Smerinthus ocellata), and Sphinginae (death's head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos). All moths are shown to have the nonapeptide Manse-AKH (pELTFTSSWGamide) [corrected] in their CC, together with a second AKH, which, on the basis of mass ions ([M+Na](+), [M+K](+)) and partial sequence analysis is identical in all species examined. The structure of this AKH was extracted from the CC [corrected] of adult M. sexta and shown, by ESI-collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), to be a novel decapeptide AKH with a sequence of pELTFSSWGQamide. [corrected]. The new peptide has been code named Manse-AKH-II. Sequence confirmation was obtained from identical MS studies with synthetic Manse-AKH-II and with the native peptide. Manse-AKH-II has significant lipid-mobilizing activity when injected at low dose (5pmol) into newly emerged adult M. sexta. The potential implications of a second AKH, in M. sexta in particular, are discussed in relation to putative receptor(s). PMID:22285789

  13. New insights in Adipokinetic Hormone (AKH) precursor processing in Locusta migratoria obtained by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baggerman, G; Huybrechts, J; Clynen, E; Hens, K; Harthoorn, L; Van der Horst, D; Poulos, C; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2002-04-01

    After translation, the AKH I and AKH II precursors form three dimeric constructs prior to further processing into the respective AKHs and three dimeric Adipokinetic Hormone Precursor Related Peptides or APRPs (two homodimers and one heterodimer). By capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we demonstrate that the APRPs in Locusta migratoria are further processed to form two smaller neuropeptides: DAADFADPYSFL (residue 36 to 47 of the AKH I precursor) and YADPNADPMAFL (residue 34 to 45 of the AKH II precursor). The peptides are designated as Adipokinetic Hormone Joining Peptide 1 (AKH-JP I) and 2 (AKH-JP II) respectively. Within the AKH I and AKH II precursor molecules, the classic KK and RR processing sites separate the AKH-JPs from the AKH I and II respectively. At the carboxyterminus, both AKH-JP I and II are flanked by Tyr-Arg, a cleaving site not described before. Such an unusual cleavage site suggests the presence, in the corpora cardiaca, of specific convertases. The AKH-JP-II does not stimulate lipid release from the fat body nor does it stimulate glycogen phosphorylase activity, both key functions of AKH. PMID:11897382

  14. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and

  15. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive. Conversely, the Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant was more sensitive to PQ toxicity than either of the single mutants. Administration of PQ significantly increased the Drome-AKH level in w(1118) and AdoR(1) larvae; however, this was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in Akh gene expression. In contrast, PQ significantly increased the expression of the glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1) gene. The presence of both a functional adenosine receptor and AKH seem to be important for the proper control of GstD1 gene expression under oxidative stress, however, the latter appears to play more dominant role. On the other hand, differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among the strains, and between untreated and PQ-treated groups were minimal. In addition, the glutathione level was significantly lower in all untreated AKH- or AdoR-deficient mutant flies as compared with the untreated control w(1118) flies and further declined following treatment with PQ. All oxidative stress characteristics modified by mutations in Akh gene were restored or even improved by 'rescue' mutation in flies which ectopically express Akh. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the important roles of AKH and adenosine in the anti-stress response elicited by PQ in a D. melanogaster model, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of adenosine in the anti-oxidative stress response in insects. PMID:27374982

  16. Locust adipokinetic hormones: carrier-independent transport and differential inactivation at physiological concentrations during rest and flight.

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, R C; Vroemen, S F; Jansen, R F; Van der Horst, D J

    1996-01-01

    Since concomitant release of structurally related peptide hormones with apparently similar functions seems to be a general concept in endocrinology, we have studied the dynamics of the lifetime of the three known adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) of the migratory locust, which control flight-directed mobilization of carbohydrate and lipid from fat body stores. Although the structure of the first member of the AKHs has been known for 20 years, until now, reliable data on their inactivation and removal from the hemolymph are lacking, because measurement requires AKHs with high specific radioactivity. Employing tritiated AKHs with high specific radioactivity, obtained by catalytic reduction with tritium gas of the dehydroLeu2 analogues of the AKHs synthesized by the solid-phase procedure, studies with physiological doses of as low as 1.0 pmol per locust could be conducted. The AKHs appear to be transported in the hemolymph in their free forms and not associated with a carrier protein, despite their strong hydrophobicity. Application of AKHs in their free form in in vivo and in vitro studies therefore now has been justified. We have studied the degradation of the three AKHs during rest and flight. The first cleavage step by an endopeptidase is crucial, since the resulting degradation products lack any adipokinetic activity. Half-lives for AKH-I, -II and -III were 51, 40, and 5 min, respectively, for rest conditions and 35, 37, and 3 min, respectively, during flight. The rapid and differential degradation of structurally related hormones leads to changes in the ratio in which they are released and therefore will have important consequences for concerted hormone action at the level of the target organ or organs, suggesting that each of the known AKHs may play its own biological role in the overall syndrome of insect flight. PMID:8710926

  17. Locust adipokinetic hormones: carrier-independent transport and differential inactivation at physiological concentrations during rest and flight.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, R C; Vroemen, S F; Jansen, R F; Van der Horst, D J

    1996-08-01

    Since concomitant release of structurally related peptide hormones with apparently similar functions seems to be a general concept in endocrinology, we have studied the dynamics of the lifetime of the three known adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) of the migratory locust, which control flight-directed mobilization of carbohydrate and lipid from fat body stores. Although the structure of the first member of the AKHs has been known for 20 years, until now, reliable data on their inactivation and removal from the hemolymph are lacking, because measurement requires AKHs with high specific radioactivity. Employing tritiated AKHs with high specific radioactivity, obtained by catalytic reduction with tritium gas of the dehydroLeu2 analogues of the AKHs synthesized by the solid-phase procedure, studies with physiological doses of as low as 1.0 pmol per locust could be conducted. The AKHs appear to be transported in the hemolymph in their free forms and not associated with a carrier protein, despite their strong hydrophobicity. Application of AKHs in their free form in in vivo and in vitro studies therefore now has been justified. We have studied the degradation of the three AKHs during rest and flight. The first cleavage step by an endopeptidase is crucial, since the resulting degradation products lack any adipokinetic activity. Half-lives for AKH-I, -II and -III were 51, 40, and 5 min, respectively, for rest conditions and 35, 37, and 3 min, respectively, during flight. The rapid and differential degradation of structurally related hormones leads to changes in the ratio in which they are released and therefore will have important consequences for concerted hormone action at the level of the target organ or organs, suggesting that each of the known AKHs may play its own biological role in the overall syndrome of insect flight. PMID:8710926

  18. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and ultrastructural localization of adipokinetic hormones in the CNS of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Stašková, Tereza; Jedličková, Veronika; Weyda, František; Závodská, Radka; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a group of insect metabolic neurohormones, synthesized and released from an endocrine retrocerebral gland, the corpus cardiacum (CC). Small amounts of AKH have also been identified in the brain, although their role in this organ is not clear. To address this gap in the knowledge about insect brain biology, we studied the nucleotide sequence, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization of AKHs in the brain and CC of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus. This insect expresses two AKHs; the octapeptides Pyrap-AKH and Peram-CAH-II, the presence of which was documented in the both studied organs. In situ hybridization and quantitative reverse-transcription (q-RT)-PCR revealed the expression of the genes encoding for both AKHs not only in the CC, but also in brain. Electron microscopy analysis of the brain revealed the presence of these hormones in specialized secretory granules localized predominantly in the cellular bodies of neurons. The hormones might be transported from the granules into the axons, where they could play a role in neuronal signaling. Under acute stress induced by the injection of 3μmol KCl, the level of AKHs in the brain increased to a greater extent than that in the CC. These results might indicate an enhanced role of brain-derived AKHs in defence reaction under acute stress situations. PMID:25449136

  19. A unique charged tyrosine-containing member of the adipokinetic hormone/red-pigment-concentrating hormone peptide family isolated and sequenced from two beetle species.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1991-05-01

    An identical neuropeptide was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of two beetle species, Melolontha melolontha and Geotrupes stercorosus. Its primary structure was determined by pulsed-liquid-phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion when the peptide was incubated with carboxypeptidase A. The sequence of this peptide, which is designated Mem-CC, is pGlu-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2. It is a new member of the adipokinetic hormone/red-pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides with two unusual structural features: it is charged and contains a tyrosine residue at position 4, where all other family members have a phenylalanine residue. Structure-activity studies in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) revealed that the peptide was poorly active, owing to its structural uniqueness. PMID:2039445

  20. Knockdown of the adipokinetic hormone receptor increases feeding frequency in the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide hormone that regulates the nutritional state in insects by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In the present study, we manipulated AKH signaling to evaluate how metabolic state regulates feeding in an orthopteran insect, the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This was accomplished by RNA interference (RNAi) targeting the receptor gene for AKH [G. bimaculatus AKHR (GrybiAKHR)]. We found that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR by AKHR-double-stranded RNA treatment decreased the levels of 1,2-diacylglycerol and trehalose in the hemolymph, whereas it increased the level of triacylglycerol in the fat body. In addition, the knockdown of GrybiAKHR enhanced starvation resistance and increased food intake. Furthermore, direct observation of GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets revealed that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR increased feeding frequency but did not alter meal duration, whereas locomotor activity decreased. The increased frequency of feeding by GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets eventually resulted in an increase of food intake. These data demonstrate that the regulation of the metabolic state by AKH signaling affects feeding frequency, probably through nutritional control. PMID:22619358

  1. Characterization and pharmacological analysis of two adipokinetic hormone receptor variants of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    PubMed

    Caers, Jelle; Janssen, Tom; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Broeckx, Valérie; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Gäde, Gerd; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2016-03-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKH) are well known regulators of energy metabolism in insects. These neuropeptides are produced in the corpora cardiaca and perform their hormonal function by interacting with specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell membranes of target tissues, mainly the fat body. Here, we investigated the sequences, spatial and temporal distributions, and pharmacology of AKH neuropeptides and receptors in the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. The open reading frames of two splice variants of the Glomo-akh receptor (Glomo-akhr) gene and of the AKH neuropeptide encoding genes, gmmhrth and gmmakh, were cloned. Both tsetse AKHR isoforms show strong sequence conservation when compared to other insect AKHRs. Glomo-AKH prepropeptides also have the typical architecture of AKH precursors. In an in vitro Ca(2+) mobilization assay, Glomo-AKH neuropeptides activated each receptor isoform up to nanomolar concentrations. We identified structural features of tsetse AKH neuropeptides essential for receptor activation in vitro. Gene expression profiles suggest a function for AKH signaling in regulating Glossina energy metabolism, where AKH peptides are released from the corpora cardiaca and activate receptors mainly expressed in the fat body. This analysis of the ligand-receptor coupling, expression, and pharmacology of the two Glomo-AKHR variants facilitates further elucidation of the function of AKH in G. m. morsitans. PMID:26690928

  2. Adipokinetic hormone receptor gene identification and its role in triacylglycerol metabolism in the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; De Paula, Iron F; Medina, Jorge M; Silva-Oliveira, Gleidson; Medeiros, Jonas S; Gäde, Gerd; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-02-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) has been associated with the control of energy metabolism in a large number of arthropod species due to its role on the stimulation of lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid mobilization/release. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, triacylglycerol (TAG) stores must be mobilized to sustain the metabolic requirements during moments of exercise or starvation. Besides the recent identification of the R. prolixus AKH peptide, other components required for the AKH signaling cascade and its mode of action remain uncharacterized in this insect. In the present study, we identified and investigated the expression profile of the gene encoding the AKH receptor of R. prolixus (RhoprAkhr). This gene is highly conserved in comparison to other sequences already described and its transcript is abundant in the fat body and the flight muscle of the kissing bug. Moreover, RhoprAkhr expression is induced in the fat body at moments of increased TAG mobilization; the knockdown of this gene resulted in TAG accumulation both in fat body and flight muscle after starvation. The inhibition of Rhopr-AKHR transcription as well as the treatment of insects with the peptide Rhopr-AKH in its synthetic form altered the transcript levels of two genes involved in lipid metabolism, the acyl-CoA-binding protein-1 (RhoprAcbp1) and the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (RhoprGpat1). These results indicate that the AKH receptor is regulated at transcriptional level and is required for TAG mobilization under starvation. In addition to the classical view of AKH as a direct regulator of enzymatic activity, we propose here that AKH signaling may account for the regulation of nutrient metabolism by affecting the expression profile of target genes. PMID:26163435

  3. The first decapeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in Heteroptera: a novel AKH from a South African saucer bug, Laccocoris spurcus (Naucoridae, Laccocorinae).

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Simek, Petr; Gäde, Gerd

    2011-03-01

    A novel peptide of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) family has been elucidated by mass spectrometry from the corpora cardiaca of an African saucer bug species, Laccocoris spurcus. It is the first decapeptide member found in the species-rich taxon Heteroptera, has the primary sequence pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Gly amide and is denoted as Lacsp-AKH. The first eight amino acids are identical to the octapeptide Anaim-AKH of the European saucer bug, Ilyocoris cimicoides. The synthetic peptide Lacsp-AKH elevates lipids upon injection into the hemolymph of L. spurcus at a low dose of 3 pmol. Swimming activity in this saucer bug also causes a significant increase in the lipid concentration in the hemolymph. Thus, both results point to an apparent function of the endogenous new decapeptide Lacsp-AKH in L. spurcus, namely, to regulate lipid mobilization. Isolation of an AKH peptide from the corpora cardiaca of the water bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Aphelocheiridae) resulted in the assignment of the octapeptide Anaim-AKH, supporting current phylogenies on the infraorder Nepomorpha. PMID:20969908

  4. Isolation and structure of a novel charged member of the red-pigment-concentrating hormone-adipokinetic hormone family of peptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Gäde, G; Wilps, H; Kellner, R

    1990-07-15

    A hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae has been isolated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., and its primary structure was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion when the peptide was incubated with carboxypeptidase A. The octapeptide has the sequence pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2 and is clearly defined as a novel member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of peptides. It is the first charged member of this family to be found. The synthetic peptide causes an increase in the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration in a dose-dependent fashion in blowflies and therefore is named 'Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosaemic hormone' (Pht-HrTH). In addition, receptors in the fat-body of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) recognize the peptide, resulting in carbohydrate elevation in the blood. However, fat-body receptors of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) do not recognize this charged molecule, and thus no lipid mobilization is observed in this species. PMID:2386478

  5. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases. PMID:25345279

  6. A novel adipokinetic peptide in a water boatman (Heteroptera, Corixidae) and its bioanalogue in a saucer bug (Heteroptera, Naucoridae).

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2007-03-01

    The corpora cardiaca (CC) of two water bug species, the water boatman Corixa punctata and the saucer bug Ilyocoris cimicoides, contain a substance that cause hyperlipemia in the migratory locust. The primary sequence of one octapeptide belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) family was deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data of CC material from each species. Whereas the saucer bug contains the known octapeptide pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp amide, code-named Anaim-AKH, the water boatman has a novel peptide identified as pGlu-Leu/Ile-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp amide, code-named Corpu-AKH. The ambiguity about the amino acid at position 2, i.e. Leu or Ile, in Corpu-AKH was solved by isolating the peptide in a single-step by reversed-phase HPLC and establishing co-elution with the synthetic peptide containing Leu at position 2. Functionally, the peptides regulate lipid mobilization, as evidenced by an adipokinetic effect after injecting synthetic Anaim-AKH and Corpu-AKH into the respective acceptor species. Swimming activity of I. cimicoides also causes hyperlipemia. PMID:17215060

  7. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  8. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  13. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  6. A novel adipokinetic peptide from the corpus cardiacum of the primitive caeliferan pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Caelifera, Tetrigidae).

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2015-06-01

    The basal caeliferan family Tetrigidae is investigated to identify neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family. The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata contains in its corpus cardiacum two octapeptides as revealed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The less abundant peptide is the well-known Schgr-AKH-II (pELNFSTGW amide) which is suggested to be the ancestral AKH of Caelifera and Ensifera. The second peptide, Tetsu-AKH (pEFNFTPGW amide), is novel and quite unusual with its third aromatic residue at position 2. It is thought to be autapomorphic for Caelifera. Tetsu-AKH has hyperlipemic activity in T. subulata and in Schistocerca gregaria. PMID:25661310

  7. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  9. Five functional adipokinetic peptides expressed in the corpus cardiacum of the moth genus Hippotion (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Clark, Kevin D; Marco, Heather G

    2013-06-10

    This is the first study that finds five adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in the corpus cardiacum of an insect. From two species of the sphingid moth genus Hippotion, eson and celerio, three novel and two known AKHs were isolated and sequenced by deduction from multiple MS(n) electrospray mass data: two octapeptides are pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Ser-Trp amide (denoted Hipes-AKH-I) and its Thr(7) analogue (Hipes-AKH-II); two nonapeptides are pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Ser-Trp-Gly amide (Manse-AKH) and its Thr(7) analogue (Hipes-AKH-III), as well as a decapeptide pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Ser-Gly-Trp-Gly-Gln amide (Manse-AKH-II). All sequences were confirmed by identical behaviour of natural and synthetic peptides in reversed-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry, resulting in identical retention times and tandem mass spectral data. High resolution mass spectrometry and retention time data also confirmed that the amino acid at position 10 in Manse-AKH-II is Gln and not the isobaric Lys. Conspecific injections of all five peptides in synthetic form and low doses caused hyperlipaemia in H. eson. Our results and pertaining literature suggest that five genes code for the mature peptides, which are very likely released during flight to provide energy for long distance migration in this genus via lipid oxidation; as all five peptides are active at low doses in a conspecific bioassay, it may be speculated, but not proven, that there is only one AKH receptor present in Hippotion that can bind all five peptides with high affinity. PMID:23541889

  10. Clinical implications of thyroid hormones effects on nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Carreón-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormones have an important role throughout prenatal and postnatal nervous system development. They are involved in several processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, myelination, synaptogenesis, etc., as shown in many cases of deficiency like congenital hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia. Those pathologies if untreated could lead to severe damages in cognitive, motor, neudoendocrine functions among other effects. Some could be reversed after adequate supplementation of thyroid hormones at birth, however there are other cellular processes highly sensitive to low levels of thyroid hormones and lasting a limited period of time during which if thyroid hormone action is lacking or deficient, the functional and structural damages would produce permanent defects. PMID:22523832

  11. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  12. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  13. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300... Systems § 862.1300 Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A follicle-stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma,...

  14. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S.; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or “foraging gene” Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg–JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders. PMID

  15. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section 862.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  2. The immune system as a regulator of thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed

    Klein, John R

    2006-03-01

    It has been known for decades that the neuroendocrine system can both directly and indirectly influence the developmental and functional activity of the immune system. In contrast, far less is known about the extent to which the immune system collaborates in the regulation of endocrine activity. This is particularly true for immune-endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Although thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) can be produced by many types of extra-pituitary cells--including T cells, B cells, splenic dendritic cells, bone marrow hematopoietic cells, intestinal epithelial cells, and lymphocytes--the functional significance of those TSH pathways remains elusive and historically has been largely ignored from a research perspective. There is now, however, evidence linking cells of the immune system to the regulation of thyroid hormone activity in normal physiological conditions as well as during times of immunological stress. Although the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood, they appear to reflect a process of local intrathyroidal synthesis of TSH mediated by a population of bone marrow cells that traffic to the thyroid. This hitherto undescribed cell population has the potential to microregulate thyroid hormone secretion leading to critical alterations in metabolic activity independent of pituitary TSH output, and it has expansive implications for understanding mechanisms by which the immune system may act to modulate neuroendocrine function during times of host stress. In this article, the basic underpinnings of the hematopoietic-thyroid connection are described, and a model is presented in which the immune system participates in the regulation of thyroid hormone activity during acute infection. PMID:16514168

  3. Partial purification of a receptor for the adipokinetic hormones from Musca autumnalis face flies.

    PubMed

    Minnifield, N M; Hayes, D K

    1992-01-01

    Partial purification of the receptors for the neurohormones, diptera corpora cardiaca factors 1 and 2 (DCC1 and DCC2) was achieved. Receptor proteins were obtained from the abdomens of face fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer. Purification methods included detergent solubilization, affinity chromatography, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis by gel electrophoresis has identified two proteins from this partial purification with relative molecular weights of 45 and 90 kD. A crude receptor preparation was used to develop a ligand binding assay with radiolabeled (tritiated and iodinated) DCC1. Ligand binding was inhibited by 90% when excess unlabeled DCC1 was added to the assay mixture. Ligand binding was optimum at pH 7.5. Binding saturation occurred at approximately 12 picomole radiolabeled ligand concentration. Because DCC1 and DCC2 have been shown to effect the lipid and trehalose levels in the insect an understanding of the neuropeptide-receptor interaction is important for the development of new methods of control of dairy and poultry muscoid flies. PMID:1363135

  4. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  5. Sex hormone binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Ploss, V; Gebhart, V M; Dölz, W; Jirikowski, G F

    2014-05-01

    Ovarian steroids are known to act on the olfactory system. Their mode of action, however, is mostly unclear to date since nuclear receptors are lacking in sensory neurons. Here we used immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR to study expression and distribution of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the rat olfactory system. Single sensory cells in the olfactory mucosa and their projections in the olfactory bulb showed specific SHBG immunostaining as determined by double immunofluorescence with olfactory marker protein OMP. Larger groups of SHBG stained sensory cells occurred in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). A portion of the olfactory glomeruli in the accessory olfactory bulb showed large networks of SHBG positive nerve fibres. Some of the mitral cells showed SHBG immune fluorescence. RT-PCR revealed SHBG encoding mRNA in the olfactory mucosa, in the VNO and in the olfactory bulbs indicating intrinsic expression of the binding globulin. The VNO and its related projections within the limbic system are known to be sensitive to gonadal steroid hormones. We conclude that SHBG may be of functional importance for rapid effects of olfactory steroids on limbic functions including the control of reproductive behaviours through pheromones. PMID:24681170

  6. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  7. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  8. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor system and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In terms of cell cycle regulation, the GH-IGF system induces signalling pathways for cell growth that compete with other signalling systems that result in cell death; thus the final effect of these opposed forces is critical for normal and abnormal cell growth. The association of the GH-IGF system with carcinogenesis has long been hypothesised, mainly based on in vitro studies and the use of a variety of animal models of human cancer, and also on epidemiological and clinical evidence in humans. While ample experimental evidence supports a role of the GH-IGF system in tumour promotion and progression, with several of its components being currently tested as central targets for cancer therapy, the strength of evidence from patients with acromegaly, GH deficiency, or treated with GH is much weaker. In this review, we will attempt to consolidate this data. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 414-426). PMID:27387246

  9. Pulsatile Release of Parathyroid Hormone from an Implantable Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohua; Pettway, Glenda J.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Ma, Peter X.

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent (pulsatile) administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is known to improve bone micro-architecture, mineral density and strength. Therefore, daily injection of PTH has been clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, this regimen of administration is not convenient and is not a favorable choice of patients. In this study, an implantable delivery system has been developed to achieve pulsatile release of PTH. A well-defined cylindrical device was first fabricated with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid) (PLLA), using a reverse solid free form fabrication technique. Three-component polyanhydrides composed of sebacic acid, 1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane and poly(ethylene glycol) were synthesized and used as isolation layers. The polyanhydride isolation layers and PTH-loaded alginate layers were then stacked alternately within the delivery device. The gap between the stacked PTH-releasing core and the device frame was filled with PLLA to seal. Multi-pulse PTH release was achieved using the implantable device. The lag time between two adjacent pulses were modulated by the composition and the film thickness of the polyanhydride. The released PTH was demonstrated to be biologically active using an in vitro assay. Timed sequential release of multiple drugs has also been demonstrated. The implantable device holds promise for both systemic and local therapies. PMID:17576005

  10. Is there a time limit for systemic menopausal hormone therapy?

    PubMed

    Lipold, Laura Dorr; Batur, Pelin; Kagan, Risa

    2016-08-01

    In deciding whether it is time to stop hormone therapy, in addition to the patient's age we need to consider her preferences, symptoms, quality of life, time since menopause, hysterectomy status, and personal risks of osteoporosis, breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. This article presents the evidence for and against extending hormone therapy and a guide for making this highly individualized and shared decision. PMID:27505882

  11. [Role of parathyroid hormone in Klotho-FGF23 system].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takaaki; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kuro-O, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Klotho was originally identified as an anti-aging gene that accelerated aging when disrupted and extended life span when overexpressed in mice. The Klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is expressed in the kidney and parathyroid gland. Klotho protein functions as an obligate subunit of the receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23). FGF23 is a hormone secreted from osteocytes and osteoblasts and acts on renal tubular cells to promote phosphate excretion into the urine and suppress synthesis of active form of vitamin D(1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3;1,25(OH)2D3). Decreased Klotho expression due to the kidney damage including CKD might increase the circulating level of FGF23 and trigger disturbed mineral-bone metabolism, leading to CKD-MBD. Characteristic features of CKD-MBD including hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and decreased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 can be explained by(mal)adaptation of the Klotho-FGF23 system, which also contributes to the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism(SHPT). In addition to its function as a receptor for FGF23, the extracellular domain of Klotho is secreted by ectodomain shedding and functions as a humoral factor that regulates multiple ion channels and transporters. Thus, Klotho has emerged as a key regulator of mineral metabolism in health and disease. PMID:27230841

  12. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems. PMID:27420076

  13. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems PMID:27420076

  14. Evaluation of an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) using automated system for determination of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, E; Mason, M; Galván, R E; Pascoe, D; Ochoa, R; Hernández, M; Zárate, A

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that automated systems for immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) may substitute traditional radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in blood due to the advantage of being more rapid, higher sensitivity, lower cost and not requiring radioactive reagents. The study was designed to evaluate both systems using serum samples to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. The automatic system (ES-300) for IEMA utilized two monoclonal antibodies, one of them on the solid phase was the specific extractant for the antigen, and the other was a peroxidase labeled antibody which recognizes a different epitope in the antigen molecule, specifically bound in linear proportion to the antigen concentration. Blood samples were obtained from patients who were treated at the hospital for various clinical problems ("problem group") as well as blood samples from patients in whom FSH and LH concentrations were already known ("high", "medium" and "low" levels) by previous RIA ("control group"). IEMA showed a higher sensitivity, 0.42 and 0.96 mIU/ml for FSH and LH, respectively, whereas RIA was 1.95 mIU/ml for both hormones. Intra- and interassay coefficient of variation were below 10% within the range of 15-150 mIU/ml for FSH and 5-100 mIU/ml for LH; however, the coefficient of variation was 15-25% at lower concentrations of FSH and LH. Accuracy of IEMA was evaluated by recovery percentage, thus when high and medium concentrations of FSH and LH were analyzed the recovery was between 99-104%. On the other hand, the recovery was 110% when low levels of FSH and LH were used. In conclusion, IEMA resulted reliable when FSH and LH concentrations are in the middle and high range; likewise, the detection limit of IEMA was lower than RIA, particularly for FSH. On the bases of these results, IEMA showed several advantages over RIA, but its reliability diminishes when serum

  15. Analysis of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste disposal system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A

    2008-01-15

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause an adverse effect on aquatic species. To better assess the potential risks of hormone contamination resulting from land application of dairy wastes, various steroid hormones were determined in a typical dairy waste disposal system. Quantitative methods using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed to monitor low levels of steroid hormones in complex solid and liquid samples contaminated with dairy manure. The preparation method for wastewater analysis consisted of solid-phase extraction and purification steps, which minimized interference from the sample matrices and achieved low detection limits for the studied hormones. In the dairy wastewater and lagoon water, three endogenous hormones-17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone-were detected. The concentration of 17alpha-estradiol in fresh milk parlor effluent rapidly decreased along the wastewater disposal route, whereas the concentration of estrone increased along this same pathway. This suggests that 17alpha-estradiol was readily oxidized to the metabolite estrone. Levels of total steroid hormones in the sequencing lagoon water were approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the fresh dairy wastewaters, indicating significant removal of these hormones during the transport of dairy wastewater from source to field. In solid dairy waste samples, four steroid hormones were identified and quantified. Increasing the piling time of solid wastes and increasing the residence time of wastewater in sequencing lagoons are suggested to be economical and efficient agriculture practices to extend the degradation time of hormone contaminants and thereby reduce the hormone load to the environment. PMID:18284158

  16. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  17. Multiglandular Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Then, Cornelia; Ritzel, Katrin; Seibold, Christa; Mann, Johannes F. E.; Reincke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare but potentially fatal disorder characterized by a loss of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space leading to intravascular hypovolemia up to the point of hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with SCLS and multiple hormone abnormalities (primary hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, and hypogonadism), deficiency of hormone binding globulins, and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, theophylline, and terbutaline. Strikingly, with the dissolution of peripheral edema, hormone levels improved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SCLS associated with polyglandular abnormalities. PMID:25685157

  18. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  19. Hormones and hibernation: possible links between hormone systems, winter energy balance and white-nose syndrome in bats.

    PubMed

    Willis, Craig K R; Wilcox, Alana

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Hibernation allows mammals to survive in cold climates and during times of reduced food availability. Drastic physiological changes are required to maintain the energy savings that characterize hibernation. These changes presumably enable adjustments in endocrine activity that control metabolism and body temperature, and ultimately influence expression of torpor and periodic arousals. Despite challenges that exist when examining hormonal pathways in small-bodied hibernators, bats represent a potential model taxon for comparative neuroendocrinological studies of hibernation due to their diversity of species and the reliance of many species on heterothermy. Understanding physiological mechanisms underlying hibernation in bats is also important from a conservation physiology perspective due to white-nose syndrome, an emerging infectious disease causing catastrophic mortality among hibernating bats in eastern North America. Here we review the potential influence of three key hormonal mechanisms--leptin, melatonin and glucocorticoids--on hibernation in mammals with an emphasis on bats. We propose testable hypotheses about potential effects of WNS on these systems and their evolution. PMID:24768718

  20. GABA and GAD expression in the X-organ sinus gland system of the Procambarus clarkii crayfish: inhibition mediated by GABA between X-organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Polanco, Paola; Garduño, Julieta; Cebada, Jorge; Zarco, Natanael; Segovia, José; Lamas, Mónica; García, Ubaldo

    2011-09-01

    In crustaceans, the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) neurosecretory system is formed of distinct populations of neurons that produce two families of neuropeptides: crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone. On the basis of electrophysiological evidence, it has been proposed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulates both electrical and secretory activity of the XO-SG system. In this work we observed that depolarizing current pulses to neurons located in the external rim of the X-organ induced repetitive firing that suppressed the spontaneous firing of previously active X-organ neurons. Picrotoxin reversibly blocked this inhibitory effect suggesting that the GABA released from the stimulated neuron inhibited neighboring cells. Immunoperoxidase in X-organ serial sections showed co-localization of GABA and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) including the aforementioned neurons. Immunofluorescence in whole mount preparations showed that two subpopulations of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-containing neurons colocalized with GABA. The expression of GAD mRNA was determined in crayfish tissue and X-organ single cells by RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis shows, within the amplified region, 90.4% consensus and 41.9% identity at the amino acid level compared with Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We suggest that crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-GABA-containing neurons can regulate the excitability of other X-organ neurons that produce different neurohormones. PMID:21626307

  1. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  2. A lophotrochozoan-specific nuclear hormone receptor is required for reproductive system development in the planarian

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Marla E.; Collins, James J.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms receive an array of cues from somatic tissues that instruct developmental processes. Although the nature of these signals differs amongst organisms, the importance of germline-soma interactions is a common theme. Recently, peptide hormones from the nervous system have been shown to regulate germ cell development in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea; thus, we sought to investigate a second class of hormones with a conserved role in reproduction, the lipophilic hormones. In order to study these signals, we identified a set of putative lipophilic hormone receptors, known as nuclear hormone receptors, and analyzed their functions in reproductive development. We found one gene, nhr-1, belonging to a small class of functionally uncharacterized lophotrochozoan-specific receptors, to be essential for the development of differentiated germ cells. Upon nhr-1 knockdown, germ cells in the testes and ovaries fail to mature, and remain as undifferentiated germline stem cells. Further analysis revealed that nhr-1 mRNA is expressed in the accessory reproductive organs and is required for their development, suggesting that this transcription factor functions cell non-autonomously in regulating germ cell development. Our studies identify a role for nuclear hormone receptors in planarian reproductive maturation and reinforce the significance of germline-soma interactions in sexual reproduction across metazoans. PMID:25278423

  3. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks

  4. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks contribute

  5. A Hybrid Systems Approach to Hormonal Therapy of Prostate Cancer and its Nonlinear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Taiji; Hirata, Yoshito

    2007-07-01

    This talk is to review our recent work on mathematical modeling of prostate cancer and its application to hormonal therapy of intermittent androgen suppression. First, we model the tumor growth of prostate cancer composed of a mixed dynamical assembly of androgen-dependent and androgen-independent cancer cells. Then, we introduce the intermittent androgen suppression to the model as feedback control with monitoring the serum prostate-specific antigen, where the controlled model is described as a hybrid system with continuous and discrete variables. Next, we analyze nonlinear dynamics and bifurcations of the hybrid system. Finally, we discuss a possibility to improve the hormonal therapy.

  6. Comparative peptidomics of four related hemipteran species: Pyrokinins, myosuppressin, corazonin, adipokinetic hormone, sNPF, and periviscerokinins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed the first comprehensive peptidomic analysis of neurohormones from hemipteran insects by analyzing the neuropeptides of two major neurohemal organs, namely the corpora cardiaca and abdominal perisympathetic organs. For the experiments we selected four related species of polyphagous stin...

  7. The newly discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea contains a novel member of the adipokinetic hormone family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G; Simek, Petr; Marais, Eugene

    2005-05-01

    A novel member of the AKH/RPCH family of peptides has been identified from the corpus cardiacum of an, as yet, unidentified species of the newly discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea from Namibia. The primary sequence of the peptide, which is denoted Manto-CC, was deduced from multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data to be an octapeptide: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp amide. Synthetic Manto-CC co-elutes on reversed-phase HPLC with the natural peptide from the gland of the insect. Interestingly, Manto-CC is structurally very closely related (only one point mutation) to the AKH/RPCH peptides previously identified in mostly more basal insect taxa (Odonata, Blattodea, and Ensifera) and in Crustacea, the sister group of insects, whereas larger structural differences occur with peptides from Mantodea and Phasmatodea, which are thought to be close relatives of Mantophasmatodea. Functionally, Manto-CC may be employed to activate glycogen phosphorylase to mobilize carbohydrates. PMID:15796925

  8. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-01

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

  9. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300 Section 862.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300 Section 862.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300 Section 862.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300 Section 862.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  13. ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

  14. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  15. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  16. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  17. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  18. Technical note: A portable on-chip assay system for absorbance and plasmonic detection of protein hormone in milk.

    PubMed

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a portable device and method to extract and detect protein hormone in milk samples. Recombinant protein hormone spiked into milk samples was extracted by solid-phase extraction, and detection was carried out using the plasmonic property of gold nanoislands deposited on a glass substrate. Trace levels of hormone spiked in milk were analyzed by their optical absorbance property using a microfluidic chip. We built a portable assay system using disposable lab-on-chip devices. The proposed method is able to detect spiked recombinant protein hormone in milk at concentrations as low as 5ng/mL. PMID:25497819

  19. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  20. Iodotyrosine deiodinase, a novel target of environmental halogenated chemicals for disruption of the thyroid hormone system in mammals.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals have been identified as environmental contaminants with activity to disrupt normal function of the thyroid hormone system. Thyroid hormones play important roles in growth, development, differentiation, and basal metabolic homeostasis, as well as in brain development in human fetus and children, and thyroid dysfunction can have very serious consequences, including mental retardation. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid hormone action in multiple ways, including reduced thyroid hormone synthesis owing to direct toxicity at the thyroid gland, interaction with thyroid hormone receptors and transporters such as transthyretin, and disturbance of thyroid hormone metabolism (e.g., glucuronidation, sulfation and deiodination). In addition, iodotyrosine deiodinase, which is involved in iodide salvage by catalyzing deiodination of iodinated by-products of thyroid hormone production, was recently identified as a possible new target for disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis by environmental halogenated chemicals. This topic, after briefly summarizing findings on the thyroid hormone-disrupting action of environmental chemicals in mammals, focuses on the effects of environmental halogenated chemicals on iodotyrosine deiodinase activity. PMID:25177024

  1. Bifurcation analysis on a hybrid systems model of intermittent hormonal therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Gouhei; Tsumoto, Kunichika; Tsuji, Shigeki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-10-01

    Hybrid systems are widely used to model dynamical phenomena that are characterized by interplay between continuous dynamics and discrete events. An example of biomedical application is modeling of disease progression of prostate cancer under intermittent hormonal therapy, where continuous tumor dynamics is switched by interruption and reinstitution of medication. In the present paper, we study a hybrid systems model representing intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy for advanced prostate cancer. Intermittent medication with switching between on-treatment and off-treatment periods is intended to possibly prevent a prostatic tumor from developing into a hormone-refractory state and is anticipated as a possible strategy for delaying or hopefully averting a cancer relapse which most patients undergo as a result of long-term hormonal suppression. Clinical efficacy of IAS therapy for prostate cancer is still under investigation but at least worth considering in terms of reduction of side effects and economic costs during off-treatment periods. In the model of IAS therapy, it depends on some clinically controllable parameters whether a relapse of prostate cancer occurs or not. Therefore, we examine nonlinear dynamics and bifurcation structure of the model by exploiting a numerical method to clarify bifurcation sets in the hybrid system. Our results suggest that adjustment of the normal androgen level in combination with appropriate medication scheduling could enhance the possibility of relapse prevention. Moreover, a two-dimensional piecewise-linear system reduced from the original model highlights the origin of nonlinear phenomena specific to the hybrid system.

  2. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory hormones.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, A; Brown, J M; Williams, J S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of a clinically relevant interplay between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory systems. Classically, the former is considered a key regulator of sodium and volume homeostasis, while the latter is most often associated with skeletal health. However, emerging evidence suggests an overlap in regulatory control. Hyperaldosteronism and hyperparathyroidism represent pathophysiologic conditions that may contribute to or perpetuate each other; aldosterone regulates parathyroid hormone and associates with adverse skeletal complications, and parathyroid hormone regulates aldosterone and associates with adverse cardiovascular complications. As dysregulation in both systems is linked to poor cardiovascular and skeletal health, it is increasingly important to fully characterize how they interact to more precisely understand their impact on human health and potential therapies to modulate these interactions. This review describes the known clinical interactions between these two systems including observational and interventional studies. Specifically, we review studies describing the inhibition of renin activity by calcium and vitamin D, and a potentially bidirectional and stimulatory relationship between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Deciphering these relationships might clarify variability in outcomes research, inform the design of future intervention studies and provide insight into the results of prior and ongoing intervention studies. However, before these opportunities can be addressed, more effort must be placed on shifting observational data to the proof of concept phase. This will require reallocation of resources to conduct interventional studies and secure the necessary talent. PMID:25631218

  3. The immune system in menopause: pros and cons of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    With aging, a general decline in immune function is observed leading to immune-senescence. Several of these changes are gender specific affecting postmenopausal women. Menopause is a normal part of a woman's lifecycle and consists of a series of body changes that can last from one to ten years. It is known that loss of sex hormones due to aging results in a reduction of immune functions. However, there remains a major gap in our understanding regarding the loss of immune functions particularly in the female reproductive tract (FRT) following menopause and the role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in protecting against immune senescence. The current review presents an overview of changes in the immune system due to aging, focusing on genital tract immunity in menopausal women and the risks and benefits of using MHT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'. PMID:24041719

  4. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  5. In vivo absorption of steroidal hormones from smart polymer based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sibao; Pederson, Daniel; Oak, Mayura; Singh, Jagdish

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop smart polymer based controlled delivery systems to deliver steroidal hormones after single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at predetermined rates over extended period of time. In vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and testosterone (TSN) were investigated from the thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymeric controlled delivery systems. A selective, reliable, and rapid method for determination of serum LNG concentration was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (HPLC-MS-MS with APCI), while TSN in serum samples was detected and quantified by a competitive immunoassay. The delivery systems controlled the absorption of LNG in rabbits up to 6 weeks from thermosensitive and approximately 4 weeks from phase sensitive polymeric delivery systems. In vivo study of TSN delivery systems in castrated rabbits controlled the release of TSN for at least 2 months from both thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymers. Thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer formulations significantly (p < 0.05) increased relative bioavailability of steroidal hormones compared to control. In conclusion, thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer based delivery systems controlled the release in vivo in rabbits for longer duration after single s.c. injection. PMID:20213838

  6. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Lins Pessoa, Hugo de

    2010-05-01

    Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones. PMID:20535374

  7. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  8. Diversification and coevolution of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor system in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Teske, Peter R; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The gut hormone ghrelin is involved in numerous metabolic functions, such as the stimulation of growth hormone secretion, gastric motility, and food intake. Ghrelin is modified by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) or membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 4 (MBOAT4) enabling action through the growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R). During the course of evolution, initially strong ligand/receptor specificities can be disrupted by genomic changes, potentially modifying physiological roles of the ligand/receptor system. Here, we investigated the coevolution of ghrelin, GOAT, and GHS-R in vertebrates. We combined similarity search, conserved synteny analyses, phylogenetic reconstructions, and protein structure comparisons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ghrelin system. Ghrelin remained a single-gene locus in all vertebrate species, and accordingly, a single GHS-R isoform was identified in all tetrapods. Similar patterns of the nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) ratio (dN/dS) in the vertebrate lineage strongly suggest coevolution of the ghrelin and GHS-R genes, supporting specific functional interactions and common physiological pathways. The selection profiles do not allow confirmation as to whether ghrelin binds specifically to GOAT, but the ghrelin dN/dS patterns are more similar to those of GOAT compared to MBOAT1 and MBOAT2 isoforms. Four GHS-R isoforms were identified in teleost genomes. This diversification of GHS-R resulted from successive rounds of duplications, some of which remained specific to the teleost lineage. Coevolution signals are lost in teleosts, presumably due to the diversification of GHS-R but not the ghrelin gene. The identification of the GHS-R diversity in teleosts provides a molecular basis for comparative studies on ghrelin's physiological roles and regulation, while the comparative sequence and structure analyses will assist translational medicine to determine structure-function relationships of the

  9. Mechanistic Studies of an Autonomously Pulsing Hydrogel/Enzyme System for Rhythmic Hormone Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Amardeep S.; Siegel, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous hormones are known to be endogenously secreted in a pulsatile manner. In particular, gonadotropin replacing hormone (GnRH) is released in rhythmic pulses, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with pathologies of reproduction and sexual development. In an effort to develop an implantable, rhythmic delivery system, a scheme has been demonstrated involving a negative feedback instability between a pH-sensitive membrane and enzymes that convert endogenous glucose to hydrogen ion. A bench prototype system based on this scheme was previously shown to produce near rhythmic oscillations in internal pH and in GnRH delivery over a period of one week. In the present work, a systematic study of conditions permitting such oscillations is presented, along with a study of factors causing period of oscillations to increase with time and ultimately cease. Membrane composition, glucose concentration, and surface area of marble (CaCO3), which is incorporated as a reactant, were found to affect the capacity of the system to oscillate, and the pH range over which oscillations occur. Accumulation of gluconate- and Ca2+ in the system over time correlated with lengthening of oscillation period, and possibly with cessation of oscillations. Enzyme degradation may also be a factor. These studies provide the groundwork for future improvements in device design. PMID:25450402

  10. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, Jozef; Raffayova, Helena; Imrich, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Penesova, Adela; Macho, Ladislav; Lukac, Jozef; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Vigas, Milan

    2006-06-01

    This study compared prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with those in matched healthy controls. No differences were found in glucose and GH responses to hypoglycemia in both groups of patients compared to controls. SSc patients had lower PRL response (P < 0.05) to hypoglycemia compared to controls. PRL response tended to be lower also in PsA patients, however the difference did not reach level of statistical significance (P = 0.11). The present study showed decreased PRL response to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with SSc. PMID:16855141

  11. Transitional versus surgical menopause in a rodent model: etiology of ovarian hormone loss impacts memory and the acetylcholine system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jazmin I; Mayer, Loretta; Talboom, Joshua S; Tsang, Candy Wing S; Smith, Constance J; Enders, Craig K; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2009-09-01

    Clinical research suggests that type of ovarian hormone loss at menopause influences cognition. Until recently ovariectomy (OVX) has been the primary rodent model to examine effects of ovarian hormone loss on cognition. This model limits evaluations to abrupt and complete ovarian hormone loss, modeling less than 13% of women who receive surgical menopause. The majority of women do not have their ovaries surgically removed and undergo transitional hormone loss via ovarian follicular depletion. 4-Vinylcyclohexene-diepoxide (VCD) produces gradual ovarian follicular depletion in the rodent, with hormone profiles more similar to naturally menopausal women vs. OVX. We directly compared VCD and OVX models to examine whether type of hormone loss (transitional vs. surgical) impacted cognition as assessed on a maze battery as well as the cholinergic system tested via scopolamine mnemonic challenge and brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Middle-aged rats received either sham surgery, OVX surgery, VCD, or VCD then OVX to assess effects of removal of residual ovarian output after transitional menopause and follicular depletion. VCD-induced transitional menopause impaired learning of a spatial recent memory task; surgical removal of residual ovarian hormones by OVX abolished this negative effect of transitional menopause. Furthermore, transitional menopause before OVX was better for memory than an abrupt loss of hormones via OVX only. Surgical ovarian hormone loss, regardless of menopause history, increased hippocampal acetylcholinesterase activity. Circulating gonadotropin and androstenedione levels were related to cognitive competence. Collectively, findings suggest that in the rat, initiation of transitional menopause before surgical ovary removal can benefit mnemonic function and could obviate some negative cognitive consequences of surgical menopause alone. PMID:19470706

  12. Sex dependent regulation of osteoblast response to implant surface properties by systemic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osseointegration depends on the implant surface, bone quality and the local and systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. This study was undertaken in order to determine if male and female cells respond differently to titanium surfaces that have micron-scale roughness and if interactions of calciotropic hormones [1α,25(OH)2D3 and 17β-oestradiol (E2)] and microstructured surfaces on osteoblasts are sex dependent. Methods Osteoblasts from 6-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) or on titanium (Ti) disks with two different surface topographies, a smooth pretreated (PT) surface and a coarse grit-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) surface, and treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, E2, or E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA). Results Male and female cells responded similarly to Ti microstructure with respect to cell number and levels of osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-β1, osteoprotegerin and prostaglandin E2 in their conditioned media, exhibiting a more differentiated phenotype on SLA than on PT or TCPS. E2 and E2-BSA increased differentiation and local factor production, an effect that was microstructure dependent and found only in female osteoblasts. 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in female and male cells, but the effect was more robust in male cells. Conclusions Male and female rat osteoblasts respond similarly to surface microstructure but exhibit sexual dimorphism in substrate-dependent responses to systemic hormones. Oestrogen affected only female cells while 1α,25(OH)2D3 had a greater effect on male cells. These results suggest that successful osseointegration in males and females may depend on the implant surface design and correct levels of calciotropic hormones. PMID:21208469

  13. Brain Hypoactivation, Autonomic Nervous System Dysregulation, and Gonadal Hormones in Depression: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Sloan, Richard P.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the 10th leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thus, understanding the co-occurrence of these disorders will have major public health significance. MDD is associated with an abnormal stress response, manifested in brain circuitry deficits, gonadal dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation. Contribution of the relationships between these systems to the pathophysiology of MDD is not well understood. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate, in parallel, relationships between HPG-axis functioning, stress response circuitry activation, and parasympathetic reactivity in healthy controls and women with MDD. Using fMRI with pulse oximetry [from which we calculated the high frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability (HF-RRV), a measure of parasympathetic modulation] and hormone data, we studied eight women with recurrent MDD in remission and six controls during a stress response paradigm. We demonstrated that hypoactivations of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and subgenual ACC were associated with lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation in MDD women. Estradiol and progesterone attenuated group differences in the effect of HF-RRV on hypoactivation in the amygdala, hippocampus, ACC, and OFC in MDD women. Findings have implications for understanding the relationship between mood, arousal, heart regulation, and gonadal hormones, and may provide insights into MDD and CVD risk comorbidity. PMID:22395084

  14. [The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2015-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system. PMID:26103718

  15. [Gender and the effects of steroid hormones in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Brandt, N; Vierk, R; Fester, L; Zhou, L; Imholz, P; Rune, G M

    2014-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the incidence and prevalence of which vary between men and women, often manifest in the hippocampus. Neurosteroids are hormones that are synthesized in the CNS, and it is here that they exert their influence. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of neurosteroid hormones. In the hippocampus, an area of the brain closely associated with learning and memory, the local synthesis of estrogen in females, but not in males, is essential for the plasticity and stability of the synapses. The inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the female hippocampus causes a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP), an electrophysiological parameter of learning and memory, thus resulting in a significant loss of synapses. In light of this, the fact that estrogen has been attributed with many neuroprotective functions in degenerative diseases of the CNS suggests that therapeutic concepts involving the use of estrogen are possibly only effective in women, but not in men. These findings similarly provide a basis for explaining the gender dimorphism that has been found in certain degenerative illnesses of the CNS. PMID:25091372

  16. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed "Kindchenschema" or "baby schema," and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes. PMID:26236256

  17. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed “Kindchenschema” or “baby schema,” and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes. PMID:26236256

  18. [Osteoporosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: role of the vitamin D/parathyroid hormone system].

    PubMed

    Bellan, Mattia; Pirisi, Mario; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-established extra-articular feature of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Systemic inflammation seems to play a crucial role in causing an alteration of multiple homeostatic systems implied in bone health, such as the RANK/RANKL/Osteoprotegerin and Wnt/β catenin pathways; several other causal factors have been called into question, including the chronic use of corticosteroids. Since vitamin D exerts important immune-regulatory roles, it has been claimed that derangement of the vitamin D/parathyroid hormone (PTH) system, a well-known determinant of bone health, may play a pathogenic role in autoimmunity; animal models and clinical data support this hypothesis. Furthermore, RA patients seem to be relatively refractory to vitamin D-induced PTH suppression. Therefore, the link between RA and osteoporosis might in part be due to alterations in the vitamin D/PTH system. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this system may be crucial to prevent and cure osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. A major clinical correlate of the strict cooperation and interdependence between vitamin D and PTH is that correction of the vitamin D deficiency, at least in autoimmune diseases, should be targeted to PTH suppression. PMID:25582993

  19. Effects of hypergravity exposure on the developing central nervous system: possible involvement of thyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Li, G. H.; Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Sulkowski, G. M.; Koibuchi, N.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of hypergravity exposure on the developing brain and specifically explored the possibility that these effects are mediated by altered thyroid status. Thirty-four timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to continuous centrifugation at 1.5 G (HG) from gestational Day 11 until one of three key developmental points: postnatal Day (P) 6, P15, or P21 (10 pups/dam: 5 males/5 females). During the 32-day centrifugation, stationary controls (SC, n = 25 dams) were housed in the same room as HG animals. Neonatal body, forebrain, and cerebellum mass and neonatal and maternal thyroid status were assessed at each time point. The body mass of centrifuged neonates was comparatively lower at each time point. The mass of the forebrain and the mass of the cerebellum were maximally reduced in hypergravity-exposed neonates at P6 by 15.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Analysis of neonatal plasma suggested a transient hypothyroid status, as indicated by increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level (38.6%) at P6, while maternal plasma TSH levels were maximally elevated at P15 (38.9%). Neither neonatal nor maternal plasma TH levels were altered, suggesting a moderate hypothyroid condition. Thus, continuous exposure of the developing rats to hypergravity during the embryonic and neonatal periods has a highly significant effect on the developing forebrain and cerebellum and neonatal thyroid status (P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). These data are consistent with the hypothesized role of the thyroid hormone in mediating the effect of hypergravity in the developing central nervous system and begin to define the role of TH in the overall response of the developing organism to altered gravity.

  20. Changes in the ghrelin hormone pathway maybe part of an unusual gastric system in monotremes.

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank

    2013-09-15

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone (GH)-releasing and appetite-regulating peptide predominately released from the stomach. Ghrelin is evolutionarily highly conserved and known to have a wide range of functions including the regulation of metabolism by maintaining an insulin-glucose balance. The peptide is produced as a single proprotein, which is later proteolytically cleaved. Ghrelin exerts its biological function after O-n-octanoylation at residue serine 3, which is catalyzed by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) and allows binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R 1a). Genes involved in the ghrelin pathway have been identified in a broad range of vertebrate species, however, little is known about this pathway in the basal mammalian lineage of monotremes (platypus and echidna). Monotremes are particularly interesting in this context, as they have undergone massive changes in stomach anatomy and physiology, accompanied by a striking loss of genes involved in gastric function. In this study, we investigated genes in the ghrelin pathway in monotremes. Using degenerate PCR, database searches and synteny analysis we found that genes encoding ghrelin and GOAT are missing in the platypus genome, whilst, as has been reported in other species, the GHSR is present and expressed in brain, pancreas, kidney, intestine, heart and stomach. This is the first report suggesting the loss of ghrelin in a mammal. The loss of this gene may be related to changes to the platypus digestive system and raises questions about the control of blood glucose levels and insulin response in monotreme mammals. In addition, the conservation of the ghrelin receptor gene in platypus indicates that another ligand(s) maybe acting via this receptor in monotremes. PMID:23770219

  1. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  2. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  3. A system biology approach highlights a hormonal enhancer effect on regulation of genes in a nitrate responsive "biomodule"

    PubMed Central

    Nero, Damion; Krouk, Gabriel; Tranchina, Daniel; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nitrate-induced reprogramming of the transcriptome has recently been shown to be highly context dependent. Herein, a systems biology approach was developed to identify the components and role of cross-talk between nitrate and hormone signals, likely to be involved in the conditional response of NO3- signaling. Results Biclustering was used to identify a set of genes that are N-responsive across a range of Nitrogen (N)-treatment backgrounds (i.e. nitrogen treatments under different growth conditions) using a meta-dataset of 76 Affymetrix ATH1 chips from 5 different laboratories. Twenty-one biclusters were found to be N-responsive across subsets of this meta-dataset. N-bicluster 9 (126 genes) was selected for further analysis, as it was shown to be reproducibly responsive to NO3- as a signal, across a wide-variety of background conditions and datasets. N-bicluster 9 genes were then used as "seed" to identify putative cross-talk mechanisms between nitrate and hormone signaling. For this, the 126 nitrate-regulated genes in N-bicluster 9 were biclustered over a meta-dataset of 278 ATH1 chips spanning a variety of hormone treatments. This analysis divided the bicluster 9 genes into two classes: i) genes controlled by NO3- only vs. ii) genes controlled by both NO3- and hormones. The genes in the latter group showed a NO3- response that is significantly enhanced, compared to the former. In silico analysis identified two Cis-Regulatory Elements candidates (CRE) (E2F, HSE) potentially involved the interplay between NO3- and hormonal signals. Conclusion This systems analysis enabled us to derive a hypothesis in which hormone signals are proposed to enhance the nitrate response, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the link between nitrate signaling and the control of plant development. PMID:19500399

  4. Identification of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkadath Meethal, Sivan; Gallego, Miguel J; Haasl, Ryan J; Petras, Stephen J; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Atwood, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome is known to code for at least 1149 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the GPCR(s) critical to the regulation of reproduction in this nematode are not yet known. This study examined whether GPCRs orthologous to human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) exist in C. elegans. Results Our sequence analyses indicated the presence of two proteins in C. elegans, one of 401 amino acids [GenBank: NP_491453; WormBase: F54D7.3] and another of 379 amino acids [GenBank: NP_506566; WormBase: C15H11.2] with 46.9% and 44.7% nucleotide similarity to human GnRHR1 and GnRHR2, respectively. Like human GnRHR1, structural analysis of the C. elegans GnRHR1 orthologue (Ce-GnRHR) predicted a rhodopsin family member with 7 transmembrane domains, G protein coupling sites and phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C. Of the functionally important amino acids in human GnRHR1, 56% were conserved in the C. elegans orthologue. Ce-GnRHR was actively transcribed in adult worms and immunoanalyses using antibodies generated against both human and C. elegans GnRHR indicated the presence of a 46-kDa protein, the calculated molecular mass of the immature Ce-GnRHR. Ce-GnRHR staining was specifically localized to the germline, intestine and pharynx. In the germline and intestine, Ce-GnRHR was localized specifically to nuclei as revealed by colocalization with a DNA nuclear stain. However in the pharynx, Ce-GnRHR was localized to the myofilament lattice of the pharyngeal musculature, suggesting a functional role for Ce-GnRHR signaling in the coupling of food intake with reproduction. Phylogenetic analyses support an early evolutionary origin of GnRH-like receptors, as evidenced by the hypothesized grouping of Ce-GnRHR, vertebrate GnRHRs, a molluscan GnRHR, and the adipokinetic hormone receptors (AKHRs) and corazonin receptors of arthropods. Conclusion This is the first report of a GnRHR orthologue in C. elegans, which shares significant

  5. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake.

  6. Genetic and molecular studies of apterous: a gene implicated in the juvenile hormone system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shtorch, A; Werczberger, R; Segal, D

    1995-01-01

    The apterous (ap) gene in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a homeodomain transcription factor. It is required for the development of the wings and of a subset of embryonic muscles. The gene has been implicated in the juvenile hormone (JH) system because mutations in ap lead to JH deficiency, and are associated with defective histolysis of the larval fat body, arrested vitellogenesis, sterility, and aberrant sexual behavior, all of which are dependent on JH. We describe here the use of hemizygotes and germ-line clones, of X-ray- and hybrid dysgenesis-induced lethal ap alleles to determine the primary role of the gene during development. We find that ap lethality is polyphasic, but occurs primarily at the larval and pupal stages. The lethal phenotype is not associated with any overt morphological abnormality, suggesting that death occurs from a systemic malfunction. Strong interallelic complementation for the wing phenotype was found between some ap mutations induced by X-rays or by hybrid-dysgenesis. By Northern blot analysis, we demonstrate an increase in ap expression in pupae and adults as compared to embryos and larvae, suggesting that it is developmentally regulated. Finally, primer extension is used to determine the transcription start site of the gene. PMID:7579572

  7. Circadian System and Melatonin Hormone: Risk Factors for Complications during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, F. J.; Vera, J.; Venegas, C.; Pino, F.; Lagunas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a complex and well-regulated temporal event in which several steps are finely orchestrated including implantation, decidualization, placentation, and partum and any temporary alteration has serious effects on fetal and maternal health. Interestingly, alterations of circadian rhythms (i.e., shiftwork) have been correlated with increased risk of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and preeclampsia. In the last few years evidence is accumulating that the placenta may have a functional circadian system and express the clock genes Bmal1, Per1-2, and Clock. On the other hand, there is evidence that the human placenta synthesizes melatonin, hormone involved in the regulation of the circadian system in other tissues. Moreover, is unknown the role of this local production of melatonin and whether this production have a circadian pattern. Available information indicates that melatonin induces in placenta the expression of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, prevents the injury produced by oxidative stress, and inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) a gene that in other tissues is controlled by clock genes. In this review we aim to analyze available information regarding clock genes and clock genes controlled genes such as VEGF and the possible role of melatonin synthesis in the placenta. PMID:25821470

  8. Periplasmic production via the pET expression system of soluble, bioactive human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Szoka, Francis C

    2013-02-01

    A pET based expression system for the production of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) directed to the Escherichia coli periplasmic space was developed. The pET22b plasmid was used as a template for creating vectors that encode hGH fused to either a pelB or ompA secretion signal under control of the strong bacteriophage T7 promoter. The pelB- and ompA-hGH constructs expressed in BL21 (λDE3)-RIPL E. coli are secreted into the periplasm which facilitates isolation of soluble hGH by selective disruption of the outer membrane. A carboxy-terminal poly-histidine tag enabled purification by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography with an average yield of 1.4 mg/L culture of purified hGH, independent of secretion signal. Purified pelB- and ompA-hGH are monomeric based on size exclusion chromatography with an intact mass corresponding to mature hGH indicating proper cleavage of the signal peptide and folding in the periplasm. Both pelB- and ompA-hGH bind the hGH receptor with high affinity and potently stimulate Nb2 cell growth. These results demonstrate that the pET expression system is suitable for the rapid and simple isolation of bioactive, soluble hGH from E. coli. PMID:23168094

  9. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-β-S. A specific H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. PMID:24639485

  10. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-05-15

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-β-S. A specific H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. PMID:24639485

  11. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of (/sup 3/H)-3-methyl-histidine/sup 2/-TRH ((/sup 3/H)-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS.

  12. The immune system and hormone-receptor positive breast cancer: Is it really a dead end?

    PubMed

    Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Griguolo, Gaia; Miglietta, Federica; Guarneri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    Even if breast cancer has not been traditionally considered an immunogenic tumor, recent data suggest that immunity, and its interaction with tumor cells and tumor microenvironment, might play an important role in this malignancy, in particular in triple negative and HER2+ subtypes. As no consistent data on the potential clinical relevance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes have been produced in hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2- breast cancer, the interest in studying immune aspects in this subtype has become less appealing. Nevertheless, some scattered evidence indicates that immunity and inflammation may be implicated in the biology of this subtype as well. In HR+ breast cancer, the interaction between tumor cells and the immune milieu might rely on different mechanisms than in other BC subtypes, involving the modulation of the tumor microenvironment by mutual interplays of endocrine factors, pro-inflammatory status and immune cells. These subtle mechanisms may require more refined methods of evaluation, such as the assessment of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes subpopulations or gene signatures. In this paper we aim to perform a comprehensive review of pre-clinical and clinical data on the interplay between the immune system and breast cancer in the HR+ subtype, to guide further research in the field. PMID:27055087

  13. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhiping P.; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders. PMID:22582733

  14. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and flight performance by a hypertrehalosaemic hormone in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Christian; Brown, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and flight performance was evaluated for females of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Injection of various dosages of synthetic Anoga-AKH-I increased carbohydrate levels in the haemolymph and reduced glycogen reserves in sugar-fed females but did not affect lipid levels. Anoga-AKH-I enhanced the flight performance of both intact and decapitated sugar-fed females, during a 4 hour flight period. Anoga-AKH-II had no effect on carbohydrate or lipid levels or flight performance, thus its function remains unknown. Targeted RNA-interference lowered Anoga-AKH receptor expression in sugar-fed females, consequently injections of Anoga-AKH-I failed to mobilize glycogen reserves. Taken together, these results show that a primary role for the neurohormone, Anoga-AKH-I, is to elevate trehalose levels in the haemolymph of female mosquitoes. PMID:18062987

  15. Systemic but No Local Effects of Combined Zoledronate and Parathyroid Hormone Treatment in Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN) and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH). Methods Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. Results Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. Conclusions No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated. PMID:24637846

  16. Effect of rovatirelin, a novel thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, on the central noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Ijiro, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kayo; Ogata, Masanori; Inada, Hiroyuki; Kiguchi, Sumiyoshi; Maruyama, Kazuyasu; Nabekura, Junichi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2015-08-15

    Rovatirelin ([1-[-[(4S,5S)-(5-methyl-2-oxo oxazolidin-4-yl) carbonyl]-3-(thiazol-4-yl)-l-alanyl]-(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidine) is a novel synthetic agent that mimics the actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The aim of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological and pharmacological effects of rovatirelin on the central noradrenergic system and to compare the results with those of another TRH mimetic agent, taltirelin, which is approved for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) in Japan. Rovatirelin binds to the human TRH receptor with higher affinity (Ki=702nM) than taltirelin (Ki=3877nM). Rovatirelin increased the spontaneous firing of action potentials in the acutely isolated noradrenergic neurons of rat locus coeruleus (LC). The facilitatory action of rovatirelin on the firing rate in the LC neurons was inhibited by the TRH receptor antagonist, chlordiazepoxide. Reduction of the extracellular pH increased the spontaneous firing of LC neurons and rovatirelin failed to increase the firing frequency further, indicating an involvement of acid-sensitive K+ channels in the rovatirelin action. In in vivo studies, oral administration of rovatirelin increased both c-Fos expression in the LC and extracellular levels of noradrenaline (NA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats. Furthermore, rovatirelin increased locomotor activity. The increase in NA level and locomotor activity by rovatirelin was more potent and longer acting than those by taltirelin. These results indicate that rovatirelin exerts a central nervous system (CNS)-mediated action through the central noradrenergic system, which is more potent than taltirelin. Thus, rovatirelin may have an orally effective therapeutic potential in patients with SCD. PMID:26142830

  17. Ca(2+)-mobilizing hormones induce sequentially ordered Ca2+ signals in multicellular systems of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Combettes, L; Tran, D; Tordjmann, T; Laurent, M; Berthon, B; Claret, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of hormone-mediated Ca2+ signals was analysed in polarized doublets, triplets and quadruplets of rat hepatocytes by video imaging of fura2 fluorescence. These multicellular models showed dilated bile canaliculi, and gap junctions were observed by using an anti-connexin-32 antibody. They also showed highly organized Ca2+ signals in response to vasopressin or noradrenaline. Surprisingly, the primary rises in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) did not start randomly from any cell of the multiplet. It originated invariably in the same hepatocyte (first-responding cell), and then was propagated in a sequential manner to the nearest connected cells (cell 2, then 3, in triplets; cell 2, 3, then 4 in quadruplets). The sequential activation of the cells appeared to be an intrinsic property of multiplets of rat hepatocytes. (1) In the continued presence of hormones, the same sequential order was observed up to six times, i.e. at each train of oscillations occurring between the cells. (2) The order of [Ca2+]i responses was modified neither by the repeated addition of hormones nor by the hormonal dose. (3) The mechanical disruption of an intermediate cell slowed down the speed of the propagation, suggesting a role of gap junctions in the rapidity of the sequential activation of cells. (4) The same multiplet could have a different first-responding cell for vasopressin or noradrenaline, suggesting a role of the hormonal receptors in the sequentiality of cell responses. It is postulated that a functional heterogeneity of hormonal receptors, and the presence of functional gap junctions, are involved in the existence of sequentially ordered hormone-mediated [Ca2+]i rises in the multiplets of rat hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7998996

  18. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  19. The Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) System in an Animal Model of Depression-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    García-Fuster, M.J.; Parks, G.S.; Clinton, S.M.; Watson, S.J.; Akil, H.; Civelli, O.

    2011-01-01

    Selective breeding for divergence in locomotion in a novel environment (bHR, bred High-Responder; bLR, bred Low-Responder) correlates with stress-reactivity, spontaneous anxiety-like behaviors and predicts vulnerability in a rodent model of depression. Identifying genetic factors that may account for such vulnerability are key determinants not only for the illness outcome but also for the development of better-tailored treatment options. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide that exhibits some of the hallmarks of a regulator of affective states. The aim of this study was to ascertain the role of the MCH system in depression-like behaviors in bHR vs. bLR rats. bLR rats showed a 44% increase in hypothalamic pMCH mRNA and a 14% decrease in hippocampal CA1 MCH1R mRNA when compared to bHR rats. Interestingly, the amount of time that rats spent immobile in the FST (depressive-like behavior) correlated positively with the amount of hypothalamic pMCH mRNA and negatively with that of hippocampal CA1 MCH1R. The results indicate that the bLR-bHR is a useful rat model to investigate individual basal genetic differences that participate in the monitoring of emotional responsiveness (i.e., depression- and anxiety-like behaviors). They also point to the MCH system (i.e., chronically higher pMCH expression and consequently receptor down-regulation) as a candidate biomarker for the severity of depressive-like behavior. The data indicate that MCH1R participates in the modulation of depression-like behavior through a process that involves the CA1 region of the hippocampus, supporting the possible use of MCH1R antagonists in the treatment of depression. PMID:22209364

  20. Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.

    PubMed

    Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

    2014-09-01

    Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

  1. [Anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of ovarian reserve in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a review].

    PubMed

    Gasparin, Andrese Aline; Chakr, Rafael Mendonça da Silva; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Palominos, Penélope Ester; Xavier, Ricardo Machado; Souza, Lucian; Brenol, João Carlos Tavares; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility. PMID:25583001

  2. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  3. Are separable aromatase systems involved in hormonal regulation of the male brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, J.B.; Schumacher, M.; Steimer, T.; Gahr, M. )

    1990-07-01

    In vitro study of testosterone (T) metabolism shows that formation of estradiol-17 beta (E2) is regionally specific within the preoptic area (POA) of the male ring dove. The POA is known to be involved in the formation of E2 required for specific components of male sexual behavior. Two sub-areas of high aromatase activity, anterior (aPOA) and posterior preoptic (pPOA) areas, have been identified. Aromatase activity is higher in aPOA than in pPOA. The aromatase activity within the aPOA is also more sensitive to the inductive effects of low circulating T, derived from subcutaneous silastic implants, than the enzyme activity in pPOA. Kinetic analysis of preoptic fractions indicates that a similar high-affinity enzyme occurs in both areas (apparent Km less than 14 nM), but the Vmax of aPOA enzyme activity is higher than pPOA. Cells containing estrogen receptors (ER) are localized in areas of high aromatase activity. There is overlap between immunostained cells in the aPOA and in samples containing inducible aromatase activity measured in vitro. Within the aPOA there is a higher density of ER cells in the nucleus preopticus medialis. The pPOA area also contains ER, notably in the nucleus interstitialis, but at a lower density. We conclude that the hormonal regulation of the male preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region, which is a target for the behavioral action of T, involves at least two inducible aromatase systems with associated estrogen receptor cells.

  4. Effects of treadmill running on brain activation and the corticotropin-releasing hormone system.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Elena; Huang, Qingling; Richard, Denis

    2003-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of treadmill running on the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) in the brain of rats that were killed either at rest, immediately after 60 min of treadmill running, or 180 min following a 60-min session of intensive exercise. The expression of the neuronal activity marker c-FOS was also determined in the three conditions of this study. The levels of c-FOS mRNA immediately following running were high in the cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and medial thalamus, hypothalamus, pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus and hypoglossal nucleus. In most brain regions investigated, excluding the locus coeruleus and the cingulate cortex, c-FOS mRNA expression returned to control levels after 2 h of recovery. The highest concentration of cells co-expressing the protein Fos and CRH mRNA neurons was found in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus, which also expressed CRH heteronuclear RNA and CRH-R1 mRNA. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), the medial mammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic as well as the somatosensory cortex, the medial geniculate nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus, and Barrington's nucleus also co-expressed Fos and CRH mRNA. The expression of CRH-BP gene was induced in the MPOA following running. In summary, the present study demonstrates that treadmill running leads to a strong expression of c-FOS mRNA that is widely distributed throughout the brain. c-FOS mRNA was found in structures of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems, indicating that these regions were activated during exercise. The pattern of distribution of c-FOS mRNA showed similarities with that triggered by neurogenic and systemic stresses. The present results also indicate that treadmill running can strongly activate the hypophysiotropic CRH system, which suggests, in agreement with the pattern of c

  5. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17β-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously) on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC), therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications. PMID:26327864

  6. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. PMID:26965954

  7. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  8. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure. PMID:26617573

  9. Systemic SIRT1 insufficiency results in disruption of energy homeostasis and steroid hormone metabolism upon high-fat-diet feeding

    PubMed Central

    Purushotham, Aparna; Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    SIRT1 is a highly-conserved NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that plays essential roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, genomic stability, and stress response. Although the functions of SIRT1 in many organs have been extensively studied in tissue-specific knockout mouse models, the systemic role of SIRT1 is still largely unknown as a result of severe developmental defects that result from whole-body knockout in mice. Here, we investigated the systemic functions of SIRT1 in metabolic homeostasis by utilizing a whole-body SIRT1 heterozygous mouse model. These mice are phenotypically normal under standard feeding conditions. However, when chronically challenged with a 40% fat diet, they become obese and insulin resistant, display increased serum cytokine levels, and develop hepatomegaly. Hepatic metabolomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 heterozygous mice have elevated gluconeogenesis and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, they are depleted of glycerolipid metabolites and free fatty acids, yet accumulate lysolipids. Moreover, high-fat feeding induces elevation of serum testosterone levels and enlargement of seminal vesicles in SIRT1 heterozygous males. Microarray analysis of liver mRNA indicates that they have altered expression of genes involved in steroid metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. Taken together, our findings indicate that SIRT1 plays a vital role in the regulation of systemic energy and steroid hormone homeostasis.—Purushotham, A., Xu, Q., Li, X. Systemic SIRT1 insufficiency results in disruption of energy homeostasis and steroid hormone metabolism upon high-fat-diet feeding. PMID:22006157

  10. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  11. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in serial cerebrospinal fluid in man - Subject to acute regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system?

    PubMed

    Kellner, Michael; Wortmann, Viola; Salzwedel, Cornelie; Kober, Daniel; Petzoldt, Martin; Urbanowicz, Tatiana; Pulic, Mersija; Boelmans, Kai; Yassouridis, Alexander; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2016-05-30

    Acute regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system has not been investigated in man. In a pilot study in healthy male volunteers we measured ACTH every twenty minutes in serial CSF for three hours after an intravenous placebo, hydrocortisone (100mg) or insulin (2mg/kg) injection. No acute inhibitory or stimulatory effects of these interventions were discovered. Our results corroborate previous findings in rhesus monkeys. The regulation of CSF ACTH and its potential relevance for behavioral alterations in health and disease (e.g. major depression or anorexia nervosa) in humans need further study. PMID:27031591

  13. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly. PMID:26908881

  14. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Robert W.; Oikawa, Sara Y.; Wavell, Christopher G.; Mazara, Nicole; McGlory, Chris; Quadrilatero, Joe; Baechler, Brittany L.; Baker, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether postexercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ∼30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20–25 repetitions/set (n = 24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (∼75–90% 1RM, 8–12 repetitions/set, n = 25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pretraining and posttraining. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (P < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR, 9 ± 1, vs. LR, 14 ± 1 kg, P = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass and type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased following training (P < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute postexercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute postexercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals, load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains. PMID:27174923

  15. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  16. Human growth hormone: new delivery systems, alternative routes of administration, and their pharmacological relevance.

    PubMed

    Cázares-Delgadillo, J; Ganem-Rondero, A; Kalia, Y N

    2011-06-01

    The availability of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) has broadened its range of clinical applications. Approved indications for GH therapy include treatment of growth hormone deficiency (in children and in adults), Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency and more recently, idiopathic short stature in children, AIDS-related wasting and fat accumulation associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Therapy with GH usually begins at a low dose and is gradually titrated to obtain optimal efficacy while minimizing side effects. It is usually administered on a daily basis by subcutaneous injection, since this was considered to impact upon patient compliance, extended-release GH preparations were developed and new delivery platforms - e.g., auto-injectors and needle-free devices - were introduced in order to improve not only compliance and convenience but also dosing accuracy. In addition, alternative less invasive modes of administration such as the nasal, pulmonary and transdermal routes have also been investigated. Here, we provide an overview of the different technologies and routes of GH administration and discuss the principles, limitations and pharmacological profiles for each approach. PMID:21296662

  17. Analysis of the roles of mutations in thyroid hormone receptor-β by a bacterial biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changhua; Meng, Qing; Wood, David W

    2014-02-01

    Mutations in thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) often lead to metabolic and developmental disorders, but patients with these mutations are difficult to treat with existing thyromimetic drugs. In this study, we analyzed six clinically observed mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the human TRβ using an engineered bacterial hormone biosensor. Six agonist compounds, including triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac), GC-1, KB-141, and CO-23, and the antagonist NH-3 were examined for their ability to bind to each of the TRβ mutants. The results indicate that some mutations lead to the loss of ability to bind to native ligands, ranging from several fold to several hundred fold, while other mutations completely abolish the ability to bind to any ligand. Notably, the effect of each ligand on each TRβ mutant in this bacterial system is highly dependent on both the mutation and the ligand; some ligands were bound well by a wide variety of mutants, while other ligands lost their affinity for all but the WT receptor. This study demonstrates the ability of our bacterial system to differentiate agonist compounds from antagonist compounds and shows that one of the TRβ mutations leads to an unexpected increase in antagonist ability relative to other mutations. These results indicate that this bacterial sensor can be used to rapidly determine ligand-binding ability and character for clinically relevant TRβ mutants. PMID:24174637

  18. Influences of the environment on the endocrine and paracrine fish growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I system.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, M

    2010-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key component of the complex system that regulates differentiation, development, growth and reproduction of fishes. The IGF-I gene is mainly expressed in the liver that represents the principal source of endocrine IGF-I but also in numerous other organs where the hormone most probably acts in an autocrine-paracrine manner. The primary stimulus for synthesis and release of IGF-I is growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary. Thus, in analogy to mammals, it is usual to speak of a fish 'GH-IGF-I axis'. The GH-IGF-I system is affected by changes in the environment and probably represents a target of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) that impair many physiological processes in fishes. Thus, the review deals with the influences of changes in different environmental factors, such as food availability, temperature, photoperiod, season, salinity and EDCs, on GH gene expression in pituitary, IGF-I gene expression in liver and extrahepatic sites and the physiological effects resulting from the evoked alterations in endocrine and local IGF-I. Environmental influences certainly interact with each other but for convenience of the reader they will be dealt with in separate sections. Current trends in GH-IGF-I research are analysed and future focuses are suggested at the end of the sections. PMID:20537012

  19. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH’s role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers—disturbed by the stressors—after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca2+ stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  20. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects-An Update.

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH's role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers-disturbed by the stressors-after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca(2+) stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  1. Effects of thyroid hormone and thyroid dysfunction on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Bruyette, D; Pion, P D

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid disease is common in veterinary practice. The heart, especially the myocardium, is sensitive to thyroid hormone, and deficiencies or excesses can alter cardiovascular function. Observed changes result from direct effects upon the myocardium and indirect effects that result from effects upon the vasculature and peripheral tissues. Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities related to hypothyroidism are rare. If present, they are primarily manifest as reduced left ventricular pump function, as apparent echocardiographically, or arrhythmias. Hyperthyroidism is common in the cat and infrequently encountered in dogs. Clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations are common and often dramatic. Hyperdynamic systolic function and mild myocardial hypertrophy are common manifestations which may lead to overt congestive and high output heart failure. If signs of congestive heart failure or significant arrhythmias are not evident, specific therapy need only be directed toward restoration of the euthyroid state. In most cases the cardiovascular changes associated with thyroid dysfunction are completely reversible. PMID:8053109

  2. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  3. Oestradiol stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation and hormone binding activity of its own receptor in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Auricchio, F; Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Nola, E

    1987-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that calf uterus oestrogen receptor exists in a tyrosine-phosphorylated hormone binding form and in non-phosphorylated, non-hormone binding form. We report here that physiological concentrations of oestradiol in complex with the receptor stimulate the calf uterus receptor kinase that converts the non-hormone binding receptor into hormone binding receptor through phosphorylation of the receptor on tyrosine. The activity of this enzyme has been followed by reactivation of hormone binding sites and phosphorylation on tyrosine of calf uterus phosphatase-inactivated receptor. Phosphorylation of the receptor has been demonstrated by interaction of kinase 32P-phosphorylated proteins with anti-receptor antibody followed either by sucrose gradient centrifugation or SDS-PAGE of the immunoprecipitated proteins. Hormone stimulation of the kinase is inhibited by receptor occupancy of the anti-oestrogen tamoxifen. Oestradiol-receptor complex increases the affinity of the kinase for the dephosphorylated receptor. Findings of this report are consistent with the observation that several protein tyrosine kinases that are associated with peptide hormone receptors are stimulated by the binding of the hormone to the receptor. This is the first report on the activation of a tyrosine kinase by a steroid hormone. The finding that hormones can regulate their own receptor binding activity through a tyrosine kinase is also new. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3691476

  4. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  5. Immunolocalization of a tachykinin-receptor-like protein in the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria migratorioides and neobellieria bullata.

    PubMed

    Veelaert, D; Oonk, H B; Vanden Eynde, G; Torfs, H; Meloen, R H; Schoofs, L; Parmentier, M; De Loof, A; Vanden Broeck, J

    1999-05-10

    Antisera raised against two distinct peptide regions of the Drosophila neurokinin-like receptor NKD were used to immunolocalize tachykinin-receptor-like proteins in the central nervous system of two insect species: the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and the gray fleshfly, Neobellieria bullata. The resulting immunopositive staining patterns were identical for both antisera. Moreover, a very similar distribution of the immunoreactive material was observed in fleshflies and locusts. Immunoreactivity was found in nerve terminals of the retrocerebral complex, suggesting a presynaptic localization of the receptor in this part of the brain. Cell bodies were stained in the subesophageal ganglion: an anterior group of four larger cells and a posterior group of about 20 cells. These cells have axons projecting into the contralateral nervus corporis allati (NCA) II, bypassing the corpus allatum and projecting through the NCA I into the storage part of the corpus cardiacum. In the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum, the glandular adipokinetic hormone-producing cells did not show any immunopositive staining. In the locust, additional immunopositive staining was observed in internolaterally located neurons of the tritocerebrum and in important integrative parts of the neuropil such as the central body and the mushroom bodies. PMID:10320221

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-07-29

    central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain-gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain-gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:16815798

  7. Protective actions of ovarian hormones in the serotonin system of macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Tokuyama, Yukari; Henderson, Jessica A; Lima, Fernanda B

    2009-07-01

    The serotonin neurons of the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei project to all areas of the forebrain and play a key role in mood disorders. Hence, any loss or degeneration of serotonin neurons could have profound ramifications. In a monkey model of surgical menopause with hormone replacement and no neural injury, E and P decreased gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus of c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK1) and kynurenine mono-oxygenase (KMO) that promote cell death. In concert, E and P increased gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), VEGF, and caspase inhibitory proteins that promote cellular resilience in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Subsequently, we showed that ovarian steroids inhibit pivotal genes in the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways in laser-captured serotonin neurons including apoptosis activating factor (Apaf1), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac/Diablo). SOD1 was also increased specifically in laser-captured serotonin neurons. Examination of protein expression in the dorsal raphe block revealed that JNK1, phosphoJNK1, AIF and the translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the nucleus decreased with hormone therapy, whereas pivotal execution proteins in the caspase pathway were unchanged. In addition, cyclins A, B, D1 and E were inhibited, which would prevent re-entry into the cell cycle and catastrophic death. These data indicated that in the absence of gross injury to the midbrain, ovarian steroids inhibit the caspase-independent pathway and cell cycle initiation in serotonin neurons. To determine if these molecular actions prevented cellular vulnerability or death, we examined DNA fragmentation in the dorsal raphe nucleus with the TUNEL assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling). Ovarian steroids significantly decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the dorsal raphe. Moreover, TUNEL staining prominently colocalized with TPH immunostaining, a

  8. Resolving the growth-promoting and metabolic effects of growth hormone: Differential regulation of GH-IGF-I system components.

    PubMed

    Norbeck, Lindsey A; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Growth hormone regulates numerous processes in vertebrates including growth promotion and lipid mobilization. During periods of food deprivation, growth is arrested yet lipid depletion is promoted. In this study, we used rainbow trout on different nutritional regimens to examine the regulation of growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system elements in order to resolve the growth-promoting and lipid catabolic actions of GH. Fish fasted for 2 or 6 weeks displayed significantly reduced growth compared to their fed counterparts despite elevated plasma GH, while refeeding for 2 weeks following 4 weeks of fasting partially restored growth and lowered plasma GH. Fish fasted for 6 weeks also exhausted their mesenteric adipose tissue reserves. Sensitivity to GH in the liver was reduced in fasting fish as evidenced by reduced expression of GH receptor type 1 (GHR 1) and GHR 2 mRNAs and by reduced (125)I-GH binding capacity. Expression of GHR 1 and GHR 2 mRNAs also was reduced in the gill of fasted fish. In adipose tissue, however, sensitivity to GH, as indicated by GHR 1 expression and by (125)I-GH binding capacity, increased after 6 weeks of fasting in concert with the observed lipid depletion. Fasting-associated growth retardation was accompanied by reduced expression of total IGF-I mRNA in the liver, adipose and gill, and by reduced plasma levels of IGF-I. Sensitivity to IGF-I was reduced in the gill of fasted fish as indicated by reduced expression of type 1 IGF-I receptor (IGFR 1A and IGFR 1B) mRNAs. By contrast, fasting did not affect expression of IGFR 1 mRNAs or (125)I-IGF-I binding in skeletal muscle and increased expression of IGFR 1 mRNAs and (125)I-IGF-I binding in cardiac muscle. These results indicate that nutritional state differentially regulates GH-IGF-I system components in a tissue-specific manner and that such alterations disable the growth-promoting actions of GH and promote the lipid-mobilizing actions of the hormone. PMID:17376444

  9. Combination Treatment with Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone May Be More Effective than Monotherapy for Nervous System Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, Milos; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    More than two decades of pre-clinical research and two recent clinical trials have shown that progesterone (PROG) and its metabolites exert beneficial effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) through a number of metabolic and physiological pathways that can reduce damage in many different tissues and organ systems. Emerging data on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VDH), itself a steroid hormone, have begun to provide evidence that, like PROG, it too is neuroprotective, although some of its actions may involve different pathways. Both agents have high safety profiles, act on many different injury and pathological mechanisms, and are clinically relevant, easy to administer, and inexpensive. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in a large segment of the population, especially the elderly and institutionalized, and can significantly affect recovery after CNS injury. The combination of PROG and VDH in pre-clinical and clinical studies is a novel and compelling approach to TBI treatment. PMID:19394357

  10. Variation in steroid hormone levels among Caribbean Anolis lizards: endocrine system convergence?

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-04-01

    Variation in aggression among species can be due to a number of proximate and ultimate factors, leading to patterns of divergent and convergent evolution of behavior among even closely related species. Caribbean Anolis lizards are well known for their convergence in microhabitat use and morphology, but they also display marked convergence in social behavior and patterns of aggression. We studied 18 Anolis species across six ecomorphs on four different Caribbean islands to test four main hypotheses. We hypothesized that species differences in aggression would be due to species differences in circulating testosterone (T), a steroid hormone implicated in numerous studies across vertebrate taxa as a primary determinant of social behavior; more aggressive species were expected to have higher baseline concentrations of T and corticosterone. We further hypothesized that low-T species would increase T and corticosterone levels during a social challenge. Within three of the four island assemblages studied we found differences in T levels among species within an island that differ in aggression, but in the opposite pattern than predicted: more aggressive species had lower baseline T than the least aggressive species. The fourth island, Puerto Rico, showed the pattern of baseline T levels among species we predicted. There were no patterns of corticosterone levels among species or ecomorphs. One of the two species tested increased T in response to a social challenge, but neither species elevated corticosterone. Our results suggest that it is possible for similarities in aggression among closely related species to evolve via different proximate mechanisms. PMID:24662425

  11. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurosecretory system of the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) and its seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    El Ouezzani, S; Tramu, G; Magoul, R

    2000-12-01

    The distribution of cells expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactivity was examined in the brain of adult jerboa during two distinct periods of the reproductive cycle. During spring-summer, when the jerboa is sexually active, a high density of cell bodies and fibres immunoreactive (IR) for GnRH was observed at the level of separation of the frontal lobes, in the medial septal nucleus (MS) and in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), in the preoptic area (POA), in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), in the retrochiasmatic area and hypothalamus. In autumn, when the jerboa is sexually inactive, GnRH-immunoreactivity was less intense than during spring-summer. In the POA, we noted a 55% decrease in the number of GnRH containing cells with no change in cell numbers in the MS-DBB. Furthermore, a lower density of GnRH immunopositive axon fibres is observed in all the previously mentioned structures and the immunoreaction intensity was very weak particularly within the median eminence and OVLT. Independently of the season, the GnRH immunoreactivity within neurones and fibres was similar in jerboas living in captivity and in jerboas living in their natural biotope. The effects of photoperiod on the density of POA-GnRH and arcuate nucleus beta-endorphin-containing cells were studied in jerboas maintained in long day [(LD) 16-h light, 8-h dark] and short day [(SD) 8-h light, 16-h dark] for 8 weeks. In the POA, the GnRH-IR cell number was not significantly altered by the photoperiod. Similarly, in the mediobasal hypothalamus, the number of beta-endorphin-IR neurones was not affected by such a parameter. Consequently, the GnRH seasonal variations cannot be correlated to changes in the photoperiod alone. PMID:11106979

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Golubovsky, Josh; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; Shah, Ummara; Olech, Ewa; Lomeo, Rosalia; Singh, Vijay; Busch, Howard; Strandberg, Mary Jane; Strandberg, Kayla; Horowitz, Leslie; Askanase, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s) being treated. Results: The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16). Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day). All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8); four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity. PMID:27158444

  13. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  14. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  15. [The effect of low doses of nakom on the hormonal secretion of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system in patients with infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Brin, I L; Mashilov, K V

    1996-01-01

    The levels of hormones of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system were measured in 14 10-14 year old children with infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP) with central catecholaminergic motor insufficiency. Contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hydrocortisone (HC), somatotropic hormone, prolactin (P) were examined before and during Nacome administration (62.5 mg once daily in the morning). 110 patients of the same age with ICP and 18 children with acquired encephalopathy (EP) formed the control group. The elevations of ACTH, HC and P were revealed in spastic forms of ICP. Meanwhile nearly normal hormonal levels were observed in hyperkinetic forms of ICP and EP. The more pronounced effect was noted in "dopamine-dependent" children in which the drug's administration resulted in normalization of clinical and biochemical indices. Hyperkinetic phenomena revealed the connection between the character of neuromotor dyskinesias and the state of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis which is regulated by dopamine. The data obtained show hypofunction of dopaminergic neurotransmitter cerebral systems in patients with ICP that plays important pathogenetic role in development of disease with systemic manifestations. PMID:9281279

  16. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  17. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    PubMed Central

    Winquist, Eric; Waldron, Tricia; Berry, Scott; Ernst, D Scott; Hotte, Sébastien; Lukka, Himu

    2006-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic) therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone plus corticosteroid

  18. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  19. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging.

    PubMed

    Goya, R G; Bolognani, F

    1999-01-01

    The thymic-pituitary axis constitutes a bidirectional circuit where the ascending feedback loop is effected by thymic factors of epithelial origin. The aim of the present article is, first, to introduce the idea of an immune-neuroendocrine homeostatic network in higher animals. Next, the relevance of the thymus in this network and the possible role of this gland in the neuroendocrine imbalances associated with aging are discussed. A number of studies are next reviewed which show that the endocrine thymus produces several bioactive molecules, generally called thymic hormones, which in addition to possessing immunoregulatory properties are also active on nervous and endocrine circuits. In particular, the reported activities of thymosin fraction five, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 on beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in different animal and cell models are reviewed. The known hypophysiotropic actions of other thymic hormones like thymulin, homeostatic thymus hormone and thymus factor are also summarized, and the impact of aging on pituitary responsiveness to thymic hormones is discussed. As a conclusion, it is proposed that in addition to its central role in the regulation of the immune function, the thymus gland may extend its influence to nonimmunologic components of the body, including the neuroendocrine system. The early onset of thymus involution might, therefore, act as a triggering event which would initiate the gradual decline in homeostatic potential that characterizes the aging process. PMID:10202264

  20. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  1. [Preparation of Transmembrane Fragments Growth Hormone Receptor GHR in a Cell-Free Expression System for Structural Studies].

    PubMed

    Bocharova, O V; Kuzmichev, P K; Urban, A S; Goncharuk, S A; Bocharov, E V; Arsenyev, A S

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone somatotropin and its membrane receptor GHR, belonging to a superfamily of the type I receptors possessing tyrosine kinase activity, are involved in the intercellular signal transduction cascade and regulate a number of important physiological and pathological processes in humans. Binding with somatotropin triggers a transition of GHR between two alternative dimer states, resulting in an allosteric activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase in the cell cytoplasm. Transmembrane domain of GHR directly involved in this complex conformational transition. It has presumably two dimerization interfaces corresponding to the "unliganded" and the active state of GHR. In order to study the molecular basis of biochemical signal transduction mechanism across the cell membrane, we have developed an efficient cell-free production system of a TM fragment of GHR, which contains its TM domain flanked by functionally important juxtamembrane regions (GHRtm residues 254-298). The developed system allows to obtain -1 mg per 1 ml of reaction mixture of 13C- and 15N-isotope-labeled protein for structural and dynamic studies of the GHR TM domain dimerization in the membrane-mimicking medium by high-resolution heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27125024

  2. Immunohistochemical study of androgenic gland hormone: localization in the male reproductive system and species specificity in the terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuriko; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-02-01

    Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) is responsible for male sexual differentiation in crustaceans. AGH of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimetric glycoprotein. To determine the distribution of AGH in the male reproductive system, an immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibodies raised against different components of the proAGH molecule of A. vulgare, for example, the whole molecule of recombinant proAGH expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli-rAGH), the N-terminal nonapeptide of the B chain, and the N-terminal octapeptide of the A chain. The androgenic gland (AG) showed strong immunoreactivity to all three of these antibodies, while the testis, the seminal vesicle, and the vas deferens did not show immunostaining. To examine the species specificity of AGH, the male reproductive systems in nine species of Oniscidea were examined immunohistochemically with antibody raised against E. coli-rAGH. A positive reaction was observed in the AGs of species belonging to the Armadillidiidae, Porcellionidae, and Scyphacidae families. Immunoreactivity was strongest in A. vulgare and was stronger in Armadillidiidae than in Porcellionidae or in Scyphacidae. These results suggest that structural similarity of AGH may exist among some terrestrial isopods, although AGH seems to harbor a relatively high degree of species specificity. PMID:11884067

  3. Development of pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons in the American lobster: homology to the insect circadian pacemaker system?

    PubMed Central

    Dircksen, Heinrich; Beltz, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the development of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH)-immunoreactive neurons in embryos of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda, Reptantia, Homarida) by using an antiserum against β-PDH. This peptide is detectable in the terminal medulla of the eyestalks and the protocerebrum where PDH immunoreactivity is present as early as 20% of embryonic development. During ontogenesis, an elaborate system of PDH-immunoreactive neurons and fibres develops in the eyestalks and the protocerebrum, whereas less labelling is present in the deuto- and tritocerebrum and the ventral nerve cord. The sinus gland is innervated by PDH neurites at hatching. This pattern of PDH immunoreactivity has been compared with that found in various insect species. Neurons immunoreactive to pigment-dispersing factor in the medulla have been shown to be a central component of the system that generates the circadian rhythm in insects. Our results indicate that, in view of the position of the neuronal somata and projection patterns of their neurites, the immunolabelled medulla neurons in insects have homologous counterparts in the crustacean eyestalk. Since locomotory and other activities in crustaceans follow distinct circadian rhythms comparable with those observed in insects, we suggest that PDH-immunoreactive medulla neurons in crustaceans are involved in the generation of these rhythms. PMID:19034522

  4. Regulation of the mesocorticolimbic and mesostriatal dopamine systems by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and agouti-related protein.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Aaron G; Stuhrman, Katherine; Dunigan, Anna I

    2015-09-01

    The melanocortin system of the hypothalamus, including the neuropeptides α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) and agouti-related protein (AgRP), and their receptors, the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), have been well-studied for their roles in the central control of feeding and body weight. In this review, we discuss the evidence demonstrating that αMSH and AgRP also act on the mesocorticolimbic and mesostriatal dopamine systems to regulate a wide variety of behaviors. In addition to the well described ability of αMSH to increase dopamine transmission and to increase grooming and rearing when injected directly into the ventral tegmental area, a growing body of evidence indicates that αMSH and AgRP can also act on dopamine pathways to regulate feeding and drug abuse, including reward-related behaviors toward food and drugs. Increasing our understanding of how αMSH and AgRP act on dopamine pathways to affect behavior may allow for identification of new strategies to combat disorders involving dysfunction of dopamine pathways, such as obesity and drug abuse. PMID:26116876

  5. Menopausal hormone therapy and central nervous system tumor risk: large UK prospective study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria S; Kirichek, Oksana; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane

    2015-05-15

    Female sex hormones are thought to affect women's risk of developing central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Some have reported an increased risk in users of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) but evidence is limited. In the UK General Practice Research Database we compared prospectively collected information on HT prescriptions in women aged 50-79 years with CNS tumors diagnosed in 1987-2011 with that in matched controls (four per case). Relative risks (RRs) in relation to prescribed HT were calculated overall and by CNS tumor subtype. Statistical tests are two-sided. For all CNS tumors (n = 3,500), glioma (n = 689), meningioma (n = 1,197), acoustic neuroma (n = 439), and pituitary tumors (n = 273) adjusted RRs for women prescribed HT versus not were, respectively, 1.21 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.10-1.32, p < 0.0001), 1.14 (0.93-1.40, p = 0.2), 1.30 (1.11-1.51, p = 0.001), 1.37 (1.06-1.75, p = 0.01), and 1.35 (0.99-1.85, p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in risk by tumor subtype (p(heterogeneity) = 0.6). A meta-analysis was conducted, combining our results with those from other published studies with prospectively collected exposure information. The meta-analyses yielded significantly increased risks for all CNS tumors, glioma and meningioma in users of estrogen-only [1.35 (1.22-1.49), 1.23 (1.06-1.42) and 1.31 (1.20-1.43), respectively] but not estrogen-progestin HT [1.09 (0.99-1.19), 0.92 (0.78-1.08) and 1.05 (0.95-1.16), respectively]; these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.005 for each tumor type). There was no significant difference between glioma and meningioma risk in users of estrogen-only HT. The totality of the available evidence suggests an increased risk of all CNS tumors (and of glioma and meningioma separately) in users of estrogen-only HT. Absolute excess risk (2 per 10,000 users over 5 years) is small. PMID:25335165

  6. Phosphate availability alters architecture and causes changes in hormone sensitivity in the Arabidopsis root system.

    PubMed

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Nieto-Jacobo, María Fernanda; Simpson, June; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2002-05-01

    The postembryonic developmental program of the plant root system is plastic and allows changes in root architecture to adapt to environmental conditions such as water and nutrient availability. Among essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) often limits plant productivity because of its low mobility in soil. Therefore, the architecture of the root system may determine the capacity of the plant to acquire this nutrient. We studied the effect of P availability on the development of the root system in Arabidopsis. We found that at P-limiting conditions (<50 microM), the Arabidopsis root system undergoes major architectural changes in terms of lateral root number, lateral root density, and primary root length. Treatment with auxins and auxin antagonists indicate that these changes are related to an increase in auxin sensitivity in the roots of P-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings. It was also found that the axr1-3, axr2-1, and axr4-1 Arabidopsis mutants have normal responses to low P availability conditions, whereas the iaa28-1 mutant shows resistance to the stimulatory effects of low P on root hair and lateral root formation. Analysis of ethylene signaling mutants and treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ethylene does not promote lateral root formation under P deprivation. These results suggest that in Arabidopsis, auxin sensitivity may play a fundamental role in the modifications of root architecture by P availability. PMID:12011355

  7. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  9. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  10. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  11. Characterization of Two Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Genes in Zebrafish Reveals Evolutionary and Physiological Links with the Mammalian MCH System

    PubMed Central

    BERMAN, JENNIFER R.; SKARIAH, GEMINI; MARO, GÉRALDINE S.; MIGNOT, EMMANUEL; MOURRAIN, PHILIPPE

    2011-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) regulates feeding and complex behaviors in mammals and pigmentation in fish. The relationship between fish and mammalian MCH systems is not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize two MCH genes in zebrafish, Pmch1 and Pmch2. Whereas Pmch1 and its corresponding MCH1 peptide resemble MCH found in other fish, the zebrafish Pmch2 gene and MCH2 peptide share genomic structure, synteny, and high peptide sequence homology with mammalian MCH. Zebrafish Pmch genes are expressed in closely associated but non-overlapping neurons within the hypothalamus, and MCH2 neurons send numerous projections to multiple MCH receptor-rich targets with presumed roles in sensory perception, learning and memory, arousal, and homeostatic regulation. Preliminary functional analysis showed that whereas changes in zebrafish Pmch1 expression correlate with pigmentation changes, the number of MCH2-expressing neurons increases in response to chronic food deprivation. These findings demonstrate that zebrafish MCH2 is the putative structural and functional ortholog of mammalian MCH and help elucidate the nature of MCH evolution among vertebrates. PMID:19827161

  12. [Role of hormonal and seasonal factors in the effect of vitamin E on cholinesterase activity in the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Teplyĭ, D L; Savich, V F

    1975-01-01

    Tests were set up on 73 Citellus fulvus to study the influence exerted by different doses of vitamin E (4 and 8 mg) introduced per os on the activity of the total cholinesterase in various divisions of the central nervous system and also the part played by the hormonal and seasonal factors in this effect. Each test series lasted 30 days (in spring, summer and autumn). The cholinesterase activity was determined after Vensen and Segonzak (1968). The results of the experiments revealed some characteristic trends in the change of the cholinesterase activity occurring under the effect of vitamin E that depended upon a number of factors, such as: the dose of tocopherol, the sex of the animal, time of the year, the brain division under study and the seasonal dynamics of the initial activity. It is shown that in the brain sectors where a material difference existed in the cholinesterase activity between the control males and females it vanished under the effect of tocopherol. On the other hand, in the brain sectors where no such difference existed, it appeared under the effect of tocopherol. The regular character of changes in the cholinesterase activity of the brain and spinal cord produced by different doses of vitamin E suggest the possibility of the brain cholinesterase activity disorders to a play a part in the development of neuro-muscular pathology in cases of the E vitamin deficiency. PMID:1210181

  13. Heterogeneity in the growth hormone pituitary gland system of rats and humans: Implications to microgravity based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Hayes, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Cleveland, C.; Todd, P.; Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    The cell separation techniques of velocity sedimentation, flow cytometry and continuous flow electrophoresis were used to obtain enriched populations of growth hormone (GH) cells. The goal was to isolate a GH cell subpopulation which releases GH molecules which are very high in biological activity, it was important to use a method which was effective in processing large numbers of cells over a short time span. The techniques based on sedimentation are limited by cell density overlaps and streaming. While flow cytometry is useful in the analytical mode for objectively establishing cell purity, the numbers of cells which can be processed in the sort mode are so small as to make this approach ineffective in terms of the long term goals. It was shown that continuous flow electrophoresis systems (CFES) can separate GH cells from other cell types on the basis of differences in surface charge. The bioreactive producers appear to be more electrophoretically mobile than the low producers. Current ground based CFES efforts are hampered by cell clumping in low ionic strength buffers and poor cell recoveries from the CFES device.

  14. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Mahmoud; Kadkhodayan, Miryam; Nguyen, Joe; Bravo, Joseph A.; Su, Rebeca; Chan, Kenneth; Samiee, Ahmad; Daddona, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP)-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC). Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP) using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables. PMID:24838219

  15. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  16. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Bi, Ruiye; Densmore, Michael J; Sato, Tadatoshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yuan, Quan; Zhou, Xuedong; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone. We investigated the bone-specific functions of PTH1R in modulating mineral ion homeostasis by generating a novel mouse model in which PTH1R is ablated in the limb mesenchyme using Prx1Cre transgenic mice. Such ablation decreased FGF23 protein and serum levels by 50%, despite normal Fgf23 mRNA levels in long bones. Circulating calcium and PTH levels were unchanged, but inorganic phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were significantly decreased and accompanied by elevated urinary calcium and phosphate wasting. Key renal genes for balancing mineral ion homeostasis, calbindinD28k, Klotho, and Napi2a were suppressed by 30-40%. Intermittent hPTH(1-34) injections increased Fgf23 mRNA (7.3-fold), Nurr1 mRNA (3.1-fold), and serum intact-FGF23 (1.6-fold) in controls, but failed to induce Fgf23, Nurr1 mRNA, or intact FGF23 production in mutants. Moreover, a significant elevation in serum C-terminal-FGF23 levels (4-fold) was detected in both genotypes. PTH markedly downregulated Galnt3 expression (2.7-fold) in controls but not in mutants. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of PTH1R in long bones to regulate systemic mineral ion homeostasis and the direct induction of FGF23 by PTH1R signaling. PMID:26428657

  17. Testicular expression of the Lin28/let-7 system: Hormonal regulation and changes during postnatal maturation and after manipulations of puberty

    PubMed Central

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, S.; Manfredi-Lozano, M.; Ruiz-Pino, F.; León, S.; Morales, C.; Cordido, F.; Gaytán, F.; Pinilla, L.; Tena-Sempere, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lin28/let-7 system, which includes the RNA-binding proteins, Lin28a/Lin28b, and let-7 miRNAs, has emerged as putative regulator of puberty and male gametogenesis; yet, its expression pattern and regulation in postnatal testis remain ill defined. We report herein expression profiles of Lin28 and let-7 members, and related mir-145 and mir-132, in rat testis during postnatal maturation and in models of altered puberty and hormonal deregulation. Neonatal expression of Lin28a and Lin28b was low and rose markedly during the infantile period; yet, expression patterns diverged thereafter, with persistently elevated levels only for Lin28b, which peaked at puberty. Let-7a, let-7b, mir-132 and mir-145 showed profiles opposite to Lin28b. In fact, let-7b and mir-145 were abundant in pachytene spermatocytes, but absent in elongating spermatids, where high expression of Lin28b was previously reported. Perturbation of puberty by neonatal estrogenization reverted the Lin28/let-7 expression ratio; expression changes were also detected in other models of delayed puberty, due to early photoperiod or nutritional manipulations. In addition, hypophysectomy or growth hormone (GH) deficiency revealed regulation of this system by gonadotropins and GH. Our data document the expression profiles of the Lin28/let-7 system in rat testis along postnatal/pubertal maturation, and their perturbation in models of pubertal and hormonal manipulation. PMID:26494358

  18. Systemic therapy for the treatment of hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer: from intermittent androgen deprivation therapy to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Bobby C; Shevach, Jeffrey; Oh, William K

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of advanced prostate cancer has changed considerably in recent years, but the vast majority of advances have been made in patients with metastatic castration-resistant disease. There have been relatively fewer advances in the earlier, hormonally responsive stage of metastatic disease. Since the empiric establishment of androgen deprivation therapy as first-line therapy for metastatic prostate cancer decades ago, there have been multiple studies looking at variations of suppressing testosterone, but the overall paradigm has not been strongly challenged until more recently. In particular, the dramatic results reported by the CHAARTED trial not only bring chemotherapy to an arena historically dominated solely by hormonal therapy but also stimulate renewed efforts into improving upon our management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. PMID:25677235

  19. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  20. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

  1. Insulin-like growth factor system in patients with HIV infection: effect of exogenous growth hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Mynarcik, D C; Frost, R A; Lang, C H; DeCristofaro, K; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Steigbigel, R T; Fuhrer, J; Ahnn, S; Gelato, M C

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (BP) 1, 2, and 3 in HIV-infected adults throughout the course of their disease, and to assess the responsiveness of the IGF system components to growth hormone (GH) administration (6 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Healthy control study subjects (n = 10) were compared with patients who were either HIV-positive (n = 9), had AIDS without weight loss (n = 13), or had AIDS with >10% weight loss (n = 6), all of whom had been free of acute illness for at least 3 months. Under basal conditions, fasting serum concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were not significantly different among the four groups. The serum concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 were significantly higher in AIDS patients with wasting than in the other three groups (p < .05). In addition, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the levels of IGFBP- 1 (p = .004) and IGFBP-2 (p = .03) and the stage of disease. Following GH administration, the serum concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were increased in all groups (p < .05). In addition, the increases in insulin levels correlated with stage of disease (p = .004). The responses of the IGFBPs were more variable. GH administration significantly increased the levels of IGFBP-3 in all groups except the patients with AIDS wasting, whereas the levels of IGFBP-1 were significantly decreased in controls and AIDS patients. These results demonstrate that there is a continuum of both elevations in the IGFBPs and altered metabolic responsiveness in patients infected with HIV that increases with the severity of the disease. These data also demonstrate that AIDS patients, who are free from secondary infection, respond to administration of GH by significantly increasing hepatic IGF-I production. PMID:10534146

  2. [Hormone therapy through changing times].

    PubMed

    Reuter, Miriam; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Despite several studies in the last years, only women with menopausal symptoms who desire therapy are treated. There is still no recommendation for menopausale hormone therapy for primary prevention of diseases such as coronary artery disease, osteoporosis or depression. The risk of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and stroke is elevated especially for elderly women with oral hormone therapy. Benefits may exceed risks in younger, early-menopausal women, for whom hormone therapy may be prescribed more liberally. Systemic hormone therapy is for vasomotor symptoms, local therapy for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Choice of formulation depends on the individual risk due to symptoms and favours of the patients. With moderate to high cardiovascular risk profile, a transdermal route of estrogen application - in women with an intact uterus in combination with micronized progesterone - seems to be the best option. PMID:26841174

  3. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  4. Hormone Abuse Prevention and What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  5. Responsiveness to PI3K and MEK Inhibitors in Breast Cancer. Use of a 3D Culture System to Study Pathways Related to Hormone Independence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Maria Laura; Arnoni, Maria Victoria; Riggio, Marina; Wargon, Victoria; Lanari, Claudia; Novaro, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of breast cancer patients face failure of endocrine therapy due to the acquisition of endocrine resistance. We have explored mechanisms involved in such disease progression by using a mouse breast cancer model that is induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). These tumors transit through different stages of hormone sensitivity. However, when cells from tumor variants were seeded on plastic, all were stimulated by progestins and inhibited by antiprogestins such as RU486. Furthermore, cells from a RU486-resistant tumor variant recovered antiprogestin sensitivity. Hypothesis A three-dimensional (3D) culture system, by maintaining differential cellular organization that is typical of each tumor variant, may allow for the maintenance of particular hormone responses and thus be appropriate for the study of the effects of specific inhibitors of signaling pathways associated with disease progression. Method We compared the behavior of tumors growing in vivo and cancer cells ex vivo (in 3D Matrigel). In this system, we evaluated the effects of kinase inhibitors and hormone antagonists on tumor growth. Principal Findings LY294002, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, decreased both tumor growth in vivo and cell survival in Matrigel in MPA-independent tumors with higher AKT activity. Induction of cell death by anti-hormones such as ICI182780 and ZK230211 was more effective in MPA-dependent tumors with lower AKT activity. Inhibition of MEK with PD98059 did not affect tumor growth in any tested variant. Finally, while Matrigel reproduced differential responsiveness of MPA-dependent and -independent breast cancer cells, it was not sufficient to preserve antiprogestin resistance of RU486-resistant tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway is relevant for MPA-independent tumor growth. Three-dimensional cultures were useful to test the effects of kinase inhibitors on breast cancer growth and highlight the need for in vivo models

  6. Nosema ceranae alters a highly conserved hormonal stress pathway in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Mayack, C; Natsopoulou, M E; McMahon, D P

    2015-12-01

    Nosema ceranae, an emerging pathogen of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), is implicated in recent pollinator losses and causes severe energetic stress. However, whether precocious foraging and accelerated behavioural maturation in infected bees are caused by the infection itself or via indirect energetic stress remains unknown. Using a combination of nutritional and infection treatments, we investigated how starvation and infection alters the regulation of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and octopamine, two highly conserved physiological pathways that respond to energetic stress by mobilizing fat stores and increasing search activity for food. Although there was no response from AKH when bees were experimentally infected with N. ceranae or starved, supporting the notion that honeybees have lost this pathway, there were significant regulatory changes in the octopamine pathway. Significantly, we found no evidence of acute energetic stress being the only cause of symptoms associated with N. ceranae infection. Therefore, the parasite itself appears to alter regulatory components along a highly conserved physiological pathway in an infection-specific manner. This indicates that pathogen-induced behavioural alteration of chronically infected bees should not just be viewed as a coincidental short-term by-product of pathogenesis (acute energetic stress) and may be a result of a generalist manipulation strategy to obtain energy for reproduction. PMID:26335565

  7. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. PMID:25661030

  8. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear–salmon system

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2014-01-01

    Food availability can influence the nutritional and social dynamics within and among species. Our investigation focused on grizzly and black bears in coastal British Columbia, Canada, where recent and dramatic declines in their primary prey (salmon) raise concerns about potentially negative effects on bear physiology. We examined how salmon availability relates to stress and reproductive hormones in coastal grizzly (n = 69) and black bears (n = 68) using cortisol and testosterone. In hair samples from genotyped individuals, we quantified salmon consumption using stable isotope analysis and hormone levels by enzyme immunoassay. To estimate the salmon biomass available to each bear, we developed a spatially explicit approach based on typical bear home-range sizes. Next, we compared the relative importance of salmon consumption and salmon availability on hormone levels in male bears using an information theoretical approach. Cortisol in grizzly bears was higher in individuals that consumed less salmon, possibly reflecting nutritional stress. In black bears, cortisol was better predicted by salmon availability than salmon consumption; specifically, individuals in areas and years with low salmon availability showed higher cortisol levels. This indicates that cortisol in black bears is more strongly influenced by the socially competitive environment mediated by salmon availability than by nutritional requirements. In both species, testosterone generally decreased with increasing salmon availability, possibly reflecting a less competitive environment when salmon were abundant. Differences between species could relate to different nutritional requirements, social densities and competitive behaviour and/or habitat use. We present a conceptual model to inform further investigations in this and other systems. Our approach, which combines data on multiple hormones with dietary and spatial information corresponding to the year of hair growth, provides a promising tool

  9. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear-salmon system.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2014-01-01

    Food availability can influence the nutritional and social dynamics within and among species. Our investigation focused on grizzly and black bears in coastal British Columbia, Canada, where recent and dramatic declines in their primary prey (salmon) raise concerns about potentially negative effects on bear physiology. We examined how salmon availability relates to stress and reproductive hormones in coastal grizzly (n = 69) and black bears (n = 68) using cortisol and testosterone. In hair samples from genotyped individuals, we quantified salmon consumption using stable isotope analysis and hormone levels by enzyme immunoassay. To estimate the salmon biomass available to each bear, we developed a spatially explicit approach based on typical bear home-range sizes. Next, we compared the relative importance of salmon consumption and salmon availability on hormone levels in male bears using an information theoretical approach. Cortisol in grizzly bears was higher in individuals that consumed less salmon, possibly reflecting nutritional stress. In black bears, cortisol was better predicted by salmon availability than salmon consumption; specifically, individuals in areas and years with low salmon availability showed higher cortisol levels. This indicates that cortisol in black bears is more strongly influenced by the socially competitive environment mediated by salmon availability than by nutritional requirements. In both species, testosterone generally decreased with increasing salmon availability, possibly reflecting a less competitive environment when salmon were abundant. Differences between species could relate to different nutritional requirements, social densities and competitive behaviour and/or habitat use. We present a conceptual model to inform further investigations in this and other systems. Our approach, which combines data on multiple hormones with dietary and spatial information corresponding to the year of hair growth, provides a promising tool

  10. Systemic concentrations of hormones during the development of follicular waves in mares and women: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, O J; Beg, M A; Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Baerwald, A R; Pierson, R A

    2010-01-01

    Changes in systemic concentrations of FSH, LH, oestradiol and progesterone during the ovulatory follicular wave were compared between 30 mares and 30 women. Based on a previous study, the emergence of the future ovulatory follicle was defined as occurring at 13.0 mm in mares and 6.0 mm in women, and deviation in diameter between the two largest follicles was expected to begin at 22.7 mm in mares and 10.3 mm in women. Mean FSH concentrations were high in mares during the luteal phase, resulting from statistically identified FSH surges occurring in individuals on different days and in different numbers (mean, 1.5 ± 0.2 surges/mare); the internadir interval was 3.9 ± 0.3 days. In contrast, mean FSH in women was low during the luteal phase and increased to a prolonged elevation during the follicular phase. The prolonged elevation was apparent in each individual (internadir interval, 15.2 ± 0.4 days). Changes in LH or oestradiol concentrations encompassing deviation were not detected in mares, but both hormones increased slightly but significantly between emergence and deviation in women. The hypothesis that a greater number of growing follicles causes a greater predeviation decrease in FSH was supported for mares (r, −0.39; P < 0.04), but a similar negative correlation (r, −0.36) was not significant in women. The hypothesis that the increase in oestradiol during the luteal phase in women was at least partly attributable to luteal-phase anovulatory follicular waves was not supported. Normalization of FSH concentrations to the day of emergence showed maximum value on the day of emergence with a significant increase and decrease on each side of emergence in both species. The day of expected deviation occurred 3 days after emergence during the decline in FSH in both species. These results indicated that the previously reported striking similarities in emergence and deviation between mares and women during the ovulatory follicular wave are associated with species

  11. The hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mouse: a model system for studying the effects of thyroid hormone on developmental changes in gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Green, R P; Birkenmeier, E H; Beamer, W G; Maltais, L J; Gordon, J I

    1988-01-01

    expression, (ii) thyroid hormone's effect on apoB is tissue specific, and (iii) the hyt/hyt mouse represents a useful system to evaluate the developmental effects of thyroid hormone on specific gene expression. Images PMID:3399505

  12. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  13. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  14. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  15. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  16. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  17. Novel hormone "receptors".

    PubMed

    Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry

    2008-02-01

    Our concepts of hormone receptors have, until recently, been narrowly defined. In the last few years, an increasing number of reports identify novel proteins, such as enzymes, acting as receptors. In this review we cover the novel receptors for the hormones atrial naturetic hormone, enterostatin, hepcidin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, progesterone, and the vitamin D metabolites 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:17546587

  18. Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.

    PubMed

    Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH. PMID:24122121

  19. The growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Once thought to be present only in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, the GH receptor is now known to be ubiquitously distributed, in accord with the many pleiotropic actions of GH. These include the regulation of metabolism, postnatal growth, cognition, immune, cardiac and renal systems and gut function. GH exerts these actions primarily through alterations in gene expression, initiated by activation of its membrane receptor and the resultant activation of the associated JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and Src family kinases. Receptor activation involves hormone initiated movements within a receptor homodimer, rather than simple receptor dimerization. We have shown that binding of the hormone realigns the orientation of the two receptors both by relative rotation and by closer apposition just above the cell membrane. This is a consequence of the asymmetric placement of the binding sites on the hormone. Binding results in a conversion of parallel receptor transmembrane domains into a rotated crossover orientation, which produces separation of the lower part of the transmembrane helices. Because the JAK2 is bound to the Box1 motif proximal to the inner membrane, receptor activation results in separation of the two associated JAK2s, and in particular the removal of the inhibitory pseudokinase domain from the kinase domain of the other JAK2 (and vice versa). This brings the two kinase domains into position for trans-activation and initiates tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor cytoplasmic domain and other substrates such as STAT5, the key transcription factor mediating most genomic actions of GH. There are a limited number of genomic actions initiated by the Src kinase family member which also associates with the upper cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, including important immune regulatory actions to dampen exuberant innate immune activation of cells involved in transplant rejection. These findings offer insights for developing specific receptor antagonists which may be

  20. Genetics of growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Primus E

    2007-03-01

    When a child is not following the normal, predicted growth curve, an evaluation for underlying illness and central nervous system abnormalities is required and appropriate consideration should be given to genetic defects causing growth hormone (GH) deficiency. This article focuses on the GH gene, the various gene alterations, and their possible impact on the pituitary gland. Transcription factors regulating pituitary gland development may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiency but may present initially as GH deficiency. The role of two most important transcription factors, POU1F1 (Pit-1) and PROP 1, is discussed. PMID:17336732

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and its receptors: nuclear functions and roles in the renal and cardiovascular systems, the placental trophoblasts and the pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Thomas L; Cormier, Sarah; Eichinger, Anne; Endlich, Karlhans; Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie; Fischer, Evelyne; Friedman, Peter A; Karaplis, Andrew C; Massfelder, Thierry; Rossert, Jérôme; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Silve, Caroline; Stewart, Andrew F; Takane, Karen; Helwig, Jean-Jacques

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of the so-called ‘parathyroid hormone-related protein' (PTHrP) in 1987 was the result of a long quest for the factor which, by mimicking the actions of PTH in bone and kidney, is responsible for the hypercalcemic paraneoplastic syndrome, humoral calcemia of malignancy. PTHrP is distinct from PTH in a number of ways. First, PTHrP is the product of a separate gene. Second, with the exception of a short N-terminal region, the structure of PTHrP is not closely related to that of PTH. Third, in contrast to PTH, PTHrP is a paracrine factor expressed throughout the body. Finally, most of the functions of PTHrP have nothing in common with those of PTH. PTHrP is a poly-hormone which comprises a family of distinct peptide hormones arising from post-translational endoproteolytic cleavage of the initial PTHrP translation products. Mature N-terminal, mid-region and C-terminal secretory forms of PTHrP are thus generated, each of them having their own physiologic functions and probably their own receptors. The type 1 PTHrP receptor, binding both PTH(1-34) and PTHrP(1-36), is the only cloned receptor so far. PTHrP is a PTH-like calciotropic hormone, a myorelaxant, a growth factor and a developmental regulatory molecule. The present review reports recent aspects of PTHrP pharmacology and physiology, including: (a) the identification of new peptides and receptors of the PTH/PTHrP system; (b) the recently discovered nuclear functions of PTHrP and the role of PTHrP as an intracrine regulator of cell growth and cell death; (c) the physiological and developmental actions of PTHrP in the cardiovascular and the renal glomerulo-vascular systems; (d) the role of PTHrP as a regulator of pancreatic beta cell growth and functions, and, (e) the interactions of PTHrP and calcium-sensing receptors for the control of the growth of placental trophoblasts. These new advances have contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of PTHrP, and will help to identify

  2. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  3. TH1/TH2 cytokine profile, metalloprotease-9 activity and hormonal status in pregnant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ-VALLE, J F; VÁZQUEZ-DEL MERCADO, M; GARCÍA-IGLESIAS, T; OROZCO-BAROCIO, G; BERNARD-MEDINA, G; MARTÍNEZ-BONILLA, G; BASTIDAS-RAMÍREZ, B E; NAVARRO, A D; BUENO, M; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ, E; BEST-AGUILERA, C R; KAMACHI, M; ARMENDÁRIZ-BORUNDA, J

    2003-01-01

    During the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several immune and neuroendocrine changes associated with pregnancy may exert positive (amelioration) or negative (exacerbation) effects on the clinical outcome. In order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these responses, we performed a prospective longitudinal study in RA and SLE pregnant women, including healthy pregnant women as a control group. Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression assessed by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytokine levels and lymphocyte proliferation responses (LPR) following phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of PBMC, plasma metalloprotease-9 activity (MMP-9) and hormonal status during pregnancy were determined. TNFa was the most abundant cytokine mRNA expressed in PBMC in all groups studied (healthy pregnant women, RA and SLE pregnant patients). However, a general TH2 response reflected by high IL-10 levels was found in RA, as well as SLE, patients. A significant change in IFN-γ was observed in RA patients but only during the first trimester of pregnancy. This compared with a major TH1 response in healthy pregnant women. Interestingly, our study showed a homogeneous hormonal pattern in RA and SLE patients. Although decreased cortisol levels were observed in all patients studied, this is possibly related to the remission of disease activity status brought about by steroid treatment before and during pregnancy. In summary, we suggest that complex immune and hormonal networks are involved in pregnancy and that rheumatic diseases are very dynamic immune processes that cannot be described with a clear-cut cytokine profile. Furthermore, the observations in this study may reflect treatment-related immune effects more than those associated with disease. PMID:12562402

  4. Human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Strobl, J S; Thomas, M J

    1994-03-01

    The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone. This promises to be an important area for future drug development. PMID:8190748

  5. Informing Women on Menopause and Hormone Therapy: Know the Menopause a Multidisciplinary Project Involving Local Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Serena; Satolli, Roberto; Colombo, Cinzia; Senatore, Sabrina; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Da Cas, Roberto; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Mosconi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy (HT) in the menopause is still a tricky question among healthcare providers, women and mass media. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy was a Consensus Conference (CC) organized in 2008: the project Know the Menopause has been launched to shift out the results to women and healthcare providers and to assess the impact of the cc’s statement. Methods And Findings: The project, aimed at women aged 45-60 years, was developed in four Italian Regions: Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, each with one Local Health Unit (LHU) as “intervention” and one as “control”. Activities performed were: survey on the press; training courses for health professionals; educational materials for target populations; survey aimed at women, general practitioners (GPs), and gynaecologists; data analysis on HT drugs’ prescription. Local activities were: training courses; public meetings; dissemination on mass media. About 3,700 health professionals were contacted and 1,800 participated in the project. About 146,500 printed leaflets on menopause were distributed to facilitate the dialogue among women and health care professionals. Training courses and educational cascade-process activities: participation ranged 25- 72% of GPs, 17-71% of gynaecologists, 14-78% of pharmacists, 34-85% of midwives. Survey: 1,281 women interviewed. More than 90% believed menopause was a normal phase in life. More than half did not receive information about menopause and therapies. HT prescription analysis: prevalence fell from 6% to 4% in five years. No differences in time trends before-after the intervention. Major limitations are: organizational difficulties met by LHU, too short time for some local activities. Conclusions A huge amount of information was spread through health professionals and women. The issue of menopause was also used to discuss women’s wellbeing. This project offered an opportunity to launch a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach to

  6. Long-term, low-dose lead exposure alters the gonadotropin-releasing hormone system in the male rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z; Wang, Saixi; Wan, Yu-Jui Y; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Gentzschein, Elisabet; Chapin, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    Lead is a male reproductive toxicant. Data suggest that rats dosed with relatively high levels of lead acetate for short periods of time induced changes in the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the molecular level, but these changes were attenuated with increased concentration of exposure. The current study evaluated whether exposure to low levels of lead acetate over longer periods of time would produce a similar pattern of adaptation to toxicity at the molecular and biologic levels. Adult 100-day-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were dosed with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3% lead acetate in water. Animals were killed after 1, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of treatment. Luteinzing hormone (LH) and GnRH levels were measured in serum, and lead levels were quantified in whole blood. Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels were also quantified. We found no significant differences in serum LH and GnRH among the groups of animals treated within each time period. A significant dose-related increase of GnRH mRNA concentrations with lead dosing occurred in animals treated for 1 week. Animals treated for more than 1 week also exhibited a significant increase in GnRH mRNA, but with an attenuation of the increase at the higher concentrations of lead with increased duration of exposure. We conclude that the signals within and between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland appear to be disrupted by long-term, low-dose lead exposure. PMID:12204820

  7. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  8. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  9. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; MARINA, MIHAELA ELENA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient’s quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  10. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Roman, Iulia Ioana; Constantin, Anne-Marie; Marina, Mihaela Elena; Orasan, Remus Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient's quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  11. Adaptive diversity: hormones and metabolism in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    Genes underlying the evolution of morphological traits have recently been identified in a number of model species. In the stickleback, the metabolic adaptations to a freshwater habitat have now been linked to a well-known hormonal system. PMID:21145015

  12. Inflammation severely alters thyroid hormone signaling in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rat: Direct impact on OPCs differentiation failure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mercedes; Baldassarro, Vito A; Sivilia, Sandra; Giardino, Luciana; Calzà, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is severely impaired by inflammatory cytokines and this could lead to remyelination failure in inflammatory/demyelinating diseases. Due to the role of thyroid hormone in the maturation of OPCs and developmental myelination, in this study we investigated (i) the possible occurrence of dysregulation of thyroid hormone signaling in the CNS tissue during experimental neuroinflammation; (ii) the possible impact of inflammatory cytokines on thyroid hormone signaling and OPCs differentiation in vitro. The disease model is the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in female Dark-Agouti rats, whereas in vitro experiments were carried out in OPCs derived from neural stem cells. The main results are the following: (i) a strong upregulation of cytokine mRNA expression level was found in the spinal cord during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; (ii) thyroid hormone signaling in the spinal cord (thyroid hormone receptors; deiodinase; thyroid hormone membrane transporter) is substantially downregulated, due to the upregulation of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme deiodinase 3 and the downregulation of thyroid hormone receptors, as investigated at mRNA expression level; (iii) when exposed to inflammatory cytokines, deiodinase 3 is upregulated in OPCs as well, and OPCs differentiation is blocked; (iv) deiodinase 3 inhibition by iopanoic acid recovers OPCs differentiation in the presence on inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that cellular hypothyroidism occurs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, possibly impacting on thyroid hormone-dependent cellular processes, including maturation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes. GLIA 2016;64:1573-1589. PMID:27404574

  13. Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Christie, A. E.; Stevens, J. S.; Bowers, M. R.; Chapline, M. C.; Jensen, D. A.; Schegg, K. M.; Goldwaser, J.; Kwiatkowski, M. A.; Pleasant, T. K.; Shoenfeld, L.; Tempest, L. K.; Williams, C. R.; Wiwatpanit, T.; Smith, C. M.; Beale, K. M.; Towle, D. W.; Schooley, D. A.; Dickinson, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10–11 to 10–10 mol l–1 or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

  14. Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Christie, A E; Stevens, J S; Bowers, M R; Chapline, M C; Jensen, D A; Schegg, K M; Goldwaser, J; Kwiatkowski, M A; Pleasant, T K; Shoenfeld, L; Tempest, L K; Williams, C R; Wiwatpanit, T; Smith, C M; Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Schooley, D A; Dickinson, P S

    2010-01-01

    In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10(-11) to 10(-10) mol l(-1) or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

  15. Usability and Tolerability of the Norditropin NordiFlex® Injection Device in Children Never Previously Treated With Growth Hormone

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-23

    Growth Hormone Disorder; Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children; Genetic Disorder; Turner Syndrome; Foetal Growth Problem; Small for Gestational Age; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Delivery Systems

  16. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  17. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, ... know that estrogen (the major female hormone) and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) ...

  18. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  19. Immunocytochemical and pharmacological evidence for an intrinsic cholinomimetic system modulating prolactin and growth hormone release in rat pituitary.

    PubMed

    Carmeliet, P; Denef, C

    1988-08-01

    Pituitary cells were cultured as three-dimensional reaggregates in serum-free chemically defined medium supplemented with different concentrations of dexamethasone. Immunostaining of the cells using a polyclonal antiserum and three monoclonal antibodies raised against choline acetyl transferase (CAT), revealed the presence of CAT immunoreactivity in 4-10% of anterior pituitary cells depending on the antibody used. CAT immunoreactivity was also found in freshly dispersed anterior pituitary cells. CAT-immunoreactive cells could be enriched on BSA and Percoll gradients and codistributed with ACTH-immunoreactive cells in these gradients. Perifusion of the aggregates with the potent muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (Atr) resulted in a dose-dependent (0.1-100 nM) increase in both basal PRL and GH secretion; the response was dependent on the dexamethasone concentration in the culture medium. A similar response to Atr was observed in organ-cultured pituitaries. The specificity of the Atr effect was supported by the findings that the potent and highly specific muscarinic receptor blocker dexetimide showed a similar action, whereas its inactive enantiomer levetimide and the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium failed to do so. Two other muscarinic antagonists, benzatropine and pirenzepine, showed a dose-dependent hormone-releasing action similar to that of Atr, but were less potent than the latter. Pirenzepine was only effective at high molar concentrations, suggesting that an M2 muscarinic receptor subtype was mediating the present phenomenon. Atr also potentiated GH release stimulated by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and PRL release stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide, but had no effect on GRF-stimulated GH release. The choline uptake blocker hemicholinium abolished the effect of Atr on GH and PRL release. These data suggest that certain pituitary cells can express CAT activity and that these cells exert a tonic inhibitory activity on GH and

  20. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  1. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (p<0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  2. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  3. The behavior of renal-regulating hormones during hypogravic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of fluid and electrolyte behavior during space flight is believed to be under control, in large part, of a group of hormones which have their major effects on renal excretion. The hormones studied include renin-angitensin, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The regulatory systems of these renal-regulating hormones as they act individually and in concert with each other are analyzed. The analysis is based on simulations of the mathematical model of Guyton. A generalized theory is described which accounts for both short-term and long-term behavior of this set of hormones.

  4. [Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Jabaloyas, José María Martínez

    2010-10-01

    The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocrine disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear. PMID:20978293

  5. Long-acting hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gabelnick, Henry; Brosens, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Today, a new category of fertility-regulating agents has been created: long-acting, reversible hormonal contraceptives; they minimize compliance, while maximize effectiveness. They comprise subdermal implants and intrauterine devices. Other long-acting agents exist, such as Depo Provera and Noristerat. Use of Depo Provera and Noristerat carries great effectiveness, good clinical safety and usefulness in developing countries. They cause no significant increase in breast cancer risk, but they may carry an increased risk of HIV. Subcutaneous delivery systems have two common features: prolongation of effect is obtained by a drug reservoir and for most of their duration of action they provide a continuous, sustained release of the active hormone. Finally, the intrauterine system Mirena represents both a very effective contraceptive and a specific treatment for menorrhagia. PMID:26626534

  6. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  7. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

  8. Premenstrual changes. Impaired hormonal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, U; Alt, I H; Paul, L

    1988-03-01

    Premenstrual changes (PMCs) in mood and behavior are very prevalent. Nonetheless, their pathophysiology is still obscure and no proven treatment is yet available. Evaluation of the plethora of available data leads to the suggestion that PMCs may result from a temporary impairment of homeostasis among a multitude of systems. This impairment is triggered by a differential pace and magnitude of change-over-time in levels of several hormones and other substances during the luteal phase. PMID:3288473

  9. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), progesterone (P4) and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A)) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20) was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013), as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant). Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071), but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure remains unknown. PMID

  10. Peripheral activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Granata, R

    2016-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates GH synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to its endocrine role, GHRH exerts a wide range of extrapituitary effects which include stimulation of cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and inhibition of apoptosis. Accordingly, expression of GHRH, as well as the receptor GHRH-R and its splice variants, has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types. Among the direct peripheral activities, GHRH regulates pancreatic islet and β-cell survival and function and endometrial cell proliferation, promotes cardioprotection and wound healing, influences the immune and reproductive systems, reduces inflammation, indirectly increases lifespan and adiposity and acts on skeletal muscle cells to inhibit cell death and atrophy. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly clear that GHRH exerts important extrapituitary functions, suggesting potential therapeutic use of the peptide and its analogs in a wide range of medical settings. PMID:26891937

  11. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  12. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  13. Effect of different managerial systems on productive and reproductive traits, blood plasma hormones and serum biochemical constituents of geese.

    PubMed

    El-Hanoun, A M; Attia, Y A; Gad, H A M; Abdella, M M

    2012-11-01

    A flock of 117, 10-month-old Egyptian geese consisting of 90 females and 27 males were utilized in this investigation. Birds were randomly divided into three equal groups, each made up of three replicates of 10 females and 3 males each. The first group was kept under a pasture system (PS) and allowed to swim in water ducts during the daytime (PS) and kept inside the house during the night. The second group of birds were kept in confinement in a house and fed ad libitum on a commercial feed (intensive system (IS)). Birds in the third group (semi-intensive system (SIS)) were released from the house for 6 h a day and given access to the pasture and water ducts. Each group was housed in three pens (replicates) in the SIS. They were given ad libitum access to the commercial feed when in the house. Each pen measured (2 × 3 m2). Natural mating was practiced during the period from November to the end of May. BW of geese under ISS was significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher than those under PS and SIS. Egg number, weight and mass of geese in the SIS system were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater than those of geese in the PS and IS systems. Fertility and hatchability percentages were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater in the PS (84.2% and 88.6%) than in the IS (77.5% and 82.8%) and SIS systems (80.7% and 85.5%). Shell weight and thickness were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) better in the IS and SIS systems than in the PS system. Geese in the PS and SIS systems exhibited significantly higher plasma estradiol-17 and progesterone than those in the IS. Testosterone was significantly higher in IS than in the other systems. Semen quality factor was significantly higher in the PS and SIS systems than in the IS system. Carcass weight was significantly greater in IS and SIS geese than in PS geese, but the PS system resulted in a decreased percentage skin, abdominal fat and liver. Total amount of meat produced per geese was significantly greater in the SIS than in the IS system and greater in

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  15. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: Pharmaceutical products . These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  16. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  17. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  18. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  19. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken just before the period starts Women over age 40 and older may have the option to receive cyclic progestin or cyclic hormone therapy. A health care provider may recommend iron supplements for women with anemia. If you want ...

  20. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Frederik J; Tolle, Virginie; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the main findings that emerged in the intervening years since the previous volume on hormonal control of growth in the section on the endocrine system of the Handbook of Physiology concerning the intra- and extrahypothalamic neuronal networks connecting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin hypophysiotropic neurons and the integration between regulators of food intake/metabolism and GH release. Among these findings, the discovery of ghrelin still raises many unanswered questions. One important event was the application of deconvolution analysis to the pulsatile patterns of GH secretion in different mammalian species, including Man, according to gender, hormonal environment and ageing. Concerning this last phenomenon, a great body of evidence now supports the role of an attenuation of the GHRH/GH/Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in the control of mammalian aging. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:687-735, 2016. PMID:27065166

  1. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P J; Schubert, C; Argue, D; Fisher, I; Furlong, E T; Foreman, W; Gray, J; Chalmers, A

    2015-04-15

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems. The highest micropollutant concentrations from the NE network were present in samples collected from below the leach beds and in a well downgradient of the leach beds. Total concentrations for personal care/domestic use compounds, pharmaceutical compounds and plasticizer compounds generally ranged from 1 to over 20 μg/L in the NE network samples. High tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate) plasticizer concentrations in wells beneath and downgradient of the leach beds (>20 μg/L) may reflect the presence of this compound in cleaning agents at the extended health-care facility. The highest micropollutant concentrations for the NY network were present in the shoreline wells and reflect groundwater that is most affected by septic system discharges. One of the shoreline wells had personal care/domestic use, pharmaceutical, and plasticizer concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 5.7 μg/L. Estradiol equivalency quotient concentrations were also highest in a shoreline well sample (3.1 ng/L). Most micropollutant concentrations increase with increasing specific conductance and total nitrogen concentrations for shoreline well samples. These findings suggest that septic systems serving institutional settings and densely

  2. Interactions of growth hormone secretagogues and growth hormone-releasing hormone/somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Bowers, C Y

    2001-02-01

    The class of novel synthetic compounds termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act in the hypothalamus through, as yet, unknown pathways. We performed physiologic and histochemical studies to further understand how the GHS system interacts with the well-established somatostatin (SRIF)/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neuroendocrine system for regulating pulsatile GH secretion. Comparison of the GH-releasing activities of the hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) and GHRH administered intravenously to conscious adult male rats showed that the pattern of GH responsiveness to GHRP-6 was markedly time-dependent, similar to that observed with GHRH. Immunoneutralization of endogenous SRIF reversed the blunted GH response to GHRP-6 at trough times, suggesting that GHRP-6 neither disrupts nor inhibits the cyclical release of endogenous hypothalamic SRIF. By striking contrast, passive immunization with anti-GHRH serum virtually obliterated the GH responses to GHRP-6, irrespective of the time of administration. These findings suggest that the GHSs do not act by altering SRIF release but, rather, stimulate GH release via GHRH-dependent pathways. Our dual chromogenic and autoradiographic in situ hybridization experiments revealed that a subpopulation of GHRH mRNA-containing neurons in the arcuate (Arc) nucleus and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus expressed the GHS receptor (GHS-R) gene. These results provide strong anatomic evidence that GHSs may directly stimulate GHRH release into hypophyseal portal blood, and thereby influence GH secretion, through interaction with the GHS-R on GHRH- containing neurons. Altogether, these findings support the notion that an additional neuroendocrine pathway may exist to regulate pulsatile GH secretion, possibly through the influence of the newly discovered GHS natural peptide, ghrelin. PMID:11322498

  3. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    The highest micropollutant concentrations for the NY network were present in the shoreline wells and reflect groundwater that is most affected by septic system discharges. One of the shoreline wells had personal care/domestic use, pharmaceutical, and plasticizer concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 5.7 μg/L. Estradiol equivalency quotient concentrations were also highest in a shoreline well sample (3.1 ng/L). Most micropollutant concentrations increase with increasing specific conductance and total nitrogen concentrations for shoreline well samples. These findings suggest that septic systems serving institutional settings and densely populated areas in coastal settings may be locally important sources of micropollutants to adjacent aquifer and marine systems.

  4. The Proprotein Convertase Encoded by amontillado (amon) Is Required in Drosophila Corpora Cardiaca Endocrine Cells Producing the Glucose Regulatory Hormone AKH

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Jeanne M.; Wegener, Christian; Bender, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Peptide hormones are potent signaling molecules that coordinate animal physiology, behavior, and development. A key step in activation of these peptide signals is their proteolytic processing from propeptide precursors by a family of proteases, the subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs). Here, we report the functional dissection of amontillado (amon), which encodes the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, using cell-type specific inactivation and rescue experiments, and we show that amon is required in the islet-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH)–producing cells that regulate sugar homeostasis. In Drosophila, AKH acts analogously to vertebrate glucagon to increase circulating sugar levels from energy stores, while insulin-like peptides (DILPs) act to decrease sugar levels. amon mutant larvae have significantly reduced hemolymph sugar levels, and thus phenocopy larvae where the AKH–producing cells in the corpora cardiaca have been ablated. Reduction of amon expression in these cells via cell-specific RNA inactivation also results in larvae with reduced sugar levels while expression of amon in AKH cells in an amon mutant background rescues hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in larvae resulting from amon RNA inactivation in the AKH cells can be rescued by global expression of the akh gene. Finally, mass spectrometric profiling shows that the production of mature AKH is inhibited in amon mutants. Our data indicate that amon function in the AKH cells is necessary to maintain normal sugar homeostasis, that amon functions upstream of akh, and that loss of mature AKH is correlated with loss of amon activity. These observations indicate that the AKH propeptide is a proteolytic target of the amon proprotein convertase and provide evidence for a conserved role of PC2 in processing metabolic peptide hormones. PMID:20523747

  5. The proprotein convertase encoded by amontillado (amon) is required in Drosophila corpora cardiaca endocrine cells producing the glucose regulatory hormone AKH.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Jeanne M; Wegener, Christian; Bender, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Peptide hormones are potent signaling molecules that coordinate animal physiology, behavior, and development. A key step in activation of these peptide signals is their proteolytic processing from propeptide precursors by a family of proteases, the subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs). Here, we report the functional dissection of amontillado (amon), which encodes the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, using cell-type specific inactivation and rescue experiments, and we show that amon is required in the islet-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells that regulate sugar homeostasis. In Drosophila, AKH acts analogously to vertebrate glucagon to increase circulating sugar levels from energy stores, while insulin-like peptides (DILPs) act to decrease sugar levels. amon mutant larvae have significantly reduced hemolymph sugar levels, and thus phenocopy larvae where the AKH-producing cells in the corpora cardiaca have been ablated. Reduction of amon expression in these cells via cell-specific RNA inactivation also results in larvae with reduced sugar levels while expression of amon in AKH cells in an amon mutant background rescues hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in larvae resulting from amon RNA inactivation in the AKH cells can be rescued by global expression of the akh gene. Finally, mass spectrometric profiling shows that the production of mature AKH is inhibited in amon mutants. Our data indicate that amon function in the AKH cells is necessary to maintain normal sugar homeostasis, that amon functions upstream of akh, and that loss of mature AKH is correlated with loss of amon activity. These observations indicate that the AKH propeptide is a proteolytic target of the amon proprotein convertase and provide evidence for a conserved role of PC2 in processing metabolic peptide hormones. PMID:20523747

  6. Assessment of the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal milieu has been hypothesized to play a role in a range of human diseases, and therefore has been a topic of much epidemiologic investigation. Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as cortisol; and hormones produced by the adipose tissue, termed adipokines. Depending on the hormone, levels may be measured in plasma or serum, urine, saliva, tissue, or by assessing genetic variation in the hormone or hormone metabolizing genes. Sample collection, processing, and storage requirements vary according to the type of sample collected (e.g. blood or urine) and the hormone of interest. Laboratory analysis of hormones is frequently complex, and the technology used to conduct the assays is constantly evolving. For example, direct or indirect radioimmunoassay, bioassay or mass spectrometry can be used to measure sex steroids, each having advantages and disadvantages. Careful attention to laboratory issues, including close collaboration with laboratory colleagues and ongoing quality control assessments, is critical. Whether a single hormone measurement, as is frequently collected in epidemiologic studies, is sufficient to characterize the hormonal environment of interest (e.g. long-term adult hormone exposure) is also an important issue. While the assessment of hormones in epidemiologic studies is complex, these efforts have, and will continue to, add importantly to our knowledge of the role of hormones in human health. PMID:22997864

  7. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  8. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  9. Anti-Mullerian hormone trend evaluation after laparoscopic surgery of monolateral endometrioma using a new dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) for hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Luigi; Angioni, Stefano; Sorrentino, Felice; Cinnella, Gilda; Lombardi, Michela; Greco, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Operative laparoscopy is the gold standard in the treatment of endometriotic ovarian cysts. Excisional surgery is the best technique to prevent recurrences and improve symptoms but it may result in ovarian reserve damage due to the removal of healthy ovarian cortex. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on ovarian reserve of the use of dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) hemostasis after stripping technique of monolateral endometrioma, by dosing the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). This prospective study was conducted at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, from December 2013 to January 2015. Forty-five women underwent excision of monolateral endometriotic ovarian cyst by stripping without using a bipolar coagulation and performing hemostasis with a DWLS. The AMH serum levels were estimated before the surgery (T0), 4-6 weeks (T1) and 6-9 months (T2) after surgery. Our results suggest that an appropriate surgical technique with the use of laser hemostasis does not determine a significant reduction of ovarian reserve. Laser hemostasis could prevent follicular reserve loss after ovarian endometrioma surgery. PMID:26359914

  10. Gamma(2)-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppression of systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin is associated with modulation of central autonomic and neuroendocrine activities.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Wikberg, J E; Krukoff, T L

    2001-11-01

    Central autonomic and neuroendocrine activities are important components of the host response to bacterial inflammation. We demonstrate that intravenous infusion of gamma(2)-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma(2)-MSH), a potent autonomic regulating peptide, prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypotension and tachycardia, and modulates the ACTH response to endotoxin. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a major neuroendocrine and autonomic center, gamma(2)-MSH inhibits LPS-induced increases in CRF mRNA levels, but does not suppress LPS-augmented arginine vasopressin heteronuclear RNA expression. In the locus coeruleus, a brainstem noradrenergic center, gamma(2)-MSH inhibits LPS-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels. Gamma(2)-MSH inhibits LPS-induced IL-1beta gene expression in the brain, pituitary and thymus, and prevents increases in plasma NO levels. These findings reveal that gamma(2)-MSH attenuates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin and suggest that modulation of central autonomic and neuroendocrine activities by gamma(2)-MSH contributes to its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:11694321

  11. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  12. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  13. Plant hormone interactions: how complex are they?

    PubMed

    Ross, John J; Weston, Diana E; Davidson, Sandra E; Reid, James B

    2011-04-01

    Models describing plant hormone interactions are often complex and web-like. Here we assess several suggested interactions within one experimental system, elongating pea internodes. Results from this system indicate that at least some suggested interactions between auxin, gibberellins (GAs), brassinosteroids (BRs), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene do not occur in this system or occur in the reverse direction to that suggested. Furthermore, some of the interactions are relatively weak and may be of little physiological relevance. This is especially true if plant hormones are assumed to show a log-linear response curve as many empirical results suggest. Although there is strong evidence to support some interactions between hormones (e.g. auxin stimulating ethylene and bioactive GA levels), at least some of the web-like complexities do not appear to be justified or are overstated. Simpler and more targeted models may be developed by dissecting out key interactions with major physiological effects. PMID:21214880

  14. Postmenopausal hormone therapy-also use of estradiol plus levonorgestrel-intrauterine system is associated with an increased risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koskela-Niska, Virpi; Pukkala, Eero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Dyba, Tadeusz

    2015-10-15

    Data on the possible impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on the incidence of rare primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide case-control study analyzing the association between the use of different HTs and PFTC. All women aged 50 years or older with an incident PFTC (n = 360) during 1995-2007 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. For each case of PFTC, ten age- and place of residence-matched controls were selected from the Finnish National Population Register, which also provided information on parity. Data on HT purchases were received from the Prescription Register, and data on hysterectomies and sterilizations from the National Care Register. Controls with a salpingectomy before the PFTC diagnosis of the respective case were excluded. The PFTC risk in relation to different HTs was estimated with a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for parity, age at last delivery, hysterectomy and sterilization. The use for five years or more of estradiol combined with levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine system (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.10-7.38) and sequential estradiol-progestin therapy (EPT; 3.37; 2.23-5.08) were both linked with increases in the risk of PFTC, while the risk with use of estradiol-only therapy or continuous EPT was not statistically significantly increased. The OR for the use of tibolone for one year or more was 1.56 (0.55-4.41). The use of HT is related to an increased risk of PFTC, particularly when a progestin component is intrauterine or systemic progestin is given in sequential manner. PMID:25846583

  15. Neurohypophyseal Hormone-Responsive Adenylate Cyclase from Mammalian Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Douša, Thomas; Hechter, Oscar; Schwartz, Irving L.; Walter, Roderich

    1971-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the direct stimulatory effects of neurohypophyseal hormones upon adenylate cyclase activity in a cell-free, particulate fraction derived from the kidney medulla of various mammalian species. The relative affinity of neurohypophyseal hormones for the receptor component of the adenylate cyclase system (as defined by the concentration of hormone required for half-maximal stimulation) had the order [8-arginine]-vasopressin > [8-lysine]-vasopressin ≫ oxytocin (AVP > LVP ≫ OT) for rat, mouse, rabbit, and ox; in the pig, the order was LVP > AVP ≫ OT. The relative affinities of the three hormones in rat and pig cyclase systems were found to correspond with the relative antidiuretic potencies of these hormones in the intact rat and pig. These findings show that the renal receptor for neurohypophyseal hormones in a particular species exhibits the highest affinity for the specific antidiuretic hormone that occurs naturally in that species. Some of the molecular requirements for the stimulation of rabbit adenylate cyclase were defined by studies of several neurohypophyseal analogs possessing structural changes in positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9. This investigation introduces the particulate preparation of renal medullary adenylate cyclase as a tool for the analysis of neurohypophyseal hormone-receptor interactions and indicates that this preparation can be adapted to serve as an in vitro bioassay system for antidiuretic hormonal activity. PMID:4331557

  16. Aldosterone, Parathyroid Hormone, and the Use of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer; de Boer, Ian H.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Siscovick, David S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Allison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Context: Aldosterone and PTH are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. An expanding body of evidence supports a bidirectional and positive physiologic relationship between aldosterone and PTH. Large population-based studies confirming this relationship, and whether it may be targeted as a potential method to mitigate the clinical consequences associated with excess aldosterone and PTH, are needed. Objective: We hypothesized that higher aldosterone levels would associate with higher PTH, and that the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors would predict lower PTH in a large, multi-ethnic, community-based cohort. Design, Setting, Participants: We conducted cross-sectional analyses of participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis without apparent primary hyperparathyroidism or chronic kidney disease (n = 5668). We evaluated associations of RAAS inhibitor use with PTH concentration among 1888 treated hypertensive participants. We also tested associations of serum aldosterone concentration with PTH concentration among 1547 participants with these measurements. Outcome: Serum PTH concentration. Results: Higher aldosterone associated with higher PTH (β = 0.19 pg/ml per 1 ng/dl of aldosterone, P < .0001), and this finding was most pronounced among those with a primary hyperaldosteronism-like phenotype. There was a stepwise increment in PTH when comparing untreated normotensives, hypertensives using RAAS inhibitors, untreated hypertensives, and treated hypertensives using non-RAAS inhibitors (40.8, 45.0, 46.2, 47.1 pg/ml, respectively). The use of any RAAS inhibitor independently associated with lower PTH (β = −2.327 pg/ml per use of RAAS inhibitor, P = .006), when compared with the use of any non-RAAS inhibitor medication. Conclusions: Higher serum aldosterone concentration is associated with higher serum PTH concentration, and the use of RAAS inhibitors is associated with lower PTH concentration

  17. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Geninatti, Thomas; Hood, R. Lyle; Bruno, Giacomo; Jain, Priya; Nicolov, Eugenia; Ziemys, Arturas; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms. PMID:27293533

  18. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    PubMed

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations. PMID:24177252

  19. Enzyme Action in the Regulation of Plant Hormone Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Corey S.; Muehler, Ashley M.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation. PMID:23709222

  20. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  3. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  4. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  5. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  6. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    PubMed

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  7. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  8. The parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: a developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits.

    PubMed Central

    Panzica, Gian Carlo; Bakthazart, Jacques; Pessatti, Marzia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphic distribution in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction. Moreover, systemic or intracerebroventricular injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of some aspects of male sexual behavior. In adult animals, circulating levels of testosterone (T) have a profound influence on the VT immunoreactivity within BSTm, POM, and lateral septum. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreaction, whereas T-replacement therapy restores a situation similar to the intact birds. We observed no changes in gonadectomized females treated with T. These changes parallel similar changes in male copulatory behavior (not present in castrated male quail, fully expressed in castrated, T-treated males). The restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in castrated male quail could be fully mimicked by a treatment with estradiol (E(2)), suggesting that the aromatization of T into E(2) may play a key limiting role in both the activation of male sexual behavior and the induction of VT synthesis. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of E(2) to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT immunoreactivity in sexually dimorphic regions. Conversely, the inhibition of E(2) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in treated females exposed in adulthood to T) results in a malelike distribution of VT immunoreactivity. The VT

  9. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  10. Dietary sugar promotes systemic TOR activation in Drosophila through AKH-dependent selective secretion of Dilp3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung; Neufeld, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Secreted ligands of the insulin family promote cell growth and maintain sugar homeostasis. Insulin release is tightly regulated in response to dietary conditions, but how insulin producing cells (IPCs) coordinate their responses to distinct nutrient signals is unclear. Here, we show that regulation of insulin secretion in Drosophila larvae has been segregated into distinct branches: whereas amino acids promote secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), circulating sugars promote selective release of Dilp3. Dilp3 is uniquely required for sugar-mediated activation of TOR signaling and suppression of autophagy in the larval fat body. Sugar levels are not sensed directly by the IPCs, but rather by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells of the corpora cardiaca, and we demonstrate that AKH signaling is required in the IPCs for sugar-dependent Dilp3 release. Thus, IPCs integrate multiple cues to regulate secretion of distinct insulin subtypes under varying nutrient conditions. PMID:25882208

  11. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  12. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion by hypothalamic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Donoso, A O; Seltzer, A M; Navarro, C E; Cabrera, R J; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A

    1994-04-01

    1. The present review discusses the proposed roles of the amino acids glutamate and GABA in the central regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. 2. Descriptions of the mechanisms of action of these neurotransmitters have focused on two diencephalic areas, namely, the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area where the cell bodies of LHRH neurons are located, and the medial basal hypothalamus which contains the nerve endings of the LHRH system. Increasing endogenous GABA concentration by drugs, GABA agonists, or blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission by selective antagonists in rats and non-human primates prevents ovulation and pulsatile LH release, and blunts the LH surges induced by estrogen or an estrogen-progesterone combination. In contrast, glutamate and different glutamate agonists such as NMDA, AMPA and kainate, can increase LHRH/LH secretion. 3. The simultaneous enhancement of glutamatergic activity and a decrease of GABAergic tone may positively influence the maturation of the pituitary-gonadal system in rats and non-human primates. Administration of glutamate receptor agonists has been shown to significantly advance the onset of puberty. Conversely, glutamate antagonists or increased endogenous GABA levels may delay the onset of puberty. The physiological regulation of LHRH/LH secretion may thus involve a GABA-glutamate interaction and a cooperative action of the various types of ionotropic glutamate receptors. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA on LH release and ovulation may be exerted at the level of afferent nerve terminals that regulate LHRH secretion. A likely candidate is noradrenaline, as suggested by the synaptic connections between noradrenergic nerve terminals and GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area. Recent experiments have provided complementary evidence for the physiological balance between inhibitory and excitatory transmission resulting in modulation of the action of

  13. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  14. Hemostatic Disorders in Hormonally Active Pituitary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska-Stodulska, R; Babińska, A; Mital, A; Stodulski, D; Sworczak, K

    2015-10-01

    Endocrinopathies encompass heterogeneous diseases that can lead to hemostasis disorders at various stages over their clinical course. Normal hemostasis requires an equilibrium between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which depend on multiple activators and inhibitors. To date, the influence of various hormonal disorders on the hemostatic system has been assessed many times. The aim of this review was to analyze hemostasis abnormalities that occur in patients with hormonally active pituitary tumors: corticotropinoma, somatotropinoma, prolactinoma, gonadotropinoma and thyrotropinoma. Authors discuss studies that examined coagulation and hemostasis parameters among patients with these tumors, as well as analyze antithrombotic prophylaxis approach for endogenous hypercortisolemia subjects in particular. PMID:26285071

  15. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  16. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  17. Fate and transport of reproductive hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An invited overview of the NSF funded projects 0730492 "Effects of Animal Manure Storage and Disposal on the Fate and Transport of Manure-Borne Hormones," and 0244169 "Fate and Transport of an Endocrine Disruptor in Soil-Water Systems." We will highlight the Research and Educational contributions by...

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  19. Hormonal control of implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandra, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, implantation represents a key step of pregnancy and its progression conditions not only the success of pregnancy but health of the offspring. Implantation requires a complex and specific uterine tissue, the endometrium, whose biological functions are tightly regulated by numerous signals, including steroids and polypeptide hormones. Endometrial tissue is endowed with dynamic properties that associate its ability to control the developmental trajectory of the embryo (driver property) and its ability to react to embryos displaying distinct capacities to develop to term (sensor property). Since dynamical properties of the endometrium can be affected by pre- and post-conceptional environment, determining how maternal hormonal signals and their biological actions are affected by environmental factors (e.g. nutrition, stress, infections) is mandatory to reduce or even to prevent their detrimental effects on endometrial physiology in order to preserve the optimal functionality of this tissue. PMID:27172870

  20. Hormones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus PMID:23661874

  1. New Approaches to Thyroid Hormones and Purinergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Gabriel Fernandes; Buffon, Andréia; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar

    2013-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormones influence a wide variety of events at the molecular, cellular, and functional levels. Thyroid hormones (TH) play pivotal roles in growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. Most of these effects result in pathological and physiological events and are already well described in the literature. Even so, many recent studies have been devoted to bringing new information on problems in controlling the synthesis and release of these hormones and to elucidating mechanisms of the action of these hormones unconventionally. The purinergic system was recently linked to thyroid diseases, including enzymes, receptors, and enzyme products related to neurotransmitter release, nociception, behavior, and other vascular systems. Thus, throughout this text we intend to relate the relationship between the TH in physiological and pathological situations with the purinergic signaling. PMID:23956925

  2. New approaches to thyroid hormones and purinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Gabriel Fernandes; Buffon, Andréia; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar

    2013-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormones influence a wide variety of events at the molecular, cellular, and functional levels. Thyroid hormones (TH) play pivotal roles in growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. Most of these effects result in pathological and physiological events and are already well described in the literature. Even so, many recent studies have been devoted to bringing new information on problems in controlling the synthesis and release of these hormones and to elucidating mechanisms of the action of these hormones unconventionally. The purinergic system was recently linked to thyroid diseases, including enzymes, receptors, and enzyme products related to neurotransmitter release, nociception, behavior, and other vascular systems. Thus, throughout this text we intend to relate the relationship between the TH in physiological and pathological situations with the purinergic signaling. PMID:23956925

  3. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  4. The Fate and Transport of Reproductive Hormones and Their Conjugates in the Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive steroid hormones can disrupt the endocrine system of some species at ng/L concentrations. Sources of steroid hormones to the environment include human waste water effluents or manure produced at animal feeding operations (AFOs). Steroid hormones, such as 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estrone (...

  5. Modeling resistance to juvenile hormone analogs: linking evolution, ecology and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs) are insecticides that mimic insect juvenile hormone and interfere with normal insect development. JHAs disrupt a hormonal system that is specific to insects and thus kill some target pests while causing little or no harm to most non-target organisms. Because of thei...

  6. [The effect of gamma-L-glutamylhistamine analogues on the severity of experimental anaphylactic reaction, hormonal status and liver cytochrome P450 system].

    PubMed

    Nebol'sin, V E; Zheltukhina, G A; Krzhechkovskaia, V V; Kovaleva, V L; Evstigneeva, R P

    2001-01-01

    The influence of gamma-L-glutamylhistamine analogues on the hexenal-induced sleeping, glucocorticoid hormone content in blood plasma and severity of experimental anaphylactic reaction was studied. It was observed that gamma-L-glutamylhistamine analogues caused decrease in the sleeping time and severity of experimental anaphylactic reaction, the elevation of glucocorticoids content in blood plasma. The present results indicate that substances have the wide spectrum of biological activity which depends on the length of the N-acyl radical. PMID:11558312

  7. Feed restriction and realimentation in Holstein-Friesian bulls: II. Effect on blood pressure and systemic concentrations of metabolites and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    Keogh, K; Waters, S M; Kelly, A K; Wylie, A R G; Sauerwein, H; Sweeney, T; Kenny, D A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the endocrine response and metabolic rate in Holstein–Friesian bulls during restricted feeding and realimentation. Sixty bulls were allocated to 1 of 2 feeding regimes: 1) restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) or 2) ad libitum feeding (ADLIB; n = 30) for 125 d (Period 1). The bulls in both treatment groups were then offered ad libitum access to feed for a further 55 d (Period 2). Five and 4 blood samples were collected during periods 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 30), respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for hormones and metabolites including insulin, IGF-1, leptin, thyroid hormones, albumin, β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), creatinine, glucose, NEFA, total protein, triglycerides, and urea. Blood pressure measurements were determined on all animals at the beginning and end of each period as an indicator of metabolic rate. During Period 1, RES bulls gained 0.6 kg/d whereas ADLIB bulls grew at 1.9 kg/d. Following realimentation in Period 2, RES bulls displayed accelerated growth, gaining 2.5 kg/d compared with 1.4 kg/d for ADLIB bulls (P < 0.001). Treatment × period interactions (P < 0.05) were evident for all plasma analytes assayed. During Period 1, RES bulls had lower concentrations of glucose and insulin, reflecting their lower feed intake. Adipose and protein tissue mobilization was evident through greater concentrations of triglycerides, NEFA, BHB, creatinine, albumin, and total protein in RES animals in Period 1. Additionally, the effect of restricted feeding on growth was apparent through lower concentrations of IGF-1. A lower metabolic rate was also apparent through lower concentrations of thyroid hormones and fewer beats per minute in RES bulls during Period 1. During the initial stage of realimentation in Period 2, IGF-1, insulin, thyroid hormones, creatinine, glucose, total protein, and triglycerides followed the same pattern as per Period 1 with divergence maintained between RES and ADLIB bulls (P < 0.05), whereas

  8. Naloxone does not Affect the Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone-Induced Inhibition of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A M; Porter, D W; Lincoln, D W

    1989-06-01

    Abstract Injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (21 pmol) into the third cerebral ventricle of long-term ovariectomized ewes caused a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly when compared with the control responses to saline (50 mul). A notable characteristic of the response was the delayed and sustained nature of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition. In the presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone (4 +/- 25 mg iv), the central administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone still produced a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Again, mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly. When naloxone was injected iv, there was a significant rise in mean luteinizing hormone levels as a consequence of an increase in pulse frequency (in four out of five ewes) and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone pulse amplitude. In conclusion, these data suggest that central opioid pathways sensitive to blockade by naloxone are not involved in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone release. Furthermore, in the long-term ovariectomized ewe, endogenous opioid peptides exert a tonic inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion. PMID:19210459

  9. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  10. Hormonal regulation of fibrinogen synthesis in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grieninger, G; Plant, P W; Liang, T J; Kalb, R G; Amrani, D; Mosesson, M W; Hertzberg, K M; Pindyck, J

    1983-06-27

    Most of what was originally known of the effects of hormones on fibrinogen synthesis was based, as noted above, on experiments involving surgical removal of endocrine glands. Some caution should be exercised when using such in vivo experiments to derive the hormonal requirements of fibrinogen synthesis, however, since multiple hormonal alterations often occur in these animals. The development of a variety of ex vivo systems has allowed investigators to more carefully control the hepatocellular environment. The work of several laboratories, including our own, has now made it clear that hormones and other agents directly stimulate hepatocellular synthesis of fibrinogen. From the studies summarized here, using chick embryo hepatocytes as a model, several generalizations emerge: Fibrinogen synthesis may be considered to be a "constitutive" liver function, since hepatocytes cultured without serum, hormones or other macromolecular supplements synthesize this protein at a basal rate for several days. Addition of certain hormones (e.g. T3, dexamethasone, insulin), individually and in physiological concentrations, elicits an increase in fibrinogen production, varying with each agent in onset, dose, minimum exposure required and accompanying effects on the synthesis of other plasma proteins. Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones are similar in the selectivity of their stimulation (neither affects albumin or transferrin synthesis) but differ in that thyroid hormones need to be present for just a short "triggering" period. The stimulation of fibrinogen synthesis by insulin occurs only following prolonged exposure to concentrations 10-times higher than the very low doses to which albumin synthesis responds rapidly. PMID:6307104

  11. Hormone therapy, dilemmas, medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Schulkin, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The decision for women to go on hormone therapy (HT) remains controversial. An historical oscillation of beliefs exists related in part to expectations of the medicinal value of HT over longer-term use beyond the initial peri-menonpausal period. Studies thought to resolve issues surrounding the efficacy of HT were perhaps overstated as confusion still permeates the decision making with regard to HT. Overzealous advertising and exaggerated understanding of the results (negative or positive) undermine patient and physician decision making. There remains no magic bullet with regard to HT. What remains is still the possibility of HT longer-term efficacy on diverse end organ systems with pockets of clinical and scientific ambiguity while working to engender reasonable expectations. PMID:18315763

  12. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  13. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone (GH) is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A){sup +} RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A){sup +}RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)uridine, and quantitating ({sup 3}H)GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones.

  15. Growth hormone: its physiology and control.

    PubMed

    Scanes, C G; Lauterio, T J

    1984-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone produced by the somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of birds and other vertebrates. The secretion of GH in birds is under hypothalamic control; it involves three peptidergic releasing factors: growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) (stimulatory); thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (stimulatory); and somatostatin (SRIF) (inhibitory). In addition, there is evidence for effects of biogenic amines (including serotonin and norepinephrine) and prostaglandins at the level of the hypothalamus and possibly also the pituitary gland. In all avian species examined, plasma concentrations of GH are high in young posthatching chicks but low in the adult and embryo. The difference in plasma concentrations of GH between young and adult birds is due to both greater GH secretion and reduced clearance. The lower secretion of GH in adult birds reflects fewer somatotrophs in the pituitary, changes in somatotroph structure, and reduced GH responses to TRH or GRF administration. There is only limited data on the role of GH in birds. GH appears to be required for normal growth; acting at least in part by increasing somatomedin production. However, plasma concentrations of GH do not necessarily correlate with growth rate. For instance, in chicks with reduced growth rate owing to either goitrogen or protein deficiency in the diet, plasma concentrations of GH are elevated. GH also can influence lipid metabolism by increasing lipolysis, decreasing lipogenesis, and stimulating the uptake of glucose by adipose tissue. The physiological significance of these actions is, however, not established. In addition, GH affects the secretion of other hormones, the immune system, and perhaps also the reproductive system. PMID:6151579

  16. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  17. Hormonal and non-hormonal bases of maternal behavior: The role of experience and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Though hormonal changes occurring throughout pregnancy and at the time of parturition have been demonstrated to prime the maternal brain and trigger the onset of mother-infant interactions, extended experience with neonates can induce similar behavioral interactions. Sensitization, a phenomenon in which rodents engage in parental responses to young following constant cohabitation with donor pups, was elegantly demonstrated by Rosenblatt (1967) to occur in females and males, independent of hormonal status. Study of the non-hormonal basis of maternal behavior has contributed significantly to our understanding of hormonal influences on the maternal brain and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate maternal behavior. Here, we highlight our current understanding regarding both hormone-induced and experience-induced maternal responsivity and the mechanisms that may serve as a common pathway through which increases in maternal behavior are achieved. In particular, we describe the epigenetic changes that contribute to chromatin remodeling and how these molecular mechanisms may influence the neural substrates of the maternal brain. We also consider how individual differences in these systems emerge during development in response to maternal care. This research has broad implications for our understanding of the parental brain and the role of experience in the induction of neurobiological and behavior changes. PMID:26172856

  18. Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of this review may feel that there is much more that we do not know about space endocrinology than what we know. Several reasons for this state of affairs have been given: 1. the complexity of the field of endocrinology with its still increasing number of known hormones, releasing factors and precursors, and of the interactions between them through various feedback mechanisms 2. the difficulty in separating the microgravity effects from the effects of stress from launch, isolation and confinement during flight, reentry, and postflight re-adaptation 3. the experimental limitations during flight, such as limited number of subjects, limited number of samples, impossibility of collecting triple samples for pulsatile hormones like growth hormone 4. the disturbing effects of countermeasures used by astronauts 5. the inadequacy of postflight samples for conclusions about inflight values 6. limitations of conclusions from animal experiments and space simulation studies The endocrinology field is divided in to nine systems or axes, which are successively reviewed: 1. Rapid bone demineralization in the early phase of spaceflight that, when unopposed, leads to catastrophic effects after three months but that slows down later. The endocrine mechanism, apart from the effect of exercise as a countermeasure, is not yet understood. 2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in stress reactions, which complicate our understanding and makes postflight analysis dubious. 3. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, pulsatility poses a problem for obtaining representative values (e.g., for luteinizing hormone). Reproduction of rats in space is possible, but much more needs to be known about this aspect, particularly in women, before the advent of space colonies, but also in males because some evidence for reversible testicular dysfunction in space has been found. 4. The hypothalamic-pituitary-somato-mammotrophic axis involves prolactin and growth hormone. The

  19. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  1. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, S.; Makino, T.; Iizuka, R.

    1985-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis.

  2. CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

  3. Hormonal changes during menopause.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzawi, Farook; Palacios, Santiago

    2009-06-20

    Ovarian senescence occurs gradually during the fourth and fifth decades of life, leading to menopause at an average age of about 51 years. This senescence results in a changing hormonal milieu, with decreases in the levels of estrogens and androgens. Similar changes may be induced by surgical menopause (bilateral oophorectomy) or ovarian failure resulting from cancer treatment. The declining levels of estrogens and androgens affect many tissues of the body and can produce a variety of signs and symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, decreased bone density, changes in mood and energy, loss of pubic hair and changes in the genital tissues, and effects on sexual function. Accurate measurement of testosterone levels in postmenopausal women requires methods that are validated in the lower ranges of testosterone level observed in this population. PMID:19372016

  4. Preparation of an active recombinant peptide of crustacean androgenic gland hormone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Atsuro; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Ko, Rinkei; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    In crustaceans, male sexual characteristics are induced by a hormone referred to as androgenic gland hormone. We have recently cloned a candidate cDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In order to prove that this cDNA encodes the hormone, recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of B chain, C peptide and A chain were produced using both baculovirus and bacterial expression systems. Neither recombinant precursors showed activity. Digestion of only the precursor carrying a glycan moiety with lysyl endopeptidase gave a heterodimeric peptide with hormonal activity by removing a part of C peptide. These results indicate that the cDNA encodes the hormone. PMID:11836008

  5. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  6. [Hormonal changes in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Kollerová, Jana; Koller, Tomáš; Hlavatý, Tibor; Payer, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is often accompanied by extraintestinal manifestations due to a common autoimmune etiopathogenesis, chronic systemic inflammation, frequent nutrition deficits, and the treatment. Endocrine system changes belong to manifestations too. Interaction is mutual, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis cause functional and morphological changes of endocrine tissues. On the other hand the endocrine disorders negatively influence the course of bowel disease. In the article we analyze correlation of IBD with gonadal hormone production and fertility, with adrenal function, with the function and morphology of the thyroid, with growth hormone production and growth disorders in children, and with bone mineral density reduction. This topic is not studied enough and needs more analysis and clarification. PMID:27124970

  7. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Comasco, Erika; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women's brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  8. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in human and bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Amarant, T; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1982-10-01

    Two hypothalamic peptide hormones, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), have been isolated from human milk and bovine colostrum. Acidified methanolic extracts, prepared from human milk, bovine colostrum and rat hypothalami, as well as synthetic LHRH and TRH markers were subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The eluates were tested for the presence of LHRH and TRH by specific radioimmunoassays. It was found that milk extracts contain significant amounts of LHRH (3.9 - 11.8 ng/ml) and TRH (0.16 - 0.34 ng/ml), which comigrate with the corresponding marker hormones and with those of hypothalamic origin. The HPLC-purified LHRH from both human and bovine milk was bioactive in a dose-response manner similar to synthetic LHRH. PMID:6816590

  9. Hormone activation of baculovirus expressed progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliston, J F; Beekman, J M; Tsai, S Y; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1992-03-15

    Human and chicken progesterone receptors (A form) were overproduced in a baculovirus expression system. These recombinant progesterone receptors were full-length bound progesterone specifically and were recognized by monoclonal antibodies, AB52 and PR22, specific for human and chicken progesterone receptor, respectively. In gel retardation studies, binding of recombinant human and chicken progesterone receptors to their progesterone response element (PRE) was specific and was enhanced in the presence of progesterone. Binding of human progesterone receptor to the PRE was also enhanced in the presence of the antiprogestin, RU486, but very little effect was observed in the presence of estradiol, dexamethasone, testosterone, and vitamin D. In our cell-free transcription system, human progesterone receptor induced transcription in a receptor-dependent and hormone-activable manner. Receptor-stimulated transcription required the presence of the PRE in the test template and could be specifically inhibited by excess PRE oligonucleotides. Furthermore, chicken progesterone receptor also induced in vitro transcription in a hormone-activable manner. These results demonstrate that steroid receptors overexpressed in a baculovirus expression system are functional and exhibit steroid-responsive binding and transcription. These observations support our present understanding of the mechanism of steroid receptor-regulated gene expression and provide a technological format for studies of the role of hormone and antihormone in altering gene expression. PMID:1544902

  10. The Role of Thyroid Hormone in Testicular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data shows that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:18728126

  11. Kinetic study of internalization and degradation of sup 131 I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse Sertoli cells and its relevance to other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A.; Kawashima, S. )

    1989-08-15

    The behavior of 131I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) after binding to cell-surface receptors in cultured Sertoli cells of C57BL/6NCrj mice was investigated. Sertoli cells cultured in F12/DME were pulse-labeled with 131I-FSH for 10 min at 4 degrees C, followed by cold chase for various periods of time. After the cold chase Sertoli cells were treated with 0.2 M acetate (pH 2.5) to dissociate membrane-bound 131I-FSH (surface radioactivity). The medium containing radioactivity after cold chase was mixed with 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged, and the radioactivity of the supernatant was measured (degraded hormone). The radiolabeled materials associated with each process (surface binding, internalization, and degradation) were concentrated with ultrafiltration and characterized with gel filtration and/or thin layer chromatography. The effects of lysosomotropic agents, NH4Cl and chloroquine, were studied. The cold chase study at 32 degrees C showed that the surface radioactivity was the largest among the three kinds of radioactivities associated with each process immediately after pulse labeling, but the surface radioactivity rapidly decreased, while the internalized radioactivity increased. The cold chase study at 4 degrees C did not show such time-related changes in radioactivities, and a high level of surface radioactivity constantly persisted. The surface and internalized radioactivities were due to 131I-FSH, and the degraded radioactivity was mainly due to (131I)monoiodotyrosine. When Sertoli cells were cultured with lysosomotropic agents, the internalized radioactivity increased, while the degraded radioactivity decreased. Based on these observations, a kinetic model was proposed and the relationships among the surface, internalized, and degraded radioactivities and cold chase time were calculated algebraically.

  12. Fluoride Exposure, Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian Axis Hormones in Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming Xu; Zhou, Guo Yu; Zhu, Jing Yuan; Gong, Biao; Hou, Jia Xiang; Zhou, Tong; Duan, Li Ju; Ding, Zhong; Cui, Liu Xin; Ba, Yue

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fluoride exposure on the functions of reproductive and endocrine systems have attracted widespread attention in academic circle nowadays. However, it is unclear whether the gene-environment interaction may modify the secretion and activity of hypothalamus-pituitary- ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism on reproductive hormones in Chinese women. A cross sectional study was conducted in seven villages of Henan Province, China during 2010-2011. A total of 679 women aged 18-48 years were recruited through cluster sampling and divided into three groups, i.e. endemic fluorosis group (EFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG), and control group (CG) based on the local fluoride concentration in drinking water. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were determined respectively and the FSHR polymorphism was detected by real time PCR assay. The results provided the preliminary evidence indicating the gene-environment interaction on HPO axis hormones in women. PMID:26464260

  13. Metabolism of thyroid hormones by rat thyroid tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Green, W L

    1978-09-01

    Rat thyroid lobes or hemilobes have been incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing labeled T4 and/or T3, and the products were separated by paper chromatography. Labeled T4 was actively degraded; about half of the T4 metabolized was recovered as T3. Labeled T3 was also metabolized, but less rapidly than T4. Other than T3 produced from T4, the major products from both hormones were inorganic iodide and iodoprotein; the latter was presumably a secondary product of iodide organification because its formation was inhibited by hypoxia and methimazole. Feeding the animals a low iodine diet increased their hormone-metabolizing activity. Incubation under nitrogen did not affect the rate of T4 degradation, but partially inhibited T3 degradation. Degradation of both hormones was unchanged in the presence of methimazole and ascorbate, was markedly inhibited by 1 mM propylthiouracil (PTU), and was partially inhibited by azide and cyanide. Thyroid tissues concentrated both hormones, tissue to medium gradients averaging 5.4 for T4 and 20.7 for T3; none of the conditions affecting hormone degradation (incubation under nitrogen or with azide, cyanide, or PTU) significantly altered these gradients. It is concluded that the thyroid can metabolize both of its major hormones by a system distinct from thyroidal peroxidase. Hormone metabolism, therefore, is a potentially important factor in net hormone secretion. In its resistance to hypoxia, methimazole, and ascorbate and its sensitivity to PTU, the thyroid's system for generating T3 from T4 resembles T3-forming systems of liver and kidney. The thyroid, because T3 formation is its dominant pathway for T4 metabolism, may provide a useful model for study of this reaction. PMID:744119

  14. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future. PMID:7825645

  15. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... both combination and estrogen-alone hormone use made mammography less effective for the early detection of breast ... such as a reduction in the use of mammography, may also have contributed to this decline ( 15 ). ...

  16. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  17. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... agonists , which are sometimes called LHRH analogs, are synthetic proteins that are structurally similar to LHRH and ... gland to stop producing luteinizing hormone, which prevents testosterone from being produced. Treatment with an LHRH agonist ...

  18. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is performed by administering the amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The ... to secrete growth hormone in response to the arginine. Lack of hGH can cause growth retardation in ...

  19. Biology of PXR: role in drug-hormone interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dai, Shu; Guo, Yan; Xie, Wen; Zhai, Yonggong

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal homeostasis is essential for a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics, such as drugs introduced into the human body, could disrupt the balance of hormones due to the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) functions as a master xenobiotic receptor involved in drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions by its coordinated transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II DMEs and transporters. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that PXR can also mediate the endocrine disruptor function and thus impact the integrity of the endocrine system. This review focuses primarily on the recent advances in our understanding of the function of PXR in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen and estrogen homeostasis. The elucidation of PXR-mediated drug-hormone interactions might have important therapeutic implications in dealing with hormone-dependent diseases and safety assessment of drugs. PMID:26417296

  20. USE OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS HORMONES AND A XENOBIOTIC PESTICIDE ON GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a teleost model to screen physiological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on somatic growth. Growth is largely controlled by the endocrine system via the growth-hormone releasing hormone (GRF) - growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IG...

  1. A novel form of pigment-dispersing hormone in the central nervous system of the intertidal marine isopod, Eurydice pulchra (leach).

    PubMed

    Wilcockson, David C; Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Webster, Simon G

    2011-02-15

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is well known as a circadian clock output factor, which drives daily activity rhythms in many insects. The role of its homologue, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), in the regulation of circadian and/or circatidal rhythmicity in crustaceans is, however, poorly understood. The intertidal isopod crustacean, Eurydice pulchra has well-defined circatidal (12.4-hour) activity rhythms. In this study we show that this runs parallel to a circadian (24-hour) cycle of chromatophore dispersion. As a first step in determining the potential role of PDH in these rhythms, we have identified a novel form of PDH expressed in this species. Because conventional homology cloning was unsuccessful, we employed immuno-identification and Edman microsequencing to determine the primary structure of this peptide. From this, cDNA cloning identified the nucleotide encoding sequence and thus facilitated description of PDH neurons by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We show them to be morphologically similar to those that co-ordinate circadian activity rhythms in insects. In animals expressing both tidal (activity) and circadian (chromatophore) rhythms, however, there was no evidence for a corresponding periodicity in the expression of pdh transcript, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Eurydice heads. It is therefore suggested that any role for PDH in daily/tidal timing in Eurydice is not mediated at the transcriptional level, rather rhythms in neurohemal release may be important in such co-ordination. PMID:21192084

  2. Modulation of hormone-sensitive lipase and protein kinase A-mediated lipolysis by perilipin A in an adenoviral reconstituted system.

    PubMed

    Souza, Sandra C; Muliro, Kizito V; Liscum, Laura; Lien, Ping; Yamamoto, Mia T; Schaffer, Jean E; Dallal, Gerard E; Wang, Xinzhong; Kraemer, Fredric B; Obin, Martin; Greenberg, Andrew S

    2002-03-01

    Perilipin (Peri) A is a phosphoprotein located at the surface of intracellular lipid droplets in adipocytes. Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) results in the phosphorylation of Peri A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the predominant lipase in adipocytes, with concurrent stimulation of adipocyte lipolysis. To investigate the relative contributions of Peri A and HSL in basal and PKA-mediated lipolysis, we utilized NIH 3T3 fibroblasts lacking Peri A and HSL but stably overexpressing acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACS1) and fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). When incubated with exogenous fatty acids, ACS1/FATP1 cells accumulated 5 times more triacylglycerol (TG) as compared with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Adenoviral-mediated expression of Peri A in ACS1/FATP1 cells enhanced TG accumulation and inhibited lipolysis, whereas expression of HSL fused to green fluorescent protein (GFPHSL) reduced TG accumulation and enhanced lipolysis. Forskolin treatment induced Peri A hyperphosphorylation and abrogated the inhibitory effect of Peri A on lipolysis. Expression of a mutated Peri A Delta 3 (Ser to Ala substitutions at PKA consensus sites Ser-81, Ser-222, and Ser-276) reduced Peri A hyperphosphorylation and blocked constitutive and forskolin-stimulated lipolysis. Thus, perilipin expression and phosphorylation state are critical regulators of lipid storage and hydrolysis in ACS1/FATP1 cells. PMID:11751901

  3. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in 2S FAZA hepatoma cells is hormonally regulated: a model system for the study of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Voice, M W; Seckl, J R; Edwards, C R; Chapman, K E

    1996-01-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) is a key enzyme in glucocorticoid metabolism, catalysing the conversion of active glucocorticoids into their inactive 11-keto metabolites, thus regulating glucocorticoid access to intracellular receptors. The type 1 isoform (11 beta-HSD 1) (EC 1.1.1.146) is widely distributed, with particularly high levels in liver, where accumulating evidence suggests that it acts as an 11 beta-reductase, regenerating active glucocorticoids. Investigation of the function and regulation of 11 beta-HSD 1 in liver has been hampered by the lack of hepatic cell lines which express 11 beta-HSD 1. Here, we describe 11 beta-HSD 1 mRNA expression and activity in 2S FAZA cells, a continuously cultured rat liver cell line. In intact 2S FAZA cells 11 beta-HSD 1 acts predominantly as a reductase, with very low dehydrogenase activity. In 2S FAZA cells 11 beta-HSD 1 activity and mRNA expression are regulated by hormones, with dexamethasone increasing activity and insulin, forskolin and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreasing it. Transfection of 2S FAZA cells with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the proximal promoter of the rat 11 beta-HSD 1 gene demonstrates that sequences which can mediate the responses to insulin, dexamethasone and forskolin all lie within 1800 bp of the transcription start site. PMID:8713094

  4. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-05-10

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and co-secreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27162583

  5. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and co-secreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27162583

  6. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. PMID:24945995

  7. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the

  8. The current state of male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing H; Page, Stephanie T

    2016-07-01

    World population continues to grow at an unprecedented rate, doubling in a mere 50years to surpass the 7-billion milestone in 2011. This steep population growth exerts enormous pressure on the global environment. Despite the availability of numerous contraceptive choices for women, approximately half of all pregnancies are unintended and at least half of those are unwanted. Such statistics suggest that there is still a gap in contraceptive options for couples, particularly effective reversible contraceptives for men, who have few contraceptive choices. Male hormonal contraception has been an active area of research for almost 50years. The fundamental concept involves the use of exogenous hormones to suppress endogenous production of gonadotropins, testosterone, and downstream spermatogenesis. Testosterone-alone regimens are effective in many men but high dosing requirements and sub-optimal gonadotropin suppression in 10-30% of men limit their use. A number of novel combinations of testosterone and progestins have been shown to be more efficacious but still require further refinement in delivery systems and a clearer understanding of the potential short- and long-term side effects. Recently, synthetic androgens with both androgenic and progestogenic activity have been developed. These agents have the potential to be single-agent male hormonal contraceptives. Early studies of these compounds are encouraging and there is reason for optimism that these may provide safe, reversible, and reliable contraception for men in the near future. PMID:27016468

  9. Brain sex differences and hormone influences

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

  10. Hormonal responses in strenuous jumping effort.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Tihanyl, J; Rivalta, L; Parlato, G; Tranquilli, C; Pulvirenti, G; Foti, C; Viru, M; Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    In order to test the possibility for rapid responses of blood hormone levels in short-term supramaximal exercises, serum concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH), cortisol (C), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined by RIA procedures in blood samples obtained before and immediately after a 60-s period of consecutive vertical jumps (Bosco test). The study subjects were 16 Italian professional soccer players. Immediately after exercise, significant increases (p < 0.05) were found in the concentrations of ACTH (by 39%), C (by 14%), TSH (by 20%), fT3 (by 28%), fT4 (by 30%), tT (by 12%), fT (by 13%), and SHBG (by 21%). Significant changes were not detected in the blood levels of GH, IGF-I and PRL. Most pronounced testosterone responses were typical for persons of high jumping performance (the increase of serum tT correlated with average power output, r = 0.61 and jumping height, r = 0.66). The larger the drop in power output during 60-s jumping, the higher was the thyroid response: the difference in jumping height between the first and last 15-s period correlated with increases in TSH (r = 0.52) and in fT4, (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate that in intense exercise, causing the rapid development of fatigue, rapid increases in serum levels of hormones of the pituitary-adrenocortical, pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid systems occur. PMID:8743723

  11. Morphological analysis of the early development of telencephalic and diencephalic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal systems in enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic medaka lines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiko; Islam, M Sadiqul; Abe, Hideki; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Kaneko, Takeshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-01

    Teleosts possess two or three paralogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes: gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Some species have lost the gnrh1 and/or gnrh3 genes, whereas gnrh2 has been completely conserved in the teleost species analyzed to date. In most teleosts that possess gnrh1, GnRH1 peptide is the authentic GnRH that stimulates gonadotropin release, whereas GnRH2 and GnRH3, if present, are neuromodulatory. Progenitors of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons originate from olfactory placodes and migrate to their destination during early development. However, because of the relatively low affinity/specificity of generally available antibodies that recognize GnRH1 or GnRH3, labeling of these neurons has only been possible using genetic manipulation. We used a model teleost, medaka, which possesses all three paralogous gnrh genes, to analyze development of forebrain GnRH neurons composed of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons. Here, we newly generated transgenic medaka lines that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of promoters for gnrh1 or gnrh3, to detect GnRH neurons and facilitate immunohistochemical analysis of the neuronal morphology. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional confocal microscopy image reconstructions to improve identification of neurites from GnRH1 or GnRH3 neuronal populations with greater precision. This led us to clearly identify the hypophysiotropic innervation of GnRH1 neurons residing in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA) from as early as 10 days post hatching. Furthermore, these analyses also revealed retinopetal projections of nonhypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons in vPOA, prominent during early developmental stages, and multiple populations of GnRH3 neurons with different origins and migratory pathways. PMID:26287569

  12. Hormonal influence on the secretory immune system of the eye: androgen control of secretory component production by the rat exorbital gland.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D A; Bloch, K J; Allansmith, M R

    1984-01-01

    Androgens are known to regulate the level of secretory component (SC) in tears of male rats. The purpose of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanism of this hormone action by (i) identifying the ocular tissue(s) involved in SC production; and (ii) determining whether androgens increase SC production by this tissue. We also examined whether androgen administration influenced the concentration of SC in tears of female rats. Ocular tissues from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in the presence or absence of cycloheximide in the incubation medium. Secretory component in the culture media was measured by an RIA which detects primarily free SC. Analysis of media obtained after incubation of exorbital (lacrimal) glands, 'lid' tissues, globes, and Harderian glands revealed that only exorbital glands released substantial amounts of SC. This exorbital gland production of SC, which was significantly greater in tissues from male rats, as compared to those of female rats, was reduced by approximately 50% when cycloheximide was present in the culture medium. To determine whether SC production by exorbital glands was influenced by androgens, orchiectomized glands was influenced by androgens, orchiectomized rats were administered either saline or testosterone (2.0 mg/day for 4 days), and exorbital glands were cultured 24 hr after the last injection. Testosterone treatment in vivo induced a significant, cycloheximide-sensitive increase in SC production in vitro, compared to the glandular SC output of saline-injected controls. It is interesting that similar androgen treatment of ovariectomized females also resulted in elevated tear SC concentrations and enhanced output of SC by their exorbital glands in vitro. These findings indicate that the exorbital gland is primarily responsible for SC production in the rat eye and that androgens may modulate the synthesis of SC in this gland. PMID:6735436

  13. Follicle Diameter and Systemic Hormone Interrelationships during Induction of Follicle Collapse with Intrafollicular Prostaglandin E2 and F2α in Mares.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to determine: (i) whether intrafollicular administration of PGE2 and PGF2α to mares would hasten follicle collapse and (ii) the differences in reproductive hormone characteristics in mares with spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced follicle collapses. Six mares were followed for two oestrous cycles each: when the mares reached a follicle diameter of 30-35 mm and showed mild-to-moderate endometrial oedema, mares were administered a single 0.5 ml dose containing 500 μg PGE2 and 125 μg PGF2α (treatment cycle) or a placebo (0.5 ml of water for injection; control cycle) into the preovulatory follicle (Hour 0). Blood samples were collected, and serial ultrasound examinations were performed until follicle collapse. Treated mares showed follicle collapse significantly earlier (20.0 ± 5.9 h) than the control mares (72.0 ± 10.7 h). The LH, progesterone, total oestrogens and oestradiol concentrations did not differ between groups; however, the progesterone concentration increased more between 48 and 72 h after follicle injection in the treatment compared to the control cycles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α hastened follicle collapse in mares without the simultaneous use of an inductor of ovulation; despite the early induction of follicle collapse, the profiles of LH and oestradiol were not altered. This study provides information on the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the process of follicle wall rupture and collapse and suggests that this may happen even before the beginning of the sharp rise in circulating LH at the final stage of the ovulatory surge. PMID:26931199

  14. AGE-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN THE STIMULATED RELEASE IN VITRO OF CATECHOLAMINES AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE FROM THE MALE RAT HYPOTHALAMUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using an in vitro perifusion system, the present study investigated the possibility that alterations in catecholamine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion from the male rat mediobasal hypothalamus are present during the period of middle-age. The results indi...

  15. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight. PMID:26421979

  16. Is dehydroepiandrosterone a hormone?

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Luu-The, V; Bélanger, A; Lin, S-X; Simard, J; Pelletier, G; Labrie, C

    2005-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is not a hormone but it is a very important prohormone secreted in large amounts by the adrenals in humans and other primates, but not in lower species. It is secreted in larger quantities than cortisol and is present in the blood at concentrations only second to cholesterol. All the enzymes required to transform DHEA into androgens and/or estrogens are expressed in a cell-specific manner in a large series of peripheral target tissues, thus permitting all androgen-sensitive and estrogen-sensitive tissues to make locally and control the intracellular levels of sex steroids according to local needs. This new field of endocrinology has been called intracrinology. In women, after menopause, all estrogens and almost all androgens are made locally in peripheral tissues from DHEA which indirectly exerts effects, among others, on bone formation, adiposity, muscle, insulin and glucose metabolism, skin, libido and well-being. In men, where the secretion of androgens by the testicles continues for life, the contribution of DHEA to androgens has been best evaluated in the prostate where about 50% of androgens are made locally from DHEA. Such knowledge has led to the development of combined androgen blockade (CAB), a treatment which adds a pure anti-androgen to medical (GnRH agonist) or surgical castration in order to block the access of the androgens made locally to the androgen receptor. In fact, CAB has been the first treatment demonstrated to prolong life in advanced prostate cancer while recent data indicate that it can permit long-term control and probably cure in at least 90% of cases of localized prostate cancer. The new field of intracrinology or local formation of sex steroids from DHEA in target tissues has permitted major advances in the treatment of the two most frequent cancers, namely breast and prostate cancer, while its potential use as a physiological HRT could well provide a physiological balance of androgens and estrogens, thus

  17. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

  18. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  19. Growth Hormone and Cerebral Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Benvenga, S; Guarneri, F

    2016-08-01

    Great interest has recently been focused on a paper reporting characteristic deposits of amyloid-β protein associated with Alzheimer's disease in brains of adults who died of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. As they had contracted such disease after treatment with prion-contaminated human growth hormone extracted from cadaver-derived pituitaries, the authors have suggested that interhuman transmission of Alzheimer's disease had occurred. Our previous research led us to find that amyloid-forming peptides share amino acid sequence homology, summarized by a motif. Here, we probed the amino acid sequence of human growth hormone for such a motif, and found that 2 segments fit the motif and are potentially amyloid-forming. This finding was confirmed by Aggrescan, another well-known software for the prediction of amyloidogenic peptides. Our results, taken together with data from the literature that are missing in the aforementioned paper and associated commentaries, minimize the contagious nature of the iatrogenically-acquired coexistence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease. In particular, the above mentioned paper misses literature data on intratumoral amyloidosis in growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting adenomas, tumors relatively frequent in adults, which are often silent. It cannot be excluded that some pituitaries used to extract growth hormone contained clinically silent microadenomas, a fraction of which containing amyloid deposits, and patients might had received a fraction of growth hormone (with or without prolactin) that already was an amyloid seed. The intrinsic amyloidogenicity of growth hormone, in the presence of contaminating prion protein (and perhaps prolactin as well) and amyloid-β contained in some cadavers' pituitaries, may have led to the observed co-occurring of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27214308

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Inhibition of the Thyroid Hormone Pathway in Xenopus by Mercaptobenzothiazole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone-dependent process that provides a potential model system to assess chemicals for their ability to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this system to a variety of ...

  2. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials. PMID:25673544

  3. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Antonietta, Costantino; Giulia, Gava; Marta, Berra; Cristina, Meriggiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials. PMID:25673544

  4. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: Potential mechanisms of sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  5. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  6. Hormone purification by isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a ground-prototype of an apparatus for recycling isoelectric focusing was evaluated in an effort to provide technology for large scale purification of peptide hormones, proteins, and other biologicals. Special emphasis was given to the effects of gravity on the function of the apparatus and to the determination of potential advantages deriveable from its use in a microgravity environment. A theoretical model of isoelectric focusing sing chemically defined buffer systems for the establishment of the pH gradients was developed. The model was transformed to a form suitable for computer simulations and was used extensively for the design of experimental buffers.

  7. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  8. Acute serum hormone levels: characterization and prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy K; McCullough, Emily H; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L; Dobos, Julie A; Brett, Christopher A; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C Edward; Berga, Sarah L; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global outcome for

  9. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The maintainance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro was studied. The primary approach was the testing of agents which may be expected to increase the release of the human growth hormone (hGH). A procedure for tissue procurement is described along with the methodologies used to dissociate human pituitary tissue (obtained either at autopsy or surgery) into single cell suspensions. The validity of the Biogel cell column perfusion system for studying the dynamics of GH release was developed and documented using a rat pituitary cell system.

  10. [dFOXO Transcription Factor Regulates Juvenile Hormone Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster Females].

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, I Yu; Karpova, E K; Gruntenko, N E

    2015-09-01

    dFOXO transcription factor is a component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway in Drosophila. Juvenile hormone negatively regulates dFOXO gene expression. In the present work, the effect of hypomorphic dFOXO mutation on juvenile hormone metabolism under normal and stressing conditions and on D. melanogaster female resistance to thermal stress was studied. It was demonstrated that dFOXO mutation in D. melanogaster females induces (1) an increase in the level of juvenile hormone degradation and in the intensity of the response of the juvenile hormone metabolism system to thermal stress and (2) a decrease in thermal stress resistance. These parameters are indicators of the level of juvenile hormone synthesis and indicate its decrease in females with decreased dFOXO expression. Thus, the presence of feedback in the regulation of dFOXO gene expression by juvenile hormone was established for the first time. PMID:26606805

  11. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroy or remove the lining of the uterus Hysterectomy to remove the uterus ... JP, Bhattacharya S, Cooper KG, Hilken NH, et al. Hysterectomy, endometrial destruction, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) ...

  12. Executive Summary of Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report synthesizes evidence about innate hormonally mediated physiologic processes in women and fetuses/newborns during childbearing, and possible impacts of common maternity care practices and interventions on these processes, focusing on four hormone systems that are consequential for childbearing. Core hormonal physiology principles reveal profound interconnections between mothers and babies, among hormone systems, and from pregnancy through to the postpartum and newborn periods. Overall, consistent and coherent evidence from physiologic understandings and human and animal studies finds that the innate hormonal physiology of childbearing has significant benefits for mothers and babies. Such hormonally-mediated benefits may extend into the future through optimization of breastfeeding and maternal-infant attachment. A growing body of research finds that common maternity care interventions may disturb hormonal processes, reduce their benefits, and create new challenges. Developmental and epigenetic effects are biologically plausible but poorly studied. The perspective of hormonal physiology adds new considerations for benefit-harm assessments in maternity care, and suggests new research priorities, including consistently measuring crucial hormonally mediated outcomes that are frequently overlooked. Current understanding suggests that safely avoiding unneeded maternity care interventions would be wise, as supported by the Precautionary Principle. Promoting, supporting, and protecting physiologic childbearing, as far as safely possible in each situation, is a low-technology health and wellness approach to the care of childbearing women and their fetuses/newborns that is applicable in almost all maternity care settings. PMID:26834435

  13. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  14. Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159014.html Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity Researchers suspect ... may have lower levels of a weight-regulating hormone than normal-weight teens, a new study says. " ...

  15. Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159014.html Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity Researchers suspect low levels of spexin might play ... reduced levels of this hormone in adults with obesity. Overall, our findings suggest spexin may play a ...

  16. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a ...

  17. Pediatric stress: hormonal mediators and human development.

    PubMed

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Kino, Tomoshige; Souvatzoglou, Emmanuil; Chrousos, George P

    2003-01-01

    Stress activates the central and peripheral components of the stress system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the arousal/sympathetic system. The principal effectors of the stress system are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin, the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocorticoids, and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. Appropriate responsiveness of the stress system to stressors is a crucial prerequisite for a sense of well-being, adequate performance of tasks and positive social interactions. By contrast, inappropriate responsiveness of the stress system may impair growth and development, and may account for a number of endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors. The developing brain undergoes rapid growth and is characterized by high turnover of neuronal connections during the prenatal and early postnatal life. These processes and, hence, brain plasticity, slow down during childhood and puberty, and plateau in young adulthood. Hormonal actions in early life, and to a much lesser extent later, can be organizational, i.e., can have effects that last for long periods of time, often for the entire life of the individual. Hormones of the stress system and sex steroids have such effects, which influence the behavior and certain physiologic functions of individuals for life. Exposure of the developing brain to severe and/or prolonged stress may result in hyperactivity/hyperreactivity of the stress system, with resultant amygdala hyperfunction (fear reaction), decreased activity of the hippocampus

  18. Natural hormone therapy for menopause.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Khalid

    2010-02-01

    Menopausal women are deficient in estrogen, progesterone, and frequently in testosterone and DHEA. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the United States has generally consisted of one or two agents, typically equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone, with increased risk of heart attack, stroke, dementia, and breast cancer [WHI trials]. Bio-identical hormones [chemically endogenous hormones] have gained popularity and can be mixed according to physician's orders by compounding pharmacists in the United States. However, there is little published information about the use of such hormones. This paper reports a 12 plus months follow up on 189 patients who were administered natural estrogen plus progesterone with or without DHEA or testosterone according to a rationalized protocol described later. Ninety-seven percent of the patients experienced varying degrees of symptom control, whereas three had minimal or questionable benefit. Mental symptoms experienced upon presentation improved in 90% of the patients. Sixty percent of the patients, who had gained weight during menopause, lost an average of 14.8 lbs [SD 11.98 lbs]. Complications described with traditional HRT did not develop in this group of patients. These findings point out a need for larger controlled trials of similar protocols in the management of menopause. PMID:19995152

  19. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... than children of the same age), such as chronic kidney disease, Turner syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome In adults, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short bowel ...

  20. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  1. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A V

    1988-01-01

    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicity of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogs was similar to that of the basic D-Arg6 antagonists. In vitro, most of the analogs completely inhibited LH-RH-mediated luteinizing hormone release in perfused rat pituitary cell systems at an antagonist to LH-RH molar ratio of 5:1. In vivo, the most active peptides, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Trp3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Nal(2) indicates 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine] and its D-Hci6 analog, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation in cycling rats in doses of 3 micrograms and suppressed the luteinizing hormone level in ovariectomized female rats for 47 hr when administered at doses of 25 micrograms. Characteristically, these peptides did not exert any edematogenic effects even at 1.5 mg/kg. These properties of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 antagonists may make them useful clinically. PMID:3278323

  2. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  3. Regions of the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  4. Components of the Urinary System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  5. Can Chemicals in the Environment That Affect Hormone Function Disrupt Development?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormones, including estrogens and androgens, regulate the expression of genes that play critical roles in guiding the development of organ systems in the embryo. Changes in either the amount or the timing of hormone exposure can lead to altered human development. For example, hum...

  6. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for RORγ/γt. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, RORγ/γt shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that RORγ/γt is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by RORγ/γt and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  7. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  8. [Causative hormonal prevention of premature labour].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Labour is the most important caesura in the life of every human being, as it is the ultimate test of the child's fetal maturity to self dependent life, whose onset is connected with a violent change in the circulatory system and the commencement of breathing. Maturity assessment scale comprises such features as, among others: posture, angle forearm, pulling an elbow to the middle line of the body, distribution of lanugo, plantar creases, breast development. They can be objectified through their technical quantification the same way as we give the appropriate number of grams and centimeters when assessing the weight and length of the newborn. However, two equally mature fetuses call differ in mass by 800g, body length by 6 cm, and gestational age by 6 weeks. Relativity of pregnancy duration clearly demonstrates that only the quantitativization of maturity enabled its prenatal assessment on the basis of the rate of increase of the spatial parameters of the baby developing in the mother's womb. The date of the end of pregnancy is determined depending equally on the child's fetal maturity and the mother's readiness to birth, where the placenta plays an important role, as its existence coincides with the individual duration of every pregnancy. The use of industrially synthesized hormones means that those pharmaceuticals contain the whole mixture of side-products of the synthesis of the hormones. The biologically alien corticoid analogues like dexamethasone and betamethasone must, when exerting prolonged action, cause unwanted side effects. In contrast the ACTH-depot administration leads to desired production and secretion of corticoids through the control of the whole body function of the adrenals. Such naturally stimulated endogenous steroid hormones are free from unwanted side effects of drugs from the group of their synthetic analogues. An enormous body of evidence supports the link between the administration of corticotrophin and fetal body mass, maturity and age of

  9. The putative AKH receptor of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and its expression.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R; Isoe, J; Moore, W; Riehle, M A; Wells, M A

    2011-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones are peptide hormones that mobilize lipids and/or carbohydrates for flight in adult insects and activate glycogen Phosphorylase in larvae during starvation and during molt. We previously examined the functional roles of adipokinetic hormone in Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Here we report the cloning of the full-length cDNA encoding the putative adipokinetic hormone receptor from the fat body of M. sexta. The sequence analysis shows that the deduced amino acid sequence shares common motifs of G protein-coupled receptors, by having seven hydrophobic transmembrane segments. We examined the mRNA expression pattern of the adipokinetic hormone receptor by quantitative Real-Time PCR in fat body during development and in different tissues and found the strongest expression in fat body of larvae two days after molt to the fifth instar. We discuss these results in relation to some of our earlier results. We also compare the M. sexta adipokinetic hormone receptor with the known adipokinetic hormone receptors of other insects and with gonadotropin releasing hormone-like receptors of invertebrates. PMID:21529255

  10. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog. PMID:26633041

  11. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  12. The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...

  13. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  14. Insect hormones and their derivatives as insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, William S.

    1971-01-01

    The hormonal control of moulting, reproduction, and diapause in insects has little or no relationship to any similar phenomena in other animals, and the hormones involved in these processes are unlike any known hormones of vertebrates. The availability of pure chemicals with high biological activity has permitted an astonishing increase in research on insect hormones. At present, understanding of insect endocrinology is far too incomplete to justify much speculation about the possibility of using insect hormones as insecticides. However, the preliminary studies discussed in this paper give reason for hope, and the results justify further effort. PMID:4938025

  15. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  16. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  17. Cardioprotection and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Kusmic, Claudia; Iervasi, Giorgio; Grigolini, Paolo; Forini, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of cardiac disease after an acute ischemic event depends on a complex and dynamic network of mechanisms alternating from ischemic damage due to acute coronary occlusion to reperfusion injury due to the adverse effects of coronary revascularization till post-ischemic remodeling. Cardioprotection is a new purpose of the therapeutic interventions in cardiology with the goal to reduce infarct size and thus prevent the progression toward heart failure after an acute ischemic event. In a complex biological system such as the human one, an effective cardioprotective strategy should diachronically target the network of cross-talking pathways underlying the disease progression. Thyroid system is strictly interconnected with heart homeostasis, and recent studies highlighted its role in cardioprotection, in particular through the preservation of mitochondrial function and morphology, the antifibrotic and proangiogenetic effect and also to the potential induction of cell regeneration and growth. The objective of this review was to highlight the cardioprotective role of triiodothyronine in the complexity of post-ischemic disease evolution. PMID:27011011

  18. Development of a Transnasal Delivery System for Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH): Effects of the Concentration and Molecular Weight of Poly-L-arginine on the Nasal Absorption of rhGH in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ryo; Uchida, Masaki; Yamaki, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Kazuo; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel system for delivering recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) that is noninvasive and has a simple method of administration is strongly desired to improve the compliance of children. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for the intranasal (i.n.) co-administration of rhGH with poly-L-arginine (PLA) as a novel delivery system by evaluating the effects of the concentration and molecular weight of PLA on the nasal absorption of rhGH. The influence of the formation of insoluble aggregates and a soluble complex in the dosage formulation on nasal rhGH absorption was also evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration. PLA enhanced the nasal absorption of rhGH at each concentration and molecular weight examined. Nasal rhGH absorption increased dramatically when the PLA concentration was 1.0 % (w/v) due to the improved solubility of rhGH in the formulation. A delay in rhGH absorption was observed when the molecular weight of PLA was increased. This appeared to be because the increase in molecular weight caused the formation of a soluble complex. It seems that the PLA concentration affects the absorption-enhancing effect on rhGH, while the molecular weight of PLA affects the time when the maximum plasma rhGH concentration was reached (Tmax) of rhGH after i.n. administration, mainly because of the interactions among rhGH, PLA, and additives. Therefore, the transnasal rhGH delivery system using PLA is considered to be a promising alternative to subcutaneous (s.c.) injection if these interactions are sufficiently controlled. PMID:26725528

  19. Foetal Hypothalamic and Pituitary Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Galanin Systems is Disturbed by Exposure to Sewage Sludge Chemicals via Maternal Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Whitelaw, Christine M.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M.; Evans, Neil P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. Verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminants (ECs), particularly in- utero, when sensitivity to EC exposure is high. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fetal sheep reproductive neuroendocrine axis, particularly GnRH and galaninergic systems were affected by maternal exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals, applied to pasture, in the form of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains high concentrations of a spectrum of EDCs and other pollutants, relative to environmental concentrations but is frequently recycled to land as a fertiliser. We found that foetuses exposed, to the EDC mixture in-utero through their mothers, had lower GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and lower GnRHR and galanin receptor (GALR) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Strikingly, this, treatment had no significant effect on maternal GnRH or GnRHR mRNA expression although GALR mRNA expression within the maternal hypothalamus and pituitary gland was reduced. This study clearly demonstrates that the developing foetal neuroendocrine axis is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals. Given the important role of GnRH and GnRHR in the regulation of reproductive function, its known in-utero programming role, and the role of galanin in the regulation of many physiological/neuroendocrine systems, in-utero changes in the activity of these systems are likely to have long term consequences in adulthood and represent a novel pathway through which EC mixtures could perturb normal reproductive function

  20. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  1. A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

  2. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  3. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  4. Inflammation and sex hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Naumann, Heidrun; Weidler, Claudia; Schellenberg, Martina; Anders, Sven; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is higher in females than in males. In both sexes, adrenal hormones, that is, glucocorticoids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androgens, are inadequately low in patients when compared to healthy controls. Hormonally active androgens are anti-inflammatory, whereas estrogens are pro-inflammatory. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations of steroid profiles in inflammation are of major interest. The local metabolism of androgens and estrogens may determine whether a given steroid profile found in a subject's blood results in suppression or promotion of inflammation. The steroid metabolism in mixed synovial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and monocytes was assessed. Major focus was on cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while cells from patients with osteoarthritis served as controls. Enzymes directly or indirectly involved in local sex steroid metabolism in RA are: DHEA-sulfatase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase (CYP19), which are required for the synthesis of sex steroids from precursors, 5alpha-reductase and 16alpha-hydroxylase, which can be involved either in the generation of more active steroids or in the pathways leading to depletion of active hormones, and 3alpha-reductase and 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7B), which unidirectionally are involved in the depletion of active hormones. Androgens inhibit aromatization in synovial cells when their concentration is sufficiently high. As large amounts of estrogens are formed in synovial tissue, there may be a relative lack of androgens. Production of 5alpha-reduced androgens should increase the local anti-inflammatory activity; however, it also opens a pathway for the inactivation of androgens. The data discussed here suggest that therapy of RA patients may benefit from the use of nonaromatizable androgens and/or the use of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:16855150

  5. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  6. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications. PMID:23435439

  7. Transport of Thyroid Hormone in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Eva K.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating TH uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood–brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood–CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT) like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed. PMID:25009532

  8. Gene Expression as a Biomarker of Effect of Thyroid Hormone Action in Developing Brain: Relation to Serum Hormones.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Although animal models of developmental TH deficiency can predict the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system, the effects of moderate TH insufficiencies have proved more diffic...

  9. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (E2)-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2-based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2, T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59–64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80–83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P < 0.005 for all models). The models were adjusted for age, systemic E2, and total body fat mass. The statistics used took into account the lack of statistical independence of twin sisters. Furthermore, muscle cells were shown to take up and actively synthesize hormones. Present study suggests intramuscular sex steroids to associate with strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging. PMID:25645687

  10. Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  11. The Ontogenesis of Human Fetal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S. L.; Grumbach, M. M.; Shepard, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The content and concentration of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) were measured in 117 human fetal pituitary glands from 68 days of gestation to term and in the pituitary glands of 20 children 1 month to 9 yr of age. Physicochemical and immunochemical properties of GH of fetal pituitary glands and GH from adult pituitary glands were indistinguishable by disc gel electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, starch gel electrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay techniques. In the fetal pituitary gland, the GH content rose from mean levels of 0.44±0.2 μg at 10-14 wk of gestation, to 9.21±2.31 μg at 15-19 wk, to 59.38±11.08 μg at 20-24 wk, to 225.93±40.49 μg at 25-29 wk, to 577.67±90 μg at 30-34 wk, and to 675.17±112.33 μg at 35-40 wk. There was a significant positive correlation between growth hormone content of the pituitary and gestational age, crown-rump length, and the weight of the pituitary gland. The content and concentration (micrograms/milligram) of human growth hormone (HGH) in the fetal pituitary showed significant increments (P < 0.001) for each 4 wk period of gestation until 35 wk. Further increases in the HGH content were noted in pituitaries of children aged 1-9 yr (range of 832 to 11.211 μg). Immunoreactive GH was detected in fetal serum at a concentration of 14.5 ng/ml as early as 70 days gestation, the youngest fetus assayed. At 10-14 wk, the mean concentration of serum growth hormone was 65.2±7.6 ng/ml; at 15-19 wk 114.9±12.5 ng/ml; at 20-24 wk 119.3±19.8 ng/ml; at 25-29 wk 72.0±11.5 ng/ml; and 33.5±4.2 ng/ml at term. A significant negative correlation of serum growth hormone with advancing gestational age after 20-24 wk was observed (P < 0.001). In 17 fetuses paired serum and pituitary samples were assayed; no significant correlation between the concentration of serum GH and the pituitary content or concentration of GH was demonstrable. The serum concentration of chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) in the fetus was unrelated to gestational

  12. The effects of antidiuretic hormone and state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system in rats with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Maldonado, M M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1982-01-01

    1. The influence of ADH and the state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system was studied in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI rats). 2. Plasma renin concentration in DI rats was higher than in control Long-Evans rats. 3. Spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia normally found in DI rats did not reduce plasma renin concentration (p.r.c.), suggesting that potassium deficiency does not contribute significantly to the elevation of p.r.c. in DI rats. Similarly, a low potassium diet failed to further increase p.r.c. in DI rats. 4. In contrast, the p.r.c. of DI rats was significantly diminished by a high potassium intake both in the presence and absence of ADH. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between p.r.c. and urinary potassium excretion in both ADH-treated and untreated DI rats on low, normal and high potassium diets. 5. Plasma renin concentration was significantly lower in ADH-treated than in untreated DI rats on a high potassium intake, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of ADH and potassium are additive. 6. ADH consistently reduced p.r.c. in DI rats independent of the state of potassium balance. 7. ADH and potassium may inhibit renin secretion via different mechanisms of action. PMID:7047719

  13. Possible role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor system in the timing of the proestrous luteinizing hormone surge in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsushima, D; Jinnai, K; Kimura, F

    1997-05-01

    To examine the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor-mediated system in the timing of the proestrous LH surge, we observed the free running activity rhythm and the timing of the LH surge simultaneously in blinded cycling female rats. Blood samples were obtained from unanesthetized freely moving rats through an intraatrial cannula. Five hours after the activity offset on the day of proestrus, bicuculline methiodide (BIC; 50 mg/kg x h) or saline was infused i.v. for 3 h into the freely moving rats. In the BIC group, the peak time of the surge occurred at 7.9 +/- 0.2 h after the activity offset, with a significant advance compared to the peak time in the saline group (i.e. 9.9 +/- 0.4 h), but neither BIC nor saline induced a significant phase shift in the circadian activity rhythm. We found that the infusion of BIC on the subjective morning of the proestrous day dissociates the timing of the LH surge from the circadian activity rhythm in rats. PMID:9112391

  14. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples. PMID:27591655

  15. Nonlinear analysis and prediction of pulsatile hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Prank, K. |; Kloppstech, M.; Nowlan, S.J.; Harms, H.M.; Brabant, G.; Hesch, R.; Sejnowski, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Pulsatile hormone secretion is observed in almost every hormonal system. The frequency of episodic hormone release ranges from approximately 10 to 100 pulses in 24 hours. This temporal mode of secretion is an important feature of intercellular information transfer in addition to a dose-response dependent regulation. It has been demonstrated in a number of experiments that changes in the temporal pattern of pulsatile hormone secretion specifically regulate cellular and organ function and structure. Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease characterized by loss of bone mass and structure, to changes in the dynamics of pulsatile parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In our study we applied nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of PTH in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack periods of high predictability found in normal humans. In contrast to patients with osteoporosis patients with hyperparathyroidism, a condition which despite sometimes reduced bone mass has a preserved bone architecture, show periods of high predictability of PTH secretion. Using stochastic surrogate data sets which match certain statistical properties of the original time series significant nonlinear determinism could be found for the PTH time series of a group of healthy subjects. Using classical nonlinear analytical techniques we could demonstrate that the irregular pattern of pulsatile PTH secretion in healthy men exhibits characteristics of deterministic chaos. Pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy subjects seems to be a first example of nonlinear determinism in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  17. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Jens; Lyons, David J.; Sällström, Johan; Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Warner, Amy; Wallis, Karin; Alkemade, Anneke; Nordström, Kristina; Monyer, Hannah; Broberger, Christian; Arner, Anders; Vennström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1. PMID:23257356

  18. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  19. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  20. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  1. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production. PMID:26899252

  2. [The cervix and hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Gorins, A

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the histological effects of hormonal contraceptives on the cervix and assesses statistical studies examining the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) usage and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The cervix acquires a pseudopregnant appearance under the influence of combined OCs. The Malpighian epithelium acquires a richly vascularized stroma characterized by accelerated maturation and the endocervical ectropion may be swollen, frequently with epidermoid metaplasia. Such changes increase with the duration of hormonal contraception and are more pronounced with combined than with sequential OCs. Among pathological changes that may occur are active adenomatous hyperplasia and epithelial abnormalities including dysplasia involving dyscaryotic cells with regular nuclei and no mitotic abnormality. Epithelial anomalies may present various histocytological features and are sometimes difficult to interpret. Epidemiologic study of the cervix is difficult because of the number of parameters to be considered: age at 1st intercourse, frequency of intercourse, number of partners, the formulation of the OC, and the variable duration of use which may have been interrupted by use of another method such as the IUD. Statistical studies have yielded contradictory results, with the earliest reports showing a higher incidence of dysplasia among women using OCs and most later studies showing a possible increased incidence of moderate dysplasia but no increased incidence of carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. The recent study by Vessey et al. which compared 6838 parous OC users with 3154 parous IUD users over 10 years revealed invasive cancer in 13 women all of whom used OCs, with carcinomas in situ and dysplasias also more frequent in women using OCs. The duration of use was found to be a significant factor. Age and dates of marriage and 1st pregnancy were similar in subjects and controls, but no data were provided on age at 1st intercourse or number of

  3. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-05-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes.

  5. [Thyroid hormones and their precursors. II. Species-specific properties].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergo; Noszál, Béla

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the species-specific physico-chemical parameters (basicity and lipophilicity) and related biological functions of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, liothyronine and reverse liothyronine) and their biological precursors (tyrosine, monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine). The protonation macroconstants were determined by 1H NMR-pH titrations while the microconstants were determined by a multimodal spectroscopic-deductive methodology using auxiliary derivatives of reduced complexity. Our results show that the different number and/or position of iodine are the key factors to influence the phenolate basicity. The ionization state of the phenolate site is crucial in the biosynthesis and protein binding of thyroid hormones. The role of the protonation state in the receptor binding was investigated by an in silico docking method. Microspecies of thyroid hormones were docked to the thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Our results quantitate at the molecular level how the ionization stage and the charge distribution influence the protein binding. The anionic form of the carboxyl group is essential for the protein binding, whereas the protonated form of the amino group loosens it. The protonation state of the phenolate plays a role of secondary importance in the receptor binding. The combined results of docking and microspeciation studies show that microspecies of the highest concentration at the pH of blood are not the strongest binding ones. The site-specific lipophilicity of our investigated molecules was determined with the measurement of distribution coefficients at different pH using carboxymethyl- and O-methyl-derivatives to mimic the partition of some of the individual microspecies. Correction factors were determined and introduced. Our data show that the iodinated aromatic ring system is the definitive structural element that fundamentally determines the lipophilicity of thyroid hormones, whereas the protonation state of the aliphatic part is essential in

  6. Management of Hormone-Sensitive and Hormone-Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rago

    1998-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a significant health problem in the United States and is the focus of increasing attention in our society. With the aging of the US population, it is likely that prostate cancer will continue to grow in importance. The options for systemic therapy of metastatic prostate cancer should be familiar to physicians, including nonspecialists, whose patients seek their advice and counsel. METHODS: Past and recent literature was surveyed to provide an understanding of the systemic treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The author presents a review of the systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in different clinical circumstances and addresses the current status of chemotherapy in the management of advanced prostate cancer. RESULTS: Early androgen deprivation used over prolonged periods appears to be modestly superior to delayed androgen deprivation with a small potential survival advantage and an advantage in delaying disease progression in advanced prostate cancer. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer may benefit from secondary hormonal therapy (eg, adrenal enzyme inhibitors, antiandrogens, glucocorticoids) and chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The choices of therapy for metastatic prostate cancer depend on individual patient preference. Patients and physicians should be aware of the possible side effects associated with the therapeutics options for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:10761100

  7. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Burwell, R Geoffrey; Aujla, Ranjit K; Grevitt, Michael P; Dangerfield, Peter H; Moulton, Alan; Randell, Tabitha L; Anderson, Susan I

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic

  8. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic

  9. Leptin and Hormones: Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Georgios A; Paschou, Stavroula A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid adipokine, plays a major role in human energy homeostasis. Its actions are mediated through binding to leptin receptor and activating JAK-STAT3 signal transduction pathway. It is expressed mainly in adipocytes, and its circulating levels reflect the body's energy stores in adipose tissue. Recombinant methionyl human leptin has been FDA approved for patients with generalized non-HIV lipodystrophy and for compassionate use in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of leptin in energy homeostasis, as well as its interaction with other hormones. PMID:27519135

  10. A comparison of methods for analyzing time series of pulsatile hormone data

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, N. E.; Horton, K. W.; Grunwald, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are regulated by pulsatile hormoneshormones that are secreted intermittently in boluses rather than continuously over time. To study pulsatile secretion, blood is drawn every few minutes for an extended period. The result is a time series of hormone concentrations for each individual. The goal is to estimate pulsatile hormone secretion features such as frequency, location, duration, and amount of pulsatile and non-pulsatile secretion and compare these features between groups. Various statistical approaches to analyzing these data have been proposed, but validation has generally focused on one hormone. Thus, we lack a broad understanding of each method’s performance. By using simulated data with features seen in reproductive and stress hormones, we investigated the performance of three recently developed statistical approaches for analyzing pulsatile hormone data and compared them to a frequently used deconvolution approach. We found that methods incorporating a changing baseline modeled both constant and changing baseline shapes well; however, the added model flexibility resulted in a slight increase in bias in other model parameters. When pulses were well defined and baseline constant, Bayesian approaches performed similar to the existing deconvolution method. The increase in computation time of Bayesian approaches offered improved estimation and more accurate quantification of estimation variation in situations where pulse locations were not clearly identifiable. Within the class of deconvolution models for fitting pulsatile hormone data, the Bayesian approach with a changing baseline offered adequate results over the widest range of data. PMID:23787487

  11. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26988999

  12. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  13. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed. PMID:25674165

  14. Restoration of hormonal action and muscle protein.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    This review focuses on the effects of restoring hormonal levels and/or influence on muscle protein metabolism in the stressed state. We have highlighted our clinical experience in the administration of anabolic and anticatabolic agents in stressed clinical populations, primarily adult and pediatric burn injury, as well as patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Our previous experience entails the administration of anabolic hormones, such as testosterone and its derivatives, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 combined with its binding protein 3, and insulin. Current efforts focus on the administration of anticatabolic agents to reduce the effects of hypercortisolemia. Muscle protein metabolism was determined by stable isotope methodology. Our results indicate that normalization of anabolic hormone concentrations or amelioration of hormonal resistance restores the effects of feeding on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Anabolic hormone administration results in a more favorable muscle protein balance in severely burned patients. Amelioration of hypercortisolemia in the stressed state leads to an improvement in protein kinetics. To summarize, alterations in hormonal influence that accompany stress states favor the loss of muscle protein. Restoration or normalization of hormonal influence improves muscle protein kinetics and ameliorates the loss of muscle nitrogen. To restore hormonal influence, clinicians should consider reestablishing anabolic stimuli and reducing catabolic stimuli. PMID:17713420

  15. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY ALTERS THE AMPLITUDE OF THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: The thyroid hormone (TH) system is one of the targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Since TH is essential for proper brain development, disruption by exposure to chemicals during development can result in adverse neurological outcomes. Previous studies revealed th...

  17. The Relationship Between Parathyroid Hormone and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D During and After Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementation with DHEA (in elderly men and women) and testosterone (in elderly men) on postprandial or iv insulin suppression of lipolysis. We found no effect of these hormones on systemic lipolysis. PMID:26895390

  18. Computational Modeling of Thyroid Hormone Regulated Neurodevelopment for Chemical Prioritization (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal brain development. Environmental chemicals may disrupt TH homeostasis through a variety of physiological systems including membrane transporters, serum transporters, synthesis and catabolic enzymes, and nuclear receptors. Current comp...

  19. Mechanism-based testing strategy using in vitro approaches for identification of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thyroid hormone (TH) system is involved in several important physiological processes, including regulation of energy metabolism, growth and differentiation, development and maintenance of brain function, thermo-regulation, osmo-regulation, and axis of regulation of other endo...

  20. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  1. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  2. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  3. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. PMID:25935728

  4. Tissue thyroid hormones and thyronamines.

    PubMed

    Accorroni, Alice; Saponaro, Federica; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    It has been known for a long time that changes in cardiac function are a major component of the clinical presentation of thyroid disease. Increased heart rate and hyperdynamic circulation are hallmarks of hyperthyroidism, while bradycardia and decreased contractility characterize hypothyroidism. Recent findings have provided novel insights in the physiology and pathophysiology of heart regulation by thyroid hormones. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on thyroxine (T4) transport and metabolism and on the biochemical pathways leading to genomic and non-genomic effects produced by 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and by its active metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). On this basis, specific issues of special interest for cardiology are discussed, namely (1) relevance of the regulation of proteins involved in the control of calcium homeostasis and in pacemaker cell activity, due to non-genomic as well as to classical genomic effects; (2) stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by T2 and T1AM, the latter also causing a negative inotropic and chronotropic action at micromolar concentrations; (3) induction of D3 deiodinase in heart failure, potentially causing selective cardiac hypothyroidism, whose clinical implications are still controversial; and (4) cardioprotective effect of T1AM, possibly occurring at physiological concentrations, and relevance of T3 and of thyroid hormone receptor α1 in post-infarction repair. PMID:27115768

  5. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  6. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: cardiovascular risks.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    (1) The WHI study was published in 2002: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in more than 16 000 women with an average age of 63 years at enrollment. The paper reports data on the long-term adverse effects of combined equine estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy, taken for 5 years. (2) On average, a yearly excess of 19 severe adverse events per 10 000 women occurred in the estrogen-progestin group. Relative to the placebo group, there were an extra 8 pulmonary embolisms, 7 coronary events, 8 strokes and 8 cases of invasive breast cancer. In contrast, there were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures in the active treatment group. (3) The differences in the frequency of coronary events and venous thromboembolism emerged after the first year of treatment, while the curves for stroke and breast cancer diverged after the second and fifth years, respectively. (4) The overall mortality rate did not differ between the two groups. (5) A placebo-controlled trial of the same hormone combination (HERS trial), given for 4.1 years as secondary prophylaxis against coronary heart disease was published in 1998. The drug was ineffective during the trial, and during unblinded post-trial follow-up of 2 321 women for an average of 2.7 years (HERS II study). (6) The estrogen-progestin combination used in these trials did not reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (in primary or secondary prophylaxis) or the risk of stroke. On the contrary, both risks increased. (7) The increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism associated with estrogen-progestin replacement therapy was confirmed in these trials, even among women with no relevant history. (8) The WHI trial also confirmed the increased risk of breast cancer in women on hormone replacement therapy, but did not study its impact on outcome or mortality. (9) The WHI trial confirmed the beneficial impact of estrogen-progestin combination therapy on the risk of

  7. The role of reproductive hormones in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gharwan, Helen; Bunch, Kristen P; Annunziata, Christina M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises ∼85% of all ovarian cancer cases. Despite acceptance regarding the influence of reproductive hormones on ovarian cancer risk and considerable advances in the understanding of epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis on a molecular level, complete understanding of the biologic processes underlying malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium is lacking. Various hypotheses have been proposed over the past several decades to explain the etiology of the disease. The role of reproductive hormones in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis remains a key topic of research. Primary questions in the field of ovarian cancer biology center on its developmental cell of origin, the positive and negative effects of each class of hormones on ovarian cancer initiation and progression, and the role of the immune system in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. The development of the female reproductive tract is dictated by the hormonal milieu during embryogenesis. Intensive research efforts have revealed that ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease that may develop from multiple extra-ovarian tissues, including both Müllerian (fallopian tubes, endometrium) and non-Müllerian structures (gastrointestinal tissue), contributing to its heterogeneity and distinct histologic subtypes. The mechanism underlying ovarian localization, however, remains unclear. Here, we discuss the role of reproductive hormones in influencing the immune system and tipping the balance against or in favor of developing ovarian cancer. We comment on animal models that are critical for experimentally validating existing hypotheses in key areas of endocrine research and useful for preclinical drug development. Finally, we address emerging therapeutic trends directed against ovarian cancer. PMID:26373571

  8. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  9. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  10. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, J. H. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888

  11. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Brent, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages — leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sub-lines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee’s adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  12. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  13. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  14. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888

  15. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood and in preovulatory follicular fluid (FF) in relation to feeding levels in mares. Methods Three years prior to the experiment, Welsh Pony mares were assigned to a restricted diet group (R, n = 10) or a well-fed group (WF, n = 9). All mares were in good health and exhibited differences in body weight and subcutaneous fat thickness. Follicular development was scanned daily and plasma was also collected daily. Preovulatory FF was collected by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. Hormone levels were assayed in FF and plasma with a validated RIA. Results According to scans, the total number of follicles in group R was 53% lower than group WF. Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were higher in WF than in R mares. GH and IGF-2 concentrations were lower in plasma from WF mares than from R mares, but the difference was not significant in FF. The IGFBP-2/IGFBP-3 ratio in FF was not affected by feeding but was dramatically increased in R mare plasma. No difference in gonadotropin concentration was found with the exception of FSH, which was higher in the plasma of R mares. On the day of puncture, P4 concentrations were not affected by feeding but were higher in preovulatory FF than in plasma. Conclusions The bioavailability of IGF-1 or IGF-2, represented by the IGFBP2/IGFBP3 ratio, is modified by feed intake in plasma but not in FF. These differences partially explain the variability in follicular growth observed between well-fed mares and mares on restricted diets. PMID:25078409

  16. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones.

  17. PEGylation of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRF) analogues.

    PubMed

    Esposito, P; Barbero, L; Caccia, P; Caliceti, P; D'Antonio, M; Piquet, G; Veronese, F M

    2003-09-26

    Synthetically produced GRF1-29 (Sermorelin) has an amino acid composition identical to the N-terminal 29 amino acids sequence of the natural hypothalamic GHRH1-44 (Figure 1). It maintains bioactivity in vitro and is almost equally effective in eliciting secretion of endogenous growth hormone in vivo. The main drawbacks associated with the pharmaceutical use of hGRF1-29 relate to its short half-life in plasma, about 10-20 min in humans, which is caused mostly by renal ultrafiltration and enzymatic degradation at the N terminus. PEGylation has been considered as one valid approach to obtain more stable forms of the peptide, with a longer in vivo half-life and ultimately with increased pharmacodynamic response along the somatotropic axis (endogenous GH, IGF-1 levels). Different PEGylated GRF conjugates were obtained and their bioactivity was tested in vitro and in vivo by monitoring endogenous growth hormone (GH) serum levels after intravenous (i.v.) injection in rats, and intravenous and subcutaneous (s.c.) injection in pigs. It was found that GRF-PEG conjugates are able to bind and activate the human GRF receptor, although with different potency. The effect of PEG molecular weight, number of PEG chains bound and position of PEGylation site on GRF activity were investigated. Mono-PEGylated isomers with a PEG5000 polymer chain linked to Lys 12 or Lys 21 residues, showed high biological activity in vitro, which is similar to that of hGRF1-29, and a higher pharmacodynamic response as compared to unmodified GRF molecule. PMID:14499707

  18. The Relationship of Appetitive, Reproductive and Posterior Pituitary Hormones to Alcoholism and Craving in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder. PMID:22772772

  19. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  20. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  1. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  2. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  3. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  4. Collective hormonal profiles predict group performance.

    PubMed

    Akinola, Modupe; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mehta, Pranjal H; Lu, Jackson G

    2016-08-30

    Prior research has shown that an individual's hormonal profile can influence the individual's social standing within a group. We introduce a different construct-a collective hormonal profile-which describes a group's hormonal make-up. We test whether a group's collective hormonal profile is related to its performance. Analysis of 370 individuals randomly assigned to work in 74 groups of three to six individuals revealed that group-level concentrations of testosterone and cortisol interact to predict a group's standing across groups. Groups with a collective hormonal profile characterized by high testosterone and low cortisol exhibited the highest performance. These collective hormonal level results remained reliable when controlling for personality traits and group-level variability in hormones. These findings support the hypothesis that groups with a biological propensity toward status pursuit (high testosterone) coupled with reduced stress-axis activity (low cortisol) engage in profit-maximizing decision-making. The current work extends the dual-hormone hypothesis to the collective level and provides a neurobiological perspective on the factors that determine who rises to the top across, not just within, social hierarchies. PMID:27528679

  5. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  6. Growth hormone receptors in the atherinid Odontesthes bonariensis: characterization and expression profile after fasting-refeeding and growth hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Botta, P E; Simó, I; Sciara, A A; Arranz, S E

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, growth hormone (Gh)-insulin-like growth factor-1(Igf1) axis, O. bonariensis growth hormone receptor type 1 (ghr1) and type 2 (ghr2) mRNA sequences were obtained. Both transcripts were ubiquitously expressed except in kidney, encephalon and anterior intestine. Alternative transcripts of both receptors were found in muscle. Interestingly, two different ghr2 transcripts with alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites located in the long 3' untranslated region (UTR-APA) were also found in liver. Hepatic ghr1, ghr2 and insulin-like growth factor type 1 (igf1) transcript levels were examined under two different metabolic conditions. In the first experimental condition, fish were fasted for 2 weeks and then re-fed for another 2 weeks. Despite igf1 mRNA relative expression did not show significant differences under the experimental period of time examined, both ghr transcripts decreased their expression levels after the fasting period and returned to their control levels after re-feeding. In the second treatment, recombinant O. bonariensis growth hormone (r-pjGh) was orally administered once a week. After 4 weeks of treatment, liver igf1, ghr1 and ghr2 mRNA relative expression increased (13, 4·5 and 2·1 fold, P < 0·05) compared to control values. These results add novel information to the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system in teleosts. PMID:27097742

  7. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  8. Sex hormone exposure during pregnancy and malformations.

    PubMed

    Briggs, M H; Briggs, M

    1979-01-01

    This general review of the effects of exposure to sex hormones during pregnancy and subsequent fetal malformation presents summaries of animal studies, develops the data indicating virilization and feminization in humans, documents chromosome abnormalities, and presents data on the connection of steroid exposure in utero and somatic malformations. Fetal exposure can occur 3 different ways, through hormonal pregnancy test, via obstetrical use of hormones, or because of continued maternal use of oral contraceptives after conception. In the latter case, an ongoing prospective study indicates that accidental ingestion of oral contraceptives after conception is not harmful to the fetus if taken during early pregnancy. Tables present summaries of numerous large surveys and retrospective studies linking particular sex hormones (exogenous) to particular fetal malformations including neural tube defects and other constellations of developmental problems. The question of exogenous hormone effects on the personality of infants who were exposed in utero is addressed. PMID:400321

  9. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  10. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size. PMID:24217081

  11. Effect of Ubiquinol on Serum Reproductive Hormones of Amenorrhic Patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, A S; Littaru, G P; Funahashi, I; Painkara, U S; Dange, N S; Chauhan, P

    2016-07-01

    In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Anovulation is directly linked to the neurohormonal and hormonal background of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Impairment of pulsatile Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone secretion causes the impairment of pulsatile Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion. The importance of oxidative stress in various pituitary disorders suggesting a possible clinical usefulness of antioxidant molecules like the lipophilic antioxidant Ubiquinol. Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinol is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system of mitochondria. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant, protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes from autooxidation. Due to these unique actions Ubiquinol is used in clinical practice as an antioxidants for neurodegenerative diseases. So to identify the role of Ubiquinol on reproductive hormones FSH and LH, we have included 50 infertile patients of age group of 20-40, which are mostly amenorrhic. Out of 50 only 30 patients were in continuous follow up after supplementing them with 150 mg of Ubiquinol every day for 4 months. The hormonal levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique at follicular phase. The result suggests that FSH concentration is increased up to three times (from 3.10 ± 2.70 to 10.09 ± 6.93) but remains within the normal limit (P < 0.05). LH values were found doubled (P < 0.05) than its normal range (from 14.83 ± 10.48 to 27.85 ± 22

  12. Thyroid hormones, learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Rivas, M; Naranjo, J R

    2007-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), T3 and T4, have many physiological actions and are essential for normal behavioral, intellectual and neurological development. THs have a broad spectrum of effects on the developing brain and mediate important effects within the CNS throughout life. Insufficient maternal iodine intake during gestation and TH deficiency during human development are associated to pathological alterations such as cretinism and mental retardation. In adulthood, thyroid dysfunction is related to neurological and behavioral abnormalities, including memory impairment. Analysis of different experimental models suggests that most of the effects on cognition as a result of thyroid dysfunction rely on hippocampal modifications. Insufficiency of THs during development thus alters hippocampal synaptic function and impairs behavioral performance of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that persist in euthyroid adult animals. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge obtained by clinical observations and experimental models that shows the importance of THs in learning and mnemonic processes. PMID:17543038

  13. Growth hormone doping: a review

    PubMed Central

    Erotokritou-Mulligan, Ioulietta; Holt, Richard IG; Sönksen, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse. PMID:24198576

  14. Hormonal changes in antiorthostatic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.; Popovic, P.; Honeycutt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hypokinesia, especially hypokinesia with negative tilt ('antiorthostatic hypokinesia'), mimics some of the effects of weightlessness. It is shown that cardiac output is increased during early exposure of rats to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The increase of the stroke volume and of the cardiac output observed in the antiorthostatic hypokinetic rats is probably the consequence of a blood volume shift toward the chest brought forth by head-down positioning of the animals. It is also possible that struggling of the animals to escape from the harness and an increased metabolism contribute to the elevation of cardiac output. In order to study this hypothesis 'stress hormones' were measured in the antiorthostatic rats. Plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin were measured in the arterial blood (0.3 ml) sampled before, during and after hypokinesia from chronic aortic cannulas of the rats.

  15. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  16. Hormonal regulation of mannan-binding lectin synthesis in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, C M; Hansen, T K; Steffensen, R; Jensenius, J C; Thiel, S

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the complement system via the plasma protein mannan-binding lectin (MBL) provides a first line of defence against infections. The plasma level of MBL is, in part, determined genetically, but may also be influenced by different hormones in vivo. Here we study the hormonal regulation of MBL synthesis from the human hepatocyte cell line HuH-7. Cells were exposed to medium with growth hormone (GH), hydrocortisone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, insulin, interleukin (IL)-6 or thyroid hormones (T3 or T4). After 3 days the concentration of MBL in the culture supernatants was determined and the amount of mRNA for MBL was measured, relative to mRNA for β2 microglobulin. GH, IL-6, T3 and T4 significantly increased MBL synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, while hydrocortisone, insulin and IGF-1 had no effect. T3 caused a fourfold increase at 1 nM of T3 (P < 0·001) and at 100 nM of T3 the production was increased more than eightfold. The effect of T4 was less potent, reaching an eightfold increase at 1 µM of T4 (P < 0·001). GH augmented the production of MBL threefold at a concentration of 100 ng/ml (P = 0·018) with no further effect up to 10 µg/ml, whereas IL-6 caused only a very weak increase in MBL production. MBL mRNA levels were stable during the first 24 h of T3 stimulation but increased significantly between 24 and 48 h. The results suggest that MBL synthesis in humans may be increased by thyroid hormone and GH, whereas it does not exhibit a classical IL-6-dependent response. PMID:16792688

  17. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  18. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Dimitrov, Eugene; Palkovits, Miklós; Usdin, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand, tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), is synthesized in only two brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine-vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control neuroendocrine disorders

  19. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  20. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  1. Gender and sex hormones in multiple sclerosis pathology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Arnaud B.

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that gender affects the susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis (MS) with a higher disease prevalence and overall better prognosis in women than men. This sex dimorphism may be explained by sex chromosome effects and effects of sex steroid hormones on the immune system, blood brain barrier or parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) cells. The well known improvement in disease during late pregnancy has also been linked to hormonal changes and has stimulated recent clinical studies to determine the efficacy of and tolerance to sex steroid therapeutic approaches. Both clinical and experimental studies indicate that sex steroid supplementation may be beneficial for MS. This could be related to anti-inflammatory actions on the immune system or CNS and to direct neuroprotective properties. Here, clinical and experimental data are reviewed with respect to the effects of sex hormones or gender in the pathology or therapy of MS or its rodent disease models. The different cellular targets as well as some molecular mechanisms likely involved are discussed. PMID:19273365

  2. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  3. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  4. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology. PMID:27222139

  5. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  6. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed. PMID:19015126

  7. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  8. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  9. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yiliang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  10. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yiliang; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2009-02-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  11. Smoking and hormone-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Spangler, J G

    1999-09-01

    Through its antiestrogenic effect, cigarette smoking is linked to a variety of hormone-related disorders, both benign and malignant. Diseases that depend on this hormone for growth and development tend to be less common among smokers, such as endometrial cancer and uterine fibroids. Some normal, estrogen-dependent physiologic processes are affected by smoking, making osteoporosis and premature menopause more common among women who smoke. In other disorders, the link between sex hormone levels, cigarette smoking, and disease development is less clear. PMID:10436284

  12. Heart hormones fueling a fire in fat

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sheila; Bordicchia, Marica

    2013-01-01

    Our view of how adipose tissue metabolism is regulated recently experienced a change in focus and breadth, meaning that some of the key controlling factors were not fully in the picture. The catecholamines of the sympathetic nervous system are well-known activators of β-adrenergic receptors in adipocytes to increase lipolysis. They also drive energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue and, importantly, the “browning” of cells in white adipose depots. However, this is clearly not the whole story. In earlier work, we established a pathway from β-adrenergic receptors to p38 MAP kinase to drive the transcription of brown adipocyte genes and respiratory uncoupling. Now we recently discovered that cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) stimulate a similar “browning” of human and mouse adipocytes. NPs activate the guanylyl cyclase coupled NP receptor A and activation of protein kinase G. Importantly, this pathway also depends upon p38 MAPK. These two pathways work together, additively increasing expression of brown adipocyte marker genes, as well as reflexively controlling each other’s components. We discuss these findings and how the control of body fat by these cardiac hormones, in conjunction with the sympathetic nervous system, has implications for obesity as well as cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and heart failure. PMID:23805407

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed. PMID:18089592

  14. Thyroid hormone action: astrocyte-neuron communication.

    PubMed

    Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase (D2), expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by D2. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article, we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local TH action during development. PMID:24910631

  15. Thyroid Hormone Action: Astrocyte–Neuron Communication

    PubMed Central

    Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase (D2), expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by D2. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article, we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local TH action during development. PMID:24910631

  16. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  17. The role of hormones on Toxoplasma gondii infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Ramírez, María de la Luz; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Verduzco-Grijalva, Fabiola; Jiménez, Judith Marcela Dueñas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world's population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: (a) congenital transmission, (b) parasite reproduction, (c) strain virulence, (d) levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection, and (e) participation of hormone receptors in T. gondii infection. Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection? A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley, and Google Scholar) dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: Thirty studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and 17β-estradiol. Type I (RH and BK) and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49, T45, P78, and T38) were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding T. gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate T. gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the T. gondii infectious process. PMID:25346725

  18. Motivations and Methods for Analyzing Pulsatile Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Keenan, Daniel M.; Pincus, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine glands communicate with remote target cells via a mixture of continuous and intermittent signal exchange. Continuous signaling allows slowly varying control, whereas intermittency permits large rapid adjustments. The control systems that mediate such homeostatic corrections operate in a species-, gender-, age-, and context-selective fashion. Significant progress has been made in understanding mechanisms of adaptive interglandular signaling in vivo. Principal goals are to understand the physiological origins, significance, and mechanisms of pulsatile hormone secretion. Key analytical issues are: 1) to quantify the number, size, shape, and uniformity of pulses, nonpulsatile (basal) secretion, and elimination kinetics; 2) to evaluate regulation of the axis as a whole; and 3) to reconstruct dose-response interactions without disrupting hormone connections. This review will focus on the motivations driving and the methodologies used for such analyses. PMID:18940916

  19. Ethylene: Traffic Controller on Hormonal Crossroads to Defense.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Caarls, Lotte; Vos, Irene A; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (ET) is an important hormone in plant responses to microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, and in the interaction of plants with beneficial microbes and insects. Early ET signaling events during these biotic interactions involve activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors. Rather than being the principal regulator, ET often modulates defense signaling pathways, including those regulated by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Hormonal signal integrations with ET steer the defense signaling network to activate specific defenses that can have direct effects on attackers, or systemically prime distant plant parts for enhanced defense against future attack. ET also regulates volatile signals that attract carnivorous enemies of herbivores or warn neighboring plants. Conversely, ET signaling can also be exploited by attackers to hijack the defense signaling network to suppress effective defenses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the significant role of ET in the plants' battle against their enemies. PMID:26482888

  20. Long-acting injectable hormonal dosage forms for contraception.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linfeng; Janagam, Dileep R; Mandrell, Timothy D; Johnson, James R; Lowe, Tao L

    2015-07-01

    Although great efforts have been made to develop long-acting injectable hormonal contraceptives for more than four decades, few long-acting injectable contraceptives have reached the pharmaceutical market or even entered clinical trials. On the other hand, in clinical practice there is an urgent need for injectable long-acting reversible contraceptives which can provide contraceptive protection for more than 3 months after one single injection. Availability of such products will offer great flexibility to women and resolve certain continuation issues currently occurring in clinics. Herein, we reviewed the strategies exploited in the past to develop injectable hormonal contraceptive dosages including drug microcrystal suspensions, drug-loaded microsphere suspensions and in situ forming depot systems for long-term contraception and discussed the potential solutions for remaining issues met in the previous development. PMID:25899076