Sample records for adipose tissue protein

  1. Plasma Levels and Adipose Tissue Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression of Retinol-Binding Protein

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plasma Levels and Adipose Tissue Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression of Retinol-Binding Protein 4 a role in the development of insulin resistance. Objective: We investigated whether RBP4 adipose tissue m. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Adipose tissue m

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein activities in bovine muscle, liver and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Ekeren, P.A.; Sanders, J.O.

    1985-11-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue, sternomandibularis muscle and liver were obtained from steers immediately postmortem. Muscle strips and adipose tissue snips were incubated with 0.75 mM (1- UC)palmitate and 5 mM glucose. Muscle strips esterified palmitate at the rate of 2.5 nmol/min per gram tissue, which was 30% of the rate observed for adipose tissue. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was measured in 104,000 x g supernatant fractions of liver, muscle and adipose tissue homogenates. Muscle and adipose tissue fractions bound 840 and 140 pmol (1- UC)palmitoyl-CoA per gram tissue, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was greater in adipose tissue than in muscle when data were expressed per milligram protein. Fatty acid binding-protein activity was correlated with the rate of palmitate esterification within each tissue. Liver contained the highest fatty acid-binding protein activity.

  3. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  4. Identification and functional characterization of lipid binding proteins in liver and adipose tissues of Gallus domesticus 

    E-print Network

    Sams, Gretchen Hubler

    1990-01-01

    IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS IN LIVER AND ADIPOSE TISSUES OF GALLUS DOMESTICUS A Thesis by GRETCHEN HUBLER SAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major subject: Nutrition IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS IN LIVER AND ADIPOSE TISSUES OF GALLUS DOMESTICUS A Thesis by GRETCHEN...

  5. Protein synthesis in liver, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue of rats fed a protein-deficient diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Rothwell; M. J. Stock

    1983-01-01

    Feeding protein-deficient diets to rats is known to stimulate diet-induced thermogenesis and activate brown adipose tissue (BAT). The fact that BAT protein content, unlike that of other tissues, is unnaffected by protein deficiency prompted us to measure tissue protein synthesis in vivo in animals maintained on normal- (18.8%) and low- (7.6%) protein (LP) diets. Protein synthesis was depressed in the

  6. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1?, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1?, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNF?. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPAR? protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve.

  7. Effect of prepartum protein restriction on brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity in newborn calves 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Travis Lyn

    1997-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis was evaluated in Wagyu-sired calves from Angus heifers fed isocaloric diets with adequate (PA, 10%) or restricted (PR, 5.8%) dietary protein levels during the last 150 d of gestation. At 6 h of age, calves...

  8. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 regulates adipose tissue expansion and is dysregulated in severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lagathu, Claire; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Tan, Chong Yew; Virtue, Sam; Laudes, Matthias; Campbell, Mark; Ishikawa, Ko; Ortega, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel; Oreši?, Matej; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim The Wnt/?-catenin signalling network offers potential targets to diagnose and uncouple obesity from its metabolic complications. Here we investigate the role of the Wnt antagonist, secreted Frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) in promoting adipogenesis in vitro and adipose tissue expansion in vivo. Methods We use a combination of human and murine, in vivo and in vitro models of adipogenesis, adipose tissue expansion and obesity-related metabolic syndrome to profile the involvement of SFRP1. Results Secreted Frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) is expressed in both murine and human mature adipocytes. The expression of SFRP1 is induced during in vitro adipogenesis and SFRP1 is preferentially expressed in mature adipocytes in human adipose tissue. Constitutive ectopic expression of SFRP1 is proadipogenic and inhibits the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. In vivo endogenous levels of adipose SFRP1 are regulated in line with proadipogenic states. However, in longitudinal studies of high fat diet-fed mice we observed a dynamic temporal but biphasic regulation of endogenous SFRP1. In agreement with this profile we observed that SFRP1 expression in human tissues peaks in patients with mild obesity and gradually falls in morbidly obese subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that SFRP1 is an endogenous modulator of Wnt/?-catenin signalling and participates in the paracrine regulation of human adipogenesis. The reduced adipose expression of SFRP1 in morbid obesity and its knock-on effect to prevent further adipose tissue expansion may contribute to the development of metabolic complications in these individuals. PMID:20514047

  9. Gene expression profiling in developing pig adipose tissue: non-secreted regulatory proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of many genes encoding secreted and non-secreted factors have been studied in human and rodent adipose tissue with cDNA microarrays, but few such studies in adipose tissue from growing pigs have been reported. Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue...

  10. Shotgun protein profile of human adipose tissue and its changes in relation to systemic amyloidoses.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Francesca; Lavatelli, Francesca; Di Silvestre, Dario; Valentini, Veronica; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo; Mauri, Pierluigi

    2013-12-01

    In systemic amyloidosis, accumulation of misfolded proteins as extracellular amyloid fibrils in tissues causes severe organ dysfunction, but the molecular events of tissue damage related to amyloid deposition are still largely unknown. Through the use of the MudPIT proteomic approach, comprehensive protein profiles of human amyloid-affected adipose tissue from patients and its control (non-amyloid-affected) counterpart were acquired. Label-free comparison between patients and controls made it possible to highlight differences related to the presence of amyloid, by describing up- and down-represented proteins, connected into interacting networks. In particular, extracellular matrix (ECM), protein folding, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial functions were among the most affected structural/functional pathways. The reported results, obtained with no a priori hypotheses, represent a significant step forward in the clarification of the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloidoses at tissue level and are the premise for understanding protein misfolding diseases. PMID:24083510

  11. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  12. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rexford S Ahima; JEFFREY S. FLIER

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of leptin in the mid-1990s has focused attention on the role of proteins secreted by adipose tissue. Leptin has profound effects on appetite and energy balance, and is also involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine and immune function. Sex steroid and glucocorticoid metabolism in adipose tissue has been implicated as a determinant of body fat distribution and cardiovascular

  13. Concerted expression of the thermogenic and bioenergetic mitochondrial protein machinery in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Guillen, Carlos; Bartolome, Alberto; Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; García-Aguilar, Ana; Gomez-Hernandez, Almudena; Benito, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in non-shivering thermogenesis through the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). In this paper, we describe the relationship between UCP1 and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. By the use of BATIRKO mice, which have enhanced UCP1 expression in BAT, an increase in ATP synthase as well as in ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase levels was observed. Alterations in mitochondrial mass or variations in ATP levels were not observed in BAT of these mice. In addition, using a protocol of brown adipocyte differentiation, the concerted expression of UCP1 with ATP synthase was found. These two scenarios revealed that increases in the uncoupling machinery of brown adypocites must be concomitantly followed by an enhancement of proteins involved in ATP synthesis. These concerted changes reflect the need to maintain ATP production in an essentially uncoupling cell type. PMID:23606415

  14. Targeting adipose tissue via systemic gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sean M.; Hinkle, Christine; Chen, Shu-Jen; Sandhu, Arbansjit; Hovhannisyan, Ruben; Stephan, Stephen; Lagor, William R.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Johnston, Julie C.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy and metabolic homeostasis, but it is challenging to adapt techniques to modulate adipose function in vivo. Here we develop an in vivo, systemic method of gene transfer specifically targeting adipose tissue using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. We constructed AAV vectors containing CMV promoter regulated reporter genes, intravenously injected adult mice with vectors using multiple AAV serotypes, and determined that AAV2/8 best targeted adipose tissue. Altering vectors to contain adiponectin promoter/enhancer elements and liver specific microRNA-122 target sites restricted reporter gene expression to adipose tissue. As proof of efficacy, the leptin gene was incorporated into the adipose-targeted expression vector, package into AAV2/8, and administered intravenously to 9-10 week old ob/ob mice. Phenotypic changes were measured over an eight week period. Leptin mRNA and protein were expressed in adipose and leptin protein was secreted into plasma. Mice responded with reversal of weight gain, decreased hyperinsulinemia, and improved glucose tolerance. AAV2/8-mediated systemic delivery of an adipose-targeted expression vector can replace a gene lacking in adipose tissue and correct a mouse model of human disease, demonstrating experimental application and therapeutic potential in disorders of adipose. PMID:24830434

  15. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFR?. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity. PMID:23047894

  16. Angiopoietin Like Protein 2 (ANGPTL2) Promotes Adipose Tissue Macrophage and T lymphocyte Accumulation and Leads to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Ohta, Masayuki; Desai, Dhruv; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Whelan, Mary C.; Sugano, Tomohiro; Yamabi, Masaki; Yano, Wataru; Faits, Tyler; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Zhang, Hengmin; Mlynarchik, Andrew K.; Inoue, Keisuke; Mizuno, Ken; Aikawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), a recently identified pro-inflammatory cytokine, is mainly secreted from the adipose tissue. This study aimed to explore the role of ANGPTL2 in adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage activation in a mouse model of diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings Adenovirus mediated lacZ (Ad-LacZ) or human ANGPTL2 (Ad-ANGPTL2) was delivered via tail vein in diabetic db/db mice. Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment for 2 weeks impaired both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as compared to Ad-LacZ treatment. Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment significantly induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in white adipose tissue. We also isolated stromal vascular fraction from epididymal fat pad and analyzed adipose tissue macrophage and T lymphocyte populations by flow cytometry. Ad-ANGPTL2 treated mice had more adipose tissue macrophages (F4/80+CD11b+) and a larger M1 macrophage subpopulation (F4/80+CD11b+CD11c+). Moreover, Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment increased a CD8-positive T cell population in adipose tissue, which preceded increased macrophage accumulation. Consistent with our in vivo results, recombinant human ANGPTL2 protein treatment increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory gene products and production of TNF-? protein in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1. Furthermore, Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment induced lipid accumulation and increased fatty acid synthesis, lipid metabolism related gene expression in mouse liver. Conclusion ANGPTL2 treatment promotes macrophage accumulation and activation. These results suggest potential mechanisms for insulin resistance. PMID:26132105

  17. Stem cells from adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny; Katarzyna Walenko

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the growing scientific interest in the developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells\\u000a isolated from adipose tissue. Adipose-derived stem\\/stromal cells (ASCs) are multipotent somatic stem cells that are abundant\\u000a in fat tissue. It has been shown that ASCs can differentiate into several lineages, including adipose cells, chondrocytes,\\u000a osteoblasts, neuronal cells, endothelial cells, and cardiomyocytes.

  18. Dietary proteins alter tissue-specific gene expression and adiposity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary soy protein elicits anti-obesity effects in rodents. This study examined adiposity and gene expression in male Sprague-Dawley rats lifetime-fed diets containing casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), or casein supplemented with genistein (250 mg/kg diet; GEN). At 48 days of age, retroper...

  19. Caveolin-1-deficient mice show insulin resistance and defective insulin receptor protein expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex W; Razani, Babak; Wang, Xiao Bo; Combs, Terry P; Williams, Terence M; Scherer, Philipp E; Lisanti, Michael P

    2003-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a functional relationship exists between caveolin-1 and insulin signaling. However, it remains unknown whether caveolin-1 is normally required for proper insulin receptor signaling in vivo. To address this issue, we examined the status of insulin receptor signaling in caveolin-1 (-/-)-deficient (Cav-1 null) mice. Here, we show that Cav-1 null mice placed on a high-fat diet for 9 mo develop postprandial hyperinsulinemia. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) revealed that young Cav-1 null mice on a normal chow diet are significantly unresponsive to insulin, compared with their wild-type counterparts. This insulin resistance is due to a primary defect in adipose tissue, as evidenced by drastically reduced insulin receptor protein levels (>90%), without any changes in insulin receptor mRNA levels. These data suggest that caveolin-1 acts as a molecular chaperone that is necessary for the proper stabilization of the insulin receptor in adipocytes in vivo. In support of this notion, we demonstrate that recombinant expression of caveolin-1 in Cav-1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts rescues insulin receptor protein expression. These data provide evidence that the lean body phenotype observed in the Cav-1 knockout mice is due, at least in part, to a defect in insulin-regulated lipogenesis. PMID:12660144

  20. Visceral adipose tissue zinc finger protein 36 mRNA levels are correlated with insulin, insulin resistance index, and adiponectinemia in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Bouchard; Marie-Claude Vohl; Yves Deshaies; Caroline Rheaume; Marleen Daris; A. Tchernof

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ and secretes numerous molecules and proteins potentially involved in the physiopathology of the metabolic syndrome. Recently, we have determined the transcriptome of omental adipose tissue, leading to the identification of a new candidate gene for obesity-related metabolic complications, zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36), which is known to down-regulate tumor necrosis

  1. Differential modulation of the functionality of white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats by the type of protein and the amount and type of fat.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Granados, Omar; González-Palacios, Berenice; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Olivares-García, Verónica; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that several metabolic abnormalities developed during obesity are associated with the presence of dysfunctional adipose tissue. Diet is a key factor that modulates several functions of adipose tissue; however, each nutrient in the diet produces specific changes. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the interaction of the type (coconut or soybean oil) and amount (5% or 10%) of fat with the type of dietary protein (casein or soy protein) on the functionality of white adipose tissue of Zucker (fa/fa) rats. The results showed that soybean oil reduced adipocyte size and decreased esterified saturated fatty acids in white adipose tissue. Excess dietary fat also modified the composition of esterified fatty acids in white adipose tissue, increased the secretion of saturated fatty acids to serum from white adipose tissue and reduced the process of fatty acids re-esterification. On the other hand, soy protein sensitized the activation of the hormone-sensitive lipase by increasing the phosphorylation of this enzyme (Ser 563) despite rats fed soy protein were normoglucagonemic, in contrast with rats fed casein that showed hyperglucagonemia but reduced hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation. Finally, in white adipose tissue, the interaction between the tested dietary components modulated the transcription/translation process of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism genes via the activity of the PERK-endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, our results showed that the type of protein and the type and amount of dietary fat selectively modify the activity of white adipose tissue, even in a genetic model of obesity. PMID:23773624

  2. Heat shock proteins: in vivo heat treatments reveal adipose tissue depot-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wheatley, Joshua L; Wright, David C; Geiger, Paige C

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatments (HT) and the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) improve whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity while decreasing white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. However, HSPs in WAT have been understudied. The purpose of the present study was to examine patterns of HSP expression in WAT depots, and to examine the effects of a single in vivo HT on WAT metabolism. Male Wistar rats received HT (41°C, 20 min) or sham treatment (37°C), and 24 h later subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal WAT depots (SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT, respectively) were removed for ex vivo experiments and Western blotting. SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT from a subset of rats were also cultured separately and received a single in vitro HT or sham treatment. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was greatest in more metabolically active WAT depots (i.e., eWAT and rpWAT) compared with the SCAT. Following HT, HSP72 increased in all depots with the greatest induction occurring in the SCAT. In addition, HSP25 increased in the rpWAT and eWAT, while HSP60 increased in the rpWAT only in vivo. Free fatty acid (FFA) release from WAT explants was increased following HT in the rpWAT only, and fatty acid reesterification was decreased in the rpWAT but increased in the SCAT following HT. HT increased insulin responsiveness in eWAT, but not in SCAT or rpWAT. Differences in HSP expression and induction patterns following HT further support the growing body of literature differentiating distinct WAT depots in health and disease. PMID:25554799

  3. Differentially expressed proteins associated with myogenesis and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue between bulls and steers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiankun; Lee, Hong-Gu; Han, Jung-A; Kang, Sang Kee; Lee, Nam Kyung; Baik, Myunggi; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify some proteins associated with testosterone-related differences in myogenesis and adipogenesis between bulls and steers. Global proteins were monitored in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue from bulls (n = 20) and steers (n = 20), respectively. We identified four differentially expressed (twofold or more) proteins in skeletal muscle from bulls, myosin light chain 1 (MLC1), ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1 (ANKRD1) and heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) that were up-regulated and cofilin 2 (CFL2) that was down-regulated, and also identified two down-regulated proteins in adipose tissue, transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) and L: -lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB). In vitro, after myogenic differentiation of a bovine cell line, the mRNA expression of HSPB1 not only increased approximately tenfold in response to differentiation but threefold in response to testosterone addition, respectively, but that of ANKRD1 and CFL2 did not significantly change in response to myogenic differentiation or testosterone addition. Likewise, after adipogenic differentiation of a bovine cell line, the mRNA expression of TALDO1 and LDHB did not significantly vary in response to adipogenic differentiation or testosterone addition. Therefore, we suggest that HSPB1 could have an important role during testosterone-related myogenesis. PMID:21594731

  4. Inactivation of C/ebp Homologous Protein-driven Immune-Metabolic Interactions Exacerbate Obesity and Adipose Tissue Leukocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ryan; Nguyen, Kim Y.; Ravussin, Anthony; Albarado, Diana; Youm, Yun-Hee; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    Successful adaptation to periods of chronic caloric excess is a highly coordinated event that is critical to the survival and propagation of species. Transcription factor C/ebp homologous protein (Chop) is thought to be an important molecular mediator that integrates nutrient signals to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and innate immune activation. Given that aberrant ER stress response is implicated in inducing metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance, we hypothesized that ER stress target gene Chop integrates immune and metabolic systems to adapt to chronic positive energy balance. Here we report that inactivation of Chop in mice fed a high fat diet led to significant increase in obesity caused by a reduction in energy expenditure without any change in food intake. Importantly, ablation of Chop does not induce metabolically healthy obesity, because Chop-deficient mice fed a high fat diet had increased hepatic steatosis with significantly higher insulin resistance. Quantification of adipose tissue leukocytosis revealed that elimination of Chop during obesity led to substantial increase in number of adipose tissue T and B lymphocytes. In addition, deficiency of Chop led to increase in total number of myeloid subpopulations like neutrophils and F4/80+ adipose tissue macrophages without any alterations in the frequency of M1- or M2-like adipose tissue macrophages. Further investigation of inflammatory mechanisms revealed that ablation of Chop increases the sensitivity of macrophages to inflammasome-induced activation of IL-? in macrophages. Our findings indicate that regulated expression of Chop during obesity is critical for adaptation to chronic caloric excess and maintenance of energy homeostasis via integration of metabolic and immune systems. PMID:24662293

  5. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Frank; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–5% of adipocytes are replaced each day. In light of these findings, we suggest that adipose tissue turnover represents a possible new avenue of therapeutic intervention against obesity. PMID:21407813

  6. The developmental origins of adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Daniel C.; Stenesen, Drew; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is formed at stereotypic times and locations in a diverse array of organisms. Once formed, the tissue is dynamic, responding to homeostatic and external cues and capable of a 15-fold expansion. The formation and maintenance of adipose tissue is essential to many biological processes and when perturbed leads to significant diseases. Despite this basic and clinical significance, understanding of the developmental biology of adipose tissue has languished. In this Review, we highlight recent efforts to unveil adipose developmental cues, adipose stem cell biology and the regulators of adipose tissue homeostasis and dynamism. PMID:24046315

  7. The Dietary Protein/Carbohydrate Ratio Differentially Modifies Lipogenesis and Protein Synthesis in the Mammary Gland, Liver and Adipose Tissue during Gestation and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Tovar, Armando R.; López-Barradas, Adriana M.; Torres, Nimbe

    2013-01-01

    During gestation and lactation, a series of metabolic changes that are affected by the diet occurs in various organs of the mother. However, little is known about how the dietary protein (DP)/carbohydrate (DCH) ratio regulates the expression of metabolic genes in the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of consuming different percentages of DP/DCH, specifically 10/73, 20/63 and 30/53%, on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and protein synthesis in the mammary gland, liver and adipose tissue during gestation and lactation in dams. While the amount of weight gained during gestation was similar for all groups, only dams fed with 30/53% DP/DCH maintained their weight during lactation. In the mammary gland, the expression of the genes involved in lipogenesis, specifically SREBP1 and FAS, was dramatically increased, and the expression of the genes involved in protein synthesis, such as mTOR1, and the phosphorylation of its target protein, S6K, were also increased throughout pregnancy and lactation, regardless of the concentration of DP/DCH. In the liver and adipose tissue, the expression of the genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism was dependent on the proportion of DP/DCH. The consumption of a low-protein/high-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue and the amount of lipid deposition in the liver. Conversely, the consumption of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of genes involved in amino acid oxidation in the liver during gestation. The metabolic adaptations reflected by the changes in the expression of metabolic genes indicate that the mammary gland has a priority for milk synthesis, whereas the adaptations in the liver and adipose tissue are responsible for providing nutrients to the mammary gland to sustain milk synthesis. PMID:23874950

  8. A specific l-tri-iodothyronine-binding protein in the cytosol fraction of human breast adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Marie Luise; Rao, Govind S.

    1982-01-01

    1. Binding of l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine to the cytosol fraction of normal human female breast adipose tissue was investigated by the charcoal adsorption method. Equilibrium of binding was reached after 120s at 25°C. 2. The l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine-binding component is a protein; this was confirmed by experiments in which binding was totally lost after heating the cytosol fraction for 10min at 100°C and in which binding was diminished after treatment with proteolytic enzymes and with thiol-group-blocking reagents. The binding protein was stable at ?38°C for several months. 3. It displayed saturability, high affinity (apparent Kd 3.28nm) and a single class of binding sites. 4. High specificity for l-tri-iodothyronine and l-3,5-di-iodo-3?-isopropylthyronine was observed, whereas other iodothyronines were less effective in displacing l-tri-[125I]-iodothyronine from its binding site. 5. The binding of the hormone by the cytosol fraction did not show a pH optimum. 6. When cytosol fractions of adipose tissue from different females were subjected to radioimmunoassay for the determination of thyroxine-binding globulin a value of 0.304±0.11?g/mg of cytosol protein (mean±s.d., n=4) was obtained; the mean concentration in plasma was 0.309±0.07?g/mg of plasma protein (mean±s.d., n=3). 7. The Ka value of 6.3×108m?1 of l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine for binding to plasma, the similar thermalinactivation profiles of binding and the reactivity to thiol-group-blocking reagents were some properties common between the binding components from the cytosol fraction and plasma. 8. These results suggest that the cytosol fraction of human female breast adipose tissue contains thyroxine-binding globulin; the protein that binds l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine with high affinity and specificity appears to be similar to thyroxine-binding globulin. PMID:6289813

  9. Increased mitogen-activated protein kinase expression and activity in white adipose tissue of ventromedial hypothalamus-lesioned rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Combettes-Souverain; L. Pénicaud; P. Ferré; T. Issad

    1997-01-01

    Summary   Ventromedial hypothalamus lesions in rats induce hyperphagia and hyperinsulinaemia associated with a rapid growth of white\\u000a adipose tissue resulting in massive obesity. It has been shown previously that at an early stage after the lesion, during\\u000a the dynamic phase of obesity, the white adipose tissue is hyper-responsive to insulin. In the present work, we show that the\\u000a effects of

  10. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Stimulates Adipose Tissue Lipolysis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Tang, Yunan; Wei, Xiaoli; Shi, Xue; Sun, Wenlong; Sun, Xiuhua; Yin, Xinmin; Sun, Xinguo; Kim, Seongho; McClain, Craig J.; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption induces liver steatosis; therefore, this study investigated the possible role of adipose tissue dysfunction in the pathogenesis of alcoholic steatosis. Mice were pair-fed an alcohol or control liquid diet for 8 weeks to evaluate the alcohol effects on lipid metabolism at the adipose tissue–liver axis. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size. Fatty acid release from adipose tissue explants was significantly increased in alcohol-fed mice in association with the activation of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Alcohol exposure induced insulin intolerance and inactivated adipose protein phosphatase 1 in association with the up-regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Alcohol exposure up-regulated fatty acid transport proteins and caused lipid accumulation in the liver. To define the mechanistic link between adipose triglyceride loss and hepatic triglyceride gain, mice were first administered heavy water for 5 weeks to label adipose triglycerides with deuterium, and then pair-fed alcohol or control diet for 2 weeks. Deposition of deuterium-labeled adipose triglycerides in the liver was analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry. Alcohol exposure increased more than a dozen deuterium-labeled triglyceride molecules in the liver by up to 6.3-fold. These data demonstrate for the first time that adipose triglycerides due to alcohol-induced hyperlipolysis are reverse transported and deposited in the liver. PMID:22234172

  11. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  12. Maternal low protein diet reduces birth weight and increases brown adipose tissue UCP-1 and FNDC5 gene expression in male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  13. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahsin Murad Aktan; Selcuk Duman; Bulent Cihantimur

    \\u000a Adipose tissue is a dynamic ‘hard-working’ tissue that awaits extensive studies. It does not merely function as a fat-storage\\u000a region; adipose tissue also plays a major role in the formation of body shapes, which determine attractiveness in humans.\\u000a Moreover, adipose tissue secretes molecules that direct brain processes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The importance of adipose tissue is not limited to its physiologic roles; it

  14. Proteomic Identification of Target Proteins of Thiodigalactoside in White Adipose Tissue from Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Previously, galectin-1 (GAL1) was found to be up-regulated in obesity-prone subjects, suggesting that use of a GAL1 inhibitor could be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of obesity. We evaluated thiodigalactoside (TDG) as a potent inhibitor of GAL1 and identified target proteins of TDG by performing comparative proteome analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and TDG-treated rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-two spots from a total of 356 matched spots showed differential expression between control and TDG-treated rats, as identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. These proteins were categorized into groups such as carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, signal transduction, cytoskeletal, and mitochondrial proteins based on functional analysis using Protein Annotation Through Evolutionary Relationship (PANTHER) and Database for Annotation, Visualization, Integrated Discovery (DAVID) classification. One of the most striking findings of this study was significant changes in Carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3), Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1), annexin A2 (ANXA2) and lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA) protein levels between WAT from control and TDG-treated groups. In addition, we confirmed increased expression of thermogenic proteins as well as reduced expression of lipogenic proteins in response to TDG treatment. These results suggest that TDG may effectively prevent obesity, and TDG-responsive proteins can be used as novel target proteins for obesity treatment. PMID:26121299

  15. Adipose Tissue Engineering by Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Hong; Ioana A. Peptan; Aylin Colpan; Joseph L. Daw

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising alternative approach to current clinical treatments for restoration of soft tissue defects. The purpose of this study was to investigate adipose tissue formation in vitro and in vivo by using human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) utilizing a gelatin sponge (Gelform®) as a scaffold. Adipogenic potentials of human ADSCs were demonstrated by Oil-O-red staining

  16. Diets high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease fatty acid synthase protein levels in adipose tissue but do not alter other markers of adipose function and inflammation in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jennifer E; Hanke, Danielle; Park, Angela; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids from different fat sources (High Oleic Canola, Canola, Canola-Flaxseed (3:1 blend), Safflower, or Soybean Oil, or a Lard-based diet) on adipose tissue function and markers of inflammation in Obese Prone rats fed high-fat (55% energy) diets for 12 weeks. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition reflected the dietary fatty acid profiles. Protein levels of fatty acid synthase, but not mRNA levels, were lower in adipose tissue of all groups compared to the Lard group. Adiponectin and fatty acid receptors GPR41 and GPR43 protein levels were also altered, but other metabolic and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum were unchanged among groups. Overall, rats fed vegetable oil- or lard-based high-fat diets appear to be largely resistant to major phenotypic changes when the dietary fat composition is altered, providing little support for the importance of specific fatty acid profiles in the context of a high-fat diet. PMID:24411719

  17. Aromatase controls Sjögren syndrome-like lesions through monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in target organ and adipose tissue-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Akihiko; Arakaki, Rieko; Honma, Naoko; Ushio, Aya; Yamada, Akiko; Kondo, Tomoyuki; Kurosawa, Emi; Kujiraoka, Satoko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Tanaka, Eiji; Yoshimura, Noriko; Harada, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2015-01-01

    Several autoimmune diseases are known to develop in postmenopausal women. However, the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency influences autoimmunity is unknown. Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens. Herein, we used female aromatase gene knockout (ArKO) mice as a model of estrogen deficiency to investigate the molecular mechanism that underlies the onset and development of autoimmunity. Histological analyses showed that inflammatory lesions in the lacrimal and salivary glands of ArKO mice increased with age. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells or bone marrow cells from ArKO mice into recombination activating gene 2 knockout mice failed to induce the autoimmune lesions. Expression of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increased in white adipose tissue of ArKO mice and was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice. Moreover, an increased number of inflammatory M1 macrophages was observed in white adipose tissue of ArKO mice. A significantly increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression of the salivary gland tissue in ArKO was found together with adiposity. Furthermore, the autoimmune lesions in a murine model of Sjögren syndrome were exacerbated by administration of an aromatase inhibitor. These results suggest that aromatase may play a key role in the pathogenesis of Sjögren syndrome-like lesions by controlling the target organ and adipose tissue-associated macrophage. PMID:25447050

  18. Activation of Cholesterol Synthesis in Preference to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Transgenic Mice Overproducing Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay D. Horton; Iichiro Shimomura; Michael S. Brown; Robert E. Hammer; Joseph L. Goldstein; Hitoshi Shimano

    1998-01-01

    We produced transgenic mice that express a dominant-posi- tive truncated form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in liver and adipose tissue. The en- coded protein lacks the membrane-binding and COOH-ter- minal regulatory domains, and it is therefore not susceptible to negative regulation by cholesterol. Livers from the trans- genic mice showed increases in mRNAs encoding multi- ple enzymes of

  19. Whey protein isolate counteracts the effects of a high-fat diet on energy intake and hypothalamic and adipose tissue expression of energy balance-related genes.

    PubMed

    McAllan, Liam; Keane, Deirdre; Schellekens, Harriët; Roche, Helen M; Korpela, Riitta; Cryan, John F; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2013-12-14

    The intake of whey protein isolate (WPI) is known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body-weight gain and adiposity. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. To this end, we fed C57BL/6J mice for 8 weeks with diets containing 10 % energy as fat (low-fat diet, LFD) or 45 % energy as fat (HFD) enriched with either 20 % energy as casein (LFD and HFD) or WPI (high-fat WPI). Metabolic parameters and the hypothalamic and epididymal adipose tissue expression of energy balance-related genes were investigated. The HFD increased fat mass and plasma leptin levels and decreased the dark-phase energy intake, meal number, RER, and metabolic (VO? and heat) and locomotor activities compared with the LFD. The HFD increased the hypothalamic tissue mRNA expression of the leptin receptor, insulin receptor (INSR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b). The HFD also reduced the adipose tissue mRNA expression of GLUT4 and INSR. In contrast, WPI reduced fat mass, normalised dark-phase energy intake and increased meal size in HFD-fed mice. The dietary protein did not have an impact on plasma leptin, insulin, glucose or glucagon-like peptide 1 levels, but increased plasma TAG levels in HFD-fed mice. At a cellular level, WPI significantly reduced the HFD-associated increase in the hypothalamic tissue mRNA expression of the leptin receptor, INSR and CPT1b. Also, WPI prevented the HFD-induced reduction in the adipose tissue mRNA expression of INSR and GLUT4. In comparison with casein, the effects of WPI on energy intake and hypothalamic and adipose tissue gene expression may thus represent a state of reduced susceptibility to weight gain on a HFD. PMID:23731955

  20. Genetic disruption of uncoupling protein 1 in mice renders brown adipose tissue a significant source of FGF21 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Keipert, Susanne; Kutschke, Maria; Lamp, Daniel; Brachthäuser, Laura; Neff, Frauke; Meyer, Carola W.; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Jastroch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important auto- and endocrine player with beneficial metabolic effects on obesity and diabetes. In humans, thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) was recently suggested as a source of FGF21 secretion during cold exposure. Here, we aim to clarify the role of UCP1 and ambient temperature in the regulation of FGF21 in mice. Methods Wildtype (WT) and UCP1-knockout (UCP1 KO) mice, the latter being devoid of BAT-derived non-shivering thermogenesis, were exposed to different housing temperatures. Plasma metabolites and FGF21 levels were determined, gene expression was analyzed by qPCR, and tissue histology was performed with adipose tissue. Results At thermoneutrality, FGF21 gene expression and serum levels were not different between WT and UCP1 KO mice. Cold exposure led to highly increased FGF21 serum levels in UCP1 KO mice, which were reflected in increased FGF21 gene expression in adipose tissues but not in liver and skeletal muscle. Ex vivo secretion assays revealed FGF21 release only from BAT, progressively increasing with decreasing ambient temperatures. In association with increased FGF21 serum levels in the UCP1 KO mouse, typical FGF21-related serum metabolites and inguinal white adipose tissue morphology and thermogenic gene expression were altered. Conclusions Here we show that the genetic ablation of UCP1 increases FGF21 gene expression in adipose tissue. The removal of adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis renders BAT a significant source of endogenous FGF21 under thermal stress. Thus, the thermogenic competence of BAT is not a requirement for FGF21 secretion. Notably, high endogenous FGF21 levels in UCP1-deficient models and subjects may confound pharmacological FGF21 treatments.

  1. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Jason D.; Krueth, Stacy B.; Bernlohr, David A.; Katz, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS. PMID:19050177

  2. Uncoupling Protein2 and -3 Messenger Ribonucleic Acids in Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle of Healthy Males: Variability, Factors Affecting Expression, and Relation to Measures of Metabolic Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHEL BOIVIN; ANNE CAMIRAND; FRANCESCO CARLI; L. JOHN HOFFER; J. ENRIQUE SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 and -3 (UCP2 and UCP3) may be involved in the modulation of resting metabolic rate and energy balance. To investigate their variability, the influence of this on the variability of energy expenditure, and potential regulatory factors of the expression of the corresponding genes, we measured their mes- senger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in muscle and white adipose tissue

  3. Animal Models for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Beahm, Elisabeth; Frye, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a critical need for adequate reconstruction of soft tissue defects resulting from tumor resection, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. To be sure, adipose tissue engineering strategies offer promising solutions. However, before clinical translation can occur, efficacy must be proven in animal studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of animal models currently employed for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:18544014

  4. Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Lynch; Brian J. Patson; Joshua Anthony; Alain Vaval; Leonard S. Jefferson; Thomas C. Vary

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT In freshly isolated rat adipocytes, leucine or its analog, norleucine, activate the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This results in phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) two proteins involved in the initiation phase of protein synthesis. The purpose of the studies reported herein was to address

  5. Is the heat surrounding adipose tissue mitochondria warranted?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Malagaris, Ioannis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. The physiological role ascribed to this process is thermoregulation. The metabolic consequence of mitochondrial respiration uncoupled from ATP production is increased substrate oxidation and metabolic rate. The recent discovery of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) positive mitochondria in human adipose tissue has rekindled interest in the role of UCP1 in energy balance and metabolic health. Recent findings Recently, there have been numerous reports of functional brown adipose tissue in humans. Further, data from cell and murine studies suggest that beige adipocytes can be induced within white adipose tissue. The presence of brown/beige adipocytes with mitochondria expressing UCP1 negatively correlates with adiposity. Further, activation of these adipocytes alters energy balance and substrate metabolism. However, in humans, brown fat content varies significantly. Further, although beige adipocytes can be induced in white adipose tissue of rodents, whether this is also true in humans remains unclear. Summary The presence of UCP1-positive mitochondria in human adipose tissue represents an exciting therapeutic target for treating obesity and its metabolic complications. Understanding the mechanisms governing brown fat activation will be crucial if the therapeutic potential of UCP1 is to be realized. PMID:25102333

  6. Comparison of fractionation strategies for offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteins from mouse adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Sajic, Tatjana; Varesio, Emmanuel; Szanto, Ildiko; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2015-09-01

    In the frame of protein identification from mouse adipose tissue, two strategies were compared for the offline elution of peptides from a strong cation exchange (SCX) column in two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) analyses. First, the salt gradient (using K(+) as displacing agent) was evaluated from 25 to 500mM KCl. Then, a less investigated elution mode using a pH gradient (using citric acid and ammonium hydroxide) was carried out from pH 2.5 to 9.0. Equal amounts of peptide digest derived from mouse adipose tissue were loaded onto the SCX column and fractionated according to the two approaches. A total of 15 fractions were collected in two independent experiments for each SCX elution strategy. Then, each fraction was analyzed on a nanoLC-MS/MS platform equipped with a column-switching unit for desalting and enrichment. No substantial differences in peptide quality characteristics (molecular weight, isoelectric point, or GRAVY [grand average of hydropathicity] index distributions) were observed between the two datasets. The pH gradient approach was found to be superior, with 27.5% more unique peptide identifications and 10% more distinct protein identifications compared with the salt-based elution method. In conclusion, our data imply that the pH gradient SCX fractionation is more desirable for proteomics analysis of entire adipose tissue. PMID:26036199

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue augments lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovic, Elena; Kraus, Nicole; Patsouris, David; Diao, Li; Wang, Vivian; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle important for protein synthesis and folding, lipid synthesis and Ca2+ homoeostasis. Consequently, ER stress or dysfunction affects numerous cellular processes and has been implicated as a contributing factor in several pathophysiological conditions. Tunicamycin induces ER stress in various cell types in vitro as well as in vivo. In mice, a hallmark of tunicamycin administration is the development of fatty livers within 24–48 hrs accompanied by hepatic ER stress. We hypothesized that tunicamycin would induce ER stress in adipose tissue that would lead to increased lipolysis and subsequently to fatty infiltration of the liver and hepatomegaly. Our results show that intraperitoneal administration of tunicamycin rapidly induced an ER stress response in adipose tissue that correlated with increased circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol along with decreased adipose tissue mass and lipid droplet size. Furthermore, we found that in addition to fatty infiltration of the liver as well as hepatomegaly, lipid accumulation was also present in the heart, skeletal muscle and kidney. To corroborate our findings to a clinical setting, we examined adipose tissue from burned patients where increases in lipolysis and the development of fatty livers have been well documented. We found that burned patients displayed significant ER stress within adipose tissue and that ER stress augments lipolysis in cultured human adipocytes. Our results indicate a possible role for ER stress induced lipolysis in adipose tissue as an underlying mechanism contributing to increases in circulating FFAs and fatty infiltration into other organs. PMID:25381905

  8. Brown adipose tissue—a new role in humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin E. Lidell; Sven Enerbäck

    2010-01-01

    New targets for pharmacological interventions are of great importance to combat the epidemic of obesity. Brown adipose tissue could potentially represent one such target. Unlike white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue has the ability to dissipate energy by producing heat rather than storing it as triglycerides. In small mammals, the presence of active brown adipose tissue is pivotal for the

  9. Technical Note MR Properties of Brown and White Adipose Tissues

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Technical Note MR Properties of Brown and White Adipose Tissues Gavin Hamilton, PhD,1 Daniel L the MR signatures of brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with white adipose tissue (WAT) using single whole body scanner from seven excised murine adipose tissue samples of BAT (n ¼ 4) and WAT (n ¼ 3

  10. Adipose Tissue Quantification by Imaging Methods: A Proposed Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Shen; ZiMian Wang; Mark Punyanita; Jianbo Lei; Ahmet Sinav; John G. Kral; Celina Imielinska; Robert Ross; Steven B. Heymsfield

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques and understanding of differences in the molecular biology of adipose tissue has rendered classical anatomy obsolete, requiring a new classification of the topography of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is one of the largest body compartments, yet a classification that defines specific adipose tissue depots based on their anatomic location and related functions is lacking. The

  11. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase protein expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is decreased after an isoenergetic low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diet in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Anneke M J; Jocken, Johan W E; Essers, Yvonne; Roche, Helen M; Saris, Wim H M; Blaak, Ellen E

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to determine the contribution of dietary fat quantity and composition to lipolysis and lipolytic gene expression in humans in relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men and women with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of four isoenergetic diets: a high-fat saturated fat diet (n=10), a high-fat monounsaturated fat diet (n=7), and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g/day long-chain n-3 PUFA (LFHCC: n=7, LFHCCn-3: n=8). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were taken before and after the 12-week dietary intervention period. ATGL and HSL mRNA and protein expression was determined. Whole body rate of appearance of free fatty acids (Ra(FFA)) was determined by intravenous infusion of [(2)H(2)]-palmitate in a subgroup of men (n=20). Adipose tissue ATGL and HSL mRNA and protein expression was not affected by alterations in dietary fat composition. Pooled analysis comparing the low- and high-fat diets showed that ATGL and HSL protein expression was significantly reduced after the LFHCC diets (P=.04), irrespective of long-chain n-3 PUFA. Moreover, LFHCC diets lowered fasting insulin, HOMA(IR), and (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations (P?.05). Changes in ATGL and HSL protein expression was positively associated with changes in whole body Ra(FFA) (P<.03). The low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets reduced ATGL and HSL protein expression and significantly improved circulating lipids and insulin sensitivity. Under isoenergetic conditions, dietary fat quantity, rather than composition, may be most important for modulating subcutaneous adipose tissue ATGL and HSL protein expression. PMID:22551950

  12. Miglitol increases energy expenditure by upregulating uncoupling protein 1 of brown adipose tissue and reduces obesity in dietary-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Miglitol is an oral anti-diabetic drug that acts by inhibiting carbohydrate absorption in the small intestine. Recent studies have shown that miglitol reduces obesity in humans and rodents. However, its mechanisms have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miglitol generates heat by activating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an enzyme involved in thermogenesis, in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice. Methods Four-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet alone (HF) or a high fat diet plus miglitol (HFM). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was used to estimate metabolic rate. A thermal imaging camera was used to quantify heat generation from interscapular brown adipose tissue. We analyzed the protein and gene expressions of UCP1 and the expressions of four proteins related to ?3-adrenergic signaling in the pathway activating UCP1 (protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), p38 ? mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38?MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1? (PGC1?)). Results At 8 weeks, body weight, epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue and the HOMA-R value of the HFM mice were significantly less than those of the HF mice. Food intake was not different between the HF and HFM mice. VO2 and BAT temperature were significantly higher in the HFM mice. Miglitol significantly enhanced the gene and protein expressions of UCP1 and the expressions of proteins related to ?3-adrenergic signaling. Conclusions Miglitol’s anti-obesity effect was attributed to increased energy expenditure by upregulating UCP1 in BAT (i.e., by thermogenesis) and to enhancement of ?3-adrenergic signaling in BAT. PMID:24669882

  13. Hounsfield Unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissues in growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fintan J. McEvoy; Mads T. Madsen; Anders B. Strathe; Eiliv Svalastoga

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of non-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs. Computer tomography scans were made in nine growing pigs on three occasions, approximately four weeks apart. Average body weight was 51, 94, and 121kg for each successive scan. Images from

  14. Inflammation and macrophage modulation in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that harbours not only mature and developing adipocytes but also a wide array of immune cells, including macrophages, a key immune cell in determining metabolic functionality. With adipose tissue expansion, M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration increases, activates other immune cells, and affects lipid trafficking and metabolism, in part via inhibiting mitochondrial function and increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pro-inflammatory cytokines produced and released interfere with insulin signalling, while inhibiting M1 macrophage activation improves systemic insulin sensitivity. In healthy adipose tissue, M2 alternative macrophages predominate and associate with enhanced lipid handling and mitochondrial function, anti-inflammatory cytokine production, and inhibition of ROS. The sequence of events leading to macrophage infiltration and activation in adipose tissue remains incompletely understood but lipid handling of both macrophages and adipocytes appears to play a major role. PMID:25073615

  15. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-01

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels. PMID:20093359

  16. Adipose Tissue Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Metabolism Modulates Circulating BCAA Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Mark A.; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels. PMID:20093359

  17. Original Research Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in Mice

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Original Research Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in Mice With Fat­Water IDEAL-MRI Houchun H brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice, and in differentiating BAT from white adipose tis- sue (WAT-MRI is a sensitive and quantitative approach to noninvasively characterize BAT. Key Words: brown adipose tissue

  18. Transplantation of adipose tissue and stem cells: role in metabolism and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thien T. Tran; C. Ronald Kahn

    2010-01-01

    Humans and other mammals have three main adipose tissue depots: visceral white adipose tissue, subcutaneous white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue, each of which possesses unique cell-autonomous properties. In contrast to visceral adipose tissue, which can induce detrimental metabolic effects, subcutaneous white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue have the potential to benefit metabolism by improving glucose homeostasis and

  19. White Adipose Tissue Resilience to Insulin Deprivation and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hadji, Lilas; Berger, Emmanuelle; Soula, Hédi; Vidal, Hubert; Géloën, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT), epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT). Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter). Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines. Results The initial body weight of the rats was 465±5.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group. Conclusion Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues. PMID:25170835

  20. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiencies affect expression of lipolytic activities in mouse adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patterns of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (-/-) and HSL (-/-) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-recognition probes possessing the same substrate analogous structure but carrying different fluorophores for specific detection of the enzyme patterns of two different tissues in one electrophoresis gel. We found that ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue had a profound effect on the expression levels of other lipolytic and esterolytic enzymes in this tissue, whereas HSL-deficiency hardly showed any effect in brown adipose tissue. Neither ATGL- nor HSL-deficiency greatly influenced the lipase patterns in white adipose tissue. Enzyme activities of mouse tissues on acylglycerol substrates were analyzed as well, showing that ATGL-and HSL-deficiencies can be compensated for at least in part by other enzymes. The proteins that responded to ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue were overexpressed and their activities on acylglycerols were analyzed. Among these enzymes, Es1, Es10, and Es31-like represent lipase candidates as they catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain acylglycerols. PMID:22984285

  1. Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl T. Gomillion; Karen J. L. Burg

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of the plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures performed each year are to repair soft tissue defects that result from traumatic injury, tumor resection, and congenital defects. These defects typically result from the loss of a large volume of adipose tissue. To date, no ideal filler material which is successful in all cases has been developed. Additionally, the

  2. Innervation of Brown Adipose Tissue and its Role in Thermogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Bartness; C. Kay Song

    2005-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is almost exclusive- ly under sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation con- trol. The release of norepinephrine from BAT SNS terminals primarily stimulates beta-3-adrenoceptors activating mito- chondrial uncoupling protein-1 responsible for increased BAT thermogenesis. BAT has sensory innervation that may function in BAT growth and thermogenic capacity. No convincing neu- roanatomical evidence exists for BAT

  3. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  4. Altered White Adipose Tissue Protein Profile in C57BL/6J Mice Displaying Delipidative, Inflammatory, and Browning Characteristics after Bitter Melon Seed Oil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Gou-Chun; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Wu, Ting-Feng; Chao, Pei-Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO), which is rich in cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linolenic acid, is more potent than soybean oil in attenuating body fat deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive insight into how white adipose tissue (WAT) is affected by BMSO administration and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the anti-adiposity effect of BMSO. Methods and Results A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the WAT of mice fed diets with or without BMSO for 11 wks. The WAT was also analyzed histologically for morphological changes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (pH 4–7) revealed 32 spots showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in intensity in BMSO-treated mice and 30 of these were shown to code for 23 proteins (15 increased and 8 decreased expression; >2-fold change). Combined with histological evidence of macrophage infiltration and brown adipocyte recruitment, the proteomic and immunoblotting data showed that the WAT in mice subjected to long-term high dose BMSO administration was characterized by reduced caveolae formation, increased ROS insult, tissue remodeling/repair, mitochondria uncoupling, and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, this last change being putatively related to an increased inflammatory response. Conclusion The anti-adiposity effect of BMSO is associated with WAT delipidation, inflammation, and browning. Some novel proteins participating in these processes were identified. In addition, the BMSO-mediated WAT browning may account for the increased inflammation without causing adverse metabolic effects. PMID:24039822

  5. Cold-induced activation of brown adipose tissue and adipose angiogenesis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Lim; Jennifer Honek; Yuan Xue; Takahiro Seki; Ziquan Cao; Patrik Andersson; Xiaojuan Yang; Kayoko Hosaka; Yihai Cao

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of humans and rodents to cold activates thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). This protocol describes a mouse model to study the activation of BAT and angiogenesis in adipose tissues by cold acclimation. After a 1-week exposure to 4 °C, adult C57BL\\/6 mice show an obvious transition from subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown-like adipose tissue (BRITE).

  6. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers, but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers, and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:22456805

  7. Immunohistochemical profiling of the heat shock response in obese non-diabetic subjects revealed impaired expression of heat shock proteins in the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation and altered stress responses in key metabolic tissues. Impairment of heat shock response (HSR) has been already linked to diabetes and insulin resistance as reflected by decrease in heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression. However, the status of HSR in non-diabetic human obese has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether obesity triggers a change in the HSR pattern and the impact of physical exercise on this pattern at protein and mRNA levels. Methods Two groups of adult non-diabetic human subjects consisting of lean and obese (n?=?47 for each group) were enrolled in this study. The expression pattern of HSP-27, DNAJB3/HSP-40, HSP-60, HSC-70, HSP72, HSP-90 and GRP-94 in the adipose tissue was primarily investigated by immunohistochemistry and then complemented by western blot and qRT-PCR in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HSPs expression levels were correlated with various physical, clinical and biochemical parameters. We have also explored the effect of a 3-month moderate physical exercise on the HSPs expression pattern in obese subjects. Results Obese subjects displayed increased expression of HSP-60, HSC-70, HSP-72, HSP-90 and GRP-94 and lower expression of DNAJB3/HSP-40 (P?proteins correlated positively with the indices of obesity (body mass index and percent body fat) and circulating levels of IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and RANTES chemokines. This expression pattern was concomitant with increased inflammatory response in the adipose tissue as monitored by increased levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and RANTES (P?adipose tissue with concomitant attenuation in the inflammatory response. PMID:24986468

  8. Vitamin D and adipose tissue-more than storage.

    PubMed

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR(-/-)) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 (-/-)) mouse models: Both VDR(-/-) and CYP27B1(-/-) models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases. PMID:25009502

  9. Clinical Note Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Clinical Note Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant Houchun H. Hu We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating

  10. Original article The cellularity of developing adipose tissues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article The cellularity of developing adipose tissues in Pietrain and Meishan pigs N, internal, inter- and intramuscular adipose tissues was com- pared in Pietrain (lean) and Meishan (obese of external and internal adipose tissues as well as mean adipocyte diameter increased similarly in both breeds

  11. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population) has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24829577

  12. Fat Mobilization in Adipose Tissue Is Promoted by Adipose Triglyceride Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Zimmermann; Juliane G. Strauss; Guenter Haemmerle; Gabriele Schoiswohl; Ruth Birner-Gruenberger; Monika Riederer; Achim Lass; Georg Neuberger; Frank Eisenhaber; Albin Hermetter; Rudolf Zechner

    2004-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue. Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial

  13. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-07-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the "beiging" of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  14. Glucagon stimulation of brown adipose tissue growth and thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Billington, C J; Bartness, T J; Briggs, J; Levine, A S; Morley, J E

    1987-01-01

    Despite long-standing observations of a whole-body thermogenic effect of glucagon, the role of glucagon in activating thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue has not often been studied. We investigated the ability of administered glucagon to produce alterations in brown adipose tissue similar to changes produced by accepted stimuli of brown fat activity: cold, norepinephrine, and overfeeding. Eighteen days of glucagon injections (1 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats produced, relative to saline-injected controls, decreases in feed efficiency and increases in brown adipose tissue weight, protein content, DNA content, and mitochondrial mass as reflected in cytochrome oxidase activity. The observed changes were similar, though of lesser magnitude, to changes produced in these same parameters induced by administration of norepinephrine (250 micrograms/kg) for a positive control group. Four days of glucagon administration (1 mg/kg) produced increases in specific activity of cytochrome oxidase and lipoprotein lipase. After 8 days of glucagon administration, changes in whole-pad activity similar to those seen with 18 days of administration were present. Glucagon also increased whole-pad lipoprotein lipase activity after 4 and 8 days. Surgically denervated interscapular brown adipose tissue retained its ability to respond to exogenous glucagon, though the magnitude of the response was diminished. Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) binding to brown adipose tissue mitochondria was measured as an assessment of functional state after 5 days of glucagon (1 mg/kg). There was an increase in GDP binding relative to controls whether expressed as picomoles per milligram mitochondrial protein or nanomoles per pad.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3028165

  15. Effect of Resveratrol Supplementation on the SNARE Proteins Expression in Adipose Tissue of Stroptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Farimani, Azam; Saidijam, Massoud; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Yadegar Azari, Reza; Asadi, Soheila; Zarei, Sadegh; Shabab, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose uptake by muscles and fat cells is carried out by the GLUT4 system. Isoforms of the SNAP23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 play an important role in regulating GLUT-4 trafficking and fusion in adipocytes. The changes of SNARE proteins levels and thus impaired GLUT-4 displacement can be one of the etiological causes of type 2 diabetes. Due to changes in the expression of these proteins in diabetes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the natural compound resveratrol with anti-diabetic properties on impaired expression of SNARE proteins in type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were used in this study. Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering a single dose of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. The expression of SNAP-23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 proteins were assessed using real-time qRT-PCR. Also, some biochemical parameters were examined, including fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and insulin resistance. Results The results of this study showed that, resveratrol supplementation increased blood insulin level, reduced the fasting blood glucose, and improved the insulin resistance. In addition, resveratrol supplementation increased the expression of SNAP-23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 proteins that involved in GLUT-4 transport in adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Conclusion Final results showed that SNARE proteins expression is significantly reduced in diabetic rats and treatment with resveratrol supplementation is associated with the increased expression of these proteins. PMID:25999625

  16. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  17. Increased Energy Expenditure, Decreased Adiposity, and Tissue-Specific Insulin Sensitivity in Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORI D. KLAMAN; OLIVIER BOSS; ODILE D. PERONI; JASON K. KIM; JENNIFER L. MARTINO; JANICE M. ZABOLOTNY; NADEEM MOGHAL; MARGARET LUBKIN; YOUNG-BUM KIM; ARLENE H. SHARPE; ALAIN STRICKER-KRONGRAD; GERALD I. SHULMAN; BENJAMIN G. NEEL; BARBARA B. KAHN

    2000-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) is a major protein-tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in the regulation of insulin action, as well as in other signal transduction pathways. To investigate the role of PTP-1B in vivo, we generated homozygotic PTP-1B-null mice by targeted gene disruption. PTP-1B-deficient mice have remarkably low adiposity and are protected from diet-induced obesity. Decreased adiposity is due

  18. Effects of Ang II Receptor Blocker Irbesartan on Adipose Tissue Function in Mice with Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Akinobu; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masato; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Ohki, Koji; Haku, Sona; Yamashita, Akio; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the functional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the adipose tissue. The adipose tissue RAS is proposed in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders. In the present study, we examined therapeutic effects of irbesartan, an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R)-specific blocker, in genetically obese diabetic KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders without any dietary loading, with our focus on the analysis on possible effect of irbesartan on the adipose tissue. The treatment with irbesartan significantly lowered systolic blood pressure with a concomitant decrease in body weight in KKAy mice. In addition, irbesartan significantly decreased the adipose leptin mRNA expression and tended to decrease IL-6 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of KKAy mice. Furthermore irbesartan preserved the adipose gene expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), an endogenous inhibitory molecule of tissue AT1R signaling, with a concomitant tendency of up-regulation of adipose tissue ATRAP/AT1R ratio. Collectively, these results suggest that the irbesartan-induced beneficial suppressive effect on the leptin-IL-6 axis in the adipose tissue in KKAy mice is partly mediated by a trend of up-regulation of the adipose ATRAP/AT1R ratio as one of pleiotropic effects of irbesartan. PMID:24834011

  19. Effects of Ang II receptor blocker irbesartan on adipose tissue function in mice with metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akinobu; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masato; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Ohki, Koji; Haku, Sona; Yamashita, Akio; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the functional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the adipose tissue. The adipose tissue RAS is proposed in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders. In the present study, we examined therapeutic effects of irbesartan, an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R)-specific blocker, in genetically obese diabetic KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders without any dietary loading, with our focus on the analysis on possible effect of irbesartan on the adipose tissue. The treatment with irbesartan significantly lowered systolic blood pressure with a concomitant decrease in body weight in KKAy mice. In addition, irbesartan significantly decreased the adipose leptin mRNA expression and tended to decrease IL-6 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of KKAy mice. Furthermore irbesartan preserved the adipose gene expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), an endogenous inhibitory molecule of tissue AT1R signaling, with a concomitant tendency of up-regulation of adipose tissue ATRAP/AT1R ratio. Collectively, these results suggest that the irbesartan-induced beneficial suppressive effect on the leptin-IL-6 axis in the adipose tissue in KKAy mice is partly mediated by a trend of up-regulation of the adipose ATRAP/AT1R ratio as one of pleiotropic effects of irbesartan. PMID:24834011

  20. Bioenergenetics of brown adipose tissue 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Horwitz; Paul A. Herd; Robert Emrie Smith

    1970-01-01

    Examination of the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in vivo on the brown adipose tissue of cold-exposed rats as well as the\\u000a effect of DNP and dicumarol in vitro, indicates that brown fat does possess a functional electron transport-coupled phosphorylating\\u000a system. Moreover, the fact that a norepinephrineinduced thermogenic response (in vivo) can be elicited from the brown fat\\u000a after DNP administration

  1. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 ?m) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP ?) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p < 0.05), but C/EBP ? declined at 20 dpf. Expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increased from 2 to 16 dpf and then declined. In addition, immunoreaction of PPAR ? was positive on hepatocytes after fertilization for 15 days. These results implied that the early developmental stage of adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue. PMID:25893904

  2. Comparison of the Release of Adipokines by Adipose Tissue, Adipose Tissue Matrix, and Adipocytes from Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissues of Obese Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN N. FAIN; ATUL K. MADAN; M. LLOYD HILER; PARAMJEET CHEEMA; SULEIMAN W. BAHOUTH

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the source of adi- pokines released by the visceral and sc adipose tissues of obese humans. Human adipose tissue incubated in primary culture for 48 h released more prostaglandin E2, IL-8, and IL-6 than adiponectin, whereas the release of plasminogen acti- vator inhibitor 1 and hepatocyte growth factor was less than that

  3. Adipose tissue-deprived stem cells acquire cementoblast features treated with dental follicle cell conditioned medium containing dentin non-collagenous proteins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Li [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu, Luchuan, E-mail: liuluchuan1957@126.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Manjing, E-mail: iradeng@163.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine the effects of dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs) on differentiation of ADSCs. {yields} We examined that ADSCs treated with dNCPs/DFCCM underwent morphological changes and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. {yields} dNCPs/DFCCM enhanced the mineralization behaviour and mineralization-related marker expression of ADSCs. {yields} ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are easily harvested and show excellent pluripotency potential, have generated considerable interest in regenerative medicine. In this study, the differentiation of ADSCs was assessed after treatment with dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs). ADSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative capacity. However, after treatment with dNCPs/DFCCM, ADSCs changed from a fibroblast-like to cementoblast-like morphology and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. Alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro mineralization behaviour of ADSCs were significantly enhanced. Mineralization-related markers including cementum attachment protein, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteonectin were detected at mRNA or protein levels, whereas dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein were not detected, implying a cementoblast-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment and could be a potential source of cementogenic cells for periodontal regeneration.

  4. Absence of macrophage inflammatory protein-1{alpha} does not impact macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Surmi, Bonnie K; Webb, Corey D; Ristau, Alexander C; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2010-09-01

    Macrophages and T-lymphocytes are known to accumulate in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice and humans, but the factors that cause this infiltration are not yet determined. Chemokines, which attract leukocytes to inflammatory sites, are candidates for this process. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) expression is significantly elevated in WAT of obese mice and humans and positively correlates with fasting plasma insulin, but its potential role in leukocyte recruitment to WAT is unknown. MIP-1alpha-deficient, heterozygous, and wild-type mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 16 wk. Plasma lipids, adipose tissue mass, energy expenditure, food intake, liver triglyceride content, and inflammatory cytokine expression were not different among genotypes. Gene expression of macrophage markers F4/80 and CD68, as well as T-lymphocyte marker CD3epsilon was increased in perigonadal WAT of obese WD-fed mice but was not influenced by MIP-1alpha expression level. Immunohistochemical analysis of WAT also showed no effect of MIP-1alpha on macrophage content. Two related chemokines, MIP-1beta and RANTES, had reduced expression in obese male MIP-1alpha-deficient mice compared with wild-type controls (P < or = 0.05). In mice fed the WD for 6 wk, WAT macrophage content was unchanged; however, CD8+ T-lymphocytes accumulated to a lesser extent in the MIP-1alpha-null mice. Therefore, expression of MIP-1alpha, as well as that of MIP-1beta and RANTES, increases as a consequence of weight gain, but these chemokines may not be required for the recruitment of monocytes to WAT during diet-induced obesity in mice and may impact T-lymphocyte recruitment only at early time points after WD feeding. PMID:20551286

  5. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae-Mi Woo; Ji-Hye Kang; Teruo Kawada; Hoon Yoo; Mi-Kyung Sung; Rina Yu

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies.

  6. Brown adipose tissue: physiological function and evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Oelkrug, R; Polymeropoulos, E T; Jastroch, M

    2015-08-01

    In modern eutherian (placental) mammals, brown adipose tissue (BAT) evolved as a specialized thermogenic organ that is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). For NST, energy metabolism of BAT mitochondria is increased by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which dissipates the proton motive force as heat. Despite the presence of UCP1 orthologues prior to the divergence of teleost fish and mammalian lineages, UCP1's significance for thermogenic adipose tissue emerged at later evolutionary stages. Recent studies on the presence of BAT in metatherians (marsupials) and eutherians of the afrotherian clade provide novel insights into the evolution of adaptive NST in mammals. In particular studies on the 'protoendothermic' lesser hedgehog tenrec (Afrotheria) suggest an evolutionary scenario linking BAT to the onset of eutherian endothermy. Here, we review the physiological function and distribution of BAT in an evolutionary context by focusing on the latest research on phylogenetically distinct species. PMID:25966796

  7. 5?AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activity is Increased in Adipose Tissue of Northern Elephant Seal Pups during Prolonged Fasting-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Viscarra, Jose A.; Champagne, Cory D.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern elephant seals endure a 2–3 month fast characterized by sustained hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and increased plasma cortisol and free fatty acids, conditions often seen in insulin resistant humans. We previously showed that adipose Glut4 expression and AMP kinase (AMPK) activity increase and plasma glucose decreases in fasting seals suggesting that AMPK activity contributes to glucose regulation during insulin resistant conditions. To address the hypothesis that AMPK activity increases during fasting-induced insulin resistance, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) on early (n=5) and late (n=8) fasted seal pups and compared adipose tissue expression of insulin signaling proteins, PPAR?, and AMPK, in addition to plasma adiponectin, leptin, cortisol, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels. Fasting was associated with decreased glucose clearance, plasma insulin and adiponectin, and intracellular insulin signaling, as well as increased plasma cortisol and NEFAs, supporting the suggestion that seals develop insulin resistance late in the fast. Expression of Glut4 and VAMP2 increased (52% and 63%, respectively) with fasting but did not change significantly during the GTT. PPAR? and phosphorylated AMPK did not change in early fasted seals, but increased significantly (73% and 50%, respectively) in late fasted seals during the GTT. Increased AMPK activity along with the reduction in the activity of insulin-signaling proteins supports our hypothesis that AMPK activity is increased following the onset of insulin resistance. The association between increased AMPK activity and Glut4 expression suggests that AMPK plays a greater role in regulating glucose metabolism in mammals adapted to prolonged fasting than in non-fasting mammals. PMID:21429964

  8. LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON Hannah Research Institute, Ayr KA6 5HL, Scotland Ovine adipose tissue remains metabolically active for at least 3 days when a system for studying the long- term regulation of ruminant adipose tissue metabolism, and greatly reduces

  9. Absolute Quantification of Adipose Tissue Fat Mass by MRI Using a Signal Intensity Based Model , and K. S. Nayak1

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Absolute Quantification of Adipose Tissue Fat Mass by MRI Using a Signal Intensity Based Model H. HD capability is useful in identifying abdominal adipose tissue (AT) depots, as well as fatty, water, and proteins) is distinguished from lean tissue due to their high signal intensity [1]. Another

  10. Combined effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2014-05-01

    The cumulative effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig longissimus lumborum muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were investigated. The experiment was performed on fifty-four intact male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred), with a live weight ranging from 59 to 92 kg. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two levels of arginine supplementation (0 v. 1 %) and three levels of a basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet to achieve 2 % of leucine, RPDL). The results showed that dietary arginine supplementation did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and back fat thickness, but increased the total fat in SAT. This effect was associated with an increase in fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in SAT, which suggests that arginine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in pig muscle and SAT. The increase in IMF content under the RPD, with or without leucine supplementation, was accompanied by increased FASN and SCD mRNA levels. Arginine supplementation did not influence the percentage of main fatty acids, while the RPD had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in both tissues. Leucine supplementation of RPD did not change IMF, total fat of SAT and back fat thickness, but increased 16 : 0 and 18 : 1cis-9 and decreased 18 : 2n-6 in muscle. PMID:24502766

  11. ChREBP expression in the liver, adipose tissue and differentiated preadipocytes in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Hurtado del Pozo, Carmen; Vesperinas-García, Gregorio; Rubio, Miguel-Ángel; Corripio-Sánchez, Ramón; Torres-García, Antonio J; Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Calvo, Rosa María

    2011-12-01

    ChREBP is an essential transcription factor for lipogenesis. Its physiological role in adipose tissue has been studied only to a small extent and the control of its expression remains unknown in human adipocytes. We have studied ChREBP mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver and the omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues from obese and lean subjects, as well as in human differentiated preadipocytes. Liver and OM and SC adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from lean and obese patients. Human preadipocytes were isolated from the adipose tissues from obese patients and differentiated under adipogenic conditions. ChREBP expression levels were quantified by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We found opposing results in terms of ChREBP regulation in the liver and adipose samples. ChREBP increased in the liver from obese compared to lean subjects, whereas the expression decreased in both adipose tissues. The mRNAs of other adipogenic markers were checked in these tissues. The pattern of FASN was similar to the one for ChREBP, ADCY3 decreased in both adipose tissues from obese patients, AP2 decreased only in OM adipose tissue of obese patients and ATGL did not change. The levels of ChREBP mRNA and protein showed dramatic increases during the differentiation of human OM and SC preadipocytes. In conclusion, ChREBP expression has an opposite regulation in the liver and adipose tissue from obese subjects which is compatible with the increased hepatic lipogenesis and decreased adipocytic lipogenesis found in these patients. The dramatic increase of ChREBP mRNA and protein levels during preadipocyte differentiation suggests a role in adipogenesis. PMID:21840420

  12. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    White, Ursula A.; Tchoukalova, Yourka D.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, characterized by excessive adiposity, is a risk factor for many metabolic pathologies, such as Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies have shown that adipose tissue distribution may be a greater predictor of metabolic health. Upper-body fat (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal) is commonly associated with the unfavorable complications of obesity, while lower-body fat (gluteal-femoral) may be protective. Current research investigations are focused on analyzing the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, in order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate fat distribution in both men and women. This review will highlight the adipose tissue depot- and sex- dependent differences in white adipose tissue function, including adipogenesis, adipose tissue developmental patterning, the storage and release of fatty acids, and secretory function. PMID:23684841

  13. FABP4 Dynamics in Obesity: Discrepancies in Adipose Tissue and Liver Expression Regarding Circulating Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victoria; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Miranda, Merce; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; Peral, Belen; Cardona, Fernando; Fernández-Real, Jose Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Vendrell, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. Objective In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. Methods The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. Results In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels), with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. Conclusion The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity. PMID:23139800

  14. Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from north Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Femi Adeshina; Elizabeth L. Todd

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary study that was conducted to determine the concentrations of organochlorine compounds in the adipose tissue of residents of North Texas. Thirty?five human adipose tissue samples were obtained during autopsy between 1987 and 1988 from persons who had no known occupational exposure to organochlorine pesticides. These samples were analyzed by electron?capture gas Chromatographic methods for the

  15. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazir Ahmad; Wendy Harsas; Robert S. Marolt; Maria Morton; John K. Pollack

    1988-01-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the

  16. Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander R. Moschen; Herbert Tilg

    2006-01-01

    There has been much effort recently to define the role of adipocytokines, which are soluble mediators derived mainly from adipocytes (fat cells), in the interaction between adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity. The adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin have emerged as the most abundant adipocyte products, thereby redefining adipose tissue as a key component not only of the endocrine system, but also

  17. Adipose tissue as an endocrine and paracrine organ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Mohamed-Ali; JH Pinkney; SW Coppack

    1998-01-01

    The discovery of leptin has imparted great impetus to adipose tissue research by demonstrating a more active role for the adipocyte in energy regulation. Besides leptin, however, the adipose tissue also secretes a large number other signals. Cytokine signals, TNF? and IL-6, and components of the alternative pathway of complement influence peripheral fuel storage, mobilization and combustion, as well as

  18. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  19. Prospective influences of circadian clocks in adipose tissue and metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Sutton; Bruce A. Bunnell; Andrey A. Ptitsyn; Z. Elizabeth Floyd; Jeffrey M. Gimble

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms make a critical contribution to endocrine functions that involve adipose tissue. These contributions are made at the systemic, organ and stem cell levels. The transcription factors and enzymes responsible for the maintenance of circadian rhythms in adipose depots and other peripheral tissues that are metabolically active have now been identified. Furthermore, the circadian regulation of glucose and lipid

  20. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  1. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K.; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  2. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia - before severe fat loss - in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34-42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

  3. Adipose tissue: a key target for diabetes pathophysiology and treatment?

    PubMed

    Frayn, K N; Tan, G D; Karpe, F

    2007-10-01

    Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as 'enlarged adipose tissue' is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms regulating adipocyte fat storage are interfered with (either in genetically-modified animals or by increasing the size of the adipocytes), then perhaps some sort of cellular stress sets in, leading to the inflammatory and endocrine changes. Some evidence for this comes from the effects of the thiazolidinediones, which improve adipose tissue function and in parallel reduce inflammatory changes. PMID:17952837

  4. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kenéz, Ákos; Kulcsár, Anna; Kluge, Franziska; Benbelkacem, Idir; Hansen, Kathrin; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Huber, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and ?-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and ?-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot. PMID:25978720

  5. Protection against Fatty Liver but Normal Adipogenesis in Mice Lacking Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benny Hung-Junn Chang; Lan Li; Antoni Paul; Susumu Taniguchi; Vijayalakshmi Nannegari; William C. Heird; Lawrence Chan

    2006-01-01

    Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP; also known as ADRP or adipophilin), is a lipid droplet (LD) protein found in most cells and tissues. ADFP expression is strongly induced in cells with increased lipid load. We have inactivated the Adfp gene in mice to better understand its role in lipid accumulation. The Adfp- deficient mice have unaltered adipose differentiation or lipolysis in

  6. Developmental, hormonal, and nutritional regulation of expression of porcine adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (pATGL) gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a newly identified lipase. We report for the first time the porcine ATGL sequence and characterize ATGL gene and protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Adult pig tissue expresses ATGL at high levels in the white adipose and muscle tissue relative to other te...

  7. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration. PMID:25126381

  8. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue. PMID:24418880

  9. Proteome of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells vs. Mature Adipocytes Based on DIGE

    PubMed Central

    Kheterpal, Indu; Ku, Ginger; Coleman, Liana; Yu, Gang; Ptitsyn, Andrey A.; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a heterogeneous population of mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, and pre-adipocytic stromal/stem cells. To date, the majority of proteomic analyses have focused on intact adipose tissue or isolated adipose stromal/stem cells in vitro. In this study, human subcutaneous adipose tissue from multiple depots (arm and abdomen) obtained from female donors was separated into populations of stromal vascular fraction cells and mature adipocytes. Out of 960 features detected by 2-D gel electrophoresis, a total of 200 features displayed a 2-fold up- or down-regulation relative to each cell population. The protein identity of 136 features was determined. Immunoblot analyses comparing SVF relative to adipocytes confirmed that carbonic anhydrase II was up-regulated in both adipose depots while catalase was up-regulated in the arm only. Bioinformatic analyses of the dataset determined that cytoskeletal, glycogenic, glycolytic, lipid metabolic, and oxidative stress related pathways were highly represented as differentially regulated between the mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction cells. These findings extend previous reports in the literature with respect to the adipose tissue proteome and the consequences of adipogenesis. The proteins identified may have value as biomarkers for monitoring the physiology and pathology of cell populations within subcutaneous adipose depots. PMID:21261302

  10. GADD45? regulates the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gantner, Marin L.; Hazen, Bethany C.; Conkright, Juliana; Kralli, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 ? (PGC-1?) is widely considered a central transcriptional regulator of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, mice lacking PGC-1? specifically in adipose tissue have only mild thermogenic defects, suggesting the presence of additional regulators. Using the activity of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), downstream effectors of PGC-1?, as read-out in a high-throughput genome-wide cDNA screen, we identify here growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 ? (GADD45?) as a cold-induced activator of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and oxidative capacity in BAT. Mice lacking Gadd45? have defects in Ucp1 induction and the thermogenic response to cold. GADD45? works by activating MAPK p38, which is a potent activator of ERR? and ERR? transcriptional function. GADD45? activates ERR? independently of PGC-1 coactivators, yet synergizes with PGC-1? to induce the thermogenic program. Our findings elucidate a previously unidentified GADD45?/p38/ERR? pathway that regulates BAT thermogenesis and may enable new approaches for the stimulation of energy expenditure. Our study also implicates GADD45 proteins as general metabolic regulators. PMID:25071184

  11. Perivascular adipose tissue, vascular reactivity and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2015-01-01

    Most blood vessels are surrounded by a variable amount of adventitial adipose tissue, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which was originally thought to provide mechanical support for the vessel. It is now known that PVAT secretes a number of bioactive substances including vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator substance, resistin and angiotensinogen. Several studies have shown that PVAT significantly modulated vascular smooth muscle contractions induced by a variety of agonists and electrical stimulation by releasing adipocyte-derived relaxing (ADRF) and contracting factors. The identity of ADRF is not yet known. However, several vasodilators have been suggested including adiponectin, angiotensin 1-7, hydrogen sulfide and methyl palmitate. The anticontractile effect of PVAT is mediated through the activation of potassium channels since it is abrogated by inhibiting potassium channels. Hypertension is characterized by a reduction in the size and amount of PVAT and this is associated with the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT in hypertension. However, since a reduction in size and amount of PVAT and the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT were already evident in prehypertensive rats with no evidence of impaired release of ADRF, there is the possibility that the anticontractile effect of PVAT was not directly related to an altered function of the adipocytes per se. Hypertension is characterized by low-grade inflammation and infiltration of macrophages. One of the adipokines secreted by macrophages is TNF-?. It has been shown that exogenously administered TNF-? enhanced agonist-induced contraction of a variety of vascular smooth muscle preparations and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Other procontractile factors released by the PVAT include angiotensin II and superoxide. It is therefore possible that the loss could be due to an increased amount of these proinflammatory and procontractile factors. More studies are definitely required to confirm this. PMID:24503717

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; ?uri?, Goran; Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10?mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  13. Proline oxidase–adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24096872

  14. Adipose tissue remodeling in lipedema: adipocyte death and concurrent regeneration.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hirotaka; Araki, Jun; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Higashino, Takuya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Lipedema is a disease with unknown etiology presenting as bilateral and symmetric enlargement of the lower extremities due to subcutaneous deposition of the adipose tissue. Here we describe the histopathological features of the lipedema tissue and nonaffected adipose tissue obtained from a typical patient with severe lipedema. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated degenerative and regenerative changes of the lipedema tissue, characterized by crown-like structures (necrotizing adipocytes surrounded by infiltrating CD68+ macrophages; a feature commonly seen in obese adipose tissue) and proliferation of adipose-derived stem/progenitor/stromal cells (Ki67+CD34+ cells), respectively. These findings suggested increased adipogenesis in the lipedema tissue, which may further lead to hypoxia similar to that seen in obesity, resulting in adipocyte necrosis and macrophage recruitment. The confinement to the lower extremities and the difference from systemic obesity warrants further elucidation in future studies. PMID:19281484

  15. Inflamed tumor-associated adipose tissue is a depot for macrophages that stimulate tumor growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Marek; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Wiig, Helge; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated stroma is typified by a persistent, non-resolving inflammatory response that enhances tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. Inflammation in tumors is instigated by heterotypic interactions between malignant tumor cells, vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, immune and inflammatory cells. We found that tumor-associated adipocytes also contribute to inflammation. We have analyzed peritumoral adipose tissue in a syngeneic mouse melanoma model. Compared to control adipose tissue, adipose tissue juxtaposed to implanted tumors exhibited reduced adipocyte size, extensive fibrosis, increased angiogenesis and a dense macrophage infiltrate. A mouse cytokine protein array revealed up-regulation of inflammatory mediators including IL-6, CXCL1, MCP-1, MIP-2 and TIMP-1 in peritumoral versus counterpart adipose tissues. CD11b+ macrophages contributed strongly to the inflammatory activity. These macrophages were isolated from peritumoral adipose tissue and found to overexpress ARG1, NOS2, CD301, CD163, MCP-1 and VEGF, which are indicative of both M1 and M2 polarization. Tumors implanted at a site distant from subcutaneous, anterior adipose tissue were strongly growth-delayed, had fewer blood vessels and were less populated by CD11b+ macrophages. In contrast to normal adipose tissue, micro-dissected peritumoral adipose tissue explants launched numerous vascular sprouts when cultured in an ex vivo model. Thus, inflamed tumor-associated adipose tissue fuels the growth of malignant cells by acting as a proximate source for vascular endothelium and activated pro-inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages. PMID:22614697

  16. Overproduction of Angiotensinogen from adipose Tissue Induces adipose Infammation, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Massiera, Florence; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Ailhaud, Gérard; Voy, Brynn H.; Wasserman, David H.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with overactivation of the white adipose tissue (WAT) renin–angiotensin system (RAS), a causal link between the latter and systemic insulin resistance is not established. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of angiotensinogen (Agt) from WAT causes systemic insulin resistance via modulation of adipose inflammation. Glucose tolerance, systemic insulin sensitivity, and WAT inflammatory markers were analyzed in mice overexpressing Agt in the WAT (aP2-Agt mice). Proteomic studies and in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 adipocytes were performed to build a mechanistic framework. Male aP2-Agt mice exhibited glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle. The difference in glucose tolerance between genotypes was normalized by high-fat (HF) feeding, and was significantly improved by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. aP2-Agt mice also had higher monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and lower interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the WAT, indicating adipose inflammation. Proteomic studies in WAT showed that they also had higher monoglyceride lipase (MGL) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase levels. Treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II) increased MCP-1 and resistin secretion from adipocytes, which was prevented by cotreating with inhibitors of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. In conclusion, we show for the first time that adipose RAS overactivation causes glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance. The mechanisms appear to be via reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, at least in part due to Ang II-induced, NADPH oxidase and NF ?B-dependent increases in WAT inflammation. PMID:21979391

  17. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  18. AN INJECTABLE ADIPOSE MATRIX FOR SOFT TISSUE RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Iwen; Nahas, Zayna; Kimmerling, Kelly A.; Rosson, Gedge D.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Soft tissue repair is currently limited by the availability of autologous tissue sources and the absence of an ideal soft tissue replacement comparable to native adipose tissue. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based biomaterials have demonstrated great potential as instructive scaffolds for regenerative medicine, mechanically and biochemically defined by the tissue of origin. As such, the distinctive high lipid content of adipose tissue requires unique processing conditions to generate a biocompatible scaffold for soft tissue repair. Methods Human adipose tissue was decellularized to obtain a matrix devoid of lipids and cells, while preserving ECM architecture and bioactivity. To control degradation and volume persistence, the scaffold was crosslinked using hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1-Ethyl-3-(-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide. In vitro studies with human adipose-derived stem cells were used to assess cell viability and adipogenic differentiation on the biomaterial. In vivo biocompatibility and volume persistence were evaluated by subcutaneous implantation over 12 weeks in a small animal model. Results The scaffold provided a biocompatible matrix supporting the growth and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Crosslinking the matrix increased its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Subcutaneous implantation of the acellular adipose matrix in Sprague-Dawley rats showed minimal inflammatory reaction. Adipose tissue development and vascularization was observed in the implant, with host cells migrating into the matrix indicating the instructive potential of the matrix for guiding tissue remodeling and regeneration. Conclusions With its unique biological and mechanical properties, decellularized adipose ECM is a promising biomaterial scaffold that can potentially be used allogenically for the correction of soft tissue defects. PMID:22327888

  19. UCP3: An Uncoupling Protein Homologue Expressed Preferentially and Abundantly in Skeletal Muscle and Brown Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Vidal-Puig; Gemma Solanes; Danica Grujic; Jeffrey S. Flier; Bradford B. Lowell

    1997-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inner mitochondrial membrane transporters which dissipate the proton gradient, releasing stored energy as heat. UCP1 is expressed exclusively in brown adipocytes while UCP2 is expressed widely. We now report the molecular cloning of a third uncoupling protein homologue, designated UCP3. At the amino acid level, hUCP3 is 71% identical to hUCP2 and 57% identical to hUCP1.

  20. Reduced Body Weight, Adipose Tissue, and Leptin Levels Despite Increased Energy Intake in Female Mice Lacking Acylation-Stimulating Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAN MURRAY; PETER J. HAVEL; ALLAN D. SNIDERMAN; KATHERINE CIANFLONE

    2000-01-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is a potent lipogenic protein produced by adipocytes. In vitro studies have shown that ASP in- creases triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport in both murine and human adipocytes. Our initial study indicated that complement C3-deficient (2\\/2) mice (and, therefore, ASP deficient) demonstrated altered dietary postprandial triglyceride clearance. In the present study we examined the phenotype of female

  1. Obesity, adipose tissue function and the role of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Justyna; Dittfeld, Anna; Bro?czyk-Puzo?, Anna; Kulpok, Agata; Zubelewicz-Szkodzi?ska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is not just a cosmetic problem. Pathological accumulation of body fat can cause many health problems: insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus type 2. It may also increase morbidity and mortality. Adipose tissue plays an important role in body homeostasis by producing and secreting several bioactive proteins known as adipokines: adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and apelin, which are involved in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin action. There can be observed nutritional deficiencies, despite increased food intake, in morbidly obese people. Data concerning concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 presented an inverse correlation with obesity parameters like: BMI (body mass index), waist circumference, fat mass or percentage of body fat. Also, higher insulin sensitivity was associated with higher concentrations of vitamin D. Conclusions Studies published up to now suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in adipose tissue function and could be involved in the synthesis and modulation of adipokine production. This article is a review of the literature on fatty tissue function and the role of vitamin D in obesity.

  2. The role of androgen in the adipose tissue of males.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Joo Kyung; Cho, Belong

    2013-08-01

    Adipose tissue, where various metabolic hormones are secreted, plays a role in metabolizing different substances including androgen. Within fat tissue, enzymes such as aromatase and aldo-keto reductase 1C are responsible for metabolizing testosterone into estrogen and 5-dihydrotestosterone into inactive metabolites. Adipose tissue can also affect the secretion of gonadotropin, which influences the formation of androgen in the testes. At the same time, androgen has an impact on the distribution and proliferation of adipose tissue. The adrenoreceptors for catecholamines, which have been proven to play an essential role in controlling lipolysis, function by being up-regulated by androgens. Furthermore, androgens regulate the activity of lipoprotein lipase, a key enzyme involved in intracellular esterification of adipose tissue. PMID:24044108

  3. Variations in lipoproteine-lipase activity in muscle and adipose tissues between preruminant and weaned calves

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measured in subcutaneous (SCAT), omental (OAT) and perirenal (PAT) adipose tissues, heart (H) and masseter. DNA and protein contents per g wet tissue were higher in SCAT, OAT and PAT from weaned calves than weaned calves (-58, -55 and -59 % in SCAT, OAT and PAT respectively, P

  4. Link between GIP and osteopontin in adipose tissue and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, Emma; Osmark, Peter; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Pilgaard, Kasper; Omar, Bilal; Brøns, Charlotte; Kotova, Olga; Zetterqvist, Anna V; Stancáková, Alena; Jonsson, Anna; Hansson, Ola; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kieffer, Timothy J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Isomaa, Bo; Madsbad, Sten; Gomez, Maria F; Poulsen, Pernille; Laakso, Markku; Degerman, Eva; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Wierup, Nils; Vaag, Allan; Groop, Leif; Lyssenko, Valeriya

    2013-06-01

    Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate OPN expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r = -0.24, P = 0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with a lower amount of the exon 9-containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of the GIPR rs10423928 A allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23349498

  5. Link Between GIP and Osteopontin in Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ahlqvist, Emma; Osmark, Peter; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Pilgaard, Kasper; Omar, Bilal; Brøns, Charlotte; Kotova, Olga; Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Stan?áková, Alena; Jonsson, Anna; Hansson, Ola; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kieffer, Timothy J.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Isomaa, Bo; Madsbad, Sten; Gomez, Maria F.; Poulsen, Pernille; Laakso, Markku; Degerman, Eva; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Wierup, Nils; Vaag, Allan; Groop, Leif; Lyssenko, Valeriya

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate OPN expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r = ?0.24, P = 0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with a lower amount of the exon 9–containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of the GIPR rs10423928 A allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23349498

  6. Long-acting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide ameliorates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Varol, Chen; Zvibel, Isabel; Spektor, Lior; Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Vugman, Milena; Thurm, Tamar; Khatib, Marian; Elmaliah, Elinor; Halpern, Zamir; Fishman, Sigal

    2014-10-15

    Obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation, manifested by proinflammatory polarization of adipose tissue innate and adaptive resident and recruited immune cells that contribute to insulin resistance (IR). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on the adipose tissue. Importantly, recent evidence suggested that GIP is a potential suppressor of inflammation in several metabolic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory role of GIP in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) using the long-acting GIP analog [d-Ala(2)]GIP. Administration of [d-Ala(2)]GIP resulted in adipocytes of increased size, increased levels of adipose tissue lipid droplet proteins, indicating better lipid storage capacity, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed reduced numbers of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes and F4/80(hi)CD11c(+) macrophages, associated with IR. In addition, [d-Ala(2)]GIP reduced adipose tissue infiltration of IFN-?-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, [d-Ala(2)]GIP treatment induced a favorable adipose tissue adipokine profile, manifested by a prominent reduction in key inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IFN-?) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL8, and CCL5) and an increase in adiponectin. Notably, [d-Ala(2)]GIP also reduced the numbers of circulating neutrophils and proinflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes in mice fed regular chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, the beneficial immune-associated effects were accompanied by amelioration of IR and improved insulin signaling in liver and adipose tissue. Collectively, our results describe key beneficial immunoregulatory properties for GIP in DIO and reveal that its augmentation ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and improves IR. PMID:25217161

  7. Human extracellular matrix (ECM) powders for injectable cell delivery and adipose tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Suk Choi; Hyun-Jin Yang; Beob Soo Kim; Jae Dong Kim; Jun Young Kim; Bongyoung Yoo; Hee Young Lee; Yong Woo Cho

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present extracellular matrix (ECM) powders derived from human adipose tissue as injectable cell delivery carriers for adipose tissue engineering. We postulate that human adipose tissue may provide an ideal biomaterial because it contains large amounts of ECM components including collagen. Fresh human adipose tissue was obtained by a simple surgical operation (liposuction). After removing blood and oil components,

  8. A micromechanical model for the Young's modulus of adipose tissue Kerstyn Comley, Norman A. Fleck *

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Norman A.

    A micromechanical model for the Young's modulus of adipose tissue Kerstyn Comley, Norman A. Fleck: Adipose tissue Foams Micromechanics Rheology a b s t r a c t The microstructure of porcine adipose tissue. It is argued that the modulus of adipose tissue is dictated by the collagen network that surrounds

  9. Growth/differentiation factor 3 signals through ALK7 and regulates accumulation of adipose tissue and

    E-print Network

    Ibáñez, Carlos

    Growth/differentiation factor 3 signals through ALK7 and regulates accumulation of adipose tissue/differentiation factor 3 (GDF3) is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and previous overexpression experiments in mice in adipose tissue are unknown. In this study, we show that Gdf3 / mutant mice accumulate less adipose tissue

  10. Functional Brown Adipose Tissue is Related to Muscle Volume in Children and Adolescents

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Functional Brown Adipose Tissue is Related to Muscle Volume in Children and Adolescents VicenteD Objective We examined whether the depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with positron emission tomography system, composed of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT). White adipose tissue (WAT) serves

  11. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IR?, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  12. Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence? Olivier Neyrolles1 of Electron Microscopy, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long

  13. Pomegranate vinegar attenuates adiposity in obese rats through coordinated control of AMPK signaling in the liver and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of pomegranate vinegar (PV) on adiposity was investigated in high-fat diet (HF)-induced obese rats. Methods The rats were divided into 5 groups and treated with HF with PV or acetic acid (0, 6.5 or 13% w/w) for 16 weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by the Statistical Analysis Systems package, version 9.2. Results Compared to control, PV supplementation increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to changes in mRNA expressions: increases for hormone sensitive lipase and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 and decreases for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? (PPAR?) in adipose tissue; increases for PPAR? and carnitinepalmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) and decrease for SREBP-1c in the liver. Concomitantly, PV reduced increases of body weight (p?=?0.048), fat mass (p?=?0.033), hepatic triglycerides (p?=?0.005), and plasma triglycerides (p?=?0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that PV attenuates adiposity through the coordinated control of AMPK, which leads to promotion of lipolysis in adipose tissue and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PMID:24180378

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers detected in human adipose tissue from Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Meneses; H. Wingfors; M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo; G. Lindström; B. v. Bavel

    1999-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in 13 human adipose tissue samples from Spain, 3 women and 10 men. Tetra-, penta- and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were determined at ng\\/g lipid (ppb) level in all the samples. The average TeBDE level was 1.36 ng\\/g, the average PeBDE was 0.93 ng\\/g and the HxBDE 1.83 ng\\/g. Human adipose tissue levels of PBDE

  15. Calorie Restriction Prevents Metabolic Aging Caused by Abnormal SIRT1 Function in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Cai, Yu; Fan, Pengcheng; Bai, Bo; Chen, Jie; Deng, Han-Bing; Che, Chi-Ming; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Adipose tissue is a pivotal organ determining longevity, due largely to its role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase possessing antiaging activities in a wide range of organisms. The current study demonstrates that mice with adipose tissue-selective overexpression of hSIRT1(H363Y), a dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous SIRT1 activity, show accelerated development of metabolic aging. These mice, referred to as Adipo-H363Y, exhibit hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, ectopic lipid deposition, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance at a much younger age than their wild-type littermates. The metabolic defects of Adipo-H363Y are associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications and chromatin remodeling in their adipose tissues, as a result of excess accumulation of biotin, which inhibits endogenous SIRT1 activity, leading to increased inflammation, cellularity, and collagen deposition. The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 plays an important role in biotin accumulation within adipose tissues of Adipo-H363Y. Calorie restriction prevents biotin accumulation, abolishes abnormal histone biotinylation, and completely restores the metabolic and adipose functions of Adipo-H363Y. The effects are mimicked by short-term restriction of biotin intake, an approach potentially translatable to humans for maintaining the epigenetic and chromatin remodeling capacity of adipose tissues and preventing aging-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:25475438

  16. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development. PMID:20358356

  17. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    PubMed Central

    Proença, A.R.G.; Sertié, R.A.L.; Oliveira, A.C.; Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT. PMID:24676492

  18. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area (POA) to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the POA. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described. PMID:22389645

  19. Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco J; Holt, Dolly J; Vargas, Vanessa; Yockman, James; Boudina, Sihem; Atkinson, Donald; Grainger, David W; Revelo, Monica P; Sherman, Warren; Bull, David A; Patel, Amit N

    2014-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 µm in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein one, central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid organs. These depots maintain body temperature during cold exposure by warming the blood before its distribution to the periphery. They also ensure an optimal temperature for biochemical reactions within solid organs. BAT had been thought to involute throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent studies, however, have confirmed the presence of active BAT in adult humans with depots residing in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and suprarenal regions. While human pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into functional brown adipocytes in vitro and brown adipocyte progenitor cells have been identified in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, multipotent metabolically active BAT-derived stem cells from a single depot have not been identified in adult humans to date. Here, we demonstrate a clonogenic population of metabolically active BAT stem cells residing in adult humans that can: (a) be expanded in vitro; (b) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential; and (c) functionally differentiate into metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our study defines a new target stem cell population that can be activated to restore energy homeostasis in vivo for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24420906

  20. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  1. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber–based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p?>?0.05, N?=?3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p?>?0.05, N?=?3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  2. Alterations of gene expression and protein synthesis in co-cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells and squamous cell-carcinoma cells: consequences for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study evaluating the interactions of human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) and human squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCCs), with regard to a prospective cell-based skin regenerative therapy and a thereby unintended co-localization of ADSCs and SCCs. Methods ADSCs were co-cultured with A431-SCCs and primary SCCs (pSCCs) in a transwell system, and cell-cell interactions were analyzed by assessing doubling time, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, quantitative real time PCR of 229 tumor associated genes, and multiplex protein assays of 20 chemokines and growth factors and eight matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS). Results of co-culture were compared to those of the respective mono-culture. Results ADSCs’ proliferation on the plate was significantly increased when co-cultured with A431-SCCs (P?=?0.038). PSCCs and ADSCs significantly decreased their proliferation in co-culture if cultured on the plate (P?<0.001 and P?=?0.03). The migration of pSCC was significantly increased in co-culture (P?=?0.009), as well as that of ADSCs in A431-SCC-co-culture (P?=?0.012). The invasive behavior of pSCCs and A431-SCCs was significantly increased in co-culture by a mean of 33% and 35%, respectively (P?=?0.038 and P?<0.001). Furthermore, conditioned media from co-cultured ADSC-A431-SCCs and co-cultured ADSCs-pSCCs induced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay in vitro. In A431-SCC-co-culture 36 genes were up- and 6 were down-regulated in ADSCs, in A431-SCCs 14 genes were up- and 8 genes were down-regulated. In pSCCs-co-culture 36 genes were up-regulated in ADSCs, two were down-regulated, one gene was up-regulated in pSCC, and three genes were down-regulated. Protein expression analysis revealed that three proteins were exclusively produced in co-culture (CXCL9, IL-1b, and MMP-7). In A431-SCC-co-culture the concentration of 17 proteins was significantly increased compared to the ADSCs mono-culture (2.8- to 357-fold), and 15 proteins were expressed more highly (2.8- to 1,527-fold) compared to the A431-SCCs mono-culture. In pSCC-co-culture the concentration of 10 proteins was increased compared to ADSCs-mono-culture (2.5- to 77-fold) and that of 15 proteins was increased compared to pSCC mono-culture (2.6- to 480-fold). Conclusions This is the first study evaluating the possible interactions of primary human ADSCs with human SCCs, pointing towards a doubtlessly increased oncological risk, which should not be neglected when considering a clinical use of isolated human ADSCs in skin regenerative therapies. PMID:24887580

  3. Germline Ablation of VGF Increases Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C.; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf?/Vgf? knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage, and that increased beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf?/Vgf? mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf?/Vgf? mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) (Ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), and phospho-perilipin, were higher in male Vgf?/Vgf? WAT compared to wild type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1), were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL Ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf?/Vgf? WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis. PMID:22942234

  4. Hepatogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from peritoneal adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims It has been reported that functional hepatogenic differentiation has the possibility to occur in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived stem cells. However, no studies have investigated whether the adipose tissue-driven stem cells present in various body parts differ according to hepatogenic differentiations. In this study, stem cells were separated from body visceral fat and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and cultured, and then hepatogenic differentiation was induced. We aim to investigate the possibilities and aspects of hepatogenic differentiations within the two types of fat cells. Methods Omental fat tissues were obtained as visceral fat and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from patients who had suction-assisted lipectomy. Stem cells were separated from the obtained fat tissues, and then, hepatogenic differentiation was carried out by utilizing 2-step differentiation protocols. Results After the differentiation, two types of cultured cells that showed the similar neuron-like shapes were changed to cuboidal shapes and included several binucleated cells which could be characteristics of mature hepatocytes. We confirmed that hepatocyte specific genes and proteins such as albumin and CYP3A4 were being expressed. By utilizing the ELISA test, we were able to observe that the albumin was secreted into the culture fluids in both cells. After completing the differentiation, we observed the presence of the hepatocyte specific properties by confirming glycogen storage within the cells and the ICG reagent uptake. Conclusions We confirmed that hepatogenic differentiation was possible to occur in the omental fat as well as subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  5. Methods for performing lipidomics in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lee D; West, James A; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Griffin, Julian L

    2014-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is central to the function of white adipose tissue, with the tissue having a central role in storing triacylglycerides following feeding and releasing free fatty acids and monoacylglycerides during periods of fasting. In addition, lipid species have been suggested to play a role in lipotoxicity and as signaling molecules during adipose tissue inflammation. This chapter details how mass spectrometry (MS) can be used to profile a range of lipid species found in adipose tissue. The initial step required in any MS-based approach is to extract the lipid fraction from the tissue. We detail one commonly used method based on the Folch extraction procedure. The total fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction can readily be defined using gas chromatography-MS, and we provide a method routinely used for rodent and human adipose tissue samples. However, such approaches do not provide insight into what lipid classes the various fatty acids are associated with. To better understand the global lipid profile of the tissue, we provide a general-purpose liquid chromatography-MS-based approach useful for processing phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triacylglycerides. In addition, we provide a method for profiling eicosanoids, a class of important lipid-signaling molecules, which have been implicated in white adipose tissue inflammation in rodent models of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24529441

  6. The mechanical properties of adipose tissue June 2009 1/30 Fleck

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Norman A.

    The mechanical properties of adipose tissue 30th June 2009 1/30 Fleck The mechanical response of porcine adipose tissue Kerstyn Comley and Norman Fleck1 , Department of Engineering, Cambridge University;The mechanical properties of adipose tissue 30th June 2009 2/30 Fleck Abstract Subcutaneous adipose

  7. Degradation of insulin in vitro by liver and epididymal adipose tissue from obese–hyperglycaemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Sighild

    1968-01-01

    The insulin-degrading activity of liver supernatants and epididymal adipose-tissue homogenates from genetically obese–hyperglycaemic mice (ob ob) and their lean litter mates was studied by measurement of radioactive trichloroacetic acid-soluble degradation products of the insulin molecule. Optimum assay conditions for the decomposition of the hormone were devised. The properties of the degrading activity suggested the presence of enzymic insulin destruction in both the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. There was no difference in insulin degradation in liver samples from obese and lean mice when the results were related to the protein content of the supernatants. The epididymal adipose-tissue homogenates from obese mice displayed about eightfold higher degrading activity per unit of protein than did homogenates from lean animals. The physiological significance of this finding is discussed in the light of the increased fat depots, hyperphagia, raised serum insulin concentrations and increased insulin tolerance previously recorded in this strain of mice. PMID:5637359

  8. [Interests and potentials of adipose tissue in scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Daumas, A; Eraud, J; Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Magalon, G; Granel, B

    2013-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma. PMID:24050783

  9. Adipose Tissue Regeneration: A State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, Alessandro; Epis, Roberta; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Gardin, Chiara; Bressan, Eriberto; Sivolella, Stefano; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Pinton, Paolo; Mucci, Giuseppe; Zavan, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue pathologies and defects have always represented a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. In more recent years, several allogenic and alloplastic materials have been developed and used as fillers for soft tissue defects. However, their clinical use has been limited by further documented complications, such as foreign-body reactions potentially affecting function, degradation over time, and the risk for immunogenicity. Tissue-engineering strategies are thus being investigated to develop methods for generating adipose tissue. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in adipose tissue engineering techniques, exploring the biomaterials used, stem cells application, culture strategies, and current regulatory framework that are in use are here described and discussed. PMID:23193362

  10. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4? and PPAR? in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  11. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in the VMH prevented E2-induced increase in BAT-mediated thermogenesis and weight loss. Notably, fluctuations in E2 levels during estrous cycle also modulate this integrated physiological network. Together, these findings demonstrate that E2 regulation of the VMH AMPK-SNS-BAT axis is an important determinant of energy balance and suggest that dysregulation in this axis may account for the common changes in energy homeostasis and obesity linked to dysfunction of the female gonadal axis. PMID:24856932

  12. Germline ablation of VGF increases lipolysis in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage and that increased ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf-/Vgf- mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf-/Vgf- mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) (ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase, comparative gene identification-58, and phospho-perilipin were higher in male Vgf-/Vgf- WAT compared with wild-type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1, were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf-/Vgf- WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of CREB or the p42/44 MAPK were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis. PMID:22942234

  13. Intermittent cold exposure results in visceral adipose tissue "browning" in the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhenzhong; Wuren, Tana; Liu, Shou; Han, Shirui; Chen, Lin; McClain, Donald; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-06-01

    The plateau pika has developed tolerance to cold and hypoxia in order to adapt to living in the extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. One mammalian mechanism for cold adaptation is thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the degree to which pika exploits this mechanism or how it may be modified by the additional stresses of high altitude is not known. Intermittent Cold Exposure (ICE) is an approachable method to study cold adaptation in rodents. To investigate the role of adipose tissue in the adaptation of pika to cold temperatures, we have studied pika during ICE. We find that pika kept in warm temperatures has little classical brown fat, but "browning" of white adipose tissues is observed rapidly upon cold exposure. This is demonstrated by the increased expression of several markers of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). Surprisingly, this occurs mainly in visceral rather than epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, ICE increases the expression of several general adipose differentiation markers at both the mRNA and protein levels. These substantial changes in the distribution of fat are accomplished without changes in weight or blood levels of glucose and triglycerides, suggesting that the adaptable changes are coordinated and self-compensated. Together, our results demonstrate that ICE promotes recruitment of BAT in pika, and unlike small mammals in at lower altitudes, pika can activate visceral WAT to adapt to cold stress without major changes overall energy balance. PMID:25662677

  14. Characteristic Expression of Extracellular Matrix in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Development and Adipogenesis; Comparison with Visceral Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shinobu; Kiuchi, Satomi; Ouchi, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a connective tissue specified for energy metabolism and endocrines, but functional differences between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have not been fully elucidated. To reveal the physiological role of SAT, we characterized in vivo tissue development and in vitro adipocyte differentiation. In a DNA microarray analysis of SAT and VAT in Wistar rats, functional annotation clusters of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes were found in SAT, and major ECM molecules expressed in adipose tissues were profiled. In a histological analysis and quantitative expression analysis, ECM expression patterns could be classified into two types: (i) a histogenesis-correlated type such as type IV and XV collagen, and laminin subunits, (ii) a high-SAT expression type such as type I, III, and V collagen and minor characteristic collagens. Type (i) was related to basal membrane and up-regulated in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and in histogenesis at depot-specific timings. In contrast, type (ii) was related to fibrous forming and highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exceptionally, fibronectin was abundant in developed adipose tissue, although it was highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The present study showed that adipose tissues site-specifically regulate molecular type and timing of ECM expression, and suggests that these characteristic ECM molecules provide a critical microenvironment, which may affect bioactivity of adipocyte itself and interacts with other tissues. It must be important to consider the depot-specific property for the treatment of obesity-related disorders, dermal dysfunction and for the tissue regeneration. PMID:25076859

  15. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Yolanda F.; Lundblad, Tammy M.; Ford, Eric A.; House, Lawrence M.; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate?responsive element?binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior. PMID:24744913

  16. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Otero, Yolanda F; Lundblad, Tammy M; Ford, Eric A; House, Lawrence M; McGuinness, Owen P

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior. PMID:24744913

  17. A stringent validation of mouse adipose tissue identity markers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Larsson, Ola; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-06-15

    The nature of brown adipose tissue in humans is presently debated: whether it is classical brown or of brite/beige nature. The dissimilar developmental origins and proposed distinct functions of the brown and brite/beige tissues make it essential to ascertain the identity of human depots with the perspective of recruiting and activating them for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. For identification of the tissues, a number of marker genes have been proposed, but the validity of the markers has not been well documented. We used established brown (interscapular), brite (inguinal), and white (epididymal) mouse adipose tissues and corresponding primary cell cultures as validators and examined the informative value of a series of suggested markers earlier used in the discussion considering the nature of human brown adipose tissue. Most of these markers unexpectedly turned out to be noninformative concerning tissue classification (Car4, Cited1, Ebf3, Eva1, Fbxo31, Fgf21, Lhx8, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9). Only Zic1 (brown), Cd137, Epsti1, Tbx1, Tmem26 (brite), and Tcf21 (white) proved to be informative in these three tissues. However, the expression of the brite markers was not maintained in cell culture. In a more extensive set of adipose depots, these validated markers provide new information about depot identity. Principal component analysis supported our single-gene conclusions. Furthermore, Zic1, Hoxc8, Hoxc9, and Tcf21 displayed anteroposterior expression patterns, indicating a relationship between anatomic localization and adipose tissue identity (and possibly function). Together, the observed expression patterns of these validated marker genes necessitates reconsideration of adipose depot identity in mice and humans. PMID:25898951

  18. DDT Antagonism to Dieldrin Storage in Adipose Tissue of Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1964-01-01

    Storage of dieldrin in the adipose tissue of female rats was markedly depressed when DDT and dieldrin were fed simultaneously. The amount of dieldrin present in the tissues of rats fed 1 and 10 parts of dieldrin per million was significantly reduced by the addition of 5 ppm DDT to the feed. The addition of 50 ppm DDT to the

  19. Circulatory and Metabolic Processes in Adipose Tissue in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Oro; Lars Wallenberg; Sune Rosell

    1965-01-01

    To permit the study in vivo of circulatory and metabolic processes in adipose tissue, a part of the dog's subcutaneous tissue was prepared with intact circulation and innervation. The preparation was found to be suitable for quantitative investigations on the nervous control of the blood flow and of the release of free fatty acids. We considered it to be of

  20. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Vernochet, Cecile; Damilano, Federico; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A; Smyth, Graham; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue occurs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of lipodystrophy, but whether this dysfunction contributes to or is the result of these disorders is unknown. To investigate the physiological consequences of severe mitochondrial impairment in adipose tissue, we generated mice deficient in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in adipocytes by using mice carrying adiponectin-Cre and TFAM floxed alleles. These adiponectin TFAM-knockout (adipo-TFAM-KO) mice had a 75-81% reduction in TFAM in the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), causing decreased expression and enzymatic activity of proteins in complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain (ETC). This mitochondrial dysfunction led to adipocyte death and inflammation in WAT and a whitening of BAT. As a result, adipo-TFAM-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, but exhibited insulin resistance on both normal chow and high-fat diets. These lipodystrophic mice also developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, isolated mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue can lead a syndrome of lipodystrophy with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. PMID:25005176

  1. Markers of oxidative stress in adipose tissue during Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Machado, Fabiana S.; Weiss, Louis M.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease. Cardiac and adipose tissues are among the early targets of infection and are sites of persistent infection. In the heart and adipose tissue, T. cruzi infection results in an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the heart, infection is associated with an increase in the markers of oxidative stress. To date, markers of oxidative stress have not been evaluated in adipose tissue in this infection. Brown and white adipose tissues were obtained from CD-1 mice infected with the Brazil strain of T. cruzi for 15, 30, and 130 days post infection. Protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation assays were performed on these samples. There was an upregulation of these markers of oxidative stress at all time-points in both white and brown adipose tissue. Determinants of anti-oxidative stress were downregulated at similar time-points. This increase in oxidative stress during T. cruzi infection most likely has a deleterious effect on host metabolism and on the heart. PMID:24948102

  2. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  3. Concentration of sex steroids in adipose tissue after menopause.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H; Blankenstein, M A; Daroszewski, J

    1998-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a site of uptake, storage, action, and metabolism of sex steroids. After menopause aromatization of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue is one of the most important sources of estrogen in the circulation and for peripheral tissues. The aim of this study was to estimate local sex steroid concentrations in breast and abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, to compare them with plasma concentrations and to investigate possible correlations with body mass index (BMI). The patients were postmenopausal women undergoing surgery for non-oncological reasons (Group A; n = 35) and breast cancer patients (group B; n = 19). The concentrations of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone sulfate, 17 beta-estradiol sulfate, androstenedione, androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. The method was based on frozen tissue homogenization, extraction with ethanol: acetone, delipidation, extraction of estrogens with ether, and of androgens with iso-octane in toluene, followed by RIA. The mean levels of steroids were higher in fat than in plasma, apart from testosterone. Levels of sulfates of estrogens and androstenediol were higher in breast than abdominal adipose tissue, and levels of estradiol lower. Positive correlations were found between BMI and tissue and plasma concentration of both estrone and androstenedione. PMID:9618794

  4. J Biol Chem . Author manuscript Human adipose tissue macrophages display activation of cancer-related

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Biol Chem . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Human adipose tissue macrophages display activation tissue dysfunctions might play a crucial role therein. Macrophages play important roles in adipose tissue as well as in cancers. Here, we studied whether human adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) modulate cancer

  5. Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene. Two types of fat tissues, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively), are relatively

  6. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression and fasting regulation are differently affected by cold exposure in adipose tissues of lean and obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Antoni; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2012-09-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerols to diacylglycerols in the first step of lipolysis, providing substrates for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Here we studied whether ATGL messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were affected by 24-h cold exposure in different white adipose tissue depots and in interscapular brown adipose tissue of lean and obese Zucker rats submitted to feeding and 14-h fasting conditions. HSL mRNA expression was also studied in selected depots. In both lean and obese rats, as a general trend, cold exposure increased ATGL mRNA and protein levels in the different adipose depots, except in the brown adipose tissue of lean animals, where a decrease was observed. In lean rats, cold exposure strongly improved fasting up-regulation of ATGL expression in all the adipose depots. Moreover, in response to fasting, in cold-exposed lean rats, there was a stronger positive correlation between circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ATGL mRNA levels in the adipose depots and a higher percentage increase of circulating NEFA in comparison with control animals not exposed to cold. In obese rats, fasting-induced up-regulation of ATGL was impaired and was not improved by cold. The effects of obesity and cold exposure on HSL mRNA expression were similar to those observed for ATGL, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for both proteins. Thus, cold exposure increases ATGL expression and improves its fasting-up-regulation in adipose tissue of lean rats. In obese rats, cold exposure also increases ATGL expression but fails to improve its regulation by fasting, which could contribute to the increased difficulty for mobilizing lipids in these animals. PMID:21944063

  7. Mechanisms of Obesity and Related Pathologies: The Macro- and Microcirculation of Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Davis, Kathryn E.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ made up of adipocytes, various stromal cells including many immune cells, and an endothelial network. Adipose secretory products, collectively referred to as adipokines, have been identified as contributors to the negative consequences of adipose tissue expansion including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Systemic circulation provides transport capabilities for adipokines and fuels for proper adipose tissue function. The adipose tissue microcirculation is heavily impacted by adipose tissue expansion. A subset of adipokines can induce endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, angiogenesis is necessary to counter hypoxia arising as a result of tissue expansion. Tumors, such as invasive lesions in the mammary gland, co-opt the adipose tissue microvasculature for local growth and metastatic growth and lymphatic circulation provides an important route for lipid transport. Here, we review this area that has not received a lot of attention and focus on the established and potential interplay between adipose tissue and the microvascular endothelium. PMID:19754873

  8. Maternal nutritional manipulations program adipose tissue dysfunction in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth) and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates). Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring's adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids) and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations. PMID:26029119

  9. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the underlying mechanisms for beneficial effect on cardiac function, and safety issues.

  10. Continuous low-dose infusion of tumor necrosis factor alpha in adipose tissue elevates adipose tissue interleukin 10 abundance and fails to alter metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martel, Cynthia A; Mamedova, Laman K; Minton, J Ernest; Jones, Meredyth L; Carroll, Jeff A; Bradford, Barry J

    2014-08-01

    Repeated bolus doses of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) alters systemic metabolism in lactating cows, but whether chronic release of inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue has similar effects is unclear. Late-lactation Holstein cows (n=9-10/treatment) were used to evaluate the effects of continuous adipose tissue TNF? administration on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Cows were blocked by feed intake and milk yield and randomly assigned within block to control or TNF? treatments. Treatments (4mL of saline or 14µg/kg of TNF? in 4mL of saline) were infused continuously over 7d via 2 osmotic pumps implanted in a subcutaneous adipose depot. Plasma, milk samples, milk yield, and feed intake data were collected daily, and plasma glucose turnover rate was measured on d 7. At the end of d 7, pumps were removed and liver and contralateral tail-head adipose biopsies were collected. Results were modeled with the fixed effect of treatment and the random effect of block. Treatment with TNF? increased plasma concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin, but did not alter plasma TNF?, IL-4, IL-6, or IFN-? concentrations, feed intake, or rectal temperature. Milk yield and composition were unchanged, and treatments did not alter the proportion of short- versus long-chain FA in milk on d 7. Treatments did not alter plasma free FA concentration, liver triglyceride content, or plasma glucose turnover rate. Surprisingly, TNF? infusion tended to decrease liver TNF? and IL-1 receptor 1 mRNA abundance and significantly increased adipose tissue IL-10 protein concentration. Continuous infusion of TNF? did not induce the metabolic responses previously observed following bolus doses delivered at the same rate per day. Metabolic homeostasis may have been protected by an adaptive anti-inflammatory response to control systemic inflammation. PMID:24881787

  11. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent observations indicate the importance of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in thermoregulation. We have found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has distinct actions in modulating adiposity and BAT thermogenesis. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH elevates the thermogenic activity of classic BAT and promotes the development of brown adipocytes in WAT, leading to increased thermogenesis. These findings identify a novel potential target for combating obesity. PMID:23980536

  12. Developmental changes in lipogenic enzyme activities in liver and adipose tissue of post-weaning rats.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Developmental changes in lipogenic enzyme activities in liver and adipose tissue of post enzyme (decarboxy- lating) and glucose-6-P dehydrogenase were determined in the liver and adipose tissues and castration had a weak effect on the activity pattern of the 3 enzymes studied in the adipose tissue

  13. Thermogenic and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone treatment in brown and white adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Williams; Rodney Ellis

    1985-01-01

    Male rats were treated with triiodothyronine in the drinking water for 12 days. In vitro rates of isoprenaline stimulated lipolysis were significantly greater in brown but not white adipose tissue. Rates of [14C]glucose incorporation into triacylglycerols were significantly reduced in BAT (brown adipose tissue) and WAT (white adipose tissue) under basal and isoprenaline stimulated conditions, in a second experiment, hyperthyroid

  14. Photoperiodic regulation of gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Photoperiodic regulation of gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Am J Physiol in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, with peaks in long "sum- merlike" days (LDs) and nadirs in short

  15. incorporation into the liver, plasma and abdominal adipose tissue lipids was studied

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    incorporation into the liver, plasma and abdominal adipose tissue lipids was studied over a 30 min for elaidic acid removal from the abdominal adipose tissue triglycerides of LL and FL chickens, respectively by the A-9 desaturating activity. Characterization of brown adipose tissue during fetal and perinatal life

  16. Deep penetration and liquid injection into adipose tissue Kerstyn Comley and Norman Fleck1

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Norman A.

    1/21 Deep penetration and liquid injection into adipose tissue Kerstyn Comley and Norman Fleck1;2/21 Abstract The subcutaneous injection of porcine adipose tissue by a hypodermic needle involves two stages adipose tissue by a series of conically-tipped and flat-bottomed circular punches has been measured

  17. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Brown; Richard W. Lawton

    1984-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of

  19. Remodeling Phenotype of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bourlier; A. Zakaroff-Girard; A. Miranville; S. De Barros; M. Maumus; C. Sengenes; J. Galitzky; M. Lafontan; F. Karpe; K. N. Frayn; A. Bouloumié

    2009-01-01

    Background—Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. Methods and Results—The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT,

  20. Larger Amounts of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Asian Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Woo Park; David B. Allison; Steven B. Heymsfield; Dympna Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is recognized as an important risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have reported less VAT in African Americans compared with whites. As little is known about the levels of VAT in Asians, we compared whole-body VAT in Asian Americans with European Americans.Research Methods and Procedures:

  1. Endocrine modulators of mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue beige adipocyte markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue contains precursors that can give rise to beige adipocytes. Beige adipocytes are characterized by the expression of specific markers, but it is not clear which markers best evaluate beige adipocyte differentiation. Both regulators of...

  2. 12- and 15-Lipoxygenases in Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Banumathi K.; Lieb, David C.; Dobrian, Anca D.; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The lipoxygenases (LOs) are principal enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue, and in particular visceral adipose tissue, plays a primary role in the development of the inflammation seen in these conditions. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites act as upstream regulators of many of the cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in adipose tissue. While the role that 12- and 15-LO play in chronically inflamed adipose tissue is becoming clearer, there are still many questions that remain unanswered regarding their activation, signaling pathways, and roles in healthy fat. 12- and 15-LO also generate products with anti-inflammatory properties that are under investigation. Therefore, 12- and 15-LO have the potential to be very important targets for therapeutics aimed at reducing insulin resistance and the comorbid conditions associated with obesity. PMID:22951339

  3. Automatic Segmentation of Adipose Tissue from Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images

    E-print Network

    Li, Baihua

    of fuzzy C-means clustering with spatial connectivity constraints to guide segmentation [4]. This methodAutomatic Segmentation of Adipose Tissue from Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images Senthil Purushwalkam1 segmentation. Existing image processing software such as Osyrix, Corresponding author: b.li@mmu.ac.uk #12

  4. Nonphosphorylating Respiration of Mitochondria from Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Smith; Jane C. Roberts; Karl J. Hittelman

    1966-01-01

    Mitochondria from brown adipose tissue of cold-acclimated rats (6 degrees C) oxidize alpha -ketoglutarate at a rate twice that of controls (26 degrees C). In both groups, however, the phosphorus: oxygen ratio with alpha -ketoglutarate never exceeded unity, and it is essentially zero with either succinate or alpha -glycerophosphate. Adenosine triphosphatase activity of these mitochondria is very low and it

  5. Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail G Kolonin; Pradip K Saha; Lawrence Chan; Renata Pasqualini; Wadih Arap

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent human condition in developed societies. Despite major progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to obesity, no safe and effective treatment has yet been found. Here, we report an antiobesity therapy based on targeted induction of apoptosis in the vasculature of adipose tissue. We used in vivo phage display to isolate a peptide

  6. Visceral adipose tissue: a critical review of intervention strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JJ Zachwieja; Steven R. Smith

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature regarding the effect of caloric restriction, pharmacologic intervention, and exercise to promote the loss of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)DESIGN: A review was conducted of published studies which measured VAT using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging before and after caloric restriction, pharmacologic therapy, or exercise.STUDIES REVIEWED: 23 separate studies were reviewed. Men represented 38%

  7. Adipocyte Death, Adipose Tissue Remodeling and Obesity Complications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of adipocyte death in obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and obesity complications. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity. Every four weeks, insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by intraperitoneal...

  8. Metabolic consequences of the presence or absence of the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue in mice (and probably in humans)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Cannon; J Nedergaard

    2010-01-01

    Only with the development of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-ablated mouse has it become possible to strictly delineate the physiological significance of the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue. Considering the presence of active brown adipose tissue in adult humans, these insights may have direct human implications. In addition to classical nonshivering thermogenesis, all adaptive adrenergic thermogeneses, including diet-induced thermogenesis,

  9. Regulation of Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells Behaviors by Endogenic Oct4 Expression Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Hwan Kim; Min Ki Jee; So Young Lee; Tae Hee Han; Bong Sun Kim; Kyung Sun Kang; Soo Kyung Kang; Lin Mei

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundTo clarify the role of the POU domain transcription factor Oct4 in Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells (ATSCs), we investigated the regulation of Oct4 expression and other embryonic genes in fully differentiated cells, in addition to identifying expression at the gene and protein levels. The ATSCs and several immature cells were routinely expressing Oct4 protein before and after differentiating into specific

  10. Gene Delivery to Adipose Tissue Using Transcriptionally Targeted rAAV8 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig-Schmidt, Silke; Geiger, Matthias; Luippold, Gerd; Birk, Gerald; Mennerich, Detlev; Neubauer, Heike; Grimm, Dirk; Wolfrum, Christian; Kreuz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities fostered intensive research in the field of adipose tissue biology. To further unravel molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue function, genetic tools enabling functional studies in vitro and in vivo are essential. While the use of transgenic animals is well established, attempts using viral and non-viral vectors to genetically modify adipocytes in vivo are rare. Therefore, we here characterized recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors regarding their potency as gene transfer vehicles for adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that a single dose of systemically applied rAAV8-CMV-eGFP can give rise to remarkable transgene expression in murine adipose tissues. Upon transcriptional targeting of the rAAV8 vector to adipocytes using a 2.2 kb fragment of the murine adiponectin (mAP2.2) promoter, eGFP expression was significantly decreased in off-target tissues while efficient transduction was maintained in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. Moreover, rAAV8-mAP2.2-mediated expression of perilipin A – a lipid-droplet-associated protein – resulted in significant changes in metabolic parameters only three weeks post vector administration. Taken together, our findings indicate that rAAV vector technology is applicable as a flexible tool to genetically modify adipocytes for functional proof-of-concept studies and the assessment of putative therapeutic targets in vivo. PMID:25551639

  11. Epigenetic programming of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Boquest; Agate Noer; Philippe Collas

    2006-01-01

    Stromal stem cells identified in various adult mesenchymal tissues (commonly called mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) have in\\u000a past years received more attention as a result of their potential interest as replacement cells in regenerative medicine.\\u000a An abundant and easily accessible source of adult human MSCs are stem cells harvested from liposuction material. Similarly\\u000a to bone marrow-derived MSCs, human adipose tissue-derived

  12. Changes in adipose tissue cellularity, adipose tissue lipogenesis and muscle growth in steers administered the synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol 

    E-print Network

    Schiavetta, Ann M

    1988-01-01

    data from control and clenbuterol-treated steers, 40 Table 4. Carcass composition and quality characteristics of control and clenbuterol-treated steers. . Table 5. Cellularity of adipose tissues from control and clenbuterol-treated steers. . 46..., longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area and total rib weight. . . Figure 3. Changes in cellularity of subcutaneous adipose tissue of the 9-10-11th rib section. . 41 47 Figure 4. Changes in cellularity of perirenal adipose tissue...

  13. Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity has been described in obese states, with an increased desaturation index (DI) suggesting enhanced lipogenesis. Differences in the DI among various phenotypes of abnormal adiposity have not been studied. Abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurs in rare adipose disorders (RADs) including Dercum's disease (DD), multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), and familial multiple lipomatosis (FML). Examining the DI in subcutaneous fat of people with DD, MSL and FML may provide information on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in these disorders. The aims of this pilot study were: 1) to determine if differences in adipose tissue DIs are present among RADs, and 2) to determine if the DIs correlate to clinical or biochemical parameters. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from human participants with DD (n = 6), MSL (n = 5), FML (n = 8) and obese Controls (n = 6). Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The DIs (palmitoleic/palmitic, oleic/stearic, vaccenic/stearic ratios) were calculated from the gas chromatogram peak intensities. SCD1 gene expression was determined. Spearman's correlations between the DIs and available clinical or biochemical data were performed. Results In DD subjects, the vaccenic/stearic index was lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to Controls. Percent of total of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid was higher in DD compared with Controls and FML. Percent of monounsaturated vaccenic acid in DD trended lower when compared with Controls, and was decreased in comparison to FML. In MSL, total percent of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower than in the Control group (p < 0.05). In the total cohort of subjects, the palmitoleic/palmitic and oleic/stearic DIs positively correlated with age, BMI, and percent body fat. Conclusions The positive associations between the DIs and measures of adiposity (BMI and percent body fat) support increased desaturase activity in obesity. The lower vaccenic/stearic DI in DD SAT compared with Controls suggests presence of other factors involved in fat accumulation in addition to lifestyle. Other mechanisms driving fat accumulation in DD such as inflammation or lymphatic dysfunction should be investigated. PMID:22300160

  14. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  15. Adipose tissue stem cells: the great WAT hope

    PubMed Central

    Cawthorn, William P; Scheller, Erica L; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion in research into adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs), facilitated by their ease of isolation from white adipose tissue (WAT) and fueled by their therapeutic potential. Recent developments have extended ASC multipotency to include endodermal and ectodermal cell types, along with generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. This expanding multipotency has been paralleled by burgeoning translational applications, ranging from tissue engineering to anti-cancer therapy, that are currently subject to clinical trials. However, this promise is tempered by potential pitfalls, such as tumorigenicity, and is further undermined by lingering uncertainties regarding the very identity of ASCs. Confronting these issues will be essential if we are to bypass the pitfalls and develop the promises of ASCs. PMID:22417866

  16. In Vivo Adeno-Associated Viral Vector–Mediated Genetic Engineering of White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  17. Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days was to measure the secretion of LPL activity by bovine and ovine adipose tissue (AT) explants incubated for 7 Ruminants, 63122 St-Genès-Champanelle, France The secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by adipose cells

  18. Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that plays a role in regulating adiposity by promoting energy storage in white adipose tissue and inhibiting brown adipose tissue activation in mammals. This review describes mechanisms underlying NPY’s effects on adipose tissue energy metabolism, with an emphasis on cellular proliferation, adipogenesis, lipid deposition, and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, and brown fat activation and thermogenesis. In general, NPY promotes adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, leading to energy storage in adipose tissue, with effects mediated mainly through NPY receptor sub-types 1 and 2. This review highlights hypothalamus-sympathetic nervous system-adipose tissue innervation and adipose tissue-hypothalamus feedback loops as pathways underlying these effects. Potential sources of NPY that mediate adipose effects include the bloodstream, sympathetic nerve terminals that innervate the adipose tissue, as well as adipose tissue-derived cells. Understanding the role of central vs. peripherally-derived NPY in whole-body energy balance could shed light on mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of obesity. This information may provide some insight into searching for alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases. PMID:24959194

  19. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Zinc-?2-glycoprotein Production in the Liver but Not in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-?2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-?2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-?2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-?2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-?2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-?2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-?2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-?2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-?2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-?2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-?2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-?2-glycoprotein is not related to weight loss in hyperthyroidism. PMID:24465683

  20. Gene expression changes in adipose tissue with diet- and/or exercise-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Makar, Karen W.; Kratz, Mario; Hagman, Derek; Schur, Ellen A.; Habermann, Nina; Horton, Marc; Abbenhardt, Clare; Kuan, Ling-Yu; Xiao, Liren; Davison, Jerry; Morgan, Martin; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a role in obesity-related cancers via increased production of inflammatory factors, steroid hormones, and altered adipokines. The impact of weight loss on adipose-tissue gene expression may provide insights into pathways linking obesity with cancer risk. We conducted an ancillary study within a randomized trial of diet, exercise, or combined diet+exercise vs. control among overweight/obese postmenopausal women. In 45 women, subcutaneous adipose-tissue biopsies were performed at baseline and after 6 months and changes in adipose-tissue gene expression were determined by microarray with an emphasis on pre-specified candidate pathways, as well as by unsupervised clustering of >37,000 transcripts (Illumina). Analyses were conducted first by randomization group, and then by degree of weight change at 6-months in all women combined. At 6 months, diet, exercise and diet+exercise participants lost a mean of 8.8 kg, 2.5 kg, and 7.9 kg (all p<0.05 vs. no change in controls). There was no significant change in candidate-gene expression by intervention group. In analysis by weight-change category, greater weight loss was associated a decrease in 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (HSD17B1, p-trend<0.01) and leptin (LEP, p-trend<0.01) expression, and marginally significant increased expression of estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1, p-trend=0.08) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3, p-trend=0.08). Unsupervised clustering revealed 83 transcripts with statistically significant changes. Multiple gene-expression changes correlated with changes in associated serum biomarkers. Weight-loss was associated with changes in adipose-tissue gene expression after 6 months, particularly in two pathways postulated to link obesity and cancer, i.e., steroid-hormone metabolism and IGF signaling. PMID:23341572

  1. Thyroid hormone upregulates zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in the liver but not in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-?2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-?2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-?2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-?2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-?2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-?2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-?2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-?2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-?2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-?2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-?2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-?2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-?2-glycoprotein is not related to weight loss in hyperthyroidism. PMID:24465683

  2. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  3. Leptin is synthesized in the liver and adipose tissue of the dunlin (Calidris alpina).

    PubMed

    Kochan, Zdzislaw; Karbowska, Joanna; Meissner, W?odzimierz

    2006-09-15

    Fat is the main source of energy for birds during a long-distance flight. Migration routes are usually divided into several steps. In stopover sites migratory birds restore energy reserves needed for continuation of migration. During a long-distance flight and when foraging at a stopover site birds should be able to assess their actual reserves accumulated in the form of fat stores. The information about energy being stored in body reserves may be provided by circulating factors involved in body mass regulation, such as adipose-derived hormone leptin. To date, little is known about the expression and potential role of leptin in birds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether leptin is synthesized in the liver and adipose tissue of the dunlin (Calidris alpina), a long-distance migrant. Western blot analysis with leptin-specific antibody detected a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 15-16 kDa in dunlin liver and adipose tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating leptin expression in the liver and adipose tissue of a migratory bird. This finding raises the possibility that in birds leptin may signal the status of energy reserves during migratory flight. PMID:16730725

  4. Cellular mechanisms regulating fuel metabolism in mammals: role of adipose tissue and lipids during prolonged food deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Viscarra, Jose Abraham; Ortiz, Rudy Martin

    2013-01-01

    Food deprivation in mammals results in profound changes in fuel metabolism and substrate regulation. Among these changes are decreased reliance on the counter-regulatory dynamics by insulin-glucagon due to reduced glucose utilization, and increased concentrations of lipid substrates in plasma to meet the energetic demands of peripheral tissues. As the primary storage site of lipid substrates, adipose tissue must then be a primary contributor to the regulation of metabolism in food deprived states. Through its regulation of lipolysis, adipose tissue influences the availability of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein substrates. Additionally, lipid substrates can act as ligands to various nuclear receptors (retinoid x receptor (RXR), liver x receptor (LXR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)) and exhibit prominent regulatory capabilities over the expression of genes involved in substrate metabolism within various tissues. Therefore, through its control of lipolysis, adipose tissue also indirectly regulates the utilization of metabolic substrates within peripheral tissues. In this review, these processes are described in greater detail and the extent to which adipose tissue and lipid substrates regulate metabolism in food deprived mammals is explored with comments on future directions to better assess the contribution of adipose tissue to metabolism. PMID:23357530

  5. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68?kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  6. Residue Analysis of Chlorinated Pesticides in Jordanian Human Adipose Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Alawi; M. Ababneh

    1991-01-01

    To study the long-term environmental pollution in Jordan, thirty two adipose tissue samples were analysed for 15 Organochlorine Compounds using the capillary GC-ECD.The results were discussed in terms of clinical aspects and in terms of environmental and hygienic effects.To explain the sources of pollution, the major fat-containing food stuffs usually used in Jordan were analysed. It has been found that

  7. Technical note: Alternatives to reduce adipose tissue sampling bias.

    PubMed

    Cruz, G D; Wang, Y; Fadel, J G

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional and pharmaceutical factors can manipulate adipose tissue growth and development in production animals has direct and indirect effects in the profitability of an enterprise. Adipocyte cellularity (number and size) is a key biological response that is commonly measured in animal science research. The variability and sampling of adipocyte cellularity within a muscle has been addressed in previous studies, but no attempt to critically investigate these issues has been proposed in the literature. The present study evaluated 2 sampling techniques (random and systematic) in an attempt to minimize sampling bias and to determine the minimum number of samples from 1 to 15 needed to represent the overall adipose tissue in the muscle. Both sampling procedures were applied on adipose tissue samples dissected from 30 longissimus muscles from cattle finished either on grass or grain. Briefly, adipose tissue samples were fixed with osmium tetroxide, and size and number of adipocytes were determined by a Coulter Counter. These results were then fit in a finite mixture model to obtain distribution parameters of each sample. To evaluate the benefits of increasing number of samples and the advantage of the new sampling technique, the concept of acceptance ratio was used; simply stated, the higher the acceptance ratio, the better the representation of the overall population. As expected, a great improvement on the estimation of the overall adipocyte cellularity parameters was observed using both sampling techniques when sample size number increased from 1 to 15 samples, considering both techniques' acceptance ratio increased from approximately 3 to 25%. When comparing sampling techniques, the systematic procedure slightly improved parameters estimation. The results suggest that more detailed research using other sampling techniques may provide better estimates for minimum sampling. PMID:25184847

  8. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Swedish Human Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Meironyté Guvenius; Å. Bergman; K. Norén

    2001-01-01

    Paired samples of human liver and adipose tissue were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing 3–6 bromine\\u000a atoms. The samples were obtained at autopsy from one woman and four men at the age of 47 and 66–83 years, respectively. PBDEs\\u000a were found in all samples. The sum of nine PBDE congeners ranged 5–18 ng\\/g lipids and 4–8 ng\\/g lipids

  9. Brain-gut-adipose-tissue communication pathways at a glance.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-09-01

    One of the 'side effects' of our modern lifestyle is a range of metabolic diseases: the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases has grown to pandemic proportions. This increase, which shows no sign of reversing course, has occurred despite education and new treatment options, and is largely due to a lack of knowledge about the precise pathology and etiology of metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. To maintain energy homeostasis, the brain must tightly monitor the peripheral energy state. This monitoring is also extremely important for the brain's survival, because the brain does not store energy but depends solely on a continuous supply of nutrients from the general circulation. Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. After central integration of these inputs, the brain generates neuronal and hormonal outputs to balance energy intake with expenditure. Miscommunication between the gut, brain and adipose tissue, or the degradation of input signals once inside the brain, lead to the brain misunderstanding the peripheral energy state. Under certain circumstances, the brain responds to this miscommunication by increasing energy intake and production, eventually causing metabolic disorders. This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders. PMID:22915019

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in adipose tissue of nicaraguan mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose G. Dorea; M. L. Lacayo Romero

    1997-01-01

    Ninety three mothers living in the basin of the Atoya River, Chinantega, Nicaragua, provided samples of adipose tissue of the abdominal region that were collected during gyneco?obstetrical (64), and colecystectomy (29) surgeries. The abdominal fat samples were analyzed for the following pesticides: pp'?DDT; pp'?DDE; pp'?DDD; ??HCH; ??HCH; Lindane; ??HCH; Toxaphene, Dieldrin; Endrin; Aldrin; Heptachlor; Heptachlorepoxide. The occurrence of pesticides was

  11. Coming home at last: dermal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R

    2014-09-01

    The upper part of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) is closely associated with the reticular dermis, surrounds hair follicles and is of great importance for a range of skin functions. In this issue of Experimental Dermatology, Driskell and colleagues propose a nomenclature in which the upper SWAT layer is renamed dermal WAT (DWAT), and its cells intradermal adipocytes. Some pros and cons are discussed below. PMID:24815604

  12. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from obese and nonobese adults for measures of GPAT and GPAT1 activities, ex vivo palmitate storage, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT) activities, and CD36 protein. Total GPAT and GPAT1 activities decreased as a function of adipocyte size in both omental (r = -0.71, P = 0.003) and subcutaneous (r = -0.58, P = 0.04) fat. The relative contribution of GPAT1 to total GPAT activity increased as a function of adipocyte size, accounting for up to 60% of GPAT activity in those with the largest adipocytes. We found strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots (r values 0.58-0.91) and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG (r values 0.55-0.90). We conclude that: 1) total GPAT activity decreases as a function of adipocyte size; 2) GPAT1 can account for over half of adipose GPAT activity in hypertrophic obesity; and 3) ACS, GPAT, and DGAT are coordinately regulated. PMID:25738782

  13. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC. PMID:25929703

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Tissue-Engineered Adipose Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Maryse; Aubin, Kim; Lagueux, Jean; Audet, Pierre; Auger, Michèle; Fortin, Marc-André; Fradette, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) substitutes are being developed to answer the strong demand in reconstructive surgery. To facilitate the validation of their functional performance in vivo, and to avoid resorting to excessive number of animals, it is crucial at this stage to develop biomedical imaging methodologies, enabling the follow-up of reconstructed AT substitutes. Until now, biomedical imaging of AT substitutes has scarcely been reported in the literature. Therefore, the optimal parameters enabling good resolution, appropriate contrast, and graft delineation, as well as blood perfusion validation, must be studied and reported. In this study, human adipose substitutes produced from adipose-derived stem/stromal cells using the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering were implanted into athymic mice. The fate of the reconstructed AT substitutes implanted in vivo was successfully followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the imaging modality of choice for visualizing soft ATs. T1-weighted images allowed clear delineation of the grafts, followed by volume integration. The magnetic resonance (MR) signal of reconstructed AT was studied in vitro by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). This confirmed the presence of a strong triglyceride peak of short longitudinal proton relaxation time (T1) values (200±53?ms) in reconstructed AT substitutes (total T1=813±76?ms), which establishes a clear signal difference between adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and native fat (total T1 ?300?ms). Graft volume retention was followed up to 6 weeks after implantation, revealing a gradual resorption rate averaging at 44% of initial substitute's volume. In addition, vascular perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI confirmed the graft's vascularization postimplantation (14 and 21 days after grafting). Histological analysis of the grafted tissues revealed the persistence of numerous adipocytes without evidence of cysts or tissue necrosis. This study describes the in vivo grafting of human adipose substitutes devoid of exogenous matrix components, and for the first time, the optimal parameters necessary to achieve efficient MRI visualization of grafted tissue-engineered adipose substitutes. PMID:25549069

  15. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  16. Diet-induced obesity regulates the galanin-mediated signaling cascade in the adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ahreum; Park, Taesun

    2010-09-01

    Galanin is a neuropeptide that regulates the food intake, neurogenesis, memory, and gut secretion. This study was conducted to evaluate the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced regulation of the galanin receptors (GalRs) and the associated signaling molecules in the adipose tissues of mice. Twenty C57BL/6J mice were given either an HFD or a normal diet for 12 wk. The results of the semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that the HFD upregulated the expression of GalR1, GalR2, GalR3, resistance to audiogenic seizures, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma2, adipocyte protein 2, and protein kinase Cdelta and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha and uncoupling protein 1 in the adipose tissues. The immunoblot results showed that the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma2 and adipocyte protein 2, and the phosphorylation of c-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were increased, while the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein, which regulates peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha and uncoupling protein 1, was decreased in the epididymal adipose tissues of the HFD-fed mice. These results suggest the possible association of the galanin-mediated signaling pathways in the manifestation of the HFD-induced activation of adipogenesis along with the suppression of thermogenesis in the adipose tissues of mice. PMID:20183829

  17. ?1B adaptin regulates adipogenesis by mediating the sorting of sortilin in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Jennifer; Larsen, Jakob Vejby; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Geumann, Constanze; Kratzke, Manuel; Petersen, Claus Munck; Schu, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Here, we describe altered sorting of sortilin in adipocytes deficient for the ?1B-containing AP-1 complex, leading to the inhibition of adipogenesis. The AP-1 complex mediates protein sorting between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Vertebrates express three AP1 ?1 subunit isoforms - ?1A, ?1B and ?1C (also known as AP1S1, AP1S2 and AP1S3, respectively). ?1B-deficient mice display impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles and lipodystrophy. Here, we show that sortilin is overexpressed in adipose tissue from ?1B(-/-) mice, and that its overexpression in wild-type cells is sufficient to suppress adipogenesis. ?1B-specific binding of sortilin requires the sortilin DxxD-x12-DSxxxL motif. ?1B deficiency does not lead to a block of sortilin transport out of a specific organelle, but the fraction that reaches lysosomes is reduced. Sortilin binds to the receptor DLK1, an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation, and the overexpression of sortilin prevents DLK1 downregulation, leading to enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis. DLK1 and sortilin expression are not increased in the brain tissue of ?1B(-/-) mice, although this is the tissue with the highest expression of ?1B and sortilin. Thus, adipose-tissue-specific and ?1B-dependent routes for the transport of sortilin exist and are involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipose-tissue mass. PMID:24928897

  18. Adipose tissue inflammation: developmental ontogeny and consequences of gestational nutrient restriction in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Don; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2009-08-01

    Increasing adiposity predisposes to the development of the metabolic syndrome, in part, through adipose tissue dysregulation and inflammation. In addition, offspring nutrient-restricted (NR) in utero can exhibit an increased risk of early-onset insulin resistance and obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to: 1) define adipose tissue ontogeny of key proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress gene expression from late fetal to early adult life and 2) examine the impact on these genes in gestational nutrient restriction. Pregnant sheep were fed 100% (control) or 50% (NR) of their nutritional requirements between early to mid (28-80 d, term approximately 147 d) or late (110-147 d) gestation. In control offspring, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the macrophage marker CD68, peaked at 30 d of life before declining. IL-18 peaked at 6 months of age, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 peaked at birth and subsequently declined through postnatal life. TLR4 and CD68 positively correlated with relative adipose tissue mass and with each other. Early to midgestational NR offspring had decreased abundance of IL-18 at 6 months of age. In late gestational NR offspring, CD68 was significantly lower at birth, a pattern that reversed in juvenile offspring, coupled with increased TLR4 abundance. In conclusion, the in utero nutritional environment can alter the adipose tissue inflammatory profile in offspring. This may contribute to the increased risk of insulin resistance or obesity, dependent on the timing of nutrient restriction. Establishing the optimal maternal diet during pregnancy could reduce the burden of later adult disease in the offspring. PMID:19423760

  19. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone to develop cancer among obese. We searched for novel adipokines that were overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in tumor cells derived from cancers commonly associated with obesity. For this purpose expression data from human adipose tissue of obese and non-obese as well as from a large panel of human cancer cell lines and corresponding primary cells and tissues were explored. We found expression of ceruloplasmin to be the most enriched in obesity-associated cancer cells. This gene was also significantly up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Ceruloplasmin is the body's main copper carrier and is involved in angiogenesis. We demonstrate that ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine, which is produced and secreted at increased rates in obesity. In the obese state, adipose tissue contributed markedly (up to 22%) to the total circulating protein level. In summary, we have through bioinformatic screening identified ceruloplasmin as a novel adipokine with increased expression in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in cells from obesity-associated cancers. Whether there is a causal relationship between adipose overexpression of ceruloplasmin and cancer development in obesity cannot be answered by these cross-sectional comparisons. PMID:24676332

  20. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dympna Gallagher; Patrick Kuznia; Stanley Heshka; Jeanine Albu; Steven B Heymsfield; Bret Goodpaster; Marjolein Visser; Tamara B Harris

    Background: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distri- butions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective:Theobjectivewastoquantifyapreviouslyunstudiedand novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, vis- ceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the

  1. Changes in the expression of uncoupling proteins and lipases in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during feed deprivation? 1 1 ? Purdue Univ. Agric. Res. Programs journal paper no. 16265. This study was presented in part at the 1999 meeting of the Midwestern Section, American Society of Animal Science, Des Moines, IA USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Spurlock; Shaoquan Q. Ji; Rebecca L. Godat; Joanne L. Kuske; Gawain M. Willis; G. Robert Frank; Steven G. Cornelius

    2001-01-01

    The hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases are critical determinants of the metabolic adaptation to starvation. Additionally, the uncoupling proteins have emerged with potential roles in the metabolic adaptations required by energy deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression (mRNA abundance) of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 and that of hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipase in the adipose tissue

  2. Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Tovar, Jason; Pavlova, Zdena; Smith, Michelle L.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by MRI and computed tomography (CT) in a human three month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and X-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments have been performed previously in rodents, the identification of BAT in humans has only recently been described with fusion positron emission and computed tomography in adults. The imaging of BAT in children has not been widely reported and furthermore, MRI of human BAT in general has not been demonstrated. In the present work, large bilateral supraclavicular BAT depots were clearly visualized with MRI and CT. Tissue identity was subsequently confirmed by histology. BAT has important implications in regulating energy metabolism and non-shivering thermogenesis and has the potential to combat the onset of weight gain and the development of obesity. Current findings suggest that BAT is present in significant amounts in children and that MRI and CT can differentiate BAT from WAT based on intrinsic tissue properties. PMID:22180228

  3. Combined effects of insulin treatment and adipose tissue-specific agouti expression on the development of obesity.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, R L; Miltenberger, R J; Klebig, M L; Zemel, M B; Wilkinson, J E; Wilkinson, W O; Woychik, R P

    1997-02-01

    The agouti gene product is a secreted protein that acts in a paracrine manner to regulate coat color in mammals. Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in mice cause the ectopic, ubiquitous expression of agouti, resulting in a condition similar to adult-onset obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The human agouti protein is 85% homologous to mouse agouti; however, unlike the mouse agouti gene, human agouti is normally expressed in adipose tissue. To address whether expression of agouti in human adipose tissue is physiologically relevant, transgenic mice were generated that express agouti in adipose tissue. Similar to most humans, these mice do not become obese or diabetic. However, we found that daily insulin injections significantly increased weight gain in the transgenic lines expressing agouti in adipose tissue, but not in nontransgenic mice. These results suggest that insulin triggers the onset of obesity and that agouti expression in adipose tissue potentiates this effect. Accordingly, the investigation of agouti's role in obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in mice holds significant promise for understanding the pathophysiology of human obesity. PMID:9023357

  4. Adipose tissue and vascular inflammation in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Golia, Enrica; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Natale, Francesco; Fimiani, Fabio; Maddaloni, Valeria; Russo, Pina Elvira; Riegler, Lucia; Bianchi, Renatomaria; Crisci, Mario; Palma, Gaetano Di; Golino, Paolo; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Calabrò, Raffaele; Calabrò, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become an important public health issue in Western and developing countries, with well known metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In the last decades, evidence have been growing about the active role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ in determining these pathological consequences. As a consequence of the expansion of fat depots, in obese subjects, adipose tissue cells develope a phenotypic modification, which turns into a change of the secretory output. Adipocytokines produced by both adipocytes and adipose stromal cells are involved in the modulation of glucose and lipid handling, vascular biology and, moreover, participate to the systemic inflammatory response, which characterizes obesity and metabolic syndrome. This might represent an important pathophysiological link with atherosclerotic complications and cardiovascular events. A great number of adipocytokines have been described recently, linking inflammatory mileu and vascular pathology. The understanding of these pathways is crucial not only from a pathophysiological point of view, but also to a better cardiovascular disease risk stratification and to the identification of possible therapeutic targets. The aim of this paper is to review the role of Adipocytokines as a possible link between obesity and vascular disease. PMID:25068015

  5. Central nervous system regulation of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F; Madden, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, in brown adipose tissue is a significant component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature in many species from mouse to man and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The sympathetic neural outflow determining brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the CNS which increase BAT sympathetic nerve activity in response to cutaneous and deep body thermoreceptor signals. Many behavioral states, including wakefulness, immunologic responses, and stress, are characterized by elevations in core body temperature to which central command-driven BAT activation makes a significant contribution. Since energy consumption during BAT thermogenesis involves oxidation of lipid and glucose fuel molecules, the CNS network driving cold-defensive and behavioral state-related BAT activation is strongly influenced by signals reflecting the short- and long-term availability of the fuel molecules essential for BAT metabolism and, in turn, the regulation of BAT thermogenesis in response to metabolic signals can contribute to energy balance, regulation of body adipose stores and glucose utilization. This review summarizes our understanding of the functional organization and neurochemical influences within the CNS networks that modulate the level of BAT sympathetic nerve activity to produce the thermoregulatory and metabolic alterations in BAT thermogenesis and BAT energy expenditure that contribute to overall energy homeostasis and the autonomic support of behavior. PMID:25428857

  6. Central Nervous System Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Madden, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, in brown adipose tissue is a significant component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature in many species from mouse to man and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The sympathetic neural outflow determining brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the CNS which increase BAT sympathetic nerve activity in response to cutaneous and deep body thermoreceptor signals. Many behavioral states, including wakefulness, immunologic responses, and stress, are characterized by elevations in core body temperature to which central command-driven BAT activation makes a significant contribution. Since energy consumption during BAT thermogenesis involves oxidation of lipid and glucose fuel molecules, the CNS network driving cold-defensive and behavioral state-related BAT activation is strongly influenced by signals reflecting the short and long-term availability of the fuel molecules essential for BAT metabolism and, in turn, the regulation of BAT thermogenesis in response to metabolic signals can contribute to energy balance, regulation of body adipose stores and glucose utilization. This review summarizes our understanding of the functional organization and neurochemical influences within the CNS networks that modulate the level of BAT sympathetic nerve activity to produce the thermoregulatory and metabolic alterations in BAT thermogenesis and BAT energy expenditure that contribute to overall energy homeostasis and the autonomic support of behavior. PMID:25428857

  7. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning - a new role for RIP140.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A "Holy Grail" sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophages that migrate into adipose deposits. The coregulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), plays a key role in regulating this communication. In mice on a high-fat diet, the level of RIP140 in macrophages is dramatically elevated to activate their inflammatory M1 polarization and enhance their recruitment into WAT, facilitating IR. Conversely, lowering the level of RIP140 in macrophages not only reduces M1 macrophages but also expands alternatively polarized, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, triggering white adipose tissue browning, fat burning, and restoration of insulin sensitivity. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing IR, obesity, and atherosclerotic or even cosmetic fat deposits: therapeutic browning of white adipose deposits by diminishing RIP140 levels in macrophages. PMID:26167418

  8. Inhibiting adipose tissue lipogenesis reprograms thermogenesis and PPAR? activation to decrease diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Irfan J; Yin, Li; Jensen-Urstad, Anne P L; Funai, Katsuhiko; Coleman, Trey; Baird, John H; El Ramahi, Meral K; Razani, Babak; Song, Haowei; Fu-Hsu, Fong; Turk, John; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2012-08-01

    De novo lipogenesis in adipocytes, especially with high fat feeding, is poorly understood. We demonstrate that an adipocyte lipogenic pathway encompassing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PexRAP (peroxisomal reductase activating PPAR?) modulates endogenous PPAR? activation and adiposity. Mice lacking FAS in adult adipose tissue manifested increased energy expenditure, increased brown fat-like adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. FAS knockdown in embryonic fibroblasts decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. FAS-dependent alkyl ether phosphatidylcholine species were associated with PPAR? and treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with one such ether lipid increased PPAR? transcriptional activity. PexRAP, a protein required for alkyl ether lipid synthesis, was associated with peroxisomes and induced during adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in cells decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in mice decreased expression of PPAR?-dependent genes and reduced diet-induced adiposity. These findings suggest that inhibiting PexRAP or related lipogenic enzymes could treat obesity and diabetes. PMID:22863804

  9. Inhibiting Adipose Tissue Lipogenesis Reprograms Thermogenesis and PPAR? Activation to Decrease Diet-induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Irfan J.; Yin, Li; Jensen-Urstad, Anne P. L.; Funai, Katsuhiko; Coleman, Trey; Baird, John H.; El Ramahi, Meral K.; Razani, Babak; Song, Haowei; Fu-Hsu, Fong; Turk, John; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY De novo lipogenesis in adipocytes, especially with high fat feeding, is poorly understood. We demonstrate that an adipocyte lipogenic pathway encompassing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PexRAP (Peroxisomal Reductase Activating PPAR?) modulates endogenous PPAR? activation and adiposity. Mice lacking FAS in adult adipose tissue manifested increased energy expenditure, increased brown fat-like adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. FAS knockdown in embryonic fibroblasts decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. FAS-dependent alkyl ether phosphatidylcholine species were associated with PPAR? and treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with one such ether lipid increased PPAR? transcriptional activity. PexRAP, a protein required for alkyl ether lipid synthesis, was associated with peroxisomes and induced during adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in cells decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in mice decreased expression of PPAR?–dependent genes and reduced diet-induced adiposity. These findings suggest that inhibiting PexRAP or related lipogenic enzymes could treat obesity and diabetes. PMID:22863804

  10. Regional differences in perivascular adipose tissue impacting vascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ortega, Marta; Somoza, Beatriz; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik; Fernández-Alfonso, Maria S

    2015-07-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases several important vasoactive factors with physiological and pathophysiological paracrine effects. A large body of evidence suggests regional phenotypic and functional differences among PVAT depots, depending on the specific vascular bed or different regions in the vascular bed where the PVAT is located. These non-uniform and separate PVATs exert various paracrine effects on vascular structure and function that largely impact disease states, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, or insulin resistance. This emerging view of PVAT function requires considering heterogeneous PVAT as a specialized organ that can differentially regulate vascular function depending on its anatomical location. In this context, the adipose-vascular axis may represent a novel target for pharmacological intervention in vasculopathy in cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26008879

  11. Increased adipocyte S-nitrosylation targets anti-lipolytic action of insulin: relevance to adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Hilla; Haim, Yulia; Nov, Ori; Almog, Orna; Kovsan, Julia; Bashan, Nava; Benhar, Moran; Rudich, Assaf

    2011-09-01

    Protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible protein modification implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. In obesity, skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with increased S-nitrosylation of insulin-signaling proteins. However, whether adipose tissue is similarly affected in obesity and, if so, what are the causes and functional consequences of increased S-nitrosylation in this tissue are unknown. Total protein S-nitrosylation was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissue of obese humans and in high fat-fed or leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Both the insulin receptor ?-subunit and Akt were S-nitrosylated, correlating with body weight. Elevated protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and decreased protein levels of thioredoxin reductase were associated with increased adipose tissue S-nitrosylation. Cultured differentiated pre-adipocyte cell lines exposed to the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine exhibited diminished insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt but not of GSK3 nor of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Yet the anti-lipolytic action of insulin was markedly impaired in both cultured adipocytes and in mice injected with GSNO prior to administration of insulin. In cells, impaired ability of insulin to diminish phosphorylated PKA substrates in response to isoproterenol suggested impaired insulin-induced activation of PDE3B. Consistently, increased S-nitrosylation of PDE3B was detected in adipose tissue of high fat-fed obese mice. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Cys-768 and Cys-1040, two putative sites for S-nitrosylation adjacent to the substrate-binding site of PDE3B, accounted for ?50% of its GSNO-induced S-nitrosylation. Collectively, PDE3B and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin may constitute novel targets for increased S-nitrosylation of adipose tissue in obesity. PMID:21724851

  12. Improvement of Liquid Fructose-Induced Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance by Ginger Treatment in Rats Is Associated with Suppression of Adipose Macrophage-Related Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Huanqing; Ke, Dazhi; Zuo, Guowei; Yang, Yifan; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) results in excessive release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, which plays a key role in the development of “lipotoxicity.” Therefore, amelioration of Adipo-IR may benefit the treatment of other metabolic abnormalities. Here we found that treatment with the alcoholic extract of ginger (50?mg/kg/day, by oral gavage) for five weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and an increase in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. More importantly, ginger reversed the increases in the Adipo-IR index and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. Adipose gene/protein expression profiles revealed that ginger treatment suppressed CD68 and F4/80, two important macrophage accumulation markers. Consistently, the macrophage-associated cytokines tissue necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 were also downregulated. In contrast, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, but not IRS-2, was upregulated. Moreover, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2 were also suppressed. Thus these results suggest that amelioration of fructose-induced Adipo-IR by ginger treatment in rats is associated with suppression of adipose macrophage-related proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23533500

  13. Adipose stem cells used to reconstruct 13 cases with cranio-maxillofacial hard-tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Sándor, George K; Numminen, Jura; Wolff, Jan; Thesleff, Tuomo; Miettinen, Aimo; Tuovinen, Veikko J; Mannerström, Bettina; Patrikoski, Mimmi; Seppänen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna; Rautiainen, Markus; Öhman, Juha

    2014-04-01

    Although isolated reports of hard-tissue reconstruction in the cranio-maxillofacial skeleton exist, multipatient case series are lacking. This study aimed to review the experience with 13 consecutive cases of cranio-maxillofacial hard-tissue defects at four anatomically different sites, namely frontal sinus (3 cases), cranial bone (5 cases), mandible (3 cases), and nasal septum (2 cases). Autologous adipose tissue was harvested from the anterior abdominal wall, and adipose-derived stem cells were cultured, expanded, and then seeded onto resorbable scaffold materials for subsequent reimplantation into hard-tissue defects. The defects were reconstructed with either bioactive glass or ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and in some cases with the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Production and use of ASCs were done according to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Follow-up time ranged from 12 to 52 months. Successful integration of the construct to the surrounding skeleton was noted in 10 of the 13 cases. Two cranial defect cases in which nonrigid resorbable containment meshes were used sustained bone resorption to the point that they required the procedure to be redone. One septal perforation case failed outright at 1 year because of the postsurgical resumption of the patient's uncontrolled nasal picking habit. PMID:24558162

  14. Adrenergically stimulated blood flow in brown adipose tissue is not dependent on thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Hagberg, Carolina E; Spalding, Kirsty L; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on blood flow to be supplied with nutrients and oxygen and for the distribution of the generated heat to the rest of the body. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the mechanisms by which blood flow is regulated and its relation to thermogenesis. Here, we present high-resolution laser-Doppler imaging (HR-LDR) as a novel method for noninvasive in vivo measurement of BAT blood flow in mice. Using HR-LDR, we found that norepinephrine stimulation increases BAT blood flow in a dose-dependent manner and that this response is profoundly modulated by environmental temperature acclimation. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) have fully preserved BAT blood flow response to norepinephrine despite failing to perform thermogenesis. BAT blood flow was not directly correlated to systemic glycemia, but glucose injections could transiently increase tissue perfusion. Inguinal white adipose tissue, also known as a brite/beige adipose tissue, was also sensitive to cold acclimation and similarly increased blood flow in response to norepinephrine. In conclusion, using a novel noninvasive method to detect BAT perfusion, we demonstrate that adrenergically stimulated BAT blood flow is qualitatively and quantitatively fully independent of thermogenesis, and therefore, it is not a reliable parameter for the estimation of BAT activation and heat generation. PMID:25738783

  15. Inhibiting peripheral serotonin synthesis reduces obesity and metabolic dysfunction by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Mottillo, Emilio P; Bujak, Adam L; Wang, Huaqing; Ford, Rebecca J; Collins, Andrew; Blümer, Regje M; Fullerton, Morgan D; Yabut, Julian M; Kim, Janice J; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Hamza, Shereen M; Morrison, Katherine M; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Dyck, Jason R B; Khan, Waliul I; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is enriched within interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and beige (also known as brite) adipose tissue, but its thermogenic potential is reduced with obesity and type 2 diabetes for reasons that are not understood. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a highly conserved biogenic amine that resides in non-neuronal and neuronal tissues that are specifically regulated via tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and Tph2, respectively. Recent findings suggest that increased peripheral serotonin and polymorphisms in TPH1 are associated with obesity; however, whether this is directly related to reduced BAT thermogenesis and obesity is not known. We find that Tph1-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) are protected from obesity, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) while exhibiting greater energy expenditure by BAT. Small-molecule chemical inhibition of Tph1 in HFD-fed mice mimics the benefits ascribed to Tph1 genetic deletion, effects that depend on UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. The inhibitory effects of serotonin on energy expenditure are cell autonomous, as serotonin blunts ?-adrenergic induction of the thermogenic program in brown and beige adipocytes in vitro. As obesity increases peripheral serotonin, the inhibition of serotonin signaling or its synthesis in adipose tissue may be an effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:25485911

  16. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    Background The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the AT between muscles and within the boundary of the muscle fascia. Design Analyses were conducted on 227 women [AA (n = 79): body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), 29.0 ± 5.5; age, 45.7 ± 16.9 y; Asian (n = 38): BMI, 21.7 ± 2.9; age, 47.2 ± 19.9 y; whites (n = 110): BMI, 24.9 ± 5.4; age, 43.7 ± 16.2 y]) and 111 men [AA (n = 39): BMI, 25.6 ± 3.2; age, 45.5 ± 18.8 y; Asian (n = 13): BMI, 24.9 ± 2.5; age, 45.6 ± 25.0 y; white (n = 59): BMI, 25.8 ± 3.8; age 44.5 ± 16.3 y]. Results IMAT depots were not significantly different in size between race groups at low levels of adiposity; however, with increasing adiposity, AAs had a significantly greater increment in the proportion of total AT (TAT) than did the whites and Asians (58, 46, and 44 g IMAT/kg TAT, respectively; P = 0.001). VAT depots were not significantly different in size at low levels of adiposity but, with increasing adiposity, VAT accumulation was greater than IMAT accumulation in the Asians and whites; no significant differences were observed in AAs. Conclusion Race differences in AT distribution extend to IMAT, a depot that may influence race-ethnicity differences in dysglycemia. PMID:15817870

  17. KSRP and MicroRNA 145 Are Negative Regulators of Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Yu; Chou, Chu-Fang; Giovarelli, Matteo; Briata, Paola; Gherzi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) releases fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol for an energy source. Here, we report that targeted deletion of KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression at multiple levels, enhances lipolysis in epididymal WAT (eWAT) because of the upregulation of genes promoting lipolytic activity. Expression of microRNA 145 (miR-145) is decreased because of impaired primary miR-145 processing in Ksrp?/? eWAT. We show that miR-145 directly targets and represses Foxo1 and Cgi58, activators of lipolytic activity, and forced expression of miR-145 attenuates lipolysis. This study reveals a novel in vivo function of KSRP in controlling adipose lipolysis through posttranscriptional regulation of miR-145 expression. PMID:24732799

  18. Original article GH and IGF-I binding sites in adipose tissue, liver,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article GH and IGF-I binding sites in adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and ovaries- els were not affected by feed restriction. The specific binding of 125I-bGH to adipose tissue, liver with an antagonist of GnRH but the treatment had no effect on any reported measurements. Blood and tissue samples

  19. Analysis of an expression profile of genes in the human adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhisa Maeda; Kousaku Okubo; Iichiro Shimomura; Katsuya Mizuno; Yuji Matsuzawa; Kenichi Matsubara

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to storing excess energy as fat, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting various factors into the blood stream. Every time a new factor is found in adipose tissue, however, its implication is discussed independently, and a systematic analyses based upon a global view of gene expression of this tissue has not been

  20. Chondrogenic Potential of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey R. Erickson; Jeffrey M. Gimble; Dawn M. Franklin; Henry E. Rice; Hani Awad; Farshid Guilak

    2002-01-01

    Articular cartilage exhibits little intrinsic repair capacity, and new tissue engineering approaches are being developed to promote cartilage regeneration using cellular therapies. The goal of this study was to examine the chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Stromal cells were isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained by liposuction and were expanded and grown in vitro with or without

  1. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity. PMID:25194956

  2. Abnormal Mammary Adipose Tissue Environment of Brca1 Mutant Mice Show a Persistent Deposition of Highly Vascularized Multilocular Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laundette P; Buelto, Destiney; Tago, Elaine; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo E

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge to breast cancer research is the identification of alterations in the architecture and composition of the breast that are associated with breast cancer progression. The aim of the present investigation was to characterize the mammary adipose phenotype from Brca1 mutant mice in the expectation that this would shed light on the role of the mammary tissue environment in the early stages of breast tumorigenesis. We observed that histological sections of mammary tissue from adult Brca1 mutant mice abnormally display small, multilocular adipocytes that are reminiscent of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as compared to wildtype mice. Using a marker for BAT, the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), we demonstrated that these multilocular adipose regions in Brca1 mutant mice stain positive for UCP1. Transcriptionally, UCP1 mRNA levels in the Brca1 mutant mice were elevated greater than 50-fold compared to age-matched mammary glands from wildtype mice. Indeed, BAT has characteristics that are favorable for tumor growth, including high vascularity. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the multilocular brown adipose phenotype in the mammary fat pad of Brca1 mutant mice displayed regions of increased vascularity as evidenced by a significant increase in the protein expression of CD31, a marker for angiogenesis. This Brca1 mutant mouse model should provide a physiologically relevant context to determine whether brown adipose tissue can play a role in breast cancer development. PMID:24501658

  3. Regulation of the Fibrosis and Angiogenesis Promoter SPARC/Osteonectin in Human Adipose Tissue by Weight Change, Leptin, Insulin, and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Katrina; Wong, Steve; Tan, Bee; Gummesson, Anders; Jernas, Margareta; Franck, Niclas; Kerrigan, David; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Randeva, Harpal S.; Pinkney, Jonathan H.; Wilding, John P.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Matricellular Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC), originally discovered in bone as osteonectin, is a mediator of collagen deposition and promotes fibrosis. Adipose tissue collagen has recently been found to be linked with metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SPARC in human adipose tissue is influenced by glucose metabolism and adipokines. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from morbidly obese nondiabetic subjects undergoing bariatric surgery and lean control subjects for analysis of metabolic markers, SPARC, and various cytokines (RT-PCR). Additionally, 24 obese subjects underwent a very-low-calorie diet of 1,883 kJ (450 kcal)/day for 16 weeks and serial subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsies (weight loss: 28 ± 3.7 kg). Another six lean subjects underwent fast-food–based hyperalimentation for 4 weeks (weight gain: 7.2 ± 1.6 kg). Finally, visceral adipose tissue explants were cultured with recombinant leptin, insulin, and glucose, and SPARC mRNA and protein expression determined by Western blot analyses. RESULTS SPARC expression in human adipose tissue correlated with fat mass and was higher in SCAT. Weight loss induced by very-low-calorie diet lowered SPARC expression by 33% and increased by 30% in adipose tissue of subjects gaining weight after a fast-food diet. SPARC expression was correlated with leptin independent of fat mass and correlated with homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance. In vitro experiments showed that leptin and insulin potently increased SPARC production dose dependently in visceral adipose tissue explants, while glucose decreased SPARC protein. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that SPARC expression is predominant in subcutaneous fat and its expression and secretion in adipose tissue are influenced by fat mass, leptin, insulin, and glucose. The profibrotic effects of SPARC may contribute to metabolic dysregulation in obesity. PMID:19509023

  4. Effects of a High Fat Diet and Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise on Cidea and Cidec Expression in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Thomas H.; Banerjee, Sayani; Sharma, Vishva Mitra; Donohue, Jacob; Couldwell, Sandrine; Sosinsky, Alexandra; Frulla, Ashton; Robinson, Allegra; Puri, Vishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    Cidea and Cidec play an important role in regulating triglyceride storage in liver and adipose tissue. It is not known if the Cidea and Cidec genes respond to a high fat diet (HFD) or exercise training, two interventions that alter lipid storage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a HFD and voluntary wheel running (WR) on Cidea and Cidec mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue and liver of mice. A HFD promoted a significant increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNA levels in adipose tissue and liver. The increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNAs in adipose tissue and liver in response to a HFD was prevented by WR. Similar to the changes in Cidea mRNA, Cidea protein levels in adipose tissue significantly increased in response to a HFD, a process that was, again, prevented by WR. However, in adipose tissue the changes in Cidec mRNA did not correspond to the changes in Cidec protein levels, as a HFD decreased Cidec protein abundance. Interestingly, in adipose tissue Cidea protein expression was significantly related to body weight (R=.725), epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) mass (R=.475) and insulin resistance (R=.706), whereas Cidec protein expression was inversely related to body weight (R=-.787), EWAT mass (R=-.706), and insulin resistance (R=-.679). Similar to adipose tissue, Cidea protein expression in liver was significantly related to body weight (R=.660), EWAT mass (R=.468), and insulin resistance (R=.599); however, unlike adipose tissue, Cidec protein levels in liver were not related to body weight or EWAT mass and only moderately associated with insulin resistance (R=-.422, P=0.051). Overall, our findings indicate that Cidea is highly associated with adiposity and insulin resistance, whereas Cidec is related to insulin sensitivity. The present study suggests that Cide proteins might play an important functional role in the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, as well as the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26176546

  5. Effects of a High Fat Diet and Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise on Cidea and Cidec Expression in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Thomas H; Banerjee, Sayani; Sharma, Vishva Mitra; Donohue, Jacob; Couldwell, Sandrine; Sosinsky, Alexandra; Frulla, Ashton; Robinson, Allegra; Puri, Vishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    Cidea and Cidec play an important role in regulating triglyceride storage in liver and adipose tissue. It is not known if the Cidea and Cidec genes respond to a high fat diet (HFD) or exercise training, two interventions that alter lipid storage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a HFD and voluntary wheel running (WR) on Cidea and Cidec mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue and liver of mice. A HFD promoted a significant increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNA levels in adipose tissue and liver. The increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNAs in adipose tissue and liver in response to a HFD was prevented by WR. Similar to the changes in Cidea mRNA, Cidea protein levels in adipose tissue significantly increased in response to a HFD, a process that was, again, prevented by WR. However, in adipose tissue the changes in Cidec mRNA did not correspond to the changes in Cidec protein levels, as a HFD decreased Cidec protein abundance. Interestingly, in adipose tissue Cidea protein expression was significantly related to body weight (R=.725), epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) mass (R=.475) and insulin resistance (R=.706), whereas Cidec protein expression was inversely related to body weight (R=-.787), EWAT mass (R=-.706), and insulin resistance (R=-.679). Similar to adipose tissue, Cidea protein expression in liver was significantly related to body weight (R=.660), EWAT mass (R=.468), and insulin resistance (R=.599); however, unlike adipose tissue, Cidec protein levels in liver were not related to body weight or EWAT mass and only moderately associated with insulin resistance (R=-.422, P=0.051). Overall, our findings indicate that Cidea is highly associated with adiposity and insulin resistance, whereas Cidec is related to insulin sensitivity. The present study suggests that Cide proteins might play an important functional role in the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, as well as the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26176546

  6. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and ?-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to second and from the first to third group. At the same time, the increase of mean and medians levels from the second to third group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants. PMID:22042501

  7. Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r?=?0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P?=?.001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

  8. UCP1 Induction during Recruitment of Brown Adipocytes in White Adipose Tissue Is Dependent on Cyclooxygenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone M.; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukaas; Fjære, Even; Bronstad, Ingeborg; Hao, Qin; Petersen, Rasmus K.; Hallenborg, Philip; Ma, Tao; De Matteis, Rita; Araujo, Pedro; Mercader, Josep; Bonet, M. Luisa; Hansen, Jacob B.; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Wang, Jun; Cinti, Saverio; Voshol, Peter; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Background The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a hallmark of brown adipocytes and pivotal for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are crucially involved in induction of UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. Indomethacin repressed ?-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. The use of PGE2 receptor antagonists implicated EP4 as a main PGE2 receptor, and injection of the stable PGE2 analog (EP3/4 agonist) 16,16 dm PGE2 induced UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue. Inhibition of COX activity attenuated diet-induced UCP1 expression and increased energy efficiency and adipose tissue mass in obesity-resistant mice kept at thermoneutrality. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide evidence that induction of UCP1 expression in white adipose tissue, but not in classic interscapular brown adipose tissue is dependent on cyclooxygenase activity. Our results indicate that cyclooxygenase-dependent induction of UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues is important for diet-induced thermogenesis providing support for a surprising role of COX activity in the control of energy balance and obesity development. PMID:20613988

  9. Seasonal acclimation of bank voles and wood mice: nonshivering thermogenesis and thermogenic properties of brown adipose tissue mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Klaus; Gerhard Heldmaier; Daniel Ricquier

    1988-01-01

    Summary Seasonal acclimation of nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue was studied in wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), yellow necked field mice and wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus). Both, voles and mice increased their capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis during winter. Thermogenic properties of brown fat (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial protein content, GDP-binding of brown fat mitochondria) showed similar

  10. Soy isoflavones in nutritionally relevant amounts have varied nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Crespo, Maria Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ?25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1) purified control diet; or (2) purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix). Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s) in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk. PMID:25647572

  11. Irisin and Myonectin Regulation in the Insulin Resistant Muscle: Implications to Adipose Tissue: Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Gamas, Luis; Seiça, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Myokines are peptides produced and secreted by the skeletal muscle, with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Many of them are overexpressed during physical exercise and appear to contribute to the benefits of exercise to metabolic homeostasis. Irisin, resulting from the cleavage of the membrane protein FNDC5, was shown to induce adipocyte browning, with increased lipid oxidation and thermogenesis. Myonectin was only recently discovered and initial studies revealed a role in fatty acid uptake and oxidation in adipose tissue and liver. However, the mechanisms of their regulation by exercise are not entirely established. Impaired secretion and action of myokines, such as irisin and myonectin, may have a role in the establishment of insulin resistance. On the other hand, several studies have shown that insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle may change myokines expression and secretion. This may have consequences on lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and lead to a vicious cycle between impaired myokines production and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the influence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance on the secretion of irisin and myonectin, as well as its impact on adipose tissue metabolism.

  12. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. Results: hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. Conclusions: The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler. PMID:25589892

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People's Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  14. Visceral adipose tissue: emerging role of gluco- and mineralocorticoid hormones in the setting of cardiometabolic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Boscaro, Marco; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Ronconi, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental lines of evidence have highlighted the detrimental effects of visceral adipose tissue excess on cardiometabolic parameters. Besides, recent findings have shown the effects of gluco-and mineralocorticoid hormones on adipose tissue and have also underscored the interplay existing between such adrenal steroids and their respective receptors in the modulation of adipose tissue biology. While the fundamental role played by glucocorticoids on adipocyte differentiation and storage was already well known, the relevance of the mineralocorticoids in the physiology of the adipose organ is of recent acquisition. The local and systemic renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) acting on adipose tissue seems to contribute to the development of the cardiometabolic phenotype so that its modulation can have deep impact on human health. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the adipose organ is of crucial importance in order to identify possible therapeutic approaches that can avoid the development of such cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae. PMID:22804097

  15. Visceral adipose tissue: emerging role of gluco- and mineralocorticoid hormones in the setting of cardiometabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Boscaro, Marco; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Ronconi, Vanessa

    2012-08-01

    Several clinical and experimental lines of evidence have highlighted the detrimental effects of visceral adipose tissue excess on cardiometabolic parameters. Besides, recent findings have shown the effects of gluco-and mineralocorticoid hormones on adipose tissue and have also underscored the interplay existing between such adrenal steroids and their respective receptors in the modulation of adipose tissue biology. While the fundamental role played by glucocorticoids on adipocyte differentiation and storage was already well known, the relevance of the mineralocorticoids in the physiology of the adipose organ is of recent acquisition. The local and systemic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) acting on adipose tissue seems to contribute to the development of the cardiometabolic phenotype so that its modulation can have deep impact on human health. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the adipose organ is of crucial importance in order to identify possible therapeutic approaches that can avoid the development of such cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae. PMID:22804097

  16. Resveratrol supplementation improves white adipose tissue function in a depot-specific manner in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Snook, Laelie A; Arkell, Alicia M; Simpson, Jeremy A; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2013-09-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic compound suggested to have anti-diabetic properties. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the effects of RSV supplementation on adipose tissue (AT) metabolism in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of RSV on mitochondrial content and respiration, glyceroneogenesis (GNG), and adiponectin secretion in adipose tissue from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Five-week-old ZDF rats were fed a chow diet with (ZDF RSV) or without (ZDF chow) RSV (200 mg/kg body wt) for 6 wk. Changes in adipose tissue metabolism were assessed in subcutaneous (scAT) and intra-abdominal [retroperitoneal (rpWAT), epididymal (eWAT)] adipose tissue depots. ZDF RSV rats showed lower fasting glucose and higher circulating adiponectin, as well as lower glucose area under the curve during intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests than ZDF chow. [¹?C]pyruvate incorporation into triglycerides and adiponectin secretion were higher in scAT from ZDF RSV rats, concurrent with increases in adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1? (PDH) (Ser293) protein content in this depot. Moreover, uncoupled mitochondrial respiration and complex I and II-supported respiration were increased in both scAT and rpWAT, which correlated with increases in cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) protein content. In vitro treatment of scAT with RSV (50 ?mol/l; 24 h) induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) mRNA expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RSV can induce adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis in parallel with increases in GNG and adiponectin secretion. PMID:23824959

  17. Chronic treatment with myo-inositol reduces white adipose tissue accretion and improves insulin sensitivity in female mice

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chronic treatment with myo-inositol reduces white adipose tissue accretion and improves insulin muscle ; white adipose tissue inserm-00819666,version1-2May2013 Author manuscript, published in "J Nutr characterized by a state of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue

  18. Microarray Evidences the Role of Pathologic Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sandeep Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Mathur, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Clustering of insulin resistance and dysmetabolism with obesity is attributed to pathologic adipose tissue. The morphologic hallmarks of this pathology are adipocye hypertrophy and heightened inflammation. However, it's underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Study of gene function in metabolically active tissues like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver is a promising strategy. Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large number of genes in an array. This technique has several potential applications in understanding pathologic adipose tissue. They are: (1) transcriptomic differences between various depots of adipose tissue, adipose tissue from obese versus lean individuals, high insulin resistant versus low insulin resistance, brown versus white adipose tissue, (2) transcriptomic profiles of various stages of adipogenesis, (3) effect of diet, cytokines, adipokines, hormones, environmental toxins and drugs on transcriptomic profiles, (4) influence of adipokines on transcriptomic profiles in skeletal muscle, hepatocyte, adipose tissue etc., and (5) genetics of gene expression. The microarray evidences of molecular basis of obesity and insulin resistance are presented here. Despite the limitations, microarray has potential clinical applications in finding new molecular targets for treatment of insulin resistance and classification of adipose tissue based on future risk of insulin resistance syndrome. PMID:21603273

  19. High pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue burden in pre-diabetic and diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity in relation to insulin resistance is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, data regarding the association between pericardial and peri-aortic adiposity, a potential estimate of visceral adipose tissue burden, and pre-diabetes status remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether the degree of pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic adipose tissue, when quantified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), differs significantly in a normal, pre-diabetic, and overtly diabetic population. Methods We studied 562 consecutive subjects including 357 healthy, 155 pre-diabetic, and 50 diabetic patients selected from participants who underwent annual health surveys in Taiwan. Pre-diabetes status was defined by impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose intolerance according to American Diabetes Association guidelines. Pericardial (PCF) and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT) adipose tissue burden was assessed using a non-contrast 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) dataset with off-line measurement (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA). Body fat composition, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also assessed. Results Patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes had greater volume of PCF (89?±?24.6, 85.3?±?28.7 & 67.6?±?26.7 ml, p?adiposity between the diabetic and pre-diabetic groups. For those without established diabetes in our study, increasing TAT burden, but not PCF, appear to correlate with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and hs-CRP in the multivariable models. Conclusions Pre-diabetic and diabetic subjects, compared to normoglycemia, were associated with significantly higher pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue burden. In addition, visceral fat accumulation adjacent to the thoracic aorta seemed to exert a significant impact on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. PMID:24499326

  20. Defective Apoptosis in Intestinal and Mesenteric Adipose Tissue of Crohn’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cilene Bicca; Milanski, Marciane; Portovedo, Mariana; Horita, Vivian; Ayrizono, Maria de Lourdes Setsuko; Planell, Núria; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Meirelles, Luciana Rodrigues; Leal, Raquel Franco

    2014-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is associated with complex pathogenic pathways involving defects in apoptosis mechanisms. Recently, mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) has been associated with CD ethiopathology, since adipose thickening is detected close to the affected intestinal area. However, the potential role of altered apoptosis in MAT of CD has not been addressed. Aims To evaluate apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa and MAT of patients with CD. Methods Samples of intestinal mucosa and MAT from patients with ileocecal CD and from non-inflammatory bowel diseases patients (controls) were studied. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and correlated with the adipocytes histological morphometric analysis. The transcriptional and protein analysis of selected genes and proteins related to apoptosis were determined. Results TUNEL assay showed fewer apoptotic cells in CD, when compared to the control groups, both in the intestinal mucosa and in MAT. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells (TUNEL) correlated significantly with the area and perimeter of the adipose cells in MAT. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveal a significantly lower transcript and protein levels of Bax in the intestinal mucosa of CD, compared to the controls; low protein levels of Bax were found localized in the lamina propria and not in the epithelium of this tissue. Furthermore, higher level of Bcl-2 and low level of Caspase 3 were seen in the MAT of CD patients. Conclusion The defective apoptosis in MAT may explain the singular morphological characteristics of this tissue in CD, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:24887376

  1. Human Brown Adipose Tissue: What We Have Learned So Far.

    PubMed

    Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique tissue that is able to convert chemical energy directly into heat when activated by the sympathetic nervous system. While initially believed to be of relevance only in human newborns and infants, research during recent years provided unequivocal evidence of active BAT in human adults. Moreover, it has become clear that BAT plays an important role in insulin sensitivity in rodents and humans. This has opened the possibility for exciting new therapies for obesity and diabetes. This review summarizes the current state of research with a special focus on recent advances regarding BAT and insulin resistance in human adults. Additionally, we provide an outlook on possible future therapeutic uses of BAT in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:26050667

  2. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  3. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue metabolisms when facing an insufficient methionine supply. PMID:26161654

  4. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazu731079@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inoguchi, Toyoshi, E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan) [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Batchuluun, Battsetseg, E-mail: battsetseg.batchuluun@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sugiyama, Naonobu, E-mail: nao1@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kunihisa, E-mail: nihisak@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, 1-1-1 Zokumyoin, Chikushino, Fukuoka 818-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, 1-1-1 Zokumyoin, Chikushino, Fukuoka 818-8502 (Japan); Sonoda, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan) [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takayanagi, Ryoichi, E-mail: takayana@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein ?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  5. Prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets induce rapid adipose tissue growth by inducing Igf2 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal low protein diets during prenatal development contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance in offspring. In this study, obese-prone Sprague -Dawley rats were fed diets having either 8% (low protein, LP) or 20% (normal protein, NP) protein for 3-wk prior to conception and...

  6. Predictors of adipose tissue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in a general Danish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira V Bräuner; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Eric Gaudreau; Alain Leblanc; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Mette Sørensen

    2012-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitously present in the environment and suspected of carcinogenic, neurological and immunological effects. Our objective was to identify determinants of adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides experienced by a general Danish population. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. We examined

  7. Comparison of Visceral Adipose Tissue Mass in Adult African Americans and Whites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Hoffman; ZiMian Wang; Dympna Gallagher; Steven B. Heymsfield

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have reported racial differences in the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), a risk factor for metabolic diseases. These results are equivocal and have not controlled for hormonal influences on VAT mass. This study was designed to measure the extent to which race is associated with VAT, controlling for total adipose tissue (TAT) mass and testosterone.Research Methods

  8. Identification of Estrogen Receptor ? RNA in Human Breast and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Crandall; Dennis E. Busler; Thomas J. Novak; Renata V. Weber; John G. Kral

    1998-01-01

    This study reports the initial observation of the novel estrogen receptor, ER?, in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue was obtained from various anatomic sites including the subcutaneous depots of lipectomy patients (healthy controls), and from subcutaneous abdominal and breast depots of lean and obese women with breast cancer. ER? mRNA expression, determined by reverse transcription and polymerase chain

  9. Adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue derived adult stem cells in nude mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Suk Choi; Sang Myun Cha; Young Yeol Lee; Seok Woon Kwon; Chan Jeoung Park; MiJung Kim

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a combination of adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) obtained from liposuction and injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spheres for adipose tissue engineering. Adipogenesis was examined in nude mice injected subcutaneously with ADSCs (group I), PLGA spheres (group II), or ADSCs attached PLGA spheres (group III) cultured in adipogenic medium for 7 days. After 4

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue: Differentiation into hepatic lineage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Taléns-Visconti; A. Bonora; R. Jover; V. Mirabet; F. Carbonell; J. V. Castell; M. J. Gómez-Lechón

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue represents an accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), with similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived stem cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into hepatic lineage cells in vitro. ADSCs were obtained from human adipose tissue from lipectomy. Cells were grown in medium containing 15% AB human serum. Cultures were serum deprived

  11. INTERLEUKIN-6 REGULATES HUMAN ADIPOSE TISSUE LIPID METABOLISM AND LEPTIN PRODUCTION IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue IL-6 expression is increased in obesity and is a strong predictor of abnormalities in adipocyte and systemic metabolism. We used adipose tissue organ culture to test the direct effects of IL-6 on leptin expression, lipolysis, and lipoprotein lipase activity. To assess possible inter...

  12. LEPTIN RECEPTOR (OBR) CONTAINING HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS PROJECTING TO DIFFERENT ADIPOSE TISSUE DEPOTS IN THE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to establish whether or not leptin receptors (OBR)-containing hypothalamic neurons are transsynaptically connected to the adipose tissue depots in the pig. Pseudorabies virus (PRV, Bartha’s K strain) was introduced in perirenal or subcutaneous adipose tissue depots in cr...

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kutz, F W; Wood, P H; Bottimore, D P

    1991-01-01

    Halogenated organic compounds are highly lipophilic chemicals that are persistent in the environment as a result of their use and chemical stability. Some of these compounds are also present in the environment as metabolites or oxidation products of a parent compound or as by-products formed in the production of chlorinated compounds. Chronic exposure to the general population results mainly through the food chain. Because they are lipophilic, and because many are metabolized slowly, these chemicals tend to concentrate in body fat tissue. This contribution has described these halogenated organic compounds, discussed their use, regulation and prohibition throughout the world, and reviewed published studies on the levels of these chemicals found in the adipose tissue of humans and animals. For many years, residues of halogenated organic compounds have been detected in the human adipose tissue of individuals in a number of countries, including those in Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as in the U.S. The levels detected have been used as an index of the level of general population exposure of these compounds over time. Over the past two decades, most countries have observed a steady decline of this level of exposure, reflecting a reduction in the use of these compounds, restrictions on or banning of their use, and a corresponding decrease in their environmental levels. The levels of concentrations vary from chemical to chemical as well as from isomer to isomer. Since the use of aldrin and dieldrin has now been banned or restricted in the U.S. and a number of other countries, residue levels have slowly decreased. Mean values in human adipose tissue in the U.S. and some foreign countries ranged from 0.04 to 0.40 ppm for dieldrin. Aldrin was detected only in Argentina and Poland in the 1970s and endrin was not detected anywhere at anytime. By 1978, all products containing BHC registered in the U.S. has been either discontinued or reformulated to incorporate lindane rather than BHC. The potential for exposure to BHC is virtually nonexistent in the U.S.; however, exposure to lindane is possible since products containing this chemical are still marketed, and used particularly in the manufacture of human medicine. DDT was banned for agricultural purposes in the U.S. in 1972, although it is still used elsewhere for public health vector control. Since the decline in use of DDT, however, the average levels of concentration have also declined. Heptachlor, chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (a component of both heptachlor and chlordane) are chlorinated cyclodienes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1899728

  14. Adipose tissue insulin receptor knockdown via a new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotype.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglan; Magee, Daniel; Wang, Chuansong; McMurphy, Travis; Slater, Andrew; During, Matthew; Cao, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in metabolic homeostasis, and holds promise as an alternative depot organ in gene therapy. However, efficient methods of gene transfer into adipose tissue in vivo have yet to be established. Here we assessed the transduction efficiency to fat depots by a family of novel engineered hybrid capsid serotypes (Rec1~4) recombinant AAV vectors in comparison with natural serotypes AAV1, AAV8, and AAV9. Rec2 serotype led to widespread transduction in both brown fat and white fat with the highest efficiency among the seven serotypes tested. As a proof-of-efficacy, Rec2 serotype was used to deliver Cre recombinase to adipose tissues of insulin receptor floxed animals. Insulin receptor knockdown led to decreased fat pad mass, morphological and molecular changes in the targeted depot. These novel hybrid AAV vectors can serve as powerful tools to genetically manipulate adipose tissue and provide valuable vehicles to gene therapy targeting adipose tissue. PMID:25383359

  15. Insulin Mediated 14C-Glucose Incorporation Into Adipose Tissue: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, A. D.; Eskin, N. A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which rat adipose tissue samples are exposed to labeled glucose; insulin is added to one sample. Subsequent scintillation counting demonstrates the ability of insulin to facilitate the entry of glucose into the tissue. (MLH)

  16. Sucrose Counteracts the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fish Oil in Adipose Tissue and Increases Obesity Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Fjære, Even; Ngo, Ha Thi; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Ringholm, Stine; Sonne, Si Brask; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pilegaard, Henriette; Frøyland, Livar; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice fed sucrose irrespectively of the fat source. We show that a high fat diet decreased glucose tolerance in the mice independently of both obesity and dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs and sucrose. Of note, increasing the protein?sucrose ratio in high fat diets decreased energy efficiency irrespective of fat source. This was accompanied by increased expression of Ppargc1a (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha) and increased gluconeogenesis in the fed state. Conclusions/Significance The background diet influence the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against development of obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation. High levels of dietary sucrose counteract the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in mice. PMID:21738749

  17. on adipose tissue development were studied. At weaning, tricaprylin ingestion decreased fat content of the carcasses from zo. j to 17.2z %. !!11 of thc adipose tissues were individually affected

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on adipose tissue development were studied. At weaning, tricaprylin ingestion decreased fat content of the carcasses from zo. j to 17.2z %. !!11 of thc adipose tissues were individually affected to about the same in the proportion of adipose tissues in the car- casses of lambs fed the conventional milk replacer (from 24.8 to 29

  18. mTOR complex 2 in adipose tissue negatively controls whole-body growth

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Nadine; Polak, Pazit; Auwerx, Johan; Rüegg, Markus A.; Hall, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved protein kinase that controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients and growth factors, is found in 2 structurally and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. mTORC2, which consists of rictor, mSIN1, mLST8, and mTOR, is activated by insulin/IGF1 and phosphorylates Ser-473 in the hydrophobic motif of Akt/PKB. Though the role of mTOR in single cells is relatively well characterized, the role of mTOR signaling in specific tissues and how this may contribute to overall body growth is poorly understood. To examine the role of mTORC2 in an individual tissue, we generated adipose-specific rictor knockout mice (rictorad?/?). Rictorad?/? mice are increased in body size due to an increase in size of nonadipose organs, including heart, kidney, spleen, and bone. Furthermore, rictorad?/? mice have a disproportionately enlarged pancreas and are hyperinsulinemic, but glucose tolerant, and display elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP3). These effects are observed in mice on either a high-fat or a normal diet, but are generally more pronounced in mice on a high-fat diet. Our findings suggest that adipose tissue, in particular mTORC2 in adipose tissue, plays an unexpectedly central role in controlling whole-body growth. PMID:19497867

  19. Release of 12 adipokines by adipose tissue, nonfat cells, and fat cells from obese women.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N; Tagele, Balkachew M; Cheema, Paramjeet; Madan, Atul K; Tichansky, David S

    2010-05-01

    The relative release in vitro of endothelin-1, zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), lipocalin-2, CD14, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted protein), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP-4), visfatin/PBEF/Nampt, glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX-3), intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and amyloid A was examined using explants of human adipose tissue as well as the nonfat cell fractions and adipocytes from obese women. Over a 48-h incubation the majority of the release of LPL was by fat cells whereas that of lipocalin-2, RANTES, and ICAM-1 was by the nonfat cells present in human adipose tissue. In contrast appreciable amounts of OPG, amyloid A, ZAG, FABP-4, GPX-3, CD14, and visfatin/PBEF/Nampt were released by both fat cells and nonfat cells. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.75) between the ratios of adipokine release by fat cells to nonfat cells over 48 h and the ratio of their mRNAs in fat cells to nonfat cells at the start of the incubation. The total release of ZAG, OPG, RANTES, and amyloid A by incubated adipose tissue explants from women with a fat mass of 65 kg was not different from that by women with a fat mass of 29 kg. In contrast that of ICAM-1, FABP-4, GPX-3, visfatin/PBEF/Nampt, CD14, lipocalin-2, LP, and endothelin-1 was significantly greater in tissue from women with a total fat mass of 65 kg. PMID:19834460

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Metformin on Osteopontin Expression in Mice Adipose-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Basi?ska, Katarzyna; Chrz?stek, Klaudia; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is applied not only as antidiabetic drug, but also in the treatment of obesity or as antiaging drug. The first part of the research discussed the effect of metformin at concentrations of 1?mM, 5?mM, and 10?mM on the morphology, ultrastructure, and proliferation potential of mice adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) in vitro. Additionally, we determined the influence of metformin on mice adipose tissue metabolism. This study has shown for the first time that metformin inhibits the proliferative potential of ASCs in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we have found a significant correlation between the activity of ASCs and osteopontin at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that 5?mM and 10?mM metformin have cytotoxic effect on ASCs, causing severe morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic changes. The reduced level of OPN in the adipose tissue of metformin-treated animals strongly correlated with the lower expression of Ki67 and CD105 and increased caspase-3. The metformin influenced also circulating levels of OPN, which is what was found with systemic and local action of metformin. The results are a valuable source of information regarding the in vitro effect of metformin on adipose-derived stem cells.

  1. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. PMID:24759232

  2. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet(+) cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-? was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  3. Essential role of CD11a in CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T-cells, particularly CD8+ T-cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue and the role of CD11a, a beta2 integrin. CD8+ T-cells in adipose tissue of obese mice showed activated phe...

  4. LRP1 Receptor Controls Adipogenesis and Is Up-Regulated In Human and Mouse Obese Adipose Tissue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LRP1 Receptor Controls Adipogenesis and Is Up- Regulated In Human and Mouse Obese Adipose Tissue human adipose tissues. Interestingly, silencing of LRP1 in fully-differentiated adipocytes also reduces. (2009) LRP1 Receptor Controls Adipogenesis and Is Up-Regulated In Human and Mouse Obese Adipose Tissue

  5. The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley, Norman Fleck*

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Norman A.

    The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley Accepted 20 December 2011 Available online 1 February 2012 Keywords: Adipose tissue Split Hopkinson pressure bar Constitutive testing Ogden model a b s t r a c t Subcutaneous adipose tissue has been tested

  6. Lipoprotein lipase activity and composition of omental adipose tissue as related to lipid metabolism of the goat in late

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lipoprotein lipase activity and composition of omental adipose tissue as related to lipid adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, nucleic acid con- tent and triglyceride fatty acid. Adipose tissue LPL activity and oleic acid content decreased whereas nucleic and stearic acid contents

  7. Adipose tissue signatures related to weight changes in response to calorie restriction and subsequent weight maintenance using lipidome

    E-print Network

    Villa-vialaneix, Nathalie

    Adipose tissue signatures related to weight changes in response to calorie restriction on adipose tissue biology is poorly characterized. Molecular and lipid markers of these processes may provide relationship between clinical traits, clusters of genes and adipose tissue (AT) fatty acids (FAs) with respect

  8. Relationships between dietary fatty acid composition and either melting point or fatty acid profile of adipose tissue in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Bavelaar; A. C. Beynen

    2003-01-01

    Data on the fatty acid composition of the diet and that of the adipose tissue in broilers were collected from the literature. The linear regression between the dietary and the adipose tissue unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U\\/S ratio) was calculated because the U\\/S ratio of adipose tissue fat determines its melting point, which is an indicator of the

  9. Exploratory Studies on Biomarkers: An Example Study on Brown Adipose Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    In mammals, two kinds of adipose tissue are known to exist, i.e., white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue. The physiological role of WAT is storage of excess energy as fat, whereas that of BAT is the expenditure of excess energy as heat. The uncoupling protein UCP1, which is specifically expressed in brown fat mitochondria, dissipates the proton electrochemical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane, known as a driving force of ATP synthesis, and thus it dissipates excess energy in a form of heat. Because deficiency in effective expenditure of excess energy causes accumulation of this energy in the form of fat (i.e., obesity), it is very important to understand the energy metabolism in this tissue for the development of anti-obesity drugs. In this article, in addition to providing a brief introduction to the functional properties of BAT and UCP1, the results of our exploratory studies on protein components involved in the energy-dissipating function in BAT.

  10. Ror? deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-? (Ror?) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Ror?-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Ror?-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Ppar?, Err?, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1?, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Ror?-deficient mice. PMID:25424999

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue: far more than a fat depot

    PubMed Central

    Talman, Andrew H.; Psaltis, Peter J.; Cameron, James D.; Meredith, Ian T.; Seneviratne, Sujith K.

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the fat depot that exists on the surface of the myocardium and is contained entirely beneath the pericardium, thus surrounding and in direct contact with the major coronary arteries and their branches. EAT is a biologically active organ that may play a role in the association between obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD). Given recent advances in non-invasive imaging modalities such a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), EAT can be accurately measured and quantified. In this review, we focus on the evidence suggesting a role for EAT as a quantifiable risk marker in CAD, as well as describe the role EAT may play in the development and vulnerability of coronary artery plaque. PMID:25610800

  12. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Angelo; Picard-Deland, Éliane; Panahi, Shirin; Marette, André

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic, and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health, and well-being or global ecological protection.

  13. Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Ameliorates Stress-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Motoharu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Uchida, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Koji; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Takayuki; Nomura, Emiko; Cheng, Xian Wu; Matsushita, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-01-01

    A strong causal link exists between psychological stress and insulin resistance as well with hypertension. Meanwhile, stress-related responses play critical roles in glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. As clinical trials suggest that angiotensin-receptor blocker delays the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients, we investigated the effects of irbesartan on stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day irbesartan. The plasma concentrations of lipid and proinflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6] were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation in inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) was observed with CD11b-positive cell counts and mRNA expressions of CD68 and F4/80 using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods respectively. The mRNA levels of angiotensinogen, proinflammatory cytokines shown above, and adiponectin in WAT were also assessed with RT-PCR method. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) and insulin tolerance tests, and mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in WAT. Restraint stress increased monocyte accumulation, plasma free fatty acids, expression of angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, and reduced adiponectin. Irbesartan reduced stress-induced monocyte accumulation in WAT in a dose dependent manner. Irbesartan treatment also suppressed induction of adipose angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines in WAT and blood, and reversed changes in adiponectin expression. Notably, irbesartan suppressed stress-induced reduction in adipose tissue weight and free fatty acid release, and improved insulin tolerance with restoration of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in WAT. The results indicate that irbesartan improves stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Our results suggests that irbesartan treatment exerts additive benefits for glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients with mental stress. PMID:25551221

  14. Internal fats were very developped at each stage, but subcutaneous adipose tissues were scarce and sternal (ST) tissue was the only dissectabk subcutaneous fat. Great

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Internal fats were very developped at each stage, but subcutaneous adipose tissues were scarce) adipose tissues weights represented only about 25, 20, 4 and 3 p. 100 of internal fats. Sternal fat coefficients between the different adipose tissue weights were high (r > 0.8) at W -7 before parturition

  15. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  16. Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  17. Differences in Expression, Content, and Activity of 11?-HSD1 in Adipose Tissue between Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A.; Iñiguez, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mericq, V.

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol production in adipose tissue is regulated by 11?-HSD1. Objective. To determine whether there are differences in gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein content of the 11?-HSD1 enzyme in VAT (visceral adipose tissue) and SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) from obese compared to nonobese adults. Methods. VAT and SAT samples were obtained from 32 obese subjects (BMI > 30?Kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery and 15 samples from controls submitted to elective surgery. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured. The expression of 11?-HSD1 was determined by RT-PCR, the enzyme activity by thin-layer chromatography, and the protein content by Western blot. Results. Obese patients had higher cholesterol, insulin, and HOMA-IR compared to nonobese. There were no differences in VAT or SAT expression of 11?-HSD1 between obese and nonobese patients. However, we found lower 11?-HSD1 activity and protein content in VAT, in obese women versus nonobese women (P < 0.05). BMI and 11?-HSD1 enzyme activity and protein content in VAT correlated inversely in women. Conclusions. Regulation of 11?-HSD1 activity in VAT from obese subjects appears to be gender specific, suggesting the existence of a possible protective mechanism modulating this enzyme activity leading to a decrease in the production of cortisol in this tissue. PMID:23304545

  18. The adipose tissue to serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) ratio: Some methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Carrillo, L. (Mexico Secretariat of Health, Cuernavaca (Mexico). National Inst. of Public Health John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (United States)); Torres-Sanchez, L.; Lopez-Cervantes, M. (Mexico Secretariat of Health, Cuernavaca (Mexico). National Inst. of Public Health); Blair, A. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)); Cebrian, M.E.; Uribe, M. (National Polytechnic Inst. (United States). Center for Research and Advanced Studies)

    1999-08-01

    Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) adipose tissue level has been regarded as a preferred indicator of accumulated human exposure to DDT; however, blood sera are more feasible to obtain and analyze than adipose tissue samples. Inconsistent and scarce information exists in relation to the adipose tissue/serum DDE ratio. As a part of a hospital-based case-control study performed in Mexico City from 1994 to 1996, 198 paired serum and adipose tissue samples were obtained from 72 women with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 126 women with benign breast disease. Both adipose tissue and serum DDE levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and reported as ppb lipid weight (ng/g) as well as wet basis (ng/ml). Results showed that the adipose tissue/serum DDE ratio (ADSE) varies according to the type of information (lipid vs wet basis, arithmetic vs geometric means) used for its estimation. ADSE gets a value near 1 (1.1) only when the geometric DDE levels in lipid basis are used for its estimation. The correlation between DDE serum and adipose tissue levels was found (r = 0.364, P < 0.001). The ADSE did not vary by disease status, nor was it altered by parity, history of breast-feeding, and other reproductive characteristics. The authors endorse the use of venipuncture instead of biopsy as a way to estimate DDT body burden levels in further research.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in relation to adipose tissue and intrahepatocellular lipid deposition in early infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gale, C; Logan, K M; Jeffries, S; Parkinson, J R C; Santhakumaran, S; Uthaya, S; Durighel, G; Alavi, A; Thomas, E L; Bell, J D; Modi, N

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in adiposity is well described in adults, but the age at which differences first manifest is uncertain. Using a prospective cohort, we describe longitudinal changes in directly measured adiposity and intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) in relation to sex in healthy term infants. At median ages of 13 and 63 days, infants underwent quantification of adipose tissue depots by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and measurement of IHCL by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Longitudinal data were obtained from 70 infants (40 boys and 30 girls). In the neonatal period girls are more adipose in relation to body size than boys. At follow-up (median age 63 days), girls remained significantly more adipose. The greater relative adiposity that characterises girls is explained by more subcutaneous adipose tissue and this becomes increasingly apparent by follow-up. No significant sex differences were seen in IHCL. Sex-specific differences in infant adipose tissue distribution are in keeping with those described in later life, and suggest that sexual dimorphism in adiposity is established in early infancy. PMID:25614088

  20. Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradford B. Lowell; Vedrana S-Susulic; Andreas Hamann; Joel A. Lawitts; Jean Himms-Hagen; Bert B. Boyer; Leslie P. Kozak; Jeffrey S. Flier

    1993-01-01

    BROWN adipose tissue, because of its capacity for uncoupled mitochondria! respiration1,2, has been implicated as an important site of facultative energy expenditure3-5. This has led to speculation that this tissue normally functions to prevent obesity3-5. Attempts to ablate or denervate brown adipose tissue surgically have been uninformative because it exists in diffuse depots and has substantial capacity for regeneration and

  1. Adipose Tissue Plasticity During Catch-Up Fat Driven by Thrifty Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Marcelino, Helena; Arsenijevic, Denis; Buchala, Antony; Aprikian, Olivier; Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, Françoise; Seydoux, Josiane; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Solinas, Giovanni; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Catch-up growth, a risk factor for later type 2 diabetes, is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, accelerated body-fat recovery (catch-up fat), and enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue. Our objective was to characterize the determinants of enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue during catch-up fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS White adipose tissue morphometry, lipogenic capacity, fatty acid composition, insulin signaling, in vivo glucose homeostasis, and insulinemic response to glucose were assessed in a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding. This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results solely from suppressed thermogenesis (i.e., without hyperphagia). RESULTS Adipose tissue recovery during the dynamic phase of catch-up fat is accompanied by increased adipocyte number with smaller diameter, increased expression of genes for adipogenesis and de novo lipogenesis, increased fatty acid synthase activity, increased proportion of saturated fatty acids in triglyceride (storage) fraction but not in phospholipid (membrane) fraction, and no impairment in insulin signaling. Furthermore, it is shown that hyperinsulinemia and enhanced adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis occur concomitantly and are very early events in catch-up fat. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that increased adipose tissue insulin stimulation and consequential increase in intracellular glucose flux play an important role in initiating catch-up fat. Once activated, the machinery for lipogenesis and adipogenesis contribute to sustain an increased insulin-stimulated glucose flux toward fat storage. Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. PMID:19602538

  2. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  3. Physical exercise reduces the expression of RANTES and its CCR5 receptor in the adipose tissue of obese humans.

    PubMed

    Baturcam, Engin; Abubaker, Jehad; Tiss, Ali; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; Hammad, Maha; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said; Dehbi, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF- ? , IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1 ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the expression levels of miR-27 and miR-143 in pig adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Qi, R L; Chen, Y; Huang, J X; Yang, F Y

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect and possible mech-anism of action of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on pig body fat deposition. Landrace piglets (N = 48) were randomly divided into three groups, which were fed diets containing 0% (control), 1%, or 2% CLA. Dorsal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues were col-lected, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to de-termine the expression of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and associated microRNAs (miRNAs). Our results indicated that dietary CLA significantly decreased body fat deposition in the pig dorsum. The expression of adipocyte differentiation marker genes, including peroxi-some proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) were not affected, whereas the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). The expression of miR-27 and miR-143 in adipose tissue was significantly decreased. Data analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between miR-27 and FABP4 expression in the dorsal sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, the expression of miR-143 and miR-27 exhibited a significant negative relationship with FABP4 and PPAR? in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, miRNA levels in adipose tissues could be modulated by CLA, thereby affecting adipose metabolism. PMID:26125907

  5. The citrate cleavage pathway and lipogenesis in rat adipose tissue: replenishment of oxaloacetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. BALLARD; RICHARD W. HANSON

    Fatty acid synthesis via the citrate cleavage pathway requires the continual replenishment of oxaloacetate within the mitochondria, probably by carboxylation of pyru- vate. Malic enzyme, although present in adipose tissue, is com- pletely localized in the cytoplasm and has insufficient activity to support lipogenesis. Pyruvate carboxylase was found to be active in both the mitochondria and cytoplasm of epididymal adipose

  6. Adipose tissue as a stem cell source for musculo-skeletal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Grayson, Warren; Guilak, Farshid; Lopez, Mandi J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant, easily accessible, and reproducible cell source for musculo-skeletal regenerative medicine applications. Initial derivation steps yield a heterogeneous population of cells collectively termed the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which consist of endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, and pre-adipocytes. Subsequent selection of an adherent cell subset from the SVF results in a relatively homogeneous population of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs). Mammalian ASCs exhibit the ability to selectively differentiate into chondrogenic, myogenic, and osteogenic lineages in response to inductive stimuli in vitro (when cultured on scaffolds in bioreactors) and in vivo (when implanted in pre-clinical animal models). Unlike hematopoietic cells, ASCs do not elicit a robust lymphocyte reaction and instead generate and release immunosuppressive factors, such as prostaglandin E2. These unique immunomodulatory features suggest that both allogeneic and autologous ASCs will engraft successfully following application for tissue regeneration purposes. The differentiation and expansion potential of ASCs can be modified by growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein 6, bio-inductive scaffolds, and bioreactors providing environmental control and biophysical stimulation. Gene therapy approaches using lentiviral transduction can also be used to direct differentiation of ASCs along particular lineage pathways. We discuss here the utility of ASCs for musculo-skeletal tissue repair and some of the technologies that can be implemented to unlock the full regenerative potential of these highly valuable cells. PMID:21196358

  7. Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor-dependent Dendritic Cells Restrain Lean Adipose Tissue Expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamir, Nathalie; Liu, Ning-Chun; Irwin, Angela; Becker, Lev; Peng, YuFeng; Ronsein, Graziella E; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Duffield, Jeremy S; Heinecke, Jay W

    2015-06-01

    The physiological roles of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in lean white adipose tissue homeostasis have received little attention. Because DCs are generated from bone marrow progenitors in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), we used GM-CSF-deficient (Csf2(-/-)) mice fed a low fat diet to test the hypothesis that adipose tissue DCs regulate the development of adipose tissue. At 4 weeks of age, Csf2(-/-) mice had 75% fewer CD45(+)Cd11b(+)Cd11c(+)MHCII(+) F4/80(-) DCs in white adipose tissue than did wild-type controls. Furthermore, the Csf2(-/-) mice showed a 30% increase in whole body adiposity, which persisted to adulthood. Adipocytes from Csf2(-/-) mice were 50% larger by volume and contained higher levels of adipogenesis gene transcripts, indicating enhanced adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, adipogenesis/adipocyte lipid accumulation was inhibited when preadipocytes were co-cultured with CD45(+)Cd11b(+)Cd11c(+)MHCII(+)F4/80(-) DCs. Medium conditioned by DCs, but not by macrophages, also inhibited adipocyte lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that matrix metalloproteinase 12 and fibronectin 1 were greatly enriched in the medium conditioned by DCs compared with that conditioned by macrophages. Silencing fibronectin or genetic deletion of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in DCs partially reversed the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation. Our observations indicate that DCs residing in adipose tissue play a critical role in suppressing normal adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25931125

  8. From the Cover: Adipose tissue mass can be regulated through the vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnick, Maria A.; Panigrahy, Dipak; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Dallabrida, Susan M.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Langer, Robert; Judah Folkman, M.

    2002-08-01

    Tumor growth is angiogenesis dependent. We hypothesized that nonneoplastic tissue growth also depends on neovascularization. We chose adipose tissue as an experimental system because of its remodeling capacity. Mice from different obesity models received anti-angiogenic agents. Treatment resulted in dose-dependent, reversible weight reduction and adipose tissue loss. Marked vascular remodeling was evident in adipose tissue sections, which revealed decreased endothelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in treated mice compared with controls. Continuous treatment maintained mice near normal body weights for age without adverse effects. Metabolic adaptations in food intake, metabolic rate, and energy substrate utilization were associated with anti-angiogenic weight loss. We conclude that adipose tissue mass is sensitive to angiogenesis inhibitors and can be regulated by its vasculature.

  9. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  10. Altered lipid metabolism in residual white adipose tissues of Bscl2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqin; Zhou, Hongyi; Liu, Siyang; Fhaner, Cassie J; Gross, Bethany C; Lydic, Todd A; Reid, Gavin E

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 disease. We previously reported that Bscl2 (-/-) mice develop lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT) due to unbridled lipolysis. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT) displays a browning phenotype with much smaller lipid droplets (LD) and higher expression of brown adipose tissue marker proteins. Here we used targeted lipidomics and gene expression profiling to analyze lipid profiles as well as genes involved in lipid metabolism in WAT of wild-type and Bscl2(-/-) mice. Analysis of total saponified fatty acids revealed that the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/-) mice contained a much higher proportion of oleic 18:1n9 acid concomitant with a lower proportion of palmitic 16:0 acid, as well as increased n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) remodeling. The acyl chains in major species of triacylglyceride (TG) and diacylglyceride (DG) in the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/-) mice were also enriched with dietary fatty acids. These changes could be reflected by upregulation of several fatty acid elongases and desaturases. Meanwhile, Bscl2(-/-) adipocytes from EWAT had increased gene expression in lipid uptake and TG synthesis but not de novo lipogenesis. Both mitochondria and peroxisomal ?-oxidation genes were also markedly increased in Bscl2(-/-) adipocytes, highlighting that these machineries were accelerated to shunt the lipolysis liberated fatty acids through uncoupling to dissipate energy. The residual subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ScWAT) was not browning but displays similar changes in lipid metabolism. Overall, our data emphasize that, other than being essential for adipocyte differentiation, Bscl2 is also important in fatty acid remodeling and energy homeostasis. PMID:24358199

  11. Modulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and body weight by high-density lipoproteins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H; Averill, M M; McMillen, T S; Dastvan, F; Mitra, P; Subramanian, S; Tang, C; Chait, A; LeBoeuf, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced levels of circulating high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and its major protein, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. As a result of the role of HDL and apoA-I in cellular lipid transport, low HDL and apoA-I may contribute directly to establishing or maintaining the obese condition. Methods: To test this, male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), apoA-I deficient (apoA-I?/?) and apoA-I transgenic (apoA-Itg/tg) mice were fed obesogenic diets (ODs) and monitored for several clinical parameters. We also performed cell culture studies. Results: ApoA-I?/? mice gained significantly more body weight and body fat than WT mice over 20 weeks despite their reduced food intake. During a caloric restriction regime imposed on OD-fed mice, apoA-I deficiency significantly inhibited the loss of body fat as compared with WT mice. Reduced body fat loss with caloric restriction in apoA-I?/? mice was associated with blunted stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis as verified by decreased levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In contrast to apoA-I?/? mice, apoA-Itg/tg mice gained relatively less weight than WT mice, consistent with other reports. ApoA-Itg/tg mice showed increased adipose tissue lipolysis, verified by increased levels of p-HSL and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In cell culture studies, HDL and apoA-I specifically increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis possibly through modulating the adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content. Conclusions: Thus, apoA-I and HDL contribute to modulating body fat content by controlling the extent of lipolysis. ApoA-I and HDL are key components of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and constitute new therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:24567123

  12. Cathepsin-D, a key protease in breast cancer, is up-regulated in obese mouse and human adipose tissue, and controls adipogenesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that cath-D expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue from obese human beings, as well as in adipocytes of obesity, resulting in the formation of excessive white adipose tissue. This increase in adipose tissue that obesity is a major risk factor for cancer [1,2,3]. The presence of large amounts of adipose tissues has

  13. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression in human adipose tissue and muscle. Role in insulin resistance and response to training and pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Coker, Robert H; Ranganathan, Gouri; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Rasouli, Neda; Kern, Philip A

    2011-07-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte and muscle triglyceride hydrolysis, and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is an essential cofactor. We studied the expression of ATGL and CGI-58 in human adipose and muscle and examined correlations with markers of muscle fatty acid oxidation. Nondiabetic volunteers were studied. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were treated with pioglitazone or metformin for 10 weeks. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance underwent a 12-week training program. We examined changes in ATGL and CGI-58 with obesity and insulin resistance, and effects of exercise and pioglitazone. Adipose triglyceride lipase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression showed no correlation with either body mass index or insulin sensitivity index in either adipose or muscle. However, adipose ATGL protein levels were inversely correlated with body mass index (r = -0.64, P < .02) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (r = 0.67, P < .02). In muscle, ATGL mRNA demonstrated a strong positive relationship with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA (r = 0.82, P < .0001) and the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 mRNA (r = 0.71, P < .0001) and AdipoR2 mRNA (r = 0.74, P < .0001). Muscle CGI-58 mRNA was inversely correlated with intramyocellular triglyceride in both type 1 (r = -0.35, P < .05) and type 2 (r = -0.40, P < .05) fibers. Exercise training resulted in increased muscle ATGL, and pioglitazone increased adipose ATGL by 31% (P < .05). Pioglitazone also increased ATGL in adipocytes. Adipose ATGL protein is decreased with insulin resistance and obesity; and muscle ATGL mRNA is associated with markers of fatty acid oxidation in muscle, as is CGI-58. The regulation of ATGL and CGI-58 has important implications for the control of lipotoxicity. PMID:21129760

  14. Dissecting adipose tissue lipolysis: molecular regulation and implications for metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels; Lund, Sten

    2014-06-01

    Lipolysis is the process by which triglycerides (TGs) are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol. In adipocytes, this is achieved by sequential action of adipose TG lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and monoglyceride lipase. The activity in the lipolytic pathway is tightly regulated by hormonal and nutritional factors. Under conditions of negative energy balance such as fasting and exercise, stimulation of lipolysis results in a profound increase in FFA release from adipose tissue (AT). This response is crucial in order to provide the organism with a sufficient supply of substrate for oxidative metabolism. However, failure to efficiently suppress lipolysis when FFA demands are low can have serious metabolic consequences and is believed to be a key mechanism in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity. As the discovery of ATGL in 2004, substantial progress has been made in the delineation of the remarkable complexity of the regulatory network controlling adipocyte lipolysis. Notably, regulatory mechanisms have been identified on multiple levels of the lipolytic pathway, including gene transcription and translation, post-translational modifications, intracellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein stability/degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the field of AT lipolysis with particular focus on the molecular regulation of the two main lipases, ATGL and HSL, and the intracellular and extracellular signals affecting their activity. PMID:24577718

  15. Transgenic overexpression of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue causes local glucocorticoid amplification and lipolysis in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Limei; Du, Hanze; Nagaoka, Yoshiko; Fan, Winnie; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.; Jiang, Meisheng

    2013-01-01

    The prereceptor activation of glucocorticoid production in adipose tissue by NADPH-dependent 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) has emerged as a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is an endoplasmic reticulum lumen-resident enzyme that generates cofactor NADPH and thus mediates 11?-HSD1 activity. To determine the role of adipose H6PDH in the prereceptor modulation of 11?-HSD1 and metabolic phenotypes, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse model overexpressing H6PDH under the control of the enhancer-promoter region of the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2) gene (aP2/H6PDH Tg mice). Transgenic aP2/H6PDH mice exhibited relatively high expression of H6PDH and elevated corticosterone production with induction of 11?-HSD1 activity in adipose tissue. This increase in corticosterone production in aP2-H6PDH Tg mice resulted in mild abdominal fat accumulation with induction of C/EBP mRNA expression and slight weight gain. Transgenic aP2/H6PDH mice also exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance with insulin resistance. In addition, the aP2/H6PDH Tg mice have elevated circulating free fatty acid levels with a concomitant increased adipose lipolytic action associated with elevated HSL mRNA and Ser660 HSL phosphorylation within abdominal fat. These results suggest that increased H6PDH expression specifically in adipose tissue is sufficient to cause intra-adipose glucocorticoid production and adverse metabolic phenotypes. These findings suggest that the aP2/H6PDH Tg mice may provide a favorable model for studying the potential impact of H6PDH in the pathogenesis of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:24381005

  16. Uric acid secretion from adipose tissue and its increase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-09-20

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  17. Nutrition-dependent changes of mouse adipose tissue compositions monitored by NMR, MS, and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Popkova, Yulia; Meusel, Andrej; Breitfeld, Jana; Schleinitz, Dorit; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Dannenberger, Dirk; Kovacs, Peter; Schiller, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Many diseases nowadays are assumed to be genetically determined. Therefore, many knockout mouse models have been established and are widely used. Unfortunately, nutrition (in particular the fat content of food) is often neglected in studies on these disease models. In this study the effects of nutrition on the lipid (triacylglycerol, TAG) compositions of different mouse adipose tissues were investigated. Mice were subjected to different diets [high fat (HF) vs. standard diet (SD)] and different adipose tissue samples (brown, visceral, and subcutaneous fat) were isolated after 12 weeks. Subsequent to lipid extraction, the organic extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI and ESI), high-resolution (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and gas chromatography (GC). In adipose tissue of mice fed with HF diet, (a) decreased double bond contents and (b) decreased fatty acyl chain lengths of tissue TAGs were observed; this trend could be concomitantly monitored by all methods used. However, the adipose tissue still contained significant amounts of slightly unsaturated fatty acyl residues (18:1). Thus, a certain double bond content seems necessary to maintain the properties of adipose tissues. Graphical Abstract The compositions of different mouse adipose tissues is massively influenced by the composition of the supplied diet. This will be shown by using independent spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. PMID:25724368

  18. Adipose tissue stem cells meet preadipocyte commitment: going back to the future[S

    PubMed Central

    Cawthorn, William P.; Scheller, Erica L.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is perhaps the most plastic organ in the body, capable of regeneration following surgical removal and massive expansion or contraction in response to altered energy balance. Research conducted for over 70 years has investigated adipose tissue plasticity on a cellular level, spurred on by the increasing burden that obesity and associated diseases are placing on public health globally. This work has identified committed preadipocytes in the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and led to our current understanding that adipogenesis is important not only for WAT expansion, but also for maintenance of adipocyte numbers under normal metabolic states. At the turn of the millenium, studies investigating preadipocyte differentiation collided with developments in stem cell research, leading to the discovery of multipotent stem cells within WAT. Such adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are capable of differentiating into numerous cell types of both mesodermal and nonmesodermal origin, leading to their extensive investigation from a therapeutic and tissue engineering perspective. However, the insights gained through studying ASCs have also contributed to more-recent progress in attempts to better characterize committed preadipocytes in adipose tissue. Thus, ASC research has gone back to its roots, thereby expanding our knowledge of preadipocyte commitment and adipose tissue biology. PMID:22140268

  19. Adipocyte Inflammation is Essential for Healthy Adipose Tissue Expansion and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Tao, Caroline; Morley, Thomas S.; Wang, Qiong A.; Delgado-Lopez, Fernando; Wang, Zhao V.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic inflammation constitutes an important link between obesity and its pathophysiological sequelae. In contrast to the belief that inflammatory signals exert a fundamentally negative impact on metabolism, we show that pro-inflammatory signaling in the adipocyte is in fact required for proper adipose tissue remodeling and expansion. Three mouse models with an adipose tissue-specific reduction in pro-inflammatory potential were generated that display a reduced capacity for adipogenesis in vivo, while the differentiation potential is unaffected in vitro. Upon high fat diet exposure, the expansion of visceral adipose tissue is prominently affected. This is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function, increased hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction. An impaired local pro-inflammatory response in the adipocyte leads to increased ectopic lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance and systemic inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is therefore an adaptive response that enables safe storage of excess nutrients and contributes to a visceral depot barrier that effectively filters gut-derived endotoxin. PMID:24930973

  20. Effect of diet and ovariectomy on adipose tissue cellularity E. PALLIER Roberte AUBERT, D. LEMONNIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of diet and ovariectomy on adipose tissue cellularity in mice E. PALLIER Roberte AUBERT, D each (Aubert et al., 1971), were weaned at * Present address : Groupe de Recherches de Nutrition et Di6

  1. ER? upregulates Phd3 to ameliorate HIF-1 induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Zehr, Jordan A.; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Morselli, Eugenia; Amelotte, Mason; Palmer, Biff F.; Gupta, Rana K.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) promotes fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissues, while estrogens and Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?) have the opposite effect. Here we identify an Estrogen Response Element (ERE) in the promoter of Phd3, which is a negative regulatory enzyme of HIF-1, and we demonstrate HIF-1? is ubiquitinated following 17-? estradiol (E2)/ER? mediated Phd3 transcription. Manipulating ER? in vivo increases Phd3 transcription and reduces HIF-1 activity, while addition of PHD3 ameliorates adipose tissue fibrosis and inflammation. Our findings outline a novel regulatory relationship between E2/ER?, PHD3 and HIF-1 in adipose tissues, providing a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of E2/ER? in adipose tissue. PMID:25161887

  2. IMPROVED RECOVERY OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN ADIPOSE TISSUE WITH A MODIFIED MICRO MULTIRESIDUE PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the described methodology the recovery of hexachlorobenzene from adipose tissue was significantly increased over that normally obtained with other multiresidue procedures. The recovery of other commonly encountered chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides was not affected nor was...

  3. IMPROVED METHOD FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE AND MIREX DETERMINATION WITH HEXACHLOROBENZENE CONFIRMATION IN ADIPOSE TISSUE: COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previously published method for determination and confirmation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in adipose tissue was also applied to mirex residues. A modified procedure for both residues was collaboratively studied by 12 laboratories. The procedure specifies direct application of a...

  4. Slip point of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of beef carcass quality 

    E-print Network

    Ward, Lindsay Paige

    2009-05-15

    We hypothesized that slip point of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue lipids would predict beef carcass quality. To address our hypothesis, 79 M. longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks from cattle of unknown background were used to provide information...

  5. Dietary fatty acid composition alters 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vara Prasad, Sakamuri S S; Jeya Kumar, Shanmugam S; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive glucocorticoids to their active forms in vivo. Adipose-specific overexpression of 11?-HSD1 induces metabolic syndrome in mice, whereas 11?-HSD1 null mice are resistant to it. Dietary trans and saturated fatty acids (TFAs and SFAs) are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) offer protection against this. Here, we report the effects of chronic feeding of different diets containing vanaspati (TFA rich), palm oil (SFA rich) and sunflower oil (PUFA rich) at 10%level on 11?-HSD1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal adipose tissue. 11?-HSD1 gene expression was significantly higher in TFA rich diet-fed rats compared to SFA rich diet-fed rats, which in turn was significantly higher than PUFA rich diet-fed rats. Similar trend was observed in the expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?), the main transcription factor required for the expression of 11?-HSD1. We propose that TFAs and SFAs increase local amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue by upregulating 11?-HSD1 by altering C/EBP-?-gene expression. The increased levels of glucocorticoids in adipose tissue may lead to development of obesity and insulin resistance, thereby increasing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:20932307

  6. Cold-induced expression of the VEGF gene in brown adipose tissue is independent of thermogenic oxygen consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Magnus Fredriksson; Hideki Nikami; Jan Nedergaard

    2005-01-01

    To examine whether cold-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in brown adipose tissue involved generation of hypoxic oxygen levels by thermogenic processes, we cold-exposed wild-type mice, as well as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-ablated mice in which no thermogenesis in brown adipocytes can be induced. Cold exposure stimulated VEGF expression in both wild-type and UCP1-ablated mice. Unexpectedly, the effect was

  7. Adipose Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, and Solid Organ Transplantation and Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Labbé; Valérie Trottier; Maryse Proulx; Caroline Vincent; Julie Fradette

    \\u000a In the past years, adipose tissue has spurred a wide interest as a source of adult multipotent stem cells with the potential\\u000a to change the landscape of regenerative medicine. These adipose-derived stem\\/stromal cells (ASCs) are already establishing\\u000a their effectiveness at improving organ function when delivered for cell therapy. Tissue engineering applications are also\\u000a progressing at great strides in part due

  8. Clinical and preclinical translation of cell-based therapies using adipose tissue-derived cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M Gimble; Farshid Guilak; Bruce A Bunnell

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable\\u000a for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data\\u000a relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal\\u000a vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal\\/stem cells in

  9. Quality assurance/quality control procedures for chlorinated hydrocarbons in human breast adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Archibeque-Engle, S.; Tessari, J.D.; Winn, D.T. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-12-27

    Extensive literature exists supporting the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides such as DDT [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human adipose tissue. Debate has surfaced concerning the link between these environmental contaminants and human breast cancer. Accurate residue analysis and proper analytical procedures are critical in determining the extent to which these compounds play a role in human breast cancer. Further, adequate quality assessment/quality control (QA/QC) is critical for reliable residue analysis. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to find an appropriate surrogate for human breast adipose tissue for spiking purposes, as human samples are difficult to obtain, and (2) to develop a human breast adipose tissue pool that yields adequate reproducibility with low coefficients of variation (CVs) for each compound of interest. Using a previously validated method developed in the Analytical Laboratory at Colorado State University, rendered ovine adipose tissue was found to be a suitable spiking material, as it was free of interfering compounds and behaved in a manner similar to human breast adipose tissue throughout the analytical method. Further, this analytical method was used to produce data on three control pool preparations: (A) blended human breast adipose tissue (n = 26), (B) blended and partially rendered human breast adipose tissue (n = 12), and (C) fully blended and rendered human breast adipose tissue (n = 15). The CVs between control pools vary up to 20% for a single compound. The most reproducible preparation procedure requires full blending and rendering. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women?3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J London; Frank M Sacks; John Caesar; Meir J Stampfer; Eduardo Siguel; Walter C Willett

    The distributions of fatty acids in subcuta- neous-adipose-tissue aspirates and their relation to intake as as- sessed by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire were investigated in 1 15 postmenopausal US women free from cancer. Percentages of fatty acids in adipose tissue were significantly correlated with the percentage of total fat intake for polyunsat- urated fatty acids (Spearman correlation = 0.37), n-3

  11. The fatty acid esterification pathway in bovine liver and adipose tissue 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, John

    1988-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . ?, .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?. . . 10 Preparation of tissue incubations. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??. . . . . 10 Preparation of liver and adipose tissue homogenates and enzyme assays. . . . . . . . 11 Adipose cell size determinations.... The increases probably were due to an increase in glycerol-3-phosphate concentration and not to a possibly allosteric activation of one of the enzymes of the esterification pathway in liver. Raju and Six (1975) found that CoA, ATP and MgCl2 at varying levels...

  12. Positional analysis of triacylglycerols from bovine adipose tissue lipids varying in degree of unsaturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Smith; Aijun Yang; Tom W. Larsen; Ron K. Tume

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that changing the fatty acid composition of bovine adipose tissue concurrently\\u000a changed (i) proportions of triacylglycerol species, (ii) fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol species, and (iii) positional\\u000a distribution of the component fatty acids of the triacylglycerol species. To achieve this, we took advantage of adipose tissue\\u000a lipids, from cattle fed in Australia

  13. Tocotrienol levels in adipose tissue of benign and malignant breast lumps in patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Gomez, Patricia Alison; Selvaduray, Kanga Rani; Razak, Ghazali Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) in observational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that alpha-T provides women with any protection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that alpha, gamma, and delta-tocotrienols but not alpha-T have potent anti-proliferative effects in human breast cancer cells. Our aim was to investigate whether there was a difference in tocopherol and tocotrienol concentrations in malignant and benign adipose tissue, in a Malaysian population consuming predominantly a palm oil diet. The study was undertaken using fatty acid levels in breast adipose tissue as a biomarker of qualitative dietary intake of fatty acids. The major fatty acids in breast adipose tissue of patients (benign and malignant) were oleic acid (45-46%), palmitic (28-29%) and linoleic (11-12%). No differences were evident in the fatty acid composition of the two groups. There was a significant difference (p=0.006) in the total tocotrienol levels between malignant (13.7 +/- 6.0 microg/g) and benign (20+/-6.0 microg/g) adipose tissue samples. However, no significant differences were seen in the total tocopherol levels (p=0.42) in the two groups. The study reveals that dietary intake influences adipose tissue fatty acid levels and that adipose tissue is a dynamic reservoir of fat soluble nutrients. The higher adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in benign patients provide support for the idea that tocotrienols may provide protection against breast cancer. PMID:17704032

  14. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Adipose Tissues of Korean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Bang MoonDuk-Hee; Duk-Hee Lee; Yoon Soon Lee; Minkyu Choi; Hee-Gu Choi; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean\\u000a populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40–68 years.\\u000a The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which

  15. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  16. Gs? Deficiency in Adipose Tissue Leads to a Lean Phenotype with Divergent Effects on Cold Tolerance and Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Chen, Hui; Nguyen, Annie; Gupta, Divakar; Wang, Jie; Lai, Edwin W.; Pacak, Karel; Gavrilova, Oksana; Quon, Michael J.; Weinstein, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Gs?, the G protein which mediates receptor-stimulated cAMP generation, has been implicated as a regulator of adipogenesis and adipose tissue function. Heterozygous Gs? mutations lead to obesity in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) patients and in mice. In this study we generated mice with adipose-specific Gs? deficiency. Heterozygotes had 50% loss of Gs? expression in adipose tissue and no obvious phenotype, suggesting that adipose-specific Gs? deficiency is not the cause of obesity in AHO. Homozygotes (FGsKO) had severe adipose tissue deficiency, indicating that Gs? is required for adipogenesis. Although FGsKO mice had impaired cold tolerance and reduced responsiveness of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to sympathetic signaling, diet-induced thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle were increased. In normal mice high-fat diet raised sympathetic nerve activity in muscle but not in BAT. Our results show that cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis may occur in separate tissues, especially when BAT function is impaired. PMID:20374964

  17. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell in Vitro Differentiation in a Three-Dimensional Dental Bud Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Federico; Spelat, Renza; Falini, Giuseppe; Gallelli, Annarita; D'Aurizio, Federica; Puppato, Elisa; Pandolfi, Maura; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Curcio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Tooth morphogenesis requires sequential and reciprocal interactions between the cranial neural crest–derived mesenchymal cells and the stomadial epithelium, which regulate tooth morphogenesis and differentiation. We show how mesenchyme-derived single stem cell populations can be induced to transdifferentiate in vitro in a structure similar to a dental bud. The presence of stem cells in the adipose tissue has been previously reported. We incubated primary cultures of human adipose tissue–derived stem cells in a dental-inducing medium and cultured the aggregates in three-dimensional conditions. Four weeks later, cells formed a three-dimensional organized structure similar to a dental bud. Expression of dental tissue–related markers was tested assaying lineage-specific mRNA and proteins by RT-PCR, immunoblot, IHC, and physical-chemical analysis. In the induction medium, cells were positive for ameloblastic and odontoblastic markers as both mRNAs and proteins. Also, cells expressed epithelial, mesenchymal, and basement membrane markers with a positional relationship similar to the physiologic dental morphogenesis. Physical-chemical analysis revealed 200-nm and 50-nm oriented hydroxyapatite crystals as displayed in vivo by enamel and dentin, respectively. In conclusion, we show that adipose tissue–derived stem cells in vitro can transdifferentiate to produce a specific three-dimensional organization and phenotype resembling a dental bud even in the absence of structural matrix or scaffold to guide the developmental process. PMID:21514442

  18. Reprogramming human adipose tissue stem cells using epidermal keratinocyte extracts

    PubMed Central

    XIE, FENG; TANG, XINJIE; ZHANG, QUN; DENG, CHENLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) can differentiate into various types of cell in response to lineage-specific induction factors. Reprogramming cells using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts derived from another type of somatic cell is an effective method of producing specific types of differentiated cell. In the present study, the ability of reprogrammed ATSCs to acquire epidermal keratinocyte properties following transient exposure to epidermal keratinocyte extracts was demonstrated. Reversibly permeabilized ATSCs were incubated for 1 h in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes, resealed with CaCl2 and cultured. ATSC reprogramming is demonstrated by nuclear uptake of epidermal keratinocyte extracts. After one week of exposure to extracts, ATSCs underwent changes in cell morphology, cell-specific genes were activated, and epidermal keratinocyte markers including K19 and K1/K10 (markers of stem cells and terminally differentiated keratinocytes, respectively) were expressed. This study indicates that the reprogramming of ATSCs using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes is a viable option for the production of specific types of cell. PMID:25333210

  19. Impact of Simvastatin on Adipose Tissue: Pleiotropic Effects in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tayeba; Hamilton, Mark P.; Mundy, Dorothy I.; Chua, Streamson C.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2009-01-01

    Statins belong to a class of drugs well known for their ability to reduce circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition to cholesterol lowering, they also exhibit potential antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, suggesting that tissues other than liver may be targeted by statins to exert their beneficial metabolic effects. Adipocytes have received very little attention as a potential target of these drugs, possibly because adipocytes are not a major source of biosynthetic cholesterol. Here, we examine the effects of simvastatin on the secretory pathway, inflammation, and cellular metabolism of adipocytes as well as on whole-body insulin sensitivity. We find that statins have a selective effect on the secretion of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin by reducing circulating levels of the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin specifically with a concomitant increase in intracellular adiponectin levels. However, these effects on adiponectin do not translate into changes in metabolism or whole-body insulin sensitivity, potentially due to additional antiinflammatory properties of statins. In addition, ob/ob mice treated with statins have reduced adiposity and an altered ultrastructure of the plasma membrane with respect to caveolar histology. Our data demonstrate that statins have major effects on the cellular physiology of the adipocyte on multiple levels. PMID:19819942

  20. Central sympathetic innervations to visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T.; Randall, Jessica; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a link between visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) and the metabolic syndrome in humans, with health improvements produced with small visceral WAT reduction. By contrast, subcutaneous WAT provides a site for lipid storage that is rather innocuous relative to ectopic lipid storage in muscle or liver. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is the principal initiator for lipolysis in WAT by mammals. Nothing is known, however, about the central origins of the SNS circuitry innervating the only true visceral WAT in rodents, mesenteric WAT (MWAT), which drains into the hepatic portal vein. We tested whether the central sympathetic circuits to subcutaneous [inguinal WAT (IWAT)] and visceral WAT (MWAT) are separate or shared and whether they possess differential sympathetic drives with food deprivation in Siberian hamsters. Using two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer within the same hamsters, we found some overlap (?20–55% doubly infected neurons) between the two circuitries across the neural axis with lesser overlap proximal to the depots (spinal cord and sympathetic chain) and with more neurons involved in the innervation of IWAT than MWAT in some brain regions. Food deprivation triggered a greater sympathetic drive to subcutaneous (IWAT) than visceral (MWAT) depots. Collectively, we demonstrated both shared and separate populations of brain, spinal cord, and sympathetic chain neurons ultimately project to a subcutaneous WAT depot (IWAT) and the only visceral WAT depot in rodents (MWAT). In addition, the lipolytic stimulus of food deprivation only increased SNS drive to subcutaneous fat (IWAT). PMID:24452544

  1. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides ?-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. ?-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  2. Irf5 deficiency in macrophages promotes beneficial adipose tissue expansion and insulin sensitivity during obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalmas, Elise; Toubal, Amine; Alzaid, Fawaz; Blazek, Katrina; Eames, Hayley L; Lebozec, Kristell; Pini, Maria; Hainault, Isabelle; Montastier, Emilie; Denis, Raphaël G P; Ancel, Patricia; Lacombe, Amélie; Ling, Yin; Allatif, Omran; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; André, Sébastien; Viguerie, Nathalie; Poitou, Christine; Stich, Vladimir; Torcivia, Alexandra; Foufelle, Fabienne; Luquet, Serge; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Langin, Dominique; Clément, Karine; Udalova, Irina A; Venteclef, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue correlates with elevated inflammation and increased risk of metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control its pathological expansion. Transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been implicated in polarizing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking Irf5, when placed on a high-fat diet, show no difference in the growth of their epididymal white adipose tissue (epiWAT) but they show expansion of their subcutaneous white adipose tissue, as compared to wild-type (WT) mice on the same diet. EpiWAT from Irf5-deficient mice is marked by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, higher collagen deposition that restricts adipocyte size, and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared to epiWAT from WT mice. In obese individuals, IRF5 expression is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and collagen deposition in visceral adipose tissue. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in adipose tissue macrophages highlights the transforming growth factor ?1 (TGFB1) gene itself as a direct target of IRF5-mediated inhibition. This study uncovers a new function for IRF5 in controlling the relative mass of different adipose tissue depots and thus insulin sensitivity in obesity, and it suggests that inhibition of IRF5 may promote a healthy metabolic state during this condition. PMID:25939064

  3. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and obesity: peritumoral adipose tissue plays a role in lymph node invasion

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Amedeo; Lunardi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Porzionato, Andrea; Saadeh, Luca; Cagol, Matteo; Alfieri, Rita; Tedeschi, Umberto; Calabrese, Fiorella; Castoro, Carlo; Vettor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with cancer risk in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Adipose tissue directly stimulates tumor progression independently from body mass index (BMI), but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We studied the morphological, histological and molecular characteristics of peritumoral and distal adipose tissue of 60 patients with EAC, to investigate whether depot-specific differences affect tumor behavior. We observed that increased adipocyte size (a hallmark of obesity) was directly associated with leptin expression, angiogenesis (CD31) and lymphangiogenesis (podoplanin); however, these parameters were associated with nodal metastasis only in peritumoral but not distal adipose tissue of patients. We treated OE33 cells with conditioned media (CM) collected from cultured biopsies of adipose tissue and we observed increased mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin receptors, as well as two key regulator genes of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT): alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and E-cadherin. This effect was greater in cells treated with CM from peritumoral adipose tissue of patients with nodal metastasis and was partially blunted by a leptin antagonist. Therefore, peritumoral adipose tissue may exert a direct effect on the progression of EAC by secreting depot-specific paracrine factors, and leptin is a key player in this crosstalk. PMID:25857300

  4. Nonvirally engineered porcine adipose tissue-derived stem cells: use in posterior spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Sheyn, Dima; Pelled, Gadi; Zilberman, Yoram; Talasazan, Farahnaz; Frank, Jonathan M; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma

    2008-04-01

    Multiple factors alter intervertebral disc volume, structure, shape, composition, and biomechanical properties, often leading to low back pain. Spinal fusion is frequently performed to treat this problem. We recently published results of our investigation of a novel system of in vivo bone formation, in which we used nonvirally nucleofected human mesenchymal stem cells that overexpress a bone morphogenetic protein gene. We hypothesized that primary porcine adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) nucleofected with plasmid containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (rhBMP-6) could induce bone formation and achieve spinal fusion in vivo. Primary ASCs were isolated from freshly harvested porcine adipose tissue. Overexpression of rhBMP-6 was achieved ex vivo by using a nucleofection technique. Transfection efficiency was monitored by assessing a parallel transfection involving an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene and flow cytometry analysis. rhBMP-6 protein secreted by the cells was measured by performing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genetically engineered cells were injected into the lumbar paravertebral muscle in immunodeficient mice. In vivo bone formation was monitored by a quantitative microcomputed tomography (muCT). The animals were euthanized 5 weeks postinjection, and spinal fusion was evaluated using in vitro muCT and histological analysis. We found formation of a large bone mass adjacent to the lumbar area, which produced posterior spinal fusion of two to four vertebrae. Our data demonstrate that efficient bone formation and spinal fusion can be achieved using ex vivo, nonvirally transfected primary ASCs. These results could pave the way to a novel biological solution for spine treatment. PMID:18218819

  5. Inhibition of Glyceroneogenesis by Histone Deacetylase 3 Contributes to Lipodystrophy in Mice with Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Henagan, Tara M.; Gao, Zhanguo

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) induces chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue of p65 transgenic (Tg) mice, in which the NF-?B subunit p65 (RelA) is overexpressed from the adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) gene promoter. Tg mice suffer a mild lipodystrophy and exhibit deficiency in adipocyte differentiation. To understand molecular mechanism of the defect in adipocytes, we investigated glyceroneogenesis by examining the activity of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in adipocytes. In aP2-p65 Tg mice, Pepck expression is inhibited at both the mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue. The mRNA reduction is a consequence of transcriptional inhibition but not alteration in mRNA stability. The Pepck gene promoter is inhibited by NF-?B, which enhances the corepressor activity through activation of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in the nucleus. HDAC3 suppresses Pepck transcription by inhibiting the transcriptional activators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, and cAMP response element binding protein. The NF-?B activity is abolished by Hdac3 knockdown or inhibition of HDAC3 catalytic activity. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, HDAC3 interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and cAMP response element binding protein in the Pepck promoter when NF-?B is activated by TNF-?. These results suggest that HDAC3 mediates NF-?B activity to repress Pepck transcription. This mechanism is responsible for inhibition of glyceroneogenesis in adipocytes, which contributes to lipodystrophy in the aP2-p65 Tg mice. PMID:21406501

  6. Adipose tissue distribution after weight restoration and weight maintenance in women with anorexia nervosa123

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Diane A; Black, Elizabeth; Attia, Evelyn; Shen, Wei; Mao, Xiangling; Shungu, Dikoma C; Punyanita, Mark; Gallagher, Dympna; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Hirsch, Joy; Ginsberg, Henry N; Walsh, B Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Body image distortions are a core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN). We, and others, previously reported abnormalities in adipose tissue distribution after acute weight restoration in adult women with AN compared with body mass index–matched healthy control women. Whether these abnormalities persist over time remains unknown. Objectives: We aimed to 1) replicate previous findings that showed preferential central accumulation of adipose tissue in recently weight-restored AN women compared with control subjects, 2) describe the change within patients with longer-term (1-y) weight maintenance, and 3) compare adipose tissue distribution after 1-y maintenance with that of control subjects. Design: Body composition and adipose tissue distribution were assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in women with AN shortly after weight normalization (n = 30) and again 1 y after hospital discharge (n = 16) and in 8 female control subjects at 2 time points. Results: With acute weight restoration, AN patients had significantly greater visceral and intermuscular adipose tissue compared with control women [visceral: 0.75 ± 0.26 compared with 0.51 ± 0.26 kg in AN patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.02); intermuscular: 0.46 ± 0.17 compared with 0.29 ± 0.13 kg in AN patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.01)]. With maintenance of normal weight for ?1 y, visceral adipose tissue distribution in AN patients was not different from that in healthy control subjects. Conclusions: In adult women with AN, normalization of weight in the short term is associated with a distribution of adipose tissue that is consistent with a central adiposity phenotype. This abnormal distribution appears to normalize within a 1-y period of weight maintenance. This research was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00271921 and NCT 00368667. PMID:19793856

  7. Adipose tissue distribution is different in type 2 diabetes123

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, David E; Yim, Jung-Eun; Spence, Natasha; Albu, Jeanine; Boxt, Lawrence; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Heshka, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Background: The extent to which adipose tissue (AT) distribution is different between persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and nondiabetic control subjects remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish whether total body adiposity and its distribution, quantified by using state-of-the-art whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, differs between these 2 groups. Design: This cross-sectional evaluation included 93 participants (n = 56 women and 37 men) in the Look AHEAD (Action for HEAlth in Diabetes) Trial with T2DM who had a mean (±SD) age of 58.3 ± 6.6 y and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 31.6 ± 3.1 and 93 healthy non-T2DM control subjects (n = 64 women and 29 men) who had a mean (±SD) age of 60.6 ± 17.1 y and body mass index of 29.6 ± 3.0. All participants self-reported being of African American or white ancestry. Magnetic resonance imaging–derived in vivo measures of total-body AT (TAT) and its distribution, subcutaneous AT (SAT), visceral AT (VAT), and intermuscular AT (IMAT) were acquired. Linear regression models were developed for each AT compartment to adjust for important covariates of race, sex, age, height, and weight and to examine potential interactions of covariates. Results: These models showed significantly less SAT (African American: ?1.2 kg; white: ?2.4 kg; both P = 0.001), including less femoral-gluteal SAT, more VAT (African American: 0.7 kg, P < 0.001; white: 1.8 kg, P = 0.007), and more IMAT (0.5 kg, P = 0.001) in the T2DM group. Conclusion: We concluded that AT distribution is significantly altered in T2DM, ie, more VAT and IMAT—2 depots known to exacerbate insulin resistance—and less SAT in persons with T2DM than in healthy control subjects, a novel finding that we posit may compound the risk of insulin resistance. PMID:19158213

  8. Ex Vivo Adipose Tissue Engineering by Human Marrow Stromal Cell Seeded Gelatin Sponge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Hong; Ioana Peptan; Paul Clark; Jeremy J. Mao

    2005-01-01

    The limitation of current clinical treatment for restoration extended defects of soft tissue associated with trauma, tumor resections, and congenital deformities are well known. This study demonstrates that human bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be utilized to tissue engineer adipose tissue for therapeutic purposes. Adipogenic potentials of monolayer-cultured human MSCs were evaluated by biochemical measurement of an adipogenic differentiation

  9. Early alterations in the brown adipose tissue adenylate cyclase system of pre-obese Zucker rat fa/fa pups: decreased G-proteins and beta 3-adrenoceptor activities.

    PubMed

    Charon, C; Krief, S; Diot-Dupuy, F; Strosberg, A D; Emorine, L J; Bazin, R

    1995-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine whether receptor and non-receptor components of the adenylate cyclase (AC) cascade were altered in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 14-day-old pre-obese (fa/fa) rats, before endocrine status is strongly modified by fa gene expression. Activity of the AC catalytic subunit did not differ between the two genotypes. In fa/fa rats compared with control Fa/fa rats, there was a 50% decrease in the activity of alpha Gs (stimulated by NaF or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) but no change in protein content (Western blotting). alpha Gi function, assessed by the inhibitory action of low concentrations of guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate upon 10(-4) M forskolin-stimulated AC activity, was equally low in both genotypes. Analysis of dose-response curves for different beta-agonists revealed that (i) both the basal and the maximally stimulated activity of AC were 2-fold lower in fa/fa rats than in Fa/fa rats; (ii) BRL37344 and CGP12177 (beta 3 agonists) were less potent in fa/fa than in Fa/fa rats (Kact. multiplied by 2); (iii) noradrenaline and isoprenaline (Iso), at the low-affinity site (beta 3-AR), were less potent in fa/fa than in Fa/fa pups (Kact. increased by 30 and 20% respectively). At the high-affinity site (mainly beta 1) these two agonists were more potent in fa/fa than in Fa/fa rats (Kact. decreased by 40 and 80% respectively). In good agreement with the latter result, the beta 1-adrenergic receptor (beta 1-AR)-selective antagonist CGP20712A had more effect on the Iso-stimulated AC activity in pre-obese than in lean pups (2-fold decreased in IC50). Binding experiments with [3H]CGP12177 show that in BAT of suckling rats, beta 3-ARs represent 80% of the total beta-ARs. Bmax values for the two sites were not affected by the genotype, although the beta 3-AR mRNA concentration in BAT (quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR) was 3-fold lower in fa/fa rats than in Fa/fa pups. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for alterations in beta 1- and beta 3-AR signalling in BAT of 14-day-old suckling pre-obese Zucker rats with a decreased activity of alpha Gs. The impaired AC responsiveness to catecholamines might be a primary contributor to the development of this genetic obesity. PMID:8554520

  10. Abundance of adiponectin system and G-protein coupled receptor GPR109A mRNA in adipose tissue and liver of F2 offspring cows of Charolais × German Holstein crosses that differ in body fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, M; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue (AT) is an important endocrine organ and it secretes adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity by activation of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Lipolysis in AT is downregulated by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPR109A), which binds the endogenous ligand ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Insulin sensitivity is reduced during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cattle and BHBA is increased postpartum, implying the involvement of the adiponectin system and GPR109A in this process. The aim of the current investigation was to study the effect of the genetic background of cows on the mRNA abundance of the adiponectin system, as well as GPR109A, in an F(2) population of 2 Charolais × German Holstein families. These families were deduced from full- and half-sibs sharing identical but reciprocal paternal and maternal Charolais grandfathers. The animals of the 2 families showed significant differences in fat accretion and milk secretion and were designated fat-type (high fat accretion but low milk production) and lean-type (low fat accretion but high milk production). The mRNA of the adiponectin system and GPR109A were quantified by real-time PCR in different fat depots (subcutaneous from back, mesenteric, kidney) and liver. The mRNA data were correlated with AT masses (intermuscular topside border fat, kidney, mesenteric, omental, total inner fat mass, total subcutaneous fat mass, and total fat mass) and blood parameters (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, BHBA, urea, insulin, and glucagon). The abundance of adiponectin system mRNA was higher in discrete AT depots of fat-type cows [adiponectin mRNA in mesenteric fat (trend), AdipoR1 in kidney and mesenteric AT, and AdipoR2 in subcutaneous fat (trend)] than in lean-type cows. More GPR109A mRNA was found in kidney fat of the lean-type family than in that of the fat-type family. In liver, the abundance of AdipoR2 and GPR109A (trend) mRNA was higher in lean-type than in fat-type cows. Correlation analyses disclosed clear differences between the groups. In total, the results revealed obvious disparities for the mRNA targets between the 2 families with common but reciprocal paternal and maternal genetic backgrounds. Visceral AT mass of both families showed most correlations with the mRNA abundance of the target genes in different AT depots. The effect of adiponectin secretion, especially by visceral AT depots, on liver metabolism should be clarified in further studies. PMID:23141824

  11. Regulation of Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by MAPK Phosphatase 5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Nguyen, Thang; Tang, Peng; Kennedy, Norman J; Jiao, Huipeng; Zhang, Mingliang; Reynolds, Joseph M; Jaeschke, Anja; Martin-Orozco, Natalia; Chung, Yeonseok; He, Wei-Min; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Ge, Baoxue; Davis, Roger J; Flavell, Richard A; Dong, Chen

    2015-06-12

    Obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have become a major threat to public health globally. The mechanisms that lead to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes have not been well understood. In this study, we show that mice deficient in MAPK phosphatase 5 (MKP5) develop insulin resistance spontaneously at an early stage of life and glucose intolerance at a later age. Increased macrophage infiltration in white adipose tissue of young MKP5-deficient mice correlates with the development of insulin resistance. Glucose intolerance in MKP5-deficient mice is accompanied by significantly increased visceral adipose weight, reduced AKT activation, enhanced p38 activity, and increased inflammation in visceral adipose tissue when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Deficiency of MKP5 resulted in increased inflammatory activation in macrophages. These findings thus demonstrate that MKP5 critically controls inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:25922079

  12. A metabolomic study of adipose tissue in mice with a disruption of the circadian system.

    PubMed

    Castro, C; Briggs, W; Paschos, G K; FitzGerald, G A; Griffin, J L

    2015-06-16

    Adipose tissue functions in terms of energy homeostasis as a rheostat for blood triglyceride, regulating its concentration, in response to external stimuli. In addition it acts as a barometer to inform the central nervous system of energy levels which can vary dramatically between meals and according to energy demand. Here a metabolomic approach, combining both Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, was used to analyse both white and brown adipose tissue in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of Arntl (also known as Bmal1), a gene encoding a core molecular clock component. The results are consistent with a peripheral circadian clock playing a central role in metabolic regulation of both brown and white adipose tissue in rodents and show that Arntl induced global changes in both tissues which were distinct for the two types. In particular, anterior subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ASWAT) tissue was effected by a reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) changes were associated with a reduction in chain length. In addition the aqueous fraction of metabolites in BAT were profoundly affected by Arntl disruption, consistent with the dynamic role of this tissue in maintaining body temperature across the day-night cycle and an upregulation in fatty acid oxidation and citric acid cycle activity to generate heat during the day when rats are inactive (increases in 3-hydroxybutyrate and glutamate), and increased synthesis and storage of lipids during the night when rats feed more (increased concentrations of glycerol, choline and glycerophosphocholine). PMID:25907923

  13. Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Xingyuan; Yan, Xingrong; Cui, Jihong; Liu, Wenguang; Sun, Mei; Rao, Yang; Chen, Fulin

    2014-01-01

    The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs) were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue. PMID:25587287

  14. Disruption of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase Ameliorates Diet-induced Adiposity but Exacerbates Systemic Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Response*

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Gao, Zhanguo; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ye, Jianping; Chapkin, Robert S.; Wu, Chaodong

    2010-01-01

    Adiposity is commonly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and many overnutrition-related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Much attention has been paid to reducing adiposity as a way to improve adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. PFKFB3/iPFK2 is a master regulator of adipocyte nutrient metabolism. Using PFKFB3+/? mice, the present study investigated the role of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in regulating diet-induced adiposity and systemic insulin resistance. On a high-fat diet (HFD), PFKFB3+/? mice gained much less body weight than did wild-type littermates. This was attributed to a smaller increase in adiposity in PFKFB3+/? mice than in wild-type controls. However, HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance was more severe in PFKFB3+/? mice than in wild-type littermates. Compared with wild-type littermates, PFKFB3+/? mice exhibited increased severity of HFD-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, as evidenced by increased adipose tissue lipolysis, inappropriate adipokine expression, and decreased insulin signaling, as well as increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in both isolated adipose tissue macrophages and adipocytes. In an in vitro system, knockdown of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes caused a decrease in the rate of glucose incorporation into lipid but an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, knockdown of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inappropriately altered the expression of adipokines, decreased insulin signaling, increased the phosphorylation states of JNK and NF?B p65, and enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these data suggest that PFKFB3/iPFK2, although contributing to adiposity, protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammatory response. PMID:19948719

  15. ABCD2 is abundant in adipose tissue and opposes the accumulation of dietary erucic acid (C22:1) in fat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Sabeva, Nadezhda S; Bhatnagar, Saloni; Li, Xiang-An; Pujol, Aurora; Graf, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    The ATP binding cassette transporter, ABCD2 (D2), is a peroxisomal protein whose mRNA has been detected in the adrenal, brain, liver, and fat. Although the role of this transporter in neural tissues has been studied, its function in adipose tissue remains unexplored. The level of immunoreactive D2 in epididymal fat is >50-fold of that found in brain or adrenal. D2 is highly enriched in adipocytes and is upregulated during adipogenesis but is not essential for adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in day 13.5 mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from D2-deficient (D2(-/-)) mice. Although no differences were appreciated in differentiation percentage, total lipid accumulation was greater in D2(-/-) adipocytes compared with the wild type. These results were consistent with in vivo observations in which no significant differences in adiposity or adipocyte diameter between wild-type and D2(-/-) mice were observed. D2(-/-) adipose tissue showed an increase in the abundance of 20:1 and 22:1 fatty acids. When mice were challenged with a diet enriched in erucic acid (22:1), this lipid accumulated in the adipose tissue in a gene-dosage-dependent manner. In conclusion, D2 is a sterol regulatory element binding protein target gene that is highly abundant in fat and opposes the accumulation of dietary lipids generally absent from the triglyceride storage pool within adipose tissue. PMID:19556607

  16. A novel role for subcutaneous adipose tissue in exercise-induced improvements in glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Townsend, Kristy L; Lee, Min-Young; Takahashi, Hirokazu; So, Kawai; Hitchcox, Kristen M; Markan, Kathleen R; Hellbach, Katharina; Hirshman, Michael F; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Exercise training improves whole-body glucose homeostasis through effects largely attributed to adaptations in skeletal muscle; however, training also affects other tissues, including adipose tissue. To determine whether exercise-induced adaptations to adipose tissue contribute to training-induced improvements in glucose homeostasis, subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) from exercise-trained or sedentary donor mice was transplanted into the visceral cavity of sedentary recipients. Remarkably, 9 days post-transplantation, mice receiving scWAT from exercise-trained mice had improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared with mice transplanted with scWAT from sedentary or sham-treated mice. Mice transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice had increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and brown adipose tissue, suggesting that the transplanted scWAT exerted endocrine effects. Furthermore, the deleterious effects of high-fat feeding on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were completely reversed if high-fat-fed recipient mice were transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice. In additional experiments, voluntary exercise training by wheel running for only 11 days resulted in profound changes in scWAT, including the increased expression of ?1,550 genes involved in numerous cellular functions including metabolism. Exercise training causes adaptations to scWAT that elicit metabolic improvements in other tissues, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for adipose tissue in the beneficial effects of exercise on systemic glucose homeostasis. PMID:25605808

  17. Regulatory iNKT cells lack PLZF expression and control Treg cell and macrophage homeostasis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Lydia; Michelet, Xavier; Zhang, Sai; Brennan, Patrick J.; Moseman, Ashley; Lester, Chantel; Besra, Gurdyal; Vomhof-Dekrey, Emilie E.; Tighe, Mike; Koay, Hui-Fern; Godfrey, Dale I.; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.; Sant’Angelo, Derek B.; von Andrian, Ulrich; Brenner, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    iNKT cells are CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing innate T cells that express the transcription factor PLZF. iNKT cells accumulate in adipose tissue, where they are anti-inflammatory, but the factors that contribute to their anti-inflammatory nature, and their targets in adipose tissue are unknown. Here we report that adipose tissue iNKT cells have a unique transcriptional program and produce interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-10. Unlike other iNKT cells, they lack PLZF, but express the transcription factor E4BP4, which controls their IL-10 production. Adipose iNKT cells are a tissue resident population that induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and, through production of IL-2, controls the number, proliferation and suppressor function of adipose regulatory T (Treg) cells. Thus, adipose tissue iNKT cells are unique regulators of immune homeostasis in this tissue. PMID:25436972

  18. Brown adipose tissue has sympathetic-sensory feedback circuits.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Vitaly; Garretson, John T; Liu, Yang; Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important source of thermogenesis which is nearly exclusively dependent on its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation. We previously demonstrated the SNS outflow from brain to BAT using the retrograde SNS-specific transneuronal viral tract tracer, pseudorabies virus (PRV152) and demonstrated the sensory system (SS) inflow from BAT to brain using the anterograde SS-specific transneuronal viral tract tracer, H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1. Several brain areas were part of both the SNS outflow to, and receive SS inflow from, interscapular BAT (IBAT) in these separate studies suggesting SNS-SS feedback loops. Therefore, we tested whether individual neurons participated in SNS-SS crosstalk by injecting both PRV152 and H129 into IBAT of Siberian hamsters. To define which dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are activated by BAT SNS stimulation, indicated by c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR), we prelabeled IBAT DRG innervating neurons by injecting the retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) followed 1 week later by intra-BAT injections of the specific ?3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 in one pad and the vehicle in the contralateral pad. There were PRV152+H129 dually infected neurons across the neuroaxis with highest densities in the raphe pallidus nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, periaqueductal gray, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and medial preoptic area, sites strongly implicated in the control of BAT thermogenesis. CL316,243 significantly increased IBAT temperature, afferent nerve activity, and c-Fos-IR in C2-C4 DRG neurons ipsilateral to the CL316,243 injections versus the contralateral side. The neuroanatomical reality of the SNS-SS feedback loops suggests coordinated and/or multiple redundant control of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25653373

  19. Catecholaminergic innervation of white adipose tissue in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Youngstrom, T G; Bartness, T J

    1995-03-01

    When Siberian hamsters are transferred from long summerlike days (LDs) to short winterlike days (SDs) they decrease their body weight, primarily as body fat. These SD-induced decreases in lipid stores are not uniform. Internally located white adipose tissue (WAT) pads are depleted preferentially of lipid, whereas the more externally located subcutaneous WAT pads are relatively spared. These data suggest a possible differential sympathetic neural control over catecholamine-induced lipolysis and that lipolytic rates are greater for internal vs. external WAT pads. Moreover, if these differential rates of lipolysis are due to differential sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drives on the pads, then fat pad-specific catecholaminergic innervation may exist. Therefore, we tested whether inguinal WAT (IWAT; an external pad) and epididymal WAT (EWAT; an internal pad) were innervated differentially. In addition, we tested whether norepinephrine (NE) turnover (TO) reflected the presumed greater SNS drive on EWAT vs. IWAT after SD exposure. Injections of fluorescent tract tracers [Fluoro-Gold or indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)] demonstrated projections from the SNS ganglia T13-L3 to both fat pads. Retrograde labeling revealed a relatively separate pattern of distribution of labeled neurons in the ganglia projecting to each pad. In vivo anterograde transport of DiI resulted in labeling in both IWAT and EWAT that included staining around individual adipocytes and occasionally retrogradely labeled cells. The proportionately greater decrease in EWAT compared with IWAT mass after 5 wk of SD exposure was reflected in greater EWAT NE TO than found in their LD counterparts for this pad.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7900918

  20. Sexual dimorphism in white and brown adipose tissue with obesity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Ian D; Symonds, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Obesity and its associated comorbidities remain at epidemic levels globally and show no signs of abatement in either adult or child populations. White adipose tissue has long been established as an endocrine signalling organ possessing both metabolic and immune functions. This role can become dysregulated following excess adiposity caused by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only present in comparatively small amounts in the body but can significantly impact on heat production, and thus could prevent excess white adiposity. Obesity and associated risk factors for adverse metabolic health are not only linked with enlarged fat mass but also are dependent on its anatomical deposition. In addition, numerous studies have revealed a disparity in white adipose tissue deposition prior to and during the development of obesity between the sexes. Females therefore tend to develop a greater abundance of femoral and gluteal subcutaneous fat whereas males exhibit more central adiposity. In females, lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue depots appear to possess a greater capacity for lipid storage, enhanced lipolytic flux and hyperplastic tissue remodelling compared to visceral adipocytes. These differences are acknowledged to contribute to the poorer metabolic and inflammatory profiles observed in males. Importantly, the converse outcomes between sexes disappear after the menopause, suggesting a role for sex hormones within the onset of metabolic complications with obesity. This review further considers how BAT impacts upon on the relationship between excess adiposity, gender, inflammation and endocrine signalling and could thus ultimately be a target to prevent obesity. PMID:24589990

  1. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Joseph R; Maples, Jill M; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-06-15

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown. PMID:25921578

  2. Tyk2 and Stat3 Regulate Brown Adipose Tissue Differentiation and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B.; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra; Harris, Thurl E.; Seale, Patrick; Russell, Aaron P.; McAinch, Andrew J.; O’Brien, Paul E.; Keller, Susanna R.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Kordula, Tomasz; Larner, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2?/? brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2?/? mice expressing CAStat3 transgene in BAT also show improved BAT development, normal levels of insulin and significantly lower body weights. Stat3 binds to PRDM16, a master regulator of BAT differentiation, and enhances the stability of PRDM16 protein. These results define Tyk2 and Stat3 as critical determinants of brown fat-lineage and suggest that altered levels of Tyk2 are associated with obesity in both rodents and humans. PMID:23217260

  3. Leptin--from a signal of adiposity to a hormonal mediator in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Mario

    2002-12-01

    The biology of leptin has been studied most extensively in the central nervous system for the regulation of food intake and energy balance. In recent years, a growing number of publications have reported several activities of this adipose-secreted protein in different organs. These effects appear to be independent of the regulation of food intake or at least not directly correlated to it, but rather related to the hormonal regulation of these particular tissues. Thus leptin is now also considered to be a hormonal factor that informs several hormonal circuits and biological peripheral functions of the nutrition status of the organism. Different systems are involved in leptin activity, such as the pituitary, male and female reproductive organs, the mammary gland, the immune system, the gut, the kidney and the lung. Functional leptin receptors and/or leptin protein have been shown to be expressed in these tissues. Furthermore, interesting interactions have been reported with classical hormones involved in the regulation of activities in such organs. These observations give more detailed evidence of the relationship between nutrition and tissue differentiation in peripheral sites, possibly mediated by classical hormonal circuits. This work aims to review the most important functional findings on leptin's effects in these peripheral sites, and potential future studies are suggested, based on currently available data. PMID:12503048

  4. Concise Review: Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells—Basic and Clinical Implications for Novel Cell-Based Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREAS SCH

    Compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) do have an equal potential to differentiate into cells and tissues of mesodermal origin, such as adipocytes, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle. However, the easy and repeatable access to subcutaneous adipose tissue and the simple iso- lation procedures provide a clear advantage. Since exten- sive reviews focusing exclusively

  5. Luteolin attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance through the interplay between the liver and adipose tissue in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Young; Jung, Un Ju; Park, Taesun; Yun, Jong Won; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-05-01

    The flavonoid luteolin has various pharmacological activities. However, few studies exist on the in vivo mechanism underlying the actions of luteolin in hepatic steatosis and obesity. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the action of luteolin on obesity and its comorbidity by analyzing its transcriptional and metabolic responses, in particular the luteolin-mediated cross-talk between liver and adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat, and high-fat + 0.005% (weight for weight) luteolin diet for 16 weeks. In high fat-fed mice, luteolin improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis and lipid absorption. In adipose tissue, luteolin increased PPAR? protein expression to attenuate hepatic lipotoxicity, which may be linked to the improvement in circulating fatty acid (FA) levels by enhancing FA uptake genes and lipogenic genes and proteins in adipose tissue. Interestingly, luteolin also upregulated the expression of genes controlling lipolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle prior to lipid droplet formation, thereby reducing adiposity. Moreover, luteolin improved hepatic insulin sensitivity by suppressing SREBP1 expression that modulates Irs2 expression through its negative feedback and gluconeogenesis. Luteolin ameliorates the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity and its comorbidity via the interplay between liver and adipose tissue. PMID:25524918

  6. Adipose Tissue Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope J. E. Quintana; Ralph J. Delfino; Susan Korrick; Argyrios Ziogas; Frederick W. Kutz; Ellen L. Jones; Francine Laden; Eric Garshick

    2004-01-01

    In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original

  7. Epithelial differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Brzoska; Helmut Geiger; Stefan Gauer; Patrick Baer

    2005-01-01

    Adult human stem cells are employed in novel treatments and bio-artificial devices. Recent studies have identified an abundant source of stem cells termed adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS)-cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Under appropriate culture conditions ADAS-cells differentiate to various cell types, including chondrocytes, adipocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Aiming at epithelial differentiation this study investigated the effect of all-trans

  8. BMP7 Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity Only at Subthermoneutrality

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Mariëtte R.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Wang, Yanan; van den Bossche, Jan; Karkampouna, Sofia; Bauwens, Matthias; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; van der Horst, Geertje; Vukicevic, Slobodan; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Tamsma, Jouke T.; van der Pluijm, Gabri; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy stored in triglycerides as heat via the uncoupling protein UCP-1 and is a promising target to combat hyperlipidemia and obesity. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, which increases BAT differentiation and activity upon cold exposure. Recently, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) was identified as an inducer of BAT differentiation. We aimed to elucidate the role of sympathetic activation in the effect of BMP7 on BAT by treating mice with BMP7 at varying ambient temperature, and assessed the therapeutic potential of BMP7 in combating obesity. Methods and Results High-fat diet fed lean C57Bl6/J mice were treated with BMP7 via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks at 21°C or 28°C, the latter being a thermoneutral temperature in which sympathetic activation of BAT is largely diminished. At 21°C, BMP7 increased BAT weight, increased the expression of Ucp1, Cd36 and hormone-sensitive lipase in BAT, and increased total energy expenditure. BMP7 treatment markedly increased food intake without affecting physical activity. Despite that, BMP7 diminished white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, accompanied by increased expression of genes related to intracellular lipolysis in WAT. All these effects were blunted at 28°C. Additionally, BMP7 resulted in extensive ‘browning’ of WAT, as evidenced by increased expression of BAT markers and the appearance of whole clusters of brown adipocytes via immunohistochemistry, independent of environmental temperature. Treatment of diet-induced obese C57Bl6/J mice with BMP7 led to an improved metabolic phenotype, consisting of a decreased fat mass and liver lipids as well as attenuated dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Conclusion Together, these data show that BMP7-mediated recruitment and activation of BAT only occurs at subthermoneutral temperature, and is thus likely dependent on sympathetic activation of BAT, and that BMP7 may be a promising tool to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:24066098

  9. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    PubMed

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-?-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-?-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-?-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the ?-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or beverages to counteract the accumulation of body fat. PMID:26098641

  10. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-?-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-?-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-?-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the ?-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or beverages to counteract the accumulation of body fat. PMID:26098641

  11. Ultrasound -Assisted Gene Transfer to Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells (ASCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Hitomi; Hokari, Rei; Yuan, Wenji; Kuno, Shuichi; Kakimoto, Takashi; Enosawa, Shin; Negishi, Yoichi; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Chiba, Toshio; Hayashi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, multilineage adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have become increasingly attractive as a promising source for cell transplantation and regenerative medicine. Particular interest has been expressed in the potential to make tissue stem cells, such as ASCs and marrow stromal cells (MSCs), differentiate by gene transfection. Gene transfection using highly efficient viral vectors such as adeno- and sendai viruses have been developed for this purpose. Sonoporation, or ultrasound (US)-assisted gene transfer, is an alternative gene manipulation technique which employs the creation of a jet stream by ultrasonic microbubble cavitation. Sonoporation using non-viral vectors is expected to be a much safer, although less efficient, tool for prospective clinical gene therapy. In this report, we assessed the efficacy of the sonoporation technique for gene transfer to ASCs. We isolated and cultured adipocyets from mouse adipose tissue. ASCs that have the potential to differentiate with transformation into adipocytes or osteoblasts were obtained. Using the US-assisted system, plasmid DNA containing beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were transferred to the ASCs. For this purpose, a Sonopore 4000 (NEPAGENE Co.) and a Sonazoid (Daiichi Sankyo Co.) instrument were used in combination. ASCs were subjected to US (3.1 MHz, 50% duty cycle, burst rate 2.0 Hz, intensity 1.2 W/cm2, exposure time 30 sec). We observed that the gene was more efficiently transferred with increased concentrations of plasmid DNA (5-150 ?g/mL). However, further optimization of the US parameters is required, as the gene transfer efficiency was still relatively low. In conclusion, we herein demonstrate that a gene can be transferred to ASCs using our US-assisted system. In regenerative medicine, this system might resolve the current issues surrounding the use of viral vectors for gene transfer.

  12. Systems biology of adipose tissue metabolism: regulation of growth, signaling and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, Sara; Choi, Kyungoh; Jayaraman, Arul; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) depots actively regulate whole body energy homeostasis by orchestrating complex communications with other physiological systems as well as within the tissue. Adipocytes readily respond to hormonal and nutritional inputs to store excess nutrients as intracellular lipids or mobilize the stored fat for utilization. Co-ordinated regulation of metabolic pathways balancing uptake, esterification, and hydrolysis of lipids is accomplished through positive and negative feedback interactions of regulatory hubs comprising several pleiotropic protein kinases and nuclear receptors. Metabolic regulation in adipocytes encompasses biogenesis and remodeling of uniquely large lipid droplets (LDs). The regulatory hubs also function as energy and nutrient sensors, and integrate metabolic regulation with intercellular signaling. Over-nutrition causes hypertrophic expansion of adipocytes, which, through incompletely understood mechanisms, initiates a cascade of metabolic and signaling events leading to tissue remodeling and immune cell recruitment. Macrophage activation and polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype drives a self-reinforcing cycle of pro-inflammatory signals in the AT, establishing an inflammatory state. Sustained inflammation accelerates lipolysis and elevates free fatty acids in circulation, which robustly correlates with development of obesity-related diseases. The adipose regulatory network coupling metabolism, growth, and signaling of multiple cell types is exceedingly complex. While components of the regulatory network have been individually studied in exquisite detail, systems approaches have rarely been utilized to comprehensively assess the relative engagements of the components. Thus, need and opportunity exist to develop quantitative models of metabolic and signaling networks to achieve a more complete understanding of AT biology in both health and disease. PMID:23408581

  13. Fat from contused adipose tissue may cause yellow discoloration of clothes in blunt trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, D; Wuest, F; Bielefeld, L; Große Perdekamp, M; Pircher, R; Pollak, S; Thierauf-Emberger, A; Huppertz, L M

    2014-10-18

    In some fatalities from intense blunt trauma, the victims' clothes show strikingly yellow discoloration being in topographic correspondence with lacerated skin and crush damage to the underlying fatty tissue. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in light-colored textiles such as underwear made of cotton and in the absence of concomitant blood-staining. The constellation of findings seems to indicate that the fabric has been soaked with liquid body fat deriving from the contused adipose tissue. To check this hypothesis, textiles suspected to be contaminated with fat were investigated in 6 relevant cases. GC-MS-analysis proved the presence of 11 fatty acids. The fatty acid composition was similar to that of human adipose tissue with a high proportion of oleic acid (18:1). In total, the morphological and chemical findings demonstrated that the yellow discoloration of the victims' clothes was caused by fat from traumatized adipose tissue. PMID:25447178

  14. Effect of dietary cysteine, methionine, and sterculic acid on fatty acid distribution in rat adipose tissue 

    E-print Network

    Brotze, Mary Frances

    1968-01-01

    weights were recorded. After six weeks all rats were sacrificed and the abdominal fat pads removed and frozen, Adipose Tissue Analysis Extraction Two tenths gram of tissue was homogenized with 4 ml. of chloroform and methanol (2:1, v/v) for five... ACIDS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE OF THE RAT Group No. Sterculia f ~ll A. Triglyceride Fraction Methionine Cysteine level in level in diet diet 16/16:1 18/18:1 18/18:2 18:1/18:2 IV VI VII VIII 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 low low high high high high low...

  15. Triglyceride Storage Disease: A Disorder of Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Galton, D. J.; Kaye, J.

    1973-01-01

    An obese patient was studied whose adipose tissue showed a significant reduction in release of glycerol (P < 0·05) when stimulated by isoprenaline despite normal rises in tissue levels of cyclic-AMP. However, lipolysis was stimulated by a fast of 14 days as judged by weight loss and a rise in plasma fatty acids from 0·4 to 1·2 mM. The defect in this patient may be familial since her obese daughter also showed diminished release of glycerol from adipose tissue on three occasions when stimulated by isoprenaline, despite normal rises in levels of cyclic-AMP. PMID:4345904

  16. High Incidence of Metabolically Active Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Matsushita, Mami; Watanabe, Kumiko; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Nakada, Kunihiro; Kawai, Yuko; Tsujisaki, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The significant roles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the regulation of energy expenditure and adiposity are established in small rodents but have been controversial in humans. The objective is to examine the prevalence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans and to clarify the effects of cold exposure and adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In vivo 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake into adipose tissue was measured in 56 healthy volunteers (31 male and 25 female subjects) aged 23–65 years by positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT). RESULTS When exposed to cold (19°C) for 2 h, 17 of 32 younger subjects (aged 23–35 years) and 2 of 24 elderly subjects (aged 38–65 years) showed a substantial FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions, whereas they showed no detectable uptake when kept warm (27°C). Histological examinations confirmed the presence of brown adipocytes in these regions. The cold-activated FDG uptake was increased in winter compared with summer (P < 0.001) and was inversely related to BMI (P < 0.001) and total (P < 0.01) and visceral (P < 0.001) fat areas estimated from CT image at the umbilical level. CONCLUSIONS Our findings, being against the conventional view, indicate the high incidence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans and suggest a role in the control of body temperature and adiposity. PMID:19401428

  17. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  18. Activation of Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obese Mice does not Require Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Behan, JW; Ehsanipour, EA; Sheng, X; Pramanik, R; Wang, Xingchao; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Kim, Yong-Mi; Mittelman, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages which infiltrate adipose tissue and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines may be responsible for obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, why macrophages migrate into adipose tissue and become activated remains unknown, though some studies suggest this may be regulated by T and B lymphocytes. In the present study, we test whether T and B lymphocytes and NK cells are necessary for the obesity-induced activation of macrophages in adipose tissue. NOD/SCID/IL2-receptor gamma-chain knockout (NSG) mice, which lack mature T and B lymphocytes and NK cells, were made obese by selectively reducing litters and weaning onto a high-fat diet. Mice were then maintained on the diet for 10-11 weeks. Adipose tissue from obese NSG mice had more activated macrophages than non-obese mice. These macrophages were found in “crown like structures” surrounding adipocytes, and expressed higher levels of the inflammatory cytokine TNF?. However, obesity did not impair glucose tolerance in the NSG mice. These studies demonstrate that T and B lymphocytes and NK cells are not necessary for adipose tissue macrophage activation in obese mice. T and B lymphocytes and/or NK cells may be necessary for the development of obesity-induced impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:23754826

  19. Regulation of lipolysis and leptin biosynthesis in rodent adipose tissue by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Fain, J N; Bahouth, S W

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of growth hormone (GH) on lipolysis and leptin release by cultured adipose tissue from rats and mice incubated for 24 hours in primary culture. A stimulation of leptin release by GH in rat adipose tissue was found in the presence of 25 nmol/L dexamethasone, and this was accompanied by a 28% increase in leptin mRNA content. GH stimulated lipolysis in rat adipose tissue in the presence of 0.1 nmol/L CL 316,243. In contrast, basal lipolysis in mouse adipose tissue was stimulated by GH, but this was not accompanied by an increase in leptin release. However, in the presence of insulin plus triiodothyronine (T3), the stimulation of lipolysis by GH was abolished and GH increased leptin release. These results indicate that GH can stimulate leptin release by both mouse and rat adipose tissue in the absence of a stimulation of lipolysis. In contrast, under conditions in which lipolysis is stimulated by GH, there is no effect on leptin release. PMID:10690952

  20. Involvement of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Immunological Modulation of Inflammatory Cascade in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Katsuhiko; Akasaka, Juria; Shigemitsu, Aiko; Tsunemi, Taihei; Koike, Natsuki; Yoshimoto, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is characterized by abnormal placentation, an exaggerated inflammatory response, and generalized dysfunction of the maternal endothelium. We investigated the effects of preeclampsia serum on the expression of inflammation-related genes by adipose tissue. Materials and Methods. Visceral adipose tissue was obtained from the omentum of patients with early ovarian cancer without metastasis. Adipose tissue was incubated with sera obtained from either five women affected with severe preeclampsia or five women from control pregnant women at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for 24 hours. 370 genes in total mRNA were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR (Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity gene set). Results. Gene expression analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of 30 genes in adipose tissue treated with preeclampsia sera. Some genes are related to immune response, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis, which plays a central role in excessive systemic inflammatory response of preeclampsia. In contrast, other genes have shown beneficial effects in the regulation of Th2 predominance, antioxidative stress, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion. In conclusion, visceral adipose tissue offers protection against inflammation, oxidative insults, and other forms of cellular stress that are central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26089598

  1. Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Schweiger, Ulrich; Pars, Kaweh; Kunikowska, Alicja; Deuschle, Michael; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Increased intra-abdominal (IAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) have been found in depression, and are discussed as potential mediating factors. IAT and PAT are thought to be the result of a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) with subsequent hypercortisolism. Therefore we examined adrenal gland volume as proxy marker for HPAA activation, and IAT and PAT in depressed patients. Twenty-seven depressed patients and 19 comparison subjects were included in this case-control study. Adrenal gland volume, pericardial, intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Further parameters included factors of the metabolic syndrome, fasting cortisol, fasting insulin, and proinflammatory cytokines. Adrenal gland and pericardial adipose tissue volumes, serum concentrations of cortisol and insulin, and serum concentrations tumor-necrosis factor-? were increased in depressed patients. Adrenal gland volume was positively correlated with intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue, but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our findings point to the role of HPAA dysregulation and hypercortisolism as potential mediators of IAT and PAT enlargement. Further studies are warranted to examine whether certain subtypes of depression are more prone to cardio-metabolic diseases. PMID:25935636

  2. Adipose-Tissue and Intestinal Inflammation – Visceral Obesity and Creeping Fat

    PubMed Central

    Kredel, Lea I.; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the main threats to health worldwide and therefore gained increasing clinical and economic significance as well as scientific attention. General adipose-tissue accumulation in obesity is associated with systemically increased pro-inflammatory mediators and humoral and cellular changes within this compartment. These adipose-tissue changes and their systemic consequences led to the concept of obesity as a chronic inflammatory state. A pathognomonic feature of Crohn’s disease (CD) is creeping fat (CF), a locally restricted hyperplasia of the mesenteric fat adjacent to the inflamed segments of the intestine. The precise role of this adipose-tissue and its mediators remains controversial, and ongoing work will have to define whether this compartment is protecting from or contributing to disease activity. This review aims to outline specific cellular changes within the adipose-tissue, occurring in either obesity or CF. Hence the potential impact of adipocytes and resident immune cells from the innate and adaptive immune system will be discussed for both diseases. The second part focuses on the impact of generalized adipose-tissue accumulation in obesity, respectively on the locally restricted form in CD, on intestinal inflammation and on the closely related integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:25309544

  3. Pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human adipose tissue from Northeast Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Holt; Sharon Cruse; E. S. Greer

    1986-01-01

    The persistent presence of organochlorine pesticides in the environment and their bioaccumulation in human adipose tissue has received much attention by researchers in recent years (Kilgore and Li 1973; Kutz et at. 1974, 1976a, b; Morgan and Roan 1971). This investigation is concerned with residue levels in human tissue in a heavily agricultural area such as the area of this

  4. Organochlorine residues in human adipose and hepatic tissues from autopsy sources in northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Gallelli; Simonetta Mangini; Claudio Gerbino

    1995-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds have been analyzed in human samples from residents of Genoa, a city in Northern Italy. Twenty?eight specimens of adipose tissue from 17 males and 11 females deceased from accidental causes in March and April 1989 were examined. In 12 of the 17 males, liver tissue specimens were also analyzed. DDE was the major organochlorine pesticide (OCP) found in

  5. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryang Hwa Lee; ByungChul Kim; IkSoo Choi; Hanna Kim; Hee Sun Choi; KeunTak Suh; Yong Chan Bae; Jin Sup Jung

    2004-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), that have been reported to be present in bone marrow, adipose tissues, dermis, muscles and peripheral blood, have the potential to differentiate along different lineages including those forming bone, cartilage, fat, muscle and neuron. This differentiation potential makes MSC excellent candidates for cell-based tissue engineering. In this study, we have examined phenotypes and gene expression

  6. Leptin in ruminants. Gene expression in adipose tissue and mammary gland, and regulation of plasma concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chilliard; M. Bonnet; C. Delavaud; Y. Faulconnier; C. Leroux; J. Djiane; F. Bocquier

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews data on leptin gene expression in adipose tissue (AT) and mammary gland of adult ruminants, as well as on plasma leptin variations, according to genetic, physiological, nutritional and environmental factors. AT leptin mRNA level was higher in sheep and goat subcutaneous than visceral tissues, and the opposite was observed in cattle; it was higher in fat than

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  8. Lipid Metabolism in Bovine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil 

    E-print Network

    Gang, Gyoung Ok

    2012-10-19

    acid composition in bovine tissue. St John et al. (1987) reported that a high-oleate rapeseed diet did not significantly change the fatty acid composition of bovine s.c. adipose tissue, even though rapeseed is regarded as less susceptible...

  9. Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue: Their Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BERNARDO LEO WAJCHENBERG

    2000-01-01

    Methods for assessment, e.g., anthropometric indicators and im- aging techniques, of several phenotypes of human obesity, with spe- cial reference to abdominal fat content, have been evaluated. The correlation of fat distribution with age, gender, total body fat, energy balance, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and lipolytic activity, adi- pose tissue receptors, and genetic characteristics are discussed. Sev- eral secreted or

  10. Adipose tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells attached to injectable PLGA spheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Suk Choi; Si-Nae Park; Hwal Suh

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of soft tissue defects remains a challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery, and a real clinical need exists for an adequate solution. This study was undertaken in order to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes, and to then assess the possibility of constructing adipose tissue via the attachment of MSCs to injectable PLGA spheres. We also designed

  11. Long chain saturated fatty acids increase haptoglobin gene expression in C57BL\\/6J mice adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allain Amador Bueno; Lila Missae Oyama; Caio Sussumu de Macedo Motoyama; Carolina Rodrigues da Silva Biz; Vera Lucia Silveira; Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro; Cláudia Maria Oller do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Background  Dietary lipids are directly related to the composition of adipose tissue, aetiology of obesity and arousal of obesity-related\\u000a pathologies, like chronic inflammation states. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein secreted by the liver and white adipose\\u000a tissue, and its blood levels vary according to the volume of fat in the body.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To investigate the effect of diets

  12. Depletion of White Adipose Tissue in Cancer Cachexia Syndrome Is Associated with Inflammatory Signaling and Disrupted Circadian Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsoli, Maria; Schweiger, Martina; Vanniasinghe, Anne S.; Painter, Arran; Zechner, Rudolf; Clarke, Stephen; Robertson, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary weight loss in patients with cancer is the hallmark of cancer cachexia. The etiology of cachexia is multifactorial involving loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue associated with high systemic levels of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines. While muscle wasting overtly impacts on cancer patient quality of life, loss of lipid depots represents a sustained energy imbalance. In this study fat depletion was examined in Colon-26 model of cancer cachexia, which is a widely used rodent model of this syndrome. We investigated diurnal expression of circadian rhythm regulators as well as key mediators of energy metabolism and cytokine signaling. Mice bearing the C26 tumour exhibited reduced adipose mass, elevated adipose tissue lipolysis and a 5-fold increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids. These changes were associated with activated IL-6 signaling in WAT through a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated STAT3 and high SOCS3 gene expression levels. In addition perturbations in circadian regulation of lipid metabolism were also observed. Lipid catabolism did not appear to be influenced by the classical PKA pathway activating the lipase HSL. ATGL protein levels were elevated 2-fold in cachectic mice while 4-fold increase phosphorylated ACC and a 2-fold decrease in phosphorylated 4EBP1 was observed indicating that lipid metabolism is modulated by the ATGL & AMPK/mTOR pathways. This study provides evidence for activation of cytokine signaling and concomitant alterations in circadian rhythm and regulators of lipid metabolism in WAT of cachectic animals. PMID:24667661

  13. Generation of embryonic stem cells from mouse adipose-tissue derived cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yiren; Qin, Jilong; Zhou, Chikai; Li, Jinsong; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-04-18

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs), or into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the "Yamanaka method." However, recent studies have indicated that mouse and human iPSCs are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations, and that NT-ESCs correspond more closely to ESCs derived from in vitro fertilized embryos than iPSCs. In addition, the procedure of NT-ESCs does not involve gene modification. Demonstration of generation of NT-ESCs using an easily-accessible source of adult cell types would be very important. Adipose tissue is a source of readily accessible donor cells and can be isolated from both males and females at different ages. Here we report that NT-ESCs can be generated from adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs). At morphological, mRNA and protein levels, these NT-ESCs show classic ESC colonies, exhibit alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and display normal diploid karyotypes. Importantly, these cells express pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and SSEA-1. Furthermore, they can differentiate in vivo into various types of cells from 3 germinal layers by teratoma formation assays. This study demonstrates for the first time that ESCs can be generated from the adipose tissue by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and suggests that ADCs can be a new donor-cell type for potential therapeutic cloning. PMID:25692793

  14. Little evidence of systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in overweight individuals†

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Charmaine S.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The effect of weight loss by diet alone or diet in conjunction with exercise on low-grade inflammation in non-obese (overweight) individuals is not known. Objective: Test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate calorie restriction (CR; 25%) by diet only or with aerobic exercise would reduce markers of systemic inflammation and attenuate inflammation gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Institutional Research Center. Participants: Thirty-five overweight (body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2) but otherwise healthy participants (16M/19F) completed the study. Intervention: Participants were randomized to either CR (25% reduction in energy intake, n = 12), caloric restriction + exercise (CR + EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake + 12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n = 12), or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n = 11) for 6 months. Main outcome measures: Fasting serum markers of inflammation [leptin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), adiponectin] and inflammation-related genes [CD68, IL-6, TNF-?, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)] in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results: CR and CR + EX lost similar amounts of body weight (–10 ± 1%), fat mass (–24 ± 3%), visceral fat (–27 ± 3%), and had increased insulin sensitivity (CR: 40 ± 20%, CR + EX: 66 ± 22%). Leptin was significantly decreased from baseline (p < 0.001) in both groups however TNF-? and IL-6 were not changed. hsCRP was decreased in CR + EX. There was no change in the expression of genes involved in macrophage infiltration (CD68, MIF MCP-1, PAI-1) or inflammation (IL-6, TNF-?, adiponectin) in either CR or CR + EX. Conclusion: A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact markers of systemic inflammation or the expression of inflammation-related adipose genes in overweight individuals. PMID:22529850

  15. Feeding feedlot steers fish oil alters the fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, T J; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Rule, D C

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen steers (441±31.7kg initial body weight) consumed two high concentrate diets with either 0 or 3% fish oil to determine the impact of fish oil, an omega-3 fatty acid source, on the fatty acid composition of beef carcasses. Collected tissue samples included the Longissimus thoracis from the 6th to 7th rib section, ground 10th to 12th rib, liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to the 12th rib, intramuscular adipose tissue in the 6th to 7th rib sections, perirenal adipose tissue, and brisket adipose tissue. Including fish oil in the diet increased most of the saturated fatty acids (P<0.01) and proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.06), and decreased (P<0.01) proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fish oil increased (P<0.01) levels of omega-3 fatty acids in sampled tissues, resulting in lower (P<0.01) omega-6:omega-3 ratios. The weight percentages of C20:5 and C22:6 in tissue may provide the recommended daily allowance for humans. Fish oil may have a role in beef niche marketing if there are no deleterious effects on consumer satisfaction. PMID:22061591

  16. Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

  17. Expression and Regulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart M. De Taeye; Christophe Morisseau; Julie Coyle; Joseph W. Covington; Ayala Luria; Jun Yang; Sheila B. Murphy; David B. Friedman; Bruce B. Hammock; Douglas E. Vaughan

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important public health issue reaching epidemic proportions. Visceral obesity has been defined as an important element of the metabolic syndrome and expansion of the visceral fat mass has been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. To identify novel contributors to cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in obesity, we analyzed the adipose

  18. Serglycin is a novel adipocytokine highly expressed in epicardial adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ogata, Takehiro; Adachi, Atsuo; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2013-03-01

    Much recent work has highlighted the key role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ that secretes a number of adipocytokines, linking adiposity, especially intra-abdominal visceral fat, and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), another important visceral fat depot situated in close proximity to epicardial coronary arteries and myocardium, has been less well studied. In this study, we sought to characterize EAT by comparing gene expression profiles of EAT, omental adipose tissue (OAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) in patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery for critical coronary artery disease (CAD) and identify molecules involved in inflammation. A total of 15,304 probes were detected in all depots, and 231 probes were differentially expressed. Significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as interleukin-1?, -6, and -8, and chemokine receptor 2 was observed in EAT, even when compared with OAT. Among them, serglycin was one of the most abundantly expressed genes in EAT. Serglycin expression was induced during adipocytic differentiation of 3T3L1 cells. Serglycin was secreted from adipocytes, and tumor necrosis factor-? stimulated its expression and secretion in adipocytes. Serglycin was also present in human serum samples. These results suggest that human EAT has strong inflammatory properties in patients with CAD and provide novel evidence that serglycin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in EAT. PMID:23376071

  19. What's the matter with MAT? Marrow adipose tissue, metabolism, and skeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Erica L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is functionally distinct from both white and brown adipose tissue and can contribute to systemic and skeletal metabolism. MAT formation is a spatially and temporally defined developmental event, suggesting that MAT is an organ that serves important functions and, like other organs, can undergo pathologic change. The well-documented inverse relationship between MAT and bone mineral density has been interpreted to mean that MAT removal is a possible therapeutic target for osteoporosis. However, the bone and metabolic phenotypes of patients with lipodystrophy argues that retention of MAT may actually be beneficial in some circumstances. Furthermore, MAT may exist in two forms, regulated and constitutive, with divergent responses to hematopoietic and nutritional demands. In this review, we discuss the role of MAT in lipodystrophy, bone loss, and metabolism, and highlight our current understanding of this unique adipose tissue depot. PMID:24650218

  20. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Timper, Katharina [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Seboek, Dalma [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Eberhardt, Michael [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Linscheid, Philippe [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, Mirjam [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Keller, Ulrich [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, Beat [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Zulewski, Henryk [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland) and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

    2006-03-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

  1. Morphological Changes in Paraurethral Area after Introduction of Tissue Engineering Construct on the Basis of Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Makarov; I. V. Arutyunyan; G. B. Bol’shakova; A. V. Volkov; D. V. Gol’dshtein

    2009-01-01

    We studied morphological changes in the paraurethral area of Wistar rats after introduction of tissue engineering constructs\\u000a on the basis of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and gelatin sponge. The tissue engineering construct containing autologous\\u000a culture of the stromal fraction of the adipose tissue was most effective. After introduction of this construct we observed\\u000a more rapid degradation of the construct matrix

  2. Molecular inflammation and adipose tissue matrix remodeling precede physiological adaptations to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Resi, Veronica; Basu, Subhabrata; Haghiac, Maricela; Presley, Larraine; Minium, Judi; Kaufman, Bram; Bernard, Steven; Catalano, Patrick; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Changes in adipose tissue metabolism are central to adaptation of whole body energy homeostasis to pregnancy. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms supporting tissue remodeling, we have characterized the longitudinal changes of the adipose transcriptome in human pregnancy. Healthy nonobese women recruited pregravid were followed in early (8-12 wk) and in late (36-38 wk) pregnancy. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained in the fasting state from the gluteal depot. The adipose transcriptome was examined via whole genome DNA microarray. Expression of immune-related genes and extracellular matrix components was measured using real-time RT-PCR. Adipose mass, adipocyte size, and cell number increased in late pregnancy compared with pregravid measurements (P < 0.001) but remained unchanged in early pregnancy. The adipose transcriptome evolved during pregnancy with 10-15% of genes being differently expressed compared with pregravid. Functional gene cluster analysis revealed that the early molecular changes affected immune responses, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and lipid biosynthesis. Increased expression of macrophage markers (CD68, CD14, and the mannose-6 phosphate receptor) emphasized the recruitment of the immune network in both early and late pregnancy. The TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway was enhanced specifically in relation to inflammatory adipokines and chemokines genes. We conclude that early recruitment of metabolic and immune molecular networks precedes the appearance of pregnancy-related physiological changes in adipose tissue. This biphasic pattern suggests that physiological inflammation is an early step preceding the development of insulin resistance, which peaks in late pregnancy. PMID:22811467

  3. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaobin Xu; Xiaohua Xu; Mianhua Zhong; Ian P Hotchkiss; Ryan P Lewandowski; James G Wagner; Lori A Bramble; Yifeng Yang; Aixia Wang; Jack R Harkema; Morton Lippmann; Sanjay Rajagopalan; Lung-Chi Chen; Qinghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background  Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose\\u000a tissue and its mitochondrial content\\/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant\\u000a metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots\\u000a in response to chronic ambient air pollutant

  4. Omental and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues of Obese Subjects Release Interleukin6: Depot Difference and Regulation by Glucocorticoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN K. FRIED; DOVE A. BUNKIN; ANDREW S. GREENBERG

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether human adi- pocytes from different depots of obese subjects produce interleukin-6 (IL-6) and whether IL-6 release is regulated by glucocorticoids. Frag- ments of omental and abdominal sc adipose tissue released immu- nodetectable IL-6 into the medium during acute incubations. Omental adipose tissue released 2-3 times more IL-6 than did sc adipose

  5. Persistence of Coxiella burnetii, the Agent of Q Fever, in Murine Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bechah, Yassina; Verneau, Johanna; Ben Amara, Amira; Barry, Abdoulaye O.; Lépolard, Catherine; Achard, Vincent; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Textoris, Julien; Capo, Christian; Ghigo, Eric; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is known to persist in humans and rodents but its cellular reservoir in hosts remains undetermined. We hypothesized that adipose tissue serves as a C. burnetii reservoir during bacterial latency. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected with C. burnetii by the intraperitoneal route or the intracheal route. Adipose tissue was tested for the presence of C. burnetii several months after infection. C. burnetii was detected in abdominal, inguinal and dorsal adipose tissue 4 months post-infection, when no bacteria were detected in blood, liver, lungs and spleen, regardless of the inoculation route and independently of mouse strain. The transfer of abdominal adipose tissue from convalescent BALB/c mice to naïve immunodeficient mice resulted in the infection of the recipient animals. It is likely that C. burnetii infects adipocytes in vivo because bacteria were found in adipocytes within adipose tissue and replicated within in vitro-differentiated adipocytes. In addition, C. burnetii induced a specific transcriptional program in in-vivo and in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, which was enriched in categories associated with inflammatory response, hormone response and cytoskeleton. These changes may account for bacterial replication in in-vitro and chronic infection in-vivo. Adipose tissue may be the reservoir in which C. burnetii persists for prolonged periods after apparent clinical cure. The mouse model of C. burnetii infection may be used to understand the relapses of Q fever and provide new perspectives to the follow-up of patients. PMID:24835240

  6. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E; Galbo, H

    1997-01-01

    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans during intravenous adrenaline infusion for three 35 min periods with 30 min breaks in between. Local blood flow, interstitial adrenaline and arterial glycerol concentrations were also measured. Adrenaline was infused to result in either a high, a low and a high arterial concentration (5.8, 3.1 and 5.6 nM, respectively) or a low, a high and a low concentration (2.5, 4.6 and 2.6 nM, respectively) in order to examine both desensitization and the dose dependency of adipose tissue lipolysis to adrenaline. 3. Adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated and was found to vary directly with arterial adrenaline concentration. However, lipolytic responses to adrenaline decreased markedly during repeated stimulation at a given concentration. Further, arterial glycerol and free fatty acid concentrations varied directly with arterial adrenaline concentrations and showed reduced responses upon repeated exposure. 4. The increase in adipose tissue blood flow in response to adrenaline was also reduced by prior adrenaline exposure, but no consistent desensitization could be demonstrated for whole-body energy expenditure, blood pressure and heart rate. 5. In the basal state, arterial plasma and interstitial adrenaline concentrations did not differ. During perturbations of arterial adrenaline concentrations, changes in interstitial concentrations were highly reproducible but smaller than changes in arterial concentrations. 6. In conclusion, in vivo adrenaline-mediated adipose tissue lipolysis and blood flow increments are desensitized by prior adrenaline exposure. PMID:9097951

  7. Depot-specific prostaglandin synthesis in human adipose tissue: a novel possible mechanism of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quinkler, Marcus; Bujalska, Iwona J; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Smith, Dave M; Stewart, Paul M

    2006-10-01

    Despite the magnitude of the obesity epidemic, the mechanisms that contribute to increases in fat mass and to differences in fat depots are still poorly understood. Prostanoids have been proposed as potent adipogenic hormones, e.g. metabolites of prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) bind and activate PPARgamma. We hypothesize that an altered expression of enzymes in PGJ2 synthesis may represent a novel pathogenic mechanism in human obesity. We characterized adipose depot-specific expression of enzymes in PGJ2 synthesis, prostaglandin transporter and PPARgamma isoforms. Paired omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained from 26 women undergoing elective abdominal surgery and gene expression examined in whole tissue and cultured preadipocytes using an Affymetrix cDNA microarray technique and validated with quantitative real-time PCR. All enzymes involved in prostaglandin synthesis were expressed in both adipose tissues. Expression of prostaglandin synthase-1 (PGHS1), prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), human prostaglandin transporter (hPGT) and PPARgamma2 was higher in OM adipose tissue compared to SC, whereas 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 5 (AKR1C3) showed predominance in SC adipose tissue. In SC adipose tissue, PGHS1 mRNA expression increased with BMI. The differential, depot-specific expression of key enzymes involved in transport, synthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins may have an important impact upon fat cell biology and may help to explain some of the observed depot-specific differences. In addition, the positive correlation between PGHS1 and BMI offers the novel hypothesis that the regulation of PG synthesis may have a role in determining fat distribution in human obesity. PMID:16842938

  8. Effects of rosiglitazone on gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Kannisto, Katja; Korsheninnikova, Elena; Fisher, Rachel M; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Nyman, Tuulikki; Virkamäki, Antti; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Vidal, Hubert; Hamsten, Anders; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2004-06-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients but is associated with severe adverse events, such as lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. Rosiglitazone did not increase subcutaneous fat in patients with HAART-associated lipodystrophy (HAL) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, although it attenuated insulin resistance and decreased liver fat content. The aim of this study was to examine effects of rosiglitazone on gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in 30 patients with HAL. The mRNA concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured using real-time PCR. Twenty-four-week treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/day) compared with placebo significantly increased the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), and PPARgamma coactivator 1 and decreased IL-6 expression. Expression of other genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, or glucose transport, such as acyl-CoA synthase, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, CD45, fatty acid transport protein-1 and -4, GLUT1, GLUT4, keratinocyte lipid-binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, PPARdelta, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, remained unchanged. Rosiglitazone also significantly increased serum adiponectin concentration. The change in serum adiponectin concentration was inversely correlated with the change in fasting serum insulin concentration and liver fat content. In conclusion, rosiglitazone induced significant changes in gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue and ameliorated insulin resistance in patients with HAL. Increased expression of adiponectin might have mediated most of the favorable insulin-sensitizing effects of rosiglitazone in these patients. PMID:14749206

  9. Gold Nanoparticle-assisted Selective Photothermolysis of Adipose Tissue (NanoLipo)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wangzhong; Alhasan, Ali H.; DiBernardo, Gabriella; Rubin, J. Peter; DiBernardo, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional suction-assisted lipectomy (SAL) often results in contour irregularity. Selective photothermal heating of adipose tissue by polymer-coated gold nanorods energized by an external near-infrared exposure at 800 nm is introduced in this work to facilitate fat removal. Methods: The effects of NanoLipo were examined in food-grade porcine abdominal tissue (skin, fat, and fascia) by histology. The efficacy of NanoLipo was compared with that of conventional SAL in vivo in Yucatan mini pigs by quantification of removed subcutaneous tissue and fatty acids and ultrasound measurement of adipose layer thickness. Results: NanoLipo led to the appearance of disruptions in adipose tissue that were not apparent in control groups in ex vivo samples. NanoLipo allowed removal of more subcutaneous tissue (~33% vs ~25% of removed material, P < 0.05) and approximately twice as much free fatty acids (~60% vs ~30% of removed tissue, P < 0.05) in comparison with conventional SAL. Most importantly, NanoLipo led to a greater decrease in adipose layer thickness at 1 month post surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusions: NanoLipo facilitates removal of a greater quantity of fat and requires less suction time (4 vs 10 minutes) than conventional SAL. As the safety of poly(ethylene-glycol)-coated gold nanorods is well-established, a clinical trial is currently being organized. PMID:25587517

  10. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504150

  11. A method for long-term live imaging of tissue macrophages in adipose tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Martin; Weyer, Ulrike; Braune, Julia; Bechmann, Ingo; Eilers, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation within adipose tissue (AT). Although classical signs of inflammation are missing in AT inflammation, there is a significant increase in macrophages and, to a lesser extent, other immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, mast cells, and neutrophils. The spatial and temporal activation of these cells as well as their accumulation in the AT seem to be tightly linked to so-called crown-like structures (CLS). CLS are accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) around dead adipocytes and are thought to reflect a scavenger response. At present, data on the life cycle of CLS are missing. To better understand the cellular events underlying AT inflammation, we developed an approach that allows long-term imaging of ATMs, adipocytes, and CLS within live AT explants. We tested three putative reporter mouse lines for myeloid cells in regard to their suitability for live imaging. Thereby, we identified ATMs from CSF1R-eGFP mice to exhibit the most robust expression of eGFP. AT explants from these mice allowed stable live imaging for more than 7 days without significant phototoxicity. Long-term imaging thus revealed the accumulation of ATMs around dying adipocytes, migration of ATMs within AT, and also the degradation of the lipid remnants of perishing adipocytes. The observed behavior of ATMs in the context of AT inflammation is in line with previous studies but for the first time provides data on the specific behavior of individual ATMs and on the life cycle of CLS with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. PMID:25874903

  12. Bisphenol-A and chlorinated derivatives in adipose tissue of women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Fernandez; J. P. Arrebola; J. Taoufiki; A. Navalón; O. Ballesteros; R. Pulgar; J. L. Vilchez; N. Olea

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA) were investigated in adipose tissue of women in Southeast Spain. BPA was above limit of detection (LOD) in 11 out of 20 samples (55%). Among ClxBPA, Cl2BPA was the most frequent (80%) and abundant, constituting 94.6% of total chlorinated BPA in adipose tissue. Mean±S.D. of BPA, monochloro-BPA (ClBPA), dichloro-BPA (Cl2BPA), and trichloro-BPA (Cl3BPA) were

  13. Distinct Stem Cells Subpopulations Isolated from Human Adipose Tissue Exhibit Different Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommaso Rada; Rui L. Reis; Manuela E. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Recently adipose tissue has become a research topic also for the\\u000d\\u000a searching for an alternative stem cells source to use in cell based\\u000d\\u000a therapies such as tissue engineer. In fact Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs)\\u000d\\u000a exhibit an important differentiation potential for several cell lineages\\u000d\\u000a such as chondrogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, adipogenic and endothelial\\u000d\\u000a cells. ASCs populations isolated using standard methodologies (i.e.,\\u000d\\u000a based

  14. Comparison of Osteogenic Ability of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Periosteum, and Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ousuke Hayashi; Yoshihiro Katsube; Motohiro Hirose; Hajime Ohgushi; Hiromoto Ito

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in many types of tissue and are able to differentiate into various functional cells including\\u000a osteoblasts. Recently, adipose tissue–derived MSCs (AMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into many lineages, and they are\\u000a considered a source for tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenic differentiation capability\\u000a of MSCs from bone marrow

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Adipose Tissue as Potential Angiogenic Cell Sources for Bladder Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liuhua; Xia, Jiadong; Qiu, Xuefeng; Wang, Pengji; Jia, Ruipeng; Chen, Yun; Yang, Bin; Dai, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    Autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might be alternative angiogenic cell sources for vascularization of tissue-engineered bladder, while isolation and culture of EPCs from peripheral blood in adult are usually time-consuming and highly inefficient. Recent evidence has shown that EPCs also exist in the adipose tissue. As adipose tissue is plentiful in the human body and can be easily harvested through a minimally invasive method, the aim of this study was to culture and characterize EPCs from adipose tissue (ADEPCs) and investigate their potential for the neovascularization of tissue-engineered bladder. Adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) was isolated and used for the culture of ADEPCs and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). After SVF was cultured for one week, ADEPCs with typical cobblestone morphology emerged and could be isolated from ADSCs according to their different responses to trypsinization. Rat bladder smooth muscle cells (RBSMCs) were isolated and cultured from rat bladder. RBSMCs exhibited typical spindle-shaped morphology. ADEPCs had higher proliferative potential than ADSCs and RBSMCs. ADEPCs stained positive for CD34, Stro-1, VEGFR-2, eNOS and CD31 but negative for ?-SMA, CD14 and CD45. ADSCs stained positive for CD34, Stro-1 and ?-SMA but negative for VEGFR-2, eNOS, CD31, CD14 and CD45. RBSMCs stained only positive for ?-SMA. ADEPCs could be expanded from a single cell at an early passage to a cell cluster containing more than 10,000 cells. ADEPCs were able to uptake DiI-Ac-LDL, bind UEA-1 and form capillary-like structures in three-dimensional scaffolds (Matrigel and bladder acellular matrix). ADEPCs were also able to enhance the human umbilical vein endothelial cells’ capability of capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel. Additionally, significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein of vascular endothelial growth factor were found in ADEPCs than in RBSMCs. These results suggest the potential use of ADEPCs as angiogenic cell sources for engineering bladder tissue. PMID:25706311

  16. Sexual dimorphism of adipose tissue distribution across the lifespan: a cross-sectional whole-body magnetic resonance imaging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Shen; Mark Punyanitya; Analiza M Silva; Jun Chen; Dympna Gallagher; Luís B Sardinha; David B Allison; Steven B Heymsfield

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite increasing research and clinical significance, limited information is available on how the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) compartments develop during growth and maturation and then vary in volume across the adult lifespan. The present study aimed at exploring how adipose tissue compartments partition across the lifespan. METHODS: Total body VAT and SAT were quantified in

  17. A mathematical relationship between the fatty acid composition of the diet and that of the adipose tissue in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Beynen; R. J. J. Hermus; J. G. A. J. Hautvast

    1980-01-01

    Based on literature data, the hypothesis is advanced that in human subjects a direct mathematical relationship exists between the average fatty acid composition of the habitual diet and that of the lipid stores of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Since the half-life of adipose tissue fatty acids in man is in the order of 600 days, the fatty acid pattern of depot

  18. Afferent signals from leptin sensors in the white adipose tissue of the epididymis, and their reflex effect in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Niijima

    1998-01-01

    Afferent nerve signals were recorded from a peripheral cut end of the small nerve bundle innervating the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the epididymis in the anesthetized rat. An injection of leptin (2 ng, 0.2 ml) into the white adipose tissue facilitated the afferent activity. The response was dose dependent and the least effective dose was 100 pg (0.1 ml).

  19. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  20. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  1. The role of estrogen in adipose tissue metabolism: insights into glucose homeostasis regulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Young Jun

    2014-11-28

    Adipose tissue is an organ with active endocrine function involved in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis via multiple metabolic signaling pathways targeting the brain, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and other organs. There is increasing evidence demonstrating that the female sex hormone, estrogen, regulates adipose development and improves systemic glucose homeostasis in both males and females. The underlying mechanism linking estrogenic regulation in adipose tissue and systemic glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated, but is thought to include interactions of estrogen receptor signaling events involving lipolytic and/or lipogenic enzyme activity, free fatty acid metabolism, and adipocytokine production. Thus, understanding the effects of estrogen replacement on adipose tissue biology and metabolism is important in determining the risk of developing obesity-related metabolic disorders in patients undergoing treatment for sex hormone deficiency. In this report, we review literature regarding the role of estrogens and their corresponding receptors in the control of adipose metabolism and glucose homeostasis in both rodents and humans. We also discuss the effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators on glucose metabolism. PMID:25109846

  2. Noninvasive Metabolic Imaging of Engineered 3D Human Adipose Tissue in a Perfusion Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Quinn, Kyle P.; Bellas, Evangelia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and economy of most in vitro human models used in research is limited by the lack of a physiologically-relevant three-dimensional perfused environment and the inability to noninvasively quantify the structural and biochemical characteristics of the tissue. The goal of this project was to develop a perfusion bioreactor system compatible with two-photon imaging to noninvasively assess tissue engineered human adipose tissue structure and function in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) vascularized human adipose tissues were engineered in vitro, before being introduced to a perfusion environment and tracked over time by automated quantification of endogenous markers of metabolism using two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Depth-resolved image stacks were analyzed for redox ratio metabolic profiling and compared to prior analyses performed on 3D engineered adipose tissue in static culture. Traditional assessments with H&E staining were used to qualitatively measure extracellular matrix generation and cell density with respect to location within the tissue. The distribution of cells within the tissue and average cellular redox ratios were different between static and perfusion cultures, while the trends of decreased redox ratio and increased cellular proliferation with time in both static and perfusion cultures were similar. These results establish a basis for noninvasive optical tracking of tissue structure and function in vitro, which can be applied to future studies to assess tissue development or drug toxicity screening and disease progression. PMID:23405199

  3. Secretion of adipokines by human adipose tissue in vivo: partitioning between capillary and lymphatic transport.

    PubMed

    Miller, Norman E; Michel, C Charles; Nanjee, M Nazeem; Olszewski, Waldemar L; Miller, Irina P; Hazell, Matthew; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Sutton, Pauline; Humphreys, Sandy M; Frayn, Keith N

    2011-10-01

    Peptides secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines) may enter blood via capillaries or lymph. The relative importance of these pathways for a given adipokine might influence its biological effects. Because this has not been studied in any species, we measured the concentrations of seven adipokines and eight nonsecreted proteins in afferent peripheral lymph and venous plasma from 12 healthy men. Data for nonsecreted proteins were used to derive indices of microvascular permeability, which in conjunction with the molecular radii of the adipokines were used to estimate the amounts leaving the tissue via capillaries. Transport rates via lymph were estimated from the lymph adipokine concentrations and lymph flow rates and total transport (secretion) as the sum of this and capillary transport. Concentrations of nonsecreted proteins were always lower in lymph than in plasma. With the exception of adiponectin, adipokine concentrations were always higher in lymph (P < 0.01). Leptin and MCP-1 were secreted at the highest rates (means: 43 ?g/h or 2.7 nmol/h and 32 ?g/h or 2.4 nmol/h, respectively). IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion rates varied greatly between subjects. The proportion of an adipokine transported via lymph was directly related to its molecular radius (r(s) = +0.94, P = 0.025, n = 6), increasing from 14 to 100% as the radius increased from 1.18 (IL-8) to 3.24 nm (TNF?). We conclude that the lymph/capillary partitioning of adipokines is a function of molecular size, which may affect both their regional and systemic effects in vivo. This finding may have implications for the physiology of peptides secreted by other tissues. PMID:21750269

  4. P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Regulates Adhesive Properties of the Endothelium and Leukocyte Trafficking into Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Hana M.; Wickenheiser, Kevin J.; Luo, Wei; Öhman, Miina K.; Franchi, Luigi; Wright, Andrew P.; Bodary, Peter F; Núñez, Gabriel; Eitzman, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes affect leukocyte trafficking in adipose tissue. The role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (Psgl-1) in this process is unclear. Objective The goal of this study was to determine the effect of Psgl-1 deficiency on adhesive properties of the endothelium and on leukocyte recruitment into obese adipose depots. Methods and Results A genetic model of obesity was generated to study the effects of Psgl-1 deficiency on leukocyte trafficking. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were increased in obese leptin receptor mutant mice (Lepr db/db,Psgl-1+/+), but not obese, Psgl-1 deficient mice (Lepr db/db,Psgl-1?/?), when compared to lean mice (Lepr +/+,Psgl-1+/+). This effect of Psgl-1 deficiency was due to indirect effects of Psgl-1, since Psgl-1+/+ adoptively transferred leukocytes did not exhibit enhanced rolling in Lepr db/db,Psgl-1?/? mice. Additionally, circulating levels of P-selectin, E-selectin, Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage content of visceral adipose tissue were reduced in Leprdb/db,Psgl-1?/? compared to Leprdb/db,Psgl-1+/+ mice. Reduced leukocyte-endothelial interactions and macrophage content of visceral adipose tissue due to Psgl-1 deficiency was also observed in a diet-induced obese mouse model. Psgl-1?/? mice were resistant to the endothelial effects of exogenous IL-1?, suggesting that defective cytokine signaling contributes to the effect of Psgl-1 deficiency on leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor also had reduced levels of circulating P-selectin, similar to those observed in Psgl-1?/? mice. Conclusions Deficiency of Psgl-1 is associated with reduced IL-1 receptor-mediated adhesive properties of the endothelium and is protective against visceral fat inflammation in obese mice. PMID:20558823

  5. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Angel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-07-15

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19470778

  6. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Ángel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19470778

  7. BMP8B Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis through Both Central and Peripheral Actions

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Carobbio, Stefania; Martins, Luís; Slawik, Marc; Hondares, Elayne; Vázquez, María Jesús; Morgan, Donald; Csikasz, Robert I.; Gallego, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Dale, Martin; Virtue, Samuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Cannon, Barbara; Rahmouni, Kamal; López, Miguel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is fundamental to energy balance and is also relevant for humans. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate adipogenesis, and, here, we describe a role for BMP8B in the direct regulation of thermogenesis. BMP8B is induced by nutritional and thermogenic factors in mature BAT, increasing the response to noradrenaline through enhanced p38MAPK/CREB signaling and increased lipase activity. Bmp8b?/? mice exhibit impaired thermogenesis and reduced metabolic rate, causing weight gain despite hypophagia. BMP8B is also expressed in the hypothalamus, and Bmp8b?/? mice display altered neuropeptide levels and reduced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), indicating an anorexigenic state. Central BMP8B treatment increased sympathetic activation of BAT, dependent on the status of AMPK in key hypothalamic nuclei. Our results indicate that BMP8B is a thermogenic protein that regulates energy balance in partnership with hypothalamic AMPK. BMP8B may offer a mechanism to specifically increase energy dissipation by BAT. PMID:22579288

  8. Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja-Young; van de Wall, Esther; Laplante, Mathieu; Azzara, Anthony; Trujillo, Maria E.; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Schraw, Todd; Durand, Jorge L.; Li, Hua; Li, Guangyu; Jelicks, Linda A.; Mehler, Mark F.; Hui, David Y.; Deshaies, Yves; Shulman, Gerald I.; Schwartz, Gary J.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2007-01-01

    Excess caloric intake can lead to insulin resistance. The underlying reasons are complex but likely related to ectopic lipid deposition in nonadipose tissue. We hypothesized that the inability to appropriately expand subcutaneous adipose tissue may be an underlying reason for insulin resistance and ? cell failure. Mice lacking leptin while overexpressing adiponectin showed normalized glucose and insulin levels and dramatically improved glucose as well as positively affected serum triglyceride levels. Therefore, modestly increasing the levels of circulating full-length adiponectin completely rescued the diabetic phenotype in ob/ob mice. They displayed increased expression of PPAR? target genes and a reduction in macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. As a result, the transgenic mice were morbidly obese, with significantly higher levels of adipose tissue than their ob/ob littermates, leading to an interesting dichotomy of increased fat mass associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Based on these data, we propose that adiponectin acts as a peripheral “starvation” signal promoting the storage of triglycerides preferentially in adipose tissue. As a consequence, reduced triglyceride levels in the liver and muscle convey improved systemic insulin sensitivity. These mice therefore represent what we believe is a novel model of morbid obesity associated with an improved metabolic profile. PMID:17717599

  9. Browning of White Adipose Tissue Uncouples Glucose Uptake from Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mössenböck, Karin; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Rose, Adam J.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Herzig, Stephan; Schafmeier, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Presence of thermogenically active adipose tissue in adult humans has been inversely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. While it had been shown that insulin is crucial for the development of classical brown fat, its role in development and function of inducible brown-in-white (brite) adipose tissue is less clear. Here we show that insulin deficiency impaired differentiation of brite adipocytes. However, adrenergic stimulation almost fully induced the thermogenic program under these settings. Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Notably, in line with the insulin-independent stimulation of glucose uptake, our data revealed that brite recruitment results in induction of solute carrier family 2 (GLUT-1) expression in adipocytes and inguinal WAT. These results for the first time demonstrate that insulin signaling is neither essential for brite recruitment, nor is it improved in cells or tissues upon browning. PMID:25313899

  10. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Michael D; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Kanosky, Kayla M; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott

    2014-05-15

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P < 0.05) compared with lean pigs. RNA-seq revealed a 37% increase in the total transcript number in the OMAT of obese pigs. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed transcripts in obese OMAT were primarily enriched in the following categories: 1) development, 2) cellular function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity. PMID:24642759

  11. Fat-reducing effects of dehydroepiandrosterone involve upregulation of ATGL and HSL expression, and stimulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reduces body fat in rodents and humans, and increases glycerol release from isolated rat epididymal adipocytes and human visceral adipose tissue explants. It suggests that DHEA stimulates triglyceride hydrolysis in adipose tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unclear. We examined the effects of DHEA on the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the key enzymes of lipolysis, in rat epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% DHEA for 2 weeks and eWAT was analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of ATGL and HSL, as well as mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? 2 (PPAR?2) and its downstream target fatty acid translocase (FAT). Glycerol release from eWAT explants and serum free fatty acids (FFA) were also measured. Rats that received DHEA gained less weight, had 23% lower eWAT mass and 31% higher serum FFA levels than controls. Cultured explants of eWAT from DHEA-treated rats released 81% more glycerol than those from control rats. DHEA administration upregulated ATGL mRNA (1.62-fold, P<0.05) and protein (1.78-fold, P<0.05) expression as well as augmented HSL mRNA levels (1.36-fold, P<0.05) and Ser660 phosphorylation of HSL (2.49-fold, P<0.05). PPAR?2 and FAT mRNA levels were also increased in DHEA-treated rats (1.61-fold, P<0.05 and 2.16-fold, P<0.05; respectively). Moreover, ATGL, HSL, and FAT mRNA levels were positively correlated with PPAR?2 expression. This study demonstrates that DHEA promotes lipid mobilization in adipose tissue by increasing the expression and activity of ATGL and HSL. The effects of DHEA appear to be mediated, at least in part, via PPAR?2 activation, which in turn upregulates ATGL and HSL gene expression. PMID:22951290

  12. Adipose tissue-resident regulatory T cells: phenotypic specialization, functions and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Foxp3(+)  CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, recognized to be one of the most important defences of the human body against an inappropriate immune response, have recently gained attention from those outside immunology thanks to the compelling evidence for their capability to exert non-canonical immune functions in a variety of tissues in health and disease. The recent discovery of the differences between tissue-resident Treg cells and those derived from lymphoid organs is affecting the mindset of many investigators now questioning the broad applicability of observations originally based on peripheral blood/lymphoid organ cells. So far, the best characterized 'Treg flavour' comes from studies focused on their role in suppressing adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-driven insulin resistance. Adipose tissue derived Treg cells are distinct from their counterparts in lymphoid organs based on their transcriptional profile, T-cell receptor repertoire, and cytokine and chemokine receptor expression pattern. These cells are abundant in visceral adipose tissue of lean mice but their number is greatly reduced in insulin-resistant animal models of obesity. Interestingly, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? expression by visceral adipose tissue Treg cells is crucial for their accumulation, phenotype and function in the fat and surprisingly necessary for complete restoration of insulin sensitivity in obese mice by the anti-diabetic drug Pioglitazone. This review surveys recent findings relating to the unique phenotype and function of adipose tissue-resident Treg cells, speculates on the nature of their dynamics in lean and obese mouse models, and analyses their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24484282

  13. The influence of deep hypothermia on inflammatory status, tissue hypoxia and endocrine function of adipose tissue during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Drapalova, Jana; Kopecky, Petr; Bartlova, Marketa; Lacinova, Zdena; Novak, Daniel; Maruna, Pavel; Lips, Michal; Mraz, Milos; Lindner, Jaroslav; Haluzik, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Changes in endocrine function of adipose tissue during surgery, such as excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, can significantly alter metabolic response to surgery and worsen its outcomes and prognosis of patients. Therapeutic hypothermia has been used to prevent damage connected with perioperative ischemia and hypoperfusion. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of deep hypothermia on systemic and local inflammation, adipose tissue hypoxia and adipocytokine production. We compared serum concentrations of proinflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, IL-8, sIL-2R, sTNFRI, PCT) and mRNA expression of selected genes involved in inflammatory reactions (IL-6, TNF-?, MCP-1, MIF) and adaptation to hypoxia and oxidative stress (HIF1-?, MT3, GLUT1, IRS1, GPX1, BCL-2) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and in isolated adipocytes of patients undergoing cardiosurgical operation with hypothermic period. Deep hypothermia significantly delayed the onset of surgery-related systemic inflammatory response. The relative gene expression of the studied genes was not altered during the hypothermic period, but was significantly changed in six out of ten studied genes (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-?, HIF1-?, GLUT1, GPX1) at the end of surgery. Our results show that deep hypothermia suppresses the development of systemic inflammatory response, delays the onset of local adipose tissue inflammation and thus may protect against excessive expression of proinflammatory and hypoxia-related factors in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery procedure. PMID:24548542

  14. Adipose and Muscle Tissue Gene Expression of Two Genes (NCAPG and LCORL) Located in a Chromosomal Region Associated with Cattle Feed Intake and Gain

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Oliver, William T.; Sexten, Andrea K.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Cushman, Robert A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P?=?0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r?=?0.26; P?=?0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P?=?0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P?=?0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues. PMID:24278337

  15. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNF? reduced EBF1 gene expression. High fat diet-intervention in Ebf1+/? mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance. PMID:24856929

  16. Increased uncoupling protein2 mRNA in white adipose tissue, and decrease in leptin, visceral fat, blood glucose, and cholesterol in KK-Ay mice fed with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in addition to linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Hun, C S; Hasegawa, K; Kawabata, T; Kato, M; Shimokawa, T; Kagawa, Y

    1999-05-27

    The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) on obesity and diabetes were examined using KK-Ay mice fed with perilla oil (P), soybean oil (S), or lard (L), and those containing 30% fish oil (PF, SF, or LF), containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA = 9.9%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA = 18.0%). Perilla oil contained the largest proportion of linolenic acid (LNA = 61.9%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans showed narrower areas of visceral fat in the abdominal cross sections of groups given fish oil (PF, SF, and LF) and lower leptin levels (p < 0.05-p < 0.001) compared with controls (P, S, and L), without significant changes in energy intake and body weight. The highest plasma n-3PUFA content (21.31 +/- 0.35%) was attained with PF. This group contained 2.6-fold more plasma DHA (p < 0.001), and expressed 2.7-fold more UCP2 mRNA in white adipose tissue (p < 0.01) than in the P group. The epididymal fat pad (p < 0.05) weighed less, and levels of blood glucose (p < 0.05) and total cholesterol (p < 0.01) were reduced in PF compared with P. PMID:10334920

  17. Influence of serum cholesterol and albumin on partitioning of PCB congeners between human serum and adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Guo; E. A. Emmett; E. D. Pellizzari; C. A. Rohde

    1987-01-01

    The influence of serum lipids and proteins on partitioning of individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener peaks between human serum and adipose tissue lipid was assessed using regression analysis. Subjects were 55 repair workers who were either currently or previously exposed, and 56 comparison workers without occupational exposure to PCBs. Seven congeners (2,4,5,4'-tetra CB, 2,3,5,2',3',6'-hexa CB, 2,3,4,2'3',6'-hexa CB, 2,3,4,2'4',5'-hexa CB, 3,4,5,3',4'-penta

  18. Grain feeding coordinately alters expression patterns of transcription factor and metabolic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Key, C N; Perkins, S D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to improve meat quality and production efficiency in cattle is limited by an inability to enhance marbling and simultaneously limit undesirable adipose tissue accretion. The objective of this study was to examine expression of regulatory genes in subcutaneous (SCF) adipose tissue of heifers in response to increasing days on feed (DOF) and finishing strategy. Crossbred heifers (n = 24) were allotted as follows: Group 1 = 0 d, Group 2 = 99 d on winter annual ryegrass (grass; Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Group 3 = 218 g on grass, Group 4 = 99 d on grass followed by 119 d on grain. Adipose tissue samples were collected at time of harvest and frozen. Carcass characteristics were measured 24 h postharvest. As expected, HCW (P < 0.0001), ribeye area (REA; P < 0.0002), backfat (BF; P < 0.0001), KPH (P < 0.0001), and marbling score (P < 0.0009) increased with DOF though frame score was not different (P < 0.95). Average daily gain decreased with DOF (P < 0.0001). Yield grade increased (P < 0.0014) but cook loss percentage decreased (P < 0.001) with DOF without changes in 24-h pH (P < 0.31). Interestingly, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) was decreased with DOF (P < 0.0089). Meanwhile, BF (P < 0.01) and KPH (P < 0.05) were greater, whereas marbling values trended greater in grain versus grass-finished heifers. Neither ADG (P < 0.89), HCW (P < 0.26), frame score (P < 0.85), nor REA (P < 0.38) were different between these groups. Grain finishing increased yield grade (P < 0.001) but did not affect 24-h pH (P < 0.88), cook loss percentage (P < 0.98), or WBS (P < 0.44) compared with grass-finished heifers. The expression of PPAR?, bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and SMAD family member 1 (SMAD1) mRNA was upregulated in response to DOF and grain finishing, whereas sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), sonic hedgehog (SHH), chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2), and preadipocyte factor-1 (PREF-1) mRNA was decreased in response to DOF and grain finishing. These changes were associated with increased expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA. In summary, increasing DOF was associated with improved meat quality whereas gene expression studies suggest several novel genes are associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue development in growing and finishing cattle. PMID:23482578

  19. MitoNEET-Mediated Effects on Browning of White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kusminski, Christine M.; Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    MitoNEET is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that, upon overexpression in white adipose tissue (WAT), exerts a positive impact on tissue expansion and whole-body lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis by altering mitochondrial matrix iron metabolism. Here we determine the key transcriptional events in subcutaneous WAT of mice in response to mitoNEET overexpression and a high-fat diet (HFD). Microarray analyses at key points during weight gain upon body-weight divergence with wild-type mice demonstrate that mitoNEET-enriched sWAT early on upregulates a browning signature program that limits WAT expansion in transgenic mice for a period of up to 12-weeks of HFD. This compensatory browning phenotype is subsequently lost, resulting in rapid WAT expansion and body-weight gain. Exposure to thermoneutral temperatures during HFD prompts weight gain significantly earlier. Similar WAT expansion is achieved upon infection with an adeno-associated virus expressing mitoNEET. Collectively, the mitoNEET enriched fat-pads feature a more vascularized, anti-inflammatory and less fibrotic environment. PMID:24865177

  20. MitoNEET-mediated effects on browning of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kusminski, Christine M; Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-01-01

    MitoNEET is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that, upon overexpression in white adipose tissue (WAT), exerts a positive impact on tissue expansion and whole-body lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis by altering mitochondrial matrix iron metabolism. Here we determine the key transcriptional events in subcutaneous WAT of mice in response to mitoNEET overexpression and a high-fat diet (HFD). Microarray analyses at key points during weight gain upon body weight divergence with wild-type mice demonstrate that mitoNEET-enriched sWAT early on, upregulates a browning signature programme that limits WAT expansion in transgenic mice for a period of up to 12 weeks of HFD. This compensatory browning phenotype is subsequently lost, resulting in rapid WAT expansion and body weight gain. Exposure to thermoneutral temperatures during HFD prompts weight gain significantly earlier. Similar WAT expansion is achieved upon infection with an adeno-associated virus expressing mitoNEET. Collectively, the mitoNEET-enriched fat pads feature a more vascularized, anti-inflammatory and less fibrotic environment. PMID:24865177

  1. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  2. Lipodystrophies are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue and are typically considered in individuals with insulin resistance, significant dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Lipodystrophies are

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    4/13 Lipodystrophies are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue of adipose tissue affecting the limbs, trunk, face and neck. Advanced bone age and linear growth and skeletal the loss of adipose tissue from mechanical fat pads such as the palms, soles, orbits, scalp

  3. In vitro and in vivo impairment of 2-2-2-2-adrenergic receptor-dependent antilipolysis by fatty acids in human adipose tissue.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    acids in human adipose tissue. Gesta Stephane,1 Hejnova Jindra,2 Berlan Michel,1,3 Daviaud Danièle,1 subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were cultured for 48h in the presence of 100 µM bromopalmitate (Br-AR antagonist phentolamine on exercise-induced lipolysis (measured in the subcutaneous adipose tissue

  4. Mutations in cytoplasmic dynein lead to a Huntington's disease-like defect in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues Judith Eschbach, Anissa Fergani, Hugues Oudart, Jean to a Huntington's disease-like defect in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues, BBA - Molecular in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues Judith ESCHBACH1,2 , Anissa FERGANI1,2 , Hugues

  5. Non-invasive identification of functional brown adipose tissue in rodents using hyperpolarized 13C imaging Angus Z. Lau1,2

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Non-invasive identification of functional brown adipose tissue in rodents using hyperpolarized 13C, California, United States Purpose. The recent identification of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT 13 C imaging to non-invasively identify activated deposits of brown adipose tissue in vivo

  6. Reflex effects from leptin sensors in the white adipose tissue of the epididymis to the efferent activity of the sympathetic and vagus nerve in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Niijima

    1999-01-01

    Efferent nerve signals were recorded from the central cut end of the small nerve filament dissected from the sympathetic nerve innervating the white adipose tissue (WAT) of epididymis, inter scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), pancreas, liver, adrenal medulla, and vagus nerve innnervating the pancreas and liver. Injection of leptin (2 ng, 0.2 ml) into the white adipose tissue of the

  7. Effect of 2,4-thiazolidinedione on limousin cattle growth and on muscle and adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Turrubiarte, M; González-Dávalos, L; Yabuta, A; Garza, J D; Dávalos, J L; Mora, O; Shimada, A

    2012-01-01

    The main adipogenic transcription factor PPAR? possesses high affinity to 2,4-TZD, a member of the Thiazolidinedione family of insulin-sensitizing compounds used as adipogenic agents. We evaluated 2,4-TZD's effect on bovine growth and PPAR tissue expression. Seventeen Limousin bulls (18 month-old; 350?kg body weight (BW)) were assigned into 2 treatments: control and 2,4-TZD (8?mg/70?kg BW) and were fed until bulls reached 500?kg BW. They were weighed and their blood was sampled. DNA, RNA, and protein were determined in liver; skeletal muscle; subcutaneous (SC), omental, perirenal adipose tissues (AT) to determine protein synthesis rate and cellular size. Expression of PPAR mRNA was measured in liver and muscle (PPAR?, -?, and -?) and SC adipose tissue (?) by real-time PCR. No significant differences were found (P > 0.1) in weight gain, days on feed, and carcass quality. Muscle synthesis was greater in controls (P < 0.05); cell size was larger with 2,4-TZD (P < 0.05). PPAR?, -?, and -? expressions with 2,4-TZD in liver were lower (P < 0.01) than in muscle. No differences were found for PPAR? mRNA expression in SCAT. The results suggest the potential use of 2,4-TZD in beef cattle diets, because it improves AT differentiation, liver, and muscle fatty acid oxidation that, therefore, might improve energy efficiency. PMID:23304114

  8. Effect of 2,4-Thiazolidinedione on Limousin Cattle Growth and on Muscle and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Turrubiarte, M.; González-Dávalos, L.; Yabuta, A.; Garza, J. D.; Dávalos, J. L.; Mora, O.; Shimada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main adipogenic transcription factor PPAR? possesses high affinity to 2,4-TZD, a member of the Thiazolidinedione family of insulin-sensitizing compounds used as adipogenic agents. We evaluated 2,4-TZD's effect on bovine growth and PPAR tissue expression. Seventeen Limousin bulls (18 month-old; 350?kg body weight (BW)) were assigned into 2 treatments: control and 2,4-TZD (8?mg/70?kg BW) and were fed until bulls reached 500?kg BW. They were weighed and their blood was sampled. DNA, RNA, and protein were determined in liver; skeletal muscle; subcutaneous (SC), omental, perirenal adipose tissues (AT) to determine protein synthesis rate and cellular size. Expression of PPAR mRNA was measured in liver and muscle (PPAR?, -?, and -?) and SC adipose tissue (?) by real-time PCR. No significant differences were found (P > 0.1) in weight gain, days on feed, and carcass quality. Muscle synthesis was greater in controls (P < 0.05); cell size was larger with 2,4-TZD (P < 0.05). PPAR?, -?, and -? expressions with 2,4-TZD in liver were lower (P < 0.01) than in muscle. No differences were found for PPAR? mRNA expression in SCAT. The results suggest the potential use of 2,4-TZD in beef cattle diets, because it improves AT differentiation, liver, and muscle fatty acid oxidation that, therefore, might improve energy efficiency. PMID:23304114

  9. Determination of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in drinking water, human blood serum, and adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Barquet; Carmen Morgade; C. D. Pfaffenberger

    1981-01-01

    Previously published analytical procedures by which drinking water, human blood serum, and adipose tissue may be analyzed for trace amounts of organochlorine pesticides have been modified to permit use of smaller samples. Data on percent recovery, detector sensitivity, and limit of detectability have been collected for each of the three reported procedures. The methodology has been applied to 59 blood

  10. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides and Related Compounds in Adipose Tissue from People of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Curley; V. W. Burse; R. W. Jennings; E. C. Villanueva

    1973-01-01

    HERE we report preliminary results on the presence of hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in addition to dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin (HEOD), heptachlor epoxide (HE) and the three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha,gamma,beta-HCCH) in Japanese autopsy adipose tissue. A total of 241 samples were taken at the Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-Ka Nagoya, Japan.

  11. ADIPOGENESIS IN STROMAL-VASCULAR CELL CULTURES DERIVED FROM FETAL SEMITENDINOSUS MUSCLE AND SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine if intramuscular adipocytes are present, and can be recruited, in semitendinosus muscle (STM) stromal-vascular (S-V) cells from 105, 90, and 75 d fetal pigs. Stromal- vascular cells from STM and subcutaneous adipose (SQ) tissues were isolated using a collagena...

  12. Impact of bariatric surgery on carotid artery inflammation and the metabolic activity in different adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Vijgen, Guy H E J; Brans, Boudewijn; Bouvy, Nicole D; Bauwens, Matthias; Rudd, James H F; Havekes, Bas; Fayad, Zahi A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we unravel a molecular imaging marker correlated with the known reduction of cardiovascular events (most commonly related to vulnerable plaques) in morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery (BaS).We prospectively imaged 10 morbidly obese subjects with F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography before and 1 year after BaS. F-FDG uptake-which is enhanced in inflamed, atherosclerotic vessels and in metabolically active adipose tissues-was quantified in the carotids, pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as well as brown adipose tissue (BAT). The degree of carotid inflammation was compared to lean and overweight controls.Carotid inflammation significantly declined leading to an F-FDG uptake comparable to the 2 control groups. Metabolic activity significantly decreased in PAT and VAT and increased in BAT.BaS leads to a normalization of carotid artery inflammation and a beneficial impact on the metabolic activity in PAT, VAT, and BAT that is related to the metabolic syndrome observed in this patient group. PMID:25997038

  13. Human adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells differentiate depending on distinct types of media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Balwierz; U. Czech; A. Polus; R. K. Filipkowski; B. Mioduszewska; T. Proszynski; P. Kolodziejczyk; J. Skrzeczynska-Moncznik; W. Dudek; L. Kaczmarek; J. Kulig; J. Pryjma; A. Dembinska-Kiec

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : Angiogenesis, the process of formation of blood vessels, is essential for many physiological as well as pathological processes. It has been shown that human adipose tissue contains a population of non-characterized cells, called stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells, which are able to differentiate into several lineages. The aim of this study was to determine conditions for promoting differentiation of

  14. Chlorinated pesticides levels in human adipose tissue in the district of Pozna?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Szymczy?ski; S. M. Waliszewski; M. Tuszewski; P. Pyda

    1986-01-01

    Samples of adipose tissue from the abdominal cavity were taken at random at surgeries on abdominal cavity \\/24 samples\\/ and at necropsy of the deceased \\/29 samples\\/ in the early nineteen eighties. The samples were then analyzed for the presence of chlorinated pesticides by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All the analyzed samples contained beta?BHC, Lindane, HCB,

  15. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  16. In vitro Thermogenic Activity of Rat Brown Adipose Tissue in Neonatal Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiro Yahata; Akihiro Kuroshima

    1993-01-01

    The roles of noradrenaline (NA) and glucagon in ontogeny of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) were investigated in rats. The relative brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass to body weight was larger in the neonates compared with those of adult animals. The NA level in BAT was low at birth and then increased rapidly to adult level, whereas glucagon level at birth was

  17. Effects of running training on in vitro brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Nozu; Kazue Kikuchi; Koji Ogawa; Akihiro Kuroshima

    1992-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold acclimation for most mammals. Repetitive nonthermal stress such as immobilization has been shown to enhance the capacity of NST as cold acclimation. In the present study, the effects of running training, another type of nonthermal stress, were investigated on in vitro thermogenesis and the cellularity of

  18. Influence of acetogenic versus propiogenic supplements on adipose tissue accretion in stocker steers grazing ryegrass pasture

    E-print Network

    Bumpus, Emalee Kate

    2006-08-16

    Fifty-eight high grade Bonsmara steers were used to evaluate effects of high-fiber versus high-starch pasture supplements on subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue accretion during growing and finishing phases. Cattle were...

  19. (n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: Mechanistic insights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a significant risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the adipose tissue of obese individuals is causally linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metaboli...

  20. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saverio Cinti; Grant Mitchell; Giorgio Barbatelli; Incoronata Murano; Enzo Ceresi; Emanuela Faloia; Shupei Wang; Melanie Fortier; Andrew S. Greenberg; Martin S. Obin

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) is implicated in the metabolic complications of obesity. The precipitating event(s) and function(s) of macrophage infiltration into WAT are unknown. We demonstrate that ? 90% of all macrophages in WAT of obese mice and humans are localized to dead adipocytes, where they fuse to form syncy- tia that sequester and scavenge the residual

  1. The human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-M. Rodriguez; C. Elabd; Ez-Z. Amri; G. Ailhaud; C. Dani

    2005-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells constitute an unlimited source of differentiated cells that could be used in pharmacological studies and in medicine. Recently, several publications have reported that adipose tissue contains a population of cells able to differentiate into different cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, myoblasts, and chondroblasts. More recently, stem cells with a multi-lineage potential at the single cell level have

  2. Investigation of adipose tissues in Zucker rats using in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Elisa; Fontanella, Marco; Sima, Diana M.; Van Huffel, Sabine; Fiorini, Silvia; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina

    2011-01-01

    In vivo single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4.7T and ex vivo high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-NMR) at 500 MHz were used to study the composition of adipose tissues in Zucker obese and Zucker lean rats. Lipid composition was characterized by unsaturation and polyunsaturation indexes and mean chain lengths. In vitro experiments were conducted in known mixtures of triglycerides and oils in order to validate the method. To avoid inaccuracies due to partial peak overlapping in MRS, peak quantification was performed after fitting of spectral peaks by using the QUEST algorithm. The intensity of different spectral lines was also corrected for T2 relaxation. Albeit with different sensitivity and accuracy, both techniques revealed that white adipose tissue is characterized by lower unsaturation and polyunsaturation indexes in obese rats compared with controls. HR-NMR revealed similar differences in brown adipose tissue. The present findings confirm the hypothesis that obese and lean Zucker rats have different adipose tissue composition. PMID:21098380

  3. Regulation of body temperature and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by bombesin receptor subtype-3

    PubMed Central

    Lateef, Dalya M.; Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) regulates energy homeostasis, with Brs3 knockout (Brs3?/y) mice being hypometabolic, hypothermic, and hyperphagic and developing obesity. We now report that the reduced body temperature is more readily detected if body temperature is analyzed as a function of physical activity level and light/dark phase. Physical activity level correlated best with body temperature 4 min later. The Brs3?/y metabolic phenotype is not due to intrinsically impaired brown adipose tissue function or in the communication of sympathetic signals from the brain to brown adipose tissue, since Brs3?/y mice have intact thermogenic responses to stress, acute cold exposure, and ?3-adrenergic activation, and Brs3?/y mice prefer a cooler environment. Treatment with the BRS-3 agonist MK-5046 increased brown adipose tissue temperature and body temperature in wild-type but not Brs3?/y mice. Intrahypothalamic infusion of MK-5046 increased body temperature. These data indicate that the BRS-3 regulation of body temperature is via a central mechanism, upstream of sympathetic efferents. The reduced body temperature in Brs3?/y mice is due to altered regulation of energy homeostasis affecting higher center regulation of body temperature, rather than an intrinsic defect in brown adipose tissue. PMID:24452453

  4. Expression of Lipolytic Genes in the Adipose Tissue of Pregnant and Lactating Holstein Dairy Cattle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Sumner; J. P. McNamara

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ex- pression of ?-adrenergic receptors, hormone-sensitive lipase, and its cofactor perilipin in adipose tissue, and their relationships to rates of lipolysis and body fat use in Holstein dairy cattle during late pregnancy and lactation. Twenty Holstein dairy cattle were grouped by lactation number (1, 2, and 3 or more), and subcuta-

  5. Tumor necrosis a regulation of adipokine gene expression in neonatal adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neonatal period is also a time of significant stress and susceptibility to infection, conditions which favor the secretion of tumor necrosis a. The present study was designed to determine if TNFa can alter adipokine gene expression within the adipose tissue of neonatal swine. Primary stromal v...

  6. Partial Inhibition of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Improves Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity Without

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Partial Inhibition of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Improves Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity

  7. Storage of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissues of Jordanian males and femals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Alawil; Salah Tamimi; Madi Jaghabir

    1999-01-01

    Adipose tissue of 50 human patients (5—96, years old) were taken and analysed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (63Ni) for determination of storage levels of HCH's (?, ?, and ?-hexaclllorcyclohexanes), DDT and its metabolits DDE and DDD, the cyclodiens (heptachlor, heptachlore poxide, dieldrin, aldrin and endrin) and HCB (hexachlorbenzene).The data is reported according to age groups and

  8. The development of ? 1-adrenoreceptors in brown adipose tissue following prenatal alcohol exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty Zimmerberg; Carol D. Smith; Jacqueline M. Weider; Milt Teitler

    1995-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure delays the development of thermoregulation in newborn rats. Newborns generate heat by the sympathetic nervous system's activation of nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this study, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of the ?-adrenergic receptor system of BAT was investigated by assessing the number and pharmacological properties of ?-adrenergic receptors in

  9. Adipose Tissue Dendritic Cells Enhances Inflammation by Prompting the Generation of Th17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinyu; Tang, Xinyi; Rui, Ke; Tong, Jia; Lu, Liwei; Xu, Huaxi; Wang, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a global challenge for public health. It has been reported that obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. However, the mechanism for the chronic inflammation contributes to obesity remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, we found a novel CD11c+ dendritic cell subset existed in murine adipose tissues which was immature phenotype. Moreover, as compared to the lean controls, the number of CD11c+ DCs and CD4+IL-17+T cells were higher in adipose tissue of high fat diet (HFD) mice. Adipose tissues derived dendritic cells (ATDCs) displayed lower levels of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHCI and MHCII expression than splenic DCs (SPDCs). However, ATDCs showed higher levels of IL-6, TGF-? and IL-23 secretion. Moreover, our in vitro experiments demonstrated that ATDCs were capable of promoting Th17 cell generation. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate the existence of CD11c+ DCs in adipose tissues, which displays an immature phenotype but possessing pro-inflammatory function. PMID:24642966

  10. Decreased fatty acid synthesis due to mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN ROSSMEISL; IVO SYROVY; FILIP BAUMRUK; PAVEL FLACHS; PETRA JANOVSKA; JAN KOPECKY

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of fatty acid (FA) in adipose tissue requires cooperation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes. Mitochondria are required for the production of ATP and they also support the formation of acetyl-CoA and NADPH in cytoplasm. Since cellular levels of all these metabolites depend on the efficiency of mitochondrial energy conver- sion, mitochondrial proton leak via uncoupling pro- teins (UCPs) could

  11. Quantitative CT imaging for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Tafani, J.-P.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.

    2011-03-01

    In obese humans CT imaging is a validated method for follow up studies of adipose tissue distribution and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Equivalent methods in murine models of obesity are still lacking. Current small animal micro-CT involves long-term X-ray exposure precluding longitudinal studies. We have overcome this limitation by using a human medical CT which allows very fast 3D imaging (2 sec) and minimal radiation exposure. This work presents novel methods fitted to in vivo investigations of mice model of obesity, allowing (i) automated detection of adipose tissue in abdominal regions of interest, (ii) quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. For each mouse, 1000 slices (100?m thickness, 160 ?m resolution) were acquired in 2 sec using a Toshiba medical CT (135 kV, 400mAs). A Gaussian mixture model of the Hounsfield curve of 2D slices was computed with the Expectation Maximization algorithm. Identification of each Gaussian part allowed the automatic classification of adipose tissue voxels. The abdominal region of interest (umbilical) was automatically detected as the slice showing the highest ratio of the Gaussian proportion between adipose and lean tissues. Segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments was achieved with 2D 1/2 level set methods. Our results show that the application of human clinical CT to mice is a promising approach for the study of obesity, allowing valuable comparison between species using the same imaging materials and software analysis.

  12. Determinants of Human Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Impact of Diet, Sex, Metabolic Status, and Cis

    E-print Network

    Villa-vialaneix, Nathalie

    a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signalsDeterminants of Human Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Impact of Diet, Sex, Metabolic Status, Team 4, I2MC, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, Toulouse, France, 2 University

  13. Organochlorine residues in the adipose tissue of the population of Navarra (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gómez-Catalán; M. Lezaun; J. To-Figueras; J. Corbella

    1995-01-01

    Organochlorine residues (OCR) in adipose tissue of the general population of Navarra Region (Northem Spain) have been determined as indicators of the environmental and food related exposition to these ubiquitous pollutants. The main organochlorine insecticides, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified and quantified in 86 individual samples. The results have been analysed in order to determine possible

  14. The effect of maternal diabetes on adipose tissue cellularity in man and rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Björntorp; G. Enzi; K. Karlsson; M. Krotkiewski; L. Sjöström; U. Smith

    1974-01-01

    Summary  It is well recognised that the newborn of diabetic mothers may be overweight and obese, presumably due to excessive glucose and insulin levels in the fetus. Since recent evidence indicates that the number of fat cells is established early in life, we studied the effect of intrauterine hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on adipose tissue cellularity. Six men (age range 21–26 years)

  15. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  16. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock ...

  17. Tocotrienol levels in adipose tissue of benign and malignant breast lumps in patients in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalanithi Nesaretnam; Patricia Alison Gomez; Kanga Rani

    Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of ?-tocopherol (?-T) in ob- servational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that ?-T provides women with any pro- tection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that ?, ?, and ?-tocotrienols but not ?-T have potent anti- proliferative effects in human breast

  18. Influence of acetogenic versus propiogenic supplements on adipose tissue accretion in stocker steers grazing ryegrass pasture 

    E-print Network

    Bumpus, Emalee Kate

    2006-08-16

    Fifty-eight high grade Bonsmara steers were used to evaluate effects of high-fiber versus high-starch pasture supplements on subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue accretion during growing and finishing phases. Cattle were...

  19. LONG-TERM ACCUMULATION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN ADIPOSE TISSUE OF PARENT AND FILIAL RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in adipose tissue were similar for FO and Flb generations in rats fed 20 ppm HCB until 45 weeks of age. Nulliparous females receiving treatment equivalent to the HCB-treated FO generation rapidly accumulated HCB in their fat and, by 1...

  20. Ontogeny of glycerolipid biosynthetic enzymes in swine liver and adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Steffen; G. Phinney; L. J. Brown; I. J. Mersmand

    Enzymes associated with glycerolipid biosynthe- sis were examined in microsomal fractions of liver and adipose tissue obtained from swine of various ages. Gen- erally, liver glycerophosphate acyltransferase, phospha- tidate phosphohydrolase, diglyceride acyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities were substantial at birth but increased 2- to %fold by day 14 postpartum, decreased at day 25, then increased at the oldest ages studied

  1. Growth and lipolysis of rat adipose tissue: effect of age, body weight, and food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER W. HUBBARD; WILLIAM T. MATTHEW

    The purpose of the present work was to study age- and weight-controlled rats to determine which is the pri- mary factor in reducing the lipolytic response of free fat cells and which has the greater effect on the ratio of fat cells to non- fat cells in adipose tissue. The method for estimating fat cell and nonfat cell numbers is

  2. COL6A3 is regulated by leptin in human adipose tissue and reduced in obesity.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Laura J; Rawling, Tom J; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Franck, Niclas; Dankel, Simon N; Price, Emily J; Knight, Bridget; Liversedge, Neil H; Mellgren, Gunnar; Nystrom, Fredrik; Carlsson, Lena M; Kos, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis of adipose tissue (AT) increases AT rigidity, reduces its expandability, and contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Collagen type VI, ?3 (COL6A3) encodes 1 subunit of a fibrotic extracellular matrix protein highly expressed in rodent AT. Knockout of collagen VI in rodent AT led to a significant improvement in metabolic health in obese, diabetic ob/ob mice. However, it is unknown whether this collagen has the same metabolic significance in human AT. We therefore aimed to undertake a comprehensive assessment of COL6A3 in relation to human AT and obesity. Characterization of COL6A3 in human AT showed 5-fold higher expression in the stromalvascular fraction compared with adipocyte expression and significantly higher expression in subcutaneous AT (SCAT) than omental AT. In both depots, COL6A3 expression appeared to be lowered in obesity, whereas diet- and surgery-induced weight loss increased COL6A3 expression in SCAT. Leptin treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in COL6A3 expression, although no effect was seen with insulin or glucose treatment and no difference observed in subjects with diabetes. In addition, we found that the collagen expression profile in humans differs significantly from rodents, because COL6A3 does not appear to be the predominant collagen in adipose, muscle, or liver. Our findings oppose those initially seen in rodent studies and, most importantly, demonstrate a direct regulation of COL6A3 by leptin. This highlights the importance of a paracrine leptin signaling pathway in human AT and suggests an additional mechanism by which leptin can regulate extracellular matrix composition and, with it, AT expandability. PMID:25337653

  3. Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Rosa Tamara; He, Ting; Zhang, Le; Floyd, Carlos S.; Freeman, Matthew; White, Christian; Burant, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human weight regulation has been constrained by the lack of a noninvasive tool for measuring this tissue and its function in vivo. Existing imaging modalities are nonspecific and intrinsically insensitive to the less active, lipid-rich BAT of obese subjects, the target population for BAT studies. We demonstrate noninvasive imaging of BAT in mice by hyperpolarized xenon gas MRI. We detect a greater than 15-fold increase in xenon uptake by BAT during stimulation of BAT thermogenesis, which enables us to acquire background-free maps of the tissue in both lean and obese mouse phenotypes. We also demonstrate in vivo MR thermometry of BAT by hyperpolarized xenon gas. Finally, we use the linear temperature dependence of the chemical shift of xenon dissolved in adipose tissue to directly measure BAT temperature and to track thermogenic activity in vivo. PMID:25453088

  4. Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI.

    PubMed

    Branca, Rosa Tamara; He, Ting; Zhang, Le; Floyd, Carlos S; Freeman, Matthew; White, Christian; Burant, Alex

    2014-12-16

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human weight regulation has been constrained by the lack of a noninvasive tool for measuring this tissue and its function in vivo. Existing imaging modalities are nonspecific and intrinsically insensitive to the less active, lipid-rich BAT of obese subjects, the target population for BAT studies. We demonstrate noninvasive imaging of BAT in mice by hyperpolarized xenon gas MRI. We detect a greater than 15-fold increase in xenon uptake by BAT during stimulation of BAT thermogenesis, which enables us to acquire background-free maps of the tissue in both lean and obese mouse phenotypes. We also demonstrate in vivo MR thermometry of BAT by hyperpolarized xenon gas. Finally, we use the linear temperature dependence of the chemical shift of xenon dissolved in adipose tissue to directly measure BAT temperature and to track thermogenic activity in vivo. PMID:25453088

  5. Inhibitory effects of Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ye Rim; Won, Sae Bom; Chung, Young-Shin; Kwak, Chung Shil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Because adipose tissue is considered a major source of inflammatory signals, we investigated the protective effects of Doenjang and steamed soybean on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet (LF), a high-fat diet (HF), or a high-fat containing Doenjang diet (DJ) or a high-fat containing steamed soybean diet (SS) for 11 weeks. RESULTS Mice fed a DJ diet showed significantly lower body and adipose tissue weights than those in the HF group. Although no significant differences in adipocyte size and number were observed among the HF diet-fed groups, consumption of Doenjang alleviated the incidence of crown-like structures in adipose tissue. Consistently, we observed significantly reduced mRNA levels of oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and p40phox), pro-inflammatory adipokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), macrophage markers (CD68 and CD11c), and a fibrosis marker (transforming growth factor beta 1) by Doenjang consumption. Gene expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin was significantly induced in the DJ group and the SS group compared to the HF group. The anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects observed in mice fed an SS diet were not as effective as those in mice fed a DJ diet, suggesting that the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation and aging may be involved in the observed health-beneficial effects of Doenjang. CONCLUSIONS Doenjang alleviated oxidative stress and restored the dysregulated expression of adipokine genes caused by excess adiposity. Therefore, Doenjang may ameliorate systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity via inhibition of inflammatory signals of adipose tissue. PMID:26060534

  6. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats at rather a depressed level, explaining a corresponding decrease in cold tolerance. On the other hand, the expression of insulin receptor mRNA was attenuated in BAT of rats from all the insulin-treated groups, possibly due to the down-regulation of insulin. Thus, there appeared to be some linkage among BAT, heat acclimation, and insulin.

  7. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  8. Changes in white and brown adipose tissue microRNA expression in cold-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cong; Huang, Shujuan; Wang, Yajun; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Desheng; Wang, Yanfang; Li, Kui

    2015-07-31

    There are two classic adipose tissues in mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). It has been well known that browning of WAT can be induced by cold exposure. In this study, to identify the novel cold responsive key miRNAs that are involved in browning, mice were housed at 6 °C for 10 days, and deep sequencing of the miRNAs of WAT and BAT was performed. Our data showed that WAT and BAT displayed distinct expression profiles due to their different locations, morphology and biological function. A total of 27 BAT and 29 WAT differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in response to cold stimulation, respectively (fold change >2 and false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05), of which, 9 were overlapped in both adipose tissues. Furthermore, the potential target genes of the DE miRNAs from BAT and WAT were predicted computationally, and the KEGG pathway analysis revealed the enrichment pathways in cold stimulated adipose tissues. The expression pattern of miR-144-3p/Bmpr1b/Phlda1 and miR-146a-5p/Sphk2 were further measured by qPCR. Finally, we found that miR-146a-5p was significantly induced during the primary adipogenesis caused by BAT differentiation, whereas miR-144-3p was decreased. Our study identifies for the first time the novel miRNAs involved in browning of WAT by sequencing and expands the therapeutic approaches for combating metabolic diseases. PMID:25983326

  9. Characterization of Transcriptional Complexity during Adipose Tissue Development in Bovines of Different Ages and Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Sun, Jiajie; Li, Congjun; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Lan; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue has long been recognized to play an extremely important role in development. In bovines, it not only serves a fundamental function but also plays a key role in the quality of beef and, consequently, has drawn much public attention. Age and sex are two key factors that affect the development of adipose tissue, and there has not yet been a global study detailing the effects of these two factors on expressional differences of adipose tissues. Results In this study, total RNA from the back fat of fetal bovines, adult bulls, adult heifers and adult steers were used to construct libraries for Illumina next-generation sequencing. We detected the expression levels of 12,233 genes, with over 3,000 differently expressed genes when comparing fetal and adult patterns and an average of 1000 differently expressed genes when comparing adult patterns. Multiple Gene Ontology terms and pathways were found to be significantly enriched for these differentially expressed genes. Of the 12,233 detected genes, a total of 4,753 genes (38.85%) underwent alternative splicing events, and over 50% were specifically expressed in each library. Over 4,000 novel transcript units were discovered for one library, whereas only approximately 30% were considered to have coding ability, which supplied a large amount of information for the lncRNA study. Additionally, we detected 56,564 (fetal bovine), 65,154 (adult bull), 78,061 (adult heifer) and 86,965 (adult steer) putative single nucleotide polymorphisms located in coding regions of the four pooled libraries. Conclusion Here, we present, for the first time, a complete dataset involving the spatial and temporal transcriptome of bovine adipose tissue using RNA-seq. These data will facilitate the understanding of the effects of age and sex on the development of adipose tissue and supply essential information towards further studies on the genomes of beef cattle and other related mammals. PMID:24983926

  10. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Adipose Tissue of Pregnant Women in Veracruz, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Herrero-Mercado; S. M. Waliszewski; R. Valencia-Quintana; M. Caba; F. Hernández-Chalate; E. García-Aguilar; R. Villalba

    2010-01-01

    DDT and Lindane (?-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread\\u000a infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative\\u000a properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution.\\u000a Human adipose tissue

  11. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for the transport of trichloroethylene in adipose tissue