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Sample records for adjacent non-tumorous liver

  1. Telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Shen, Jing; Ming-Whei; Lee, Yu Po-Huang; Santella, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    Telomere shortening limits the proliferative capacity of human cells, restrains the regenerative capacity of organ systems during chronic diseases and aging and also induces chromosomal instability as well as initiation of cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that telomeres are often significantly shorter in tumor tissue, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared to the surrounding tissue, but telomere length in HCC tissues was not correlated with several clinical parameters, such as age, sex, HBV or HCV infections and tumor size. In the present study, the telomere length ratio of 36 paired HCC, and their adjacent non-tumor tissues was measured by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The mean telomere lengths (SD) for HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were 0.26 (0.10) and 0.47 (0.20) respectively (t = 6.22, P < 0.0001). There was a large difference in the distribution of subjects based on telomere length in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The number of tumors with telomere length shorter than 0.50 was much higher than that of adjacent non-tumor tissues; more than 90% of the tissues with telomere length > or = 0.50 were adjacent non-tumor tissues. The correlations between telomere length and aflatoxin B1- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts level, p53 mutations and p16 hypermethylation status were also tested, but no significant associations were found. The relationship between telomere length shortening, chemical carcinogen exposure, and genetic and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:18058461

  2. Proteomic profiling of 13 paired ductal infiltrating breast carcinomas and non-tumoral adjacent counterparts.

    PubMed

    Pucci-Minafra, Ida; Cancemi, Patrizia; Marabeti, Maria Rita; Albanese, Nadia Ninfa; Di Cara, Gianluca; Taormina, Pietra; Marrazzo, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    According to recent statistics, breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of death among women in Western countries. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease, presently classified into several subtypes according to their cellular origin. Among breast cancer histotypes, infiltrating ductal carcinoma represents the most common and potentially aggressive form. Despite the current progress achieved in early cancer detection and treatment, including the new generation of molecular therapies, there is still need for identification of multiparametric biomarkers capable of discriminating between cancer subtypes and predicting cancer progression for personalized therapies. One established step in this direction is the proteomic strategy, expected to provide enough information on breast cancer profiling. To this aim, in the present study we analyzed 13 breast cancer tissues and their matched non-tumoral tissues by 2-DE. Collectively, we identified 51 protein spots, corresponding to 34 differentially expressed proteins, which may represent promising candidate biomarkers for molecular-based diagnosis of breast cancer and for pattern discovery. The relevance of these proteins as factors contributing to breast carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:21136615

  3. Low dose perfluorooctanoate exposure promotes cell proliferation in a human non-tumor liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cui, Ruina; Guo, Xuejiang; Hu, Jiayue; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a well-known persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment, wildlife and humans. Medical surveillance and experimental studies have investigated the potential effects of PFOA on human livers, but the hepatotoxicity of PFOA on humans and its underlying mechanism remain to be clarified. We exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50μM PFOA for 48h and 96h, and identified 111 significantly differentially expressed proteins by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 46 proteins were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Through further analysis of the cell cycle, apoptosis and their related proteins, we found that low doses of PFOA (50-100μM) promoted cell proliferation and numbers by promoting cells from the G1 to S phases, whereas high doses of PFOA (200-400μM) led to reduced HL-7702 cell numbers compared with that of the control mainly due to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the promotion of cell cycle progression in human cells following PFOA exposure. PMID:27045622

  4. Gut microbiome compositional and functional differences between tumor and non-tumor adjacent tissues from cohorts from the US and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Imane; Delgado, Susana; Marron, Pablo Isidro; Astudillo, Aurora; Yeh, Jen Jen; Ghazal, Hassan; Amzazi, Saaïd; Keku, Temitope; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and Spain. The molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology of CRC are not yet elucidated due in part to the complexity of the human gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the microbiome composition of 90 tumor and matching adjacent tissue (adjacent) from cohorts from the US and Spain by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in order to determine the impact of the geographic origin on the CRC microbiome. Data showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) for the US (PD Adjacent = 26.3 ± 5.3, PD Tumor = 23.3 ± 6.2) compared to the Spanish cohort (PD Adjacent = 18.9 ± 5.9, PD Tumor = 18.7 ± 6.6) while no significant differences in bacterial diversity were observed between tumor and adjacent tissues for individuals from the same country. Adjacent tissues from the Spanish cohort were enriched in Firmicutes (SP = 43.9% and US = 22.2%, P = 0.0001) and Actinobacteria (SP = 1.6% and US = 0.5%, P = 0.0018) compared to US adjacent tissues, while adjacent tissues from the US had significantly higher abundances of Fusobacteria (US = 8.1% and SP = 1.5%, P = 0.0023) and Sinergistetes (US = 0.3% and SP = 0.1%, P = 0.0097). Comparisons between tumor and adjacent tissues in each cohort identified the genus Eikenella significantly over represented in US tumors (T = 0.024% and A = 0%, P = 0.03), and the genera Fusobacterium (T = 10.4% and A = 1.5%, P = <0.0001), Bulleida (T = 0.36% and A = 0.09%, P = 0.02), Gemella (T = 1.46% and A = 0.19%, P = 0.03), Parvimonas (T = 3.14% and A = 0.86%, P = 0.03), Campylobacter (T = 0.15% and A = 0.008%, P = 0.047), and Streptococcus (T = 2.84% and A = 2.19%, P = 0.05) significantly over represented in Spanish tumors. Predicted metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA surveys showed that bacterial motility proteins and proteins involved in flagellar assembly were over represented in adjacent tissues

  5. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    SciTech Connect

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  6. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  7. Asymmetry adjacent to the collagen-like domain in rat liver mannose-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, R; Drickamer, K

    1997-01-01

    Rat liver mannose-binding protein (MBP-C) is the smallest known member of the collectin family of animal lectins, many of which are involved in defence against microbial pathogens. It consists of an N-terminal collagen-like domain linked to C-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domains. MBP-C, overproduced in Chinese-hamster ovary cells, is post-translationally modified and processed in a manner similar to the native lectin. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that MBP-C is trimeric, with a weight-averaged molecular mass of approx. 77 kDa. The rate of sedimentation of MBP-C and its mobility on gel filtration suggest a highly elongated molecule. Anomalous behaviour on gel filtration due to this extended conformation may explain previous suggestions that MBP-C forms a higher oligomer. The polypeptide chains of the MBP-C trimer are linked by disulphide bonds between two cysteine residues at the N-terminal junction of the collagen-like domain. Analysis of an N-terminal tryptic fragment reveals that the disulphide bonding in MBP-C is heterogeneous and asymmetrical. These results indicate that assembly of MBP-C oligomers probably proceeds in a C- to N-terminal direction: trimerization at the C-terminus is followed by assembly of the collagenous domain and finally formation of N-terminal disulphide bonds. The relatively simple organization of MBP-C provides a template for understanding larger, more complex collectins. PMID:9230118

  8. Characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, I; Kaneda, T; Sasaki, Y; Sekiya, K; Tokunaga, S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of buccal space tumorous and non-tumorous lesions. Methods: 48 patients with buccal space lesions were evaluated with greyscale sonography followed by power Doppler sonography with a 12 MHz linear transducer. On greyscale sonography, buccal space lesions were assessed for the boundary (clear or unclear), echogenicity (hypoechoic or isoechoic) and internal architecture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Power Doppler sonography was performed to evaluate the vascular signals within the buccal space lesions. Results: 48 lesions were found in the 48 patients; of these 48 lesions, 28 were tumourous and 20 were non-tumourous. In the 28 tumours, 15 cases showed clear boundaries, 15 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 22 cases presented with a heterogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. The internal vascularity of 19 tumours was shown using power Doppler sonography. In the 20 non-tumorous lesions, 11 cases showed clear boundaries, 17 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 13 cases presented with a homogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. 18 non-tumorous lesions showed no internal vascularity using power Doppler sonography. Logistic multivariate regression analysis between the tumour group and the non-tumorous lesions group demonstrated that the internal architecture (odds ratio = 8.270, p = 0.029) and vascular signals (odds ratio = 17.533, p = 0.003) were significant variables. Conclusions: Power Doppler sonography is a useful technique for the differential diagnosis of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions. PMID:23520393

  9. Comparison of oral microbiota in tumor and non-tumor tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections have been linked to malignancies due to their ability to induce chronic inflammation. We investigated the association of oral bacteria in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC/tumor) tissues and compared with adjacent non-tumor mucosa sampled 5 cm distant from the same patient (n = 10). By using culture-independent 16S rRNA approaches, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning and sequencing, we assessed the total bacterial diversity in these clinical samples. Results DGGE fingerprints showed variations in the band intensity profiles within non-tumor and tumor tissues of the same patient and among the two groups. The clonal analysis indicated that from a total of 1200 sequences characterized, 80 bacterial species/phylotypes were detected representing six phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and uncultivated TM7 in non-tumor and tumor libraries. In combined library, 12 classes, 16 order, 26 families and 40 genera were observed. Bacterial species, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 058, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii, Gemella haemolysans, Gemella morbillorum, Johnsonella ignava and Streptococcus parasanguinis I were highly associated with tumor site where as Granulicatella adiacens was prevalent at non-tumor site. Streptococcus intermedius was present in 70% of both non-tumor and tumor sites. Conclusions The underlying changes in the bacterial diversity in the oral mucosal tissues from non-tumor and tumor sites of OSCC subjects indicated a shift in bacterial colonization. These most prevalent or unique bacterial species/phylotypes present in tumor tissues may be associated with OSCC and needs to be further investigated with a larger sample size. PMID:22817758

  10. Use of galactosylated-streptavidin as a clearing agent with 111In-labeled, biotinylated antibodies to enhance tumor/non-tumor localization ratios.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Serengulam V; Griffiths, Gary L; Michel, Rosana B; Andrews, Philip M; Goldenberg, David M; Mattes, M Jules

    2002-06-01

    Optimal tumor imaging using radiolabeled antibodies (Abs) depends on obtaining the highest possible tumor/non-tumor localization ratios. To increase this ratio, in a mouse xenograft model system, we induced rapid blood clearance of the Ab after extensive penetration of a solid tumor, at 24 hr after Ab injection. By using galactosylated streptavidin (gal-SA) as a clearing agent for biotinylated Abs, and by using an 111In-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) label, clearance was directed to hepatocytes (as opposed to Kupffer cells), and the radiolabel was excreted by the hepatocytes into bile, thereby reducing accumulation in the liver. In this study, we directly compared this approach with the use of 99mTc-F(ab)2 fragments, using the same Ab to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with a colon carcinoma xenograft. The gal-SA clearance method produced substantially higher tumor/non-tumor localization ratios for all tissues except the liver, and even for the liver the disadvantage of the gal-SA clearance method was small. We also tested the gal-SA clearance method with a xenograft model of human B-cell lymphoma, using anti-CD22. High tumor/non-tumor ratios were obtained, as previously described with carcinomas of the lung and colon. Therefore, this approach appears to be a generally applicable strategy to obtain relatively high tumor/non-tumor ratios. PMID:12136523

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Liver Cancer Stem Cells by RNA-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chi Tat; Ng, Michael N. P.; Yu, Wan Ching; Lau, Joyce; Wan, Timothy; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Zhixiang; Liu, Hang; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90+ liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90+ cells sorted from tumor (CD90+CSCs) with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90+NTSCs) and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings CD90+ cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90+ cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes) between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90+CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3), a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90+CSCs compared to CD90+NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90+CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90+CSCs in liver tumor tissues. Conclusions/Significance The identified genes

  12. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  13. Transarterial Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, Neal; Martin, Robert C G

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, hepatic arterial therapies (HAT) had been used for colorectal liver metastases after failure of first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapies. HAT has gained greater acceptance in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases after failure of surgery or systemic chemotherapy. The current data demonstrate that HAT is a safe and effective option for preoperative downsizing, optimizing the time to surgery, limiting non-tumor-bearing liver toxicity, and improving overall survival after surgery in patients with colorectal liver-only metastases. The aim of this review is to present the current data for HAT in liver-only and liver-dominant colorectal liver metastases. PMID:27017870

  14. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  15. P04.16THE BIOMARKER POTENTIAL OF MGMT PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN GLIOBLASTOMA IS IMPROVED BY EXCLUSION OF NON-TUMOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Klitkou, J.; Dahlrot, R.H.; Hansen, S.; Kristensen, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Methylation of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is predictive of benefit from temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM). Non-tumor cells are numerous in GBMs and a potential source of bias in attempts to determine MGMT status by immunohistochemistry. The aim of the present study was to explore the prognostic potential of MGMT protein expression excluding these cells. METHOD: Immunofluorescence multiplexing and automated analysis were combined to quantify MGMT (green fluorescence) in tumor cell nuclei using image analysis algorithms. Microglia/macrophages, lymfocytes and vascular structures (red fluorescence) known to express MGMT were excluded from the analysis. The study included paraffin sections from 173 primary GBM's. RESULTS: High area fraction of tumor cell nuclei expressing MGMT was associated with poor prognosis (HR = 1.59, p = 0.005). Prognostic value of MGMT expression was particularly strong in patients treated with TMZ as first line therapy (HR = 2.31, p = 0.0003). The 2-year survival in this group was 44 % versus 7 % for patients with low and high expression respectively. Non-tumor cell nuclei often showed higher MGMT expression than adjacent tumor cells. Exclusion of these cells was shown to improve the prognostic value of MGMT expression. CONCLUSION: MGMT protein expression in tumor cell nuclei holds prognostic potential in GBM. Exclusion of non-tumor cells from the analysis is crucial to avoid false positives. The path to possible clinical implementation will require further testing in independent patient cohorts as well as development of a highly robust multiplexing assay with not yet defined cut-off levels.

  16. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jacques F

    2016-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. PMID:27233789

  17. [Aortic insufficiency under weak doses of cabergoline for non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia].

    PubMed

    Belleville, I; Chague, F; Petit, J-M; Boujon, B

    2007-12-01

    Used in its neurological indication, cabergoline is known to induce cardiac valve regurgitations, essentially mitral and aortic valvular diseases, by its action on the 5HT2b receptors. Until now, it was assumed that the dose and the duration of exposure were the major factors of appearance. We describe a case of aortic insufficiency which developed in a patient given low doses of cabergoline (0.5 mg weekly) for non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia. Because of previous use of appetite suppressants and of bromocriptine, the exclusive responsibility of cabergoline remained uncertain. The potential gravity of these valvular heart diseases emphasizes the importance of careful cardiologic examination before and during treatment. PMID:17905193

  18. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  19. E-cadherin in non-tumor epithelium adjacent to oral cancer as risk marker for the development of multiple tumors.

    PubMed

    González-Moles, M A; Bravo, M; Ruiz-Avila, I; Gil-Montoya, J A; Acebal, F; Esteban, F

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the loss of E-cadherin is a risk factor for the development of multiple tumours in the oral cavity and whether it could serve as a diagnostic marker for oral premalignant fields. We studied 77 oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) with associated non-tumour epithelia from 61 patients. Immunohistochemical studies (antibody NHC-38) were used to investigate E-cadherin expression, which was completely lost in basal (48% of cases) and parabasal (43%) layers of non-tumour epithelia close to the tumour and in basal (47%) and parabasal (38%) layers of non-tumour epithelia distant from the tumour. In multiple tumours E-cadherin expression was significantly lower than in single tumours in the basal, parabasal layers, and the middle third of close (p=0.002, <0.001, <0.001) and distant (p=0.041, p<0.001, p=0.005) non-tumour epithelia, respectively. Downregulation of E-cadherin may be valuable as a risk marker for the development of multiple tumours in the oral cavity and for the diagnosis of premalignant fields. PMID:22658605

  20. The Ultrasound effects on non tumoral cell line at 1 MHz therapeutic frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giambattista, L.; Grimaldi, P.; Udroiu, I.; Pozzi, D.; Cinque, G.; Frogley, M. D.; Cassarà, A. M.; Bedini, A.; Giliberti, C.; Palomba, R.; Buogo, S.; Giansanti, A.; Congiu Castellano, A.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate some bioeffects due to Therapeutic Ultrasound (1 MHz and 50non tumoral cells. Ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated to alter the cell membrane permeability due to a biophysical mechanism, Sonoporation, and exploited as a promising non-invasive gene transfer method. We have used the NIH-3T3 cell line as a model system and exposed it to US medical equipment for 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes at distances of 10 and 15 cm from the source transducer, corresponding to the far field region where cm. We have worked with the maximum power in pulsed system with 75% duty cycle. Characterization of the unfocused, planar and with a circular geometry 1 MHz source transducer, was performed and the acoustics pressure was measured by a calibrated 0.5 mm needle hydrophone; moreover, the pressure field generated by the source transducer was simulated. The US effects on cells were assessed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Imaging with focal plane array (FPA) detector. By the IR analysis, the US exposure on non tumoral cells has induced a change of the intensity for CH2 asymmetric stretching (2924 cm-1) band in the lipid region (3000-2800 cm-1) that it could detect an energy-dependent process. It has already shown that cells invest energy to catalyze lipid movement in order to maintain a specific transmembrane phospholipid distribution. Although asymmetry is the rule for control cells, the loss of asymmetry could be associated with the permeability change of plasma membrane inducing temporary pores.

  1. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  2. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperplasia or adenoma of the liver Abscess Budd-Chiari syndrome Infection Liver disease (such as cirrhosis or ... Amebic liver abscess Cirrhosis Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Splenic ...

  3. Localized experimental bone metastasis drives osteolysis and sensory hypersensitivity at distant non-tumor-bearing sites.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Dareen M; Stone, Laura S; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2015-08-01

    Patients with breast cancer metastasis to bone suffer from inadequate pain relief. Animal models provide increased understanding of cancer-induced bone and sensory alterations. The objective of this study was to investigate the measures of pain at distant non-tumor-bearing sites in animals with localized bone metastasis. Immunocompetent BALB/c mice are injected intra-tibially with murine mammary carcinoma cells (4T1) or saline, and the sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the contralateral paw was examined. In addition to previously demonstrated development of osteolysis and hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the cancer-injected tibia, these animals exhibited an increase in sensory hypersensitivity in the contralateral limb. No bone lesions were evident on radiographs of the contralateral limbs. Histomorphometry detected decreased bone volume per tissue volume and increased osteoclast number in the contralateral tibia and vertebral bones of cancer-bearing animals. Neuroplasticity was examined by immunofluorescence for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in lumbar spinal cords. CGRP-immunoreactivity and GFAP-immunoreactivity were significantly elevated both ipsilateral and contralateral in tumor-bearing animals. The anti-inflammatory and osteolysis-targeting drug rapamycin reduced hypersensitivity to mechanical and cold stimuli, attenuated GFAP over-expression, and lowered osteoclast number. The osteoclast-targeting drug pamidronate reduced sensitivity to cold and protected against bone loss. Localized bone cancer drives hypersensitivity, bone remodeling, and sensory neuron plasticity at sites distant from the primary tumor area. Drugs targeting these mechanisms may be useful in the treatment of pain distant from the primary tumor site. PMID:26208488

  4. Clinicopathologic and gene expression parameters predict liver cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies following surgical resection and the large variation remains largely unexplained. Studies have revealed the ability of clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression to predict HCC prognosis. However, there has been little systematic effort to compare the performance of these two types of predictors or combine them in a comprehensive model. Methods Tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were collected from 272 ethnic Chinese HCC patients who received curative surgery. We combined clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression data (from both tissue types) in predicting HCC prognosis. Cross-validation and independent studies were employed to assess prediction. Results HCC prognosis was significantly associated with six clinicopathologic parameters, which can partition the patients into good- and poor-prognosis groups. Within each group, gene expression data further divide patients into distinct prognostic subgroups. Our predictive genes significantly overlap with previously published gene sets predictive of prognosis. Moreover, the predictive genes were enriched for genes that underwent normal-to-tumor gene network transformation. Previously documented liver eSNPs underlying the HCC predictive gene signatures were enriched for SNPs that associated with HCC prognosis, providing support that these genes are involved in key processes of tumorigenesis. Conclusion When applied individually, clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression offered similar predictive power for HCC prognosis. In contrast, a combination of the two types of data dramatically improved the power to predict HCC prognosis. Our results also provided a framework for understanding the impact of gene expression on the processes of tumorigenesis and clinical outcome. PMID:22070665

  5. High glucose concentrations attenuate hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} expression and signaling in non-tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, Nathalie; Bruene, Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the major transcription factor mediating adaption to hypoxia e.g. by enhancing glycolysis. In tumor cells, high glucose concentrations are known to increase HIF-1{alpha} expression even under normoxia, presumably by enhancing the concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, while reactions of non-tumor cells are not well defined. Therefore, we analyzed cellular responses to different glucose concentrations in respect to HIF activation comparing tumor to non-tumor cells. Using cells derived from non-tumor origin, we show that HIF-1{alpha} accumulation was higher under low compared to high glucose concentrations. Low glucose allowed mRNA expression of HIF-1 target genes like adrenomedullin. Transfection of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells with a HIF-1{alpha} oxygen-dependent degradation domaine-GFP fusion protein revealed that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity is impaired at low glucose concentrations, thus stabilizing the fusion protein. Mechanistic considerations suggested that neither O{sub 2} redistribution nor an altered redox state explains impaired PHD activity in the absence of glucose. In order to affect PHD activity, glucose needs to be metabolized. Amino acids present in the medium also diminished HIF-1{alpha} expression, while the addition of fatty acids did not. This suggests that glucose or amino acid metabolism increases oxoglutarate concentrations, which enhances PHD activity in non-tumor cells. Tumor cells deprived of glutamine showed HIF-1{alpha} accumulation in the absence of glucose, proposing that enhanced glutaminolysis observed in many tumors enables these cells to compensate reduced oxoglutarate production in the absence of glucose.

  6. Targeting VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expressing non-tumor cells is essential for esophageal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Lam, Alfred K Y; Tsao, Sai Wah; Law, Simon Y K; Chan, Kwok Wah; Yuan, Qiu Ju; Cheung, Annie L M

    2015-01-30

    Increasing appreciation of tumor heterogeneity and the tumor-host interaction has stimulated interest in developing novel therapies that target both tumor cells and tumor microenvironment. Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) constitute important components of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we aim to investigate the significance of VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expressing non-tumor cells, including BMDCs, in esophageal cancer (EC) progression and in VEGFR1/VEGFR2-targeted therapies. Here we report that VEGFR1 or VEGFR2 blockade can significantly attenuate VEGF-induced Src and Erk signaling, as well as the proliferation and migration of VEGFR1⁺ and VEGFR2⁺ bone marrow cells and their pro-invasive effect on cancer cells. Importantly, our in vivo data show for the first time that systemic blockade of VEGFR1⁺ or VEGFR2⁺ non-tumor cells with neutralizing antibodies is sufficient to significantly suppress esophageal tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in mice. Moreover, our tissue microarray study of human EC clinical specimens showed the clinicopathological significance of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in EC, which suggest that anti-VEGFR1/VEGFR2 therapies may be particularly beneficial for patients with aggressive EC. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important contributions of VEGFR1⁺ and VEGFR2⁺ non-tumor cells in esophageal cancer progression, and substantiates the validity of these receptors as therapeutic targets for this deadly disease. PMID:25595897

  7. Targeting VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expressing non-tumor cells is essential for esophageal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Lam, Alfred KY; Tsao, Sai Wah; Law, Simon YK; Chan, Kwok Wah; Yuan, Qiu Ju; Cheung, Annie LM

    2015-01-01

    Increasing appreciation of tumor heterogeneity and the tumor-host interaction has stimulated interest in developing novel therapies that target both tumor cells and tumor microenvironment. Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) constitute important components of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we aim to investigate the significance of VEGFR1- and VEGFR2-expressing non-tumor cells, including BMDCs, in esophageal cancer (EC) progression and in VEGFR1/VEGFR2-targeted therapies. Here we report that VEGFR1 or VEGFR2 blockade can significantly attenuate VEGF-induced Src and Erk signaling, as well as the proliferation and migration of VEGFR1+ and VEGFR2+ bone marrow cells and their pro-invasive effect on cancer cells. Importantly, our in vivo data show for the first time that systemic blockade of VEGFR1+ or VEGFR2+ non-tumor cells with neutralizing antibodies is sufficient to significantly suppress esophageal tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in mice. Moreover, our tissue microarray study of human EC clinical specimens showed the clinicopathological significance of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in EC, which suggest that anti-VEGFR1/VEGFR2 therapies may be particularly beneficial for patients with aggressive EC. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important contributions of VEGFR1+ and VEGFR2+ non-tumor cells in esophageal cancer progression, and substantiates the validity of these receptors as therapeutic targets for this deadly disease. PMID:25595897

  8. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  9. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  10. Fusobacterium Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Ben D.; Lambert, Joelle M.; Gill, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

  11. Fusobacterium liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Ben D; Lambert, Joelle M; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-01-01

    Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

  12. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  13. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  14. Aberrant expression of peroxiredoxin 1 and its clinical implications in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Lin; Cai, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fang; Bi, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Hang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression characteristics of peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) mRNA and protein in liver cancer cell lines and tissues. METHODS: The RNA sequencing data from 374 patients with liver cancer were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The expression and clinical characteristics of PRDX1 mRNA were analyzed in this dataset. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis was performed to determine the relationship between PRDX1 levels and patient survival. Subcellular fractionation and Western blotting were used to demonstrate the expression of PRDX1 protein in six liver cancer cell lines and 29 paired fresh tissue specimens. After bioinformatics prediction, a putative post-translational modification form of PRDX1 was observed using immunofluorescence under confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation analysis in liver cancer cells. RESULTS: The mRNA of PRDX1 gene was upregulated about 1.3-fold in tumor tissue compared with the adjacent non-tumor control (P = 0.005). Its abundance was significantly higher in men than women (P < 0.001). High levels of PRDX1 mRNA were associated with a shorter overall survival time (P = 0.04) but not with recurrence-free survival. The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that patients with high PRDX1 mRNA showed about 1.9-fold increase of risk for death (P = 0.03). In liver cancer cells, PRDX1 protein was strongly expressed with multiple different bands. PRDX1 in the cytosol fraction existed near the theoretical molecular weight, whereas two higher molecular weight bands were present in the membrane/organelle and nuclear fractions. Importantly, the theoretical PRDX1 band was increased, whereas the high molecular weight form was decreased in tumor tissues. Subsequent experiments revealed that the high molecular weight bands of PRDX1 might result from the post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1). CONCLUSION: PRDX1 was overexpressed in the tumor tissues of liver cancer and served as an

  15. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to liver wellness. • There are more than 100 liver diseases. • Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of ... out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease. • Some liver diseases such as hepatitis A, hepatitis ...

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  1. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  2. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver ...

  3. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  4. Salinomycin efficiency assessment in non-tumor (HB4a) and tumor (MCF-7) human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Andressa Megumi; D Epiro, Gláucia Fernanda Rocha; Marques, Lilian Areal; Semprebon, Simone Cristine; Sartori, Daniele; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    The search for anticancer drugs has led researchers to study salinomycin, an ionophore antibiotic that selectively destroys cancer stem cells. In this study, salinomycin was assessed in two human cell lines, a breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and a non-tumor breast cell line (HB4a), to verify its selective action against tumor cells. Real-time assessment of cell proliferation showed that HB4a cells are more resistant to salinomycin than MCF-7 tumor cell line, and these data were confirmed in a cytotoxicity assay. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values show the increased sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to salinomycin. In the comet assay, only MCF-7 cells showed the induction of DNA damage. Flow cytometric analysis showed that cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was only induced in the MCF-7 cells. The increased expression of GADD45A and CDKN1A genes was observed in all cell lines. Decreased expression of CCNA2 and CCNB1 genes occurred only in tumor cells, suggesting G2/M cell cycle arrest. Consequently, cell death was activated in tumor cells through strong inhibition of the antiapoptotic genes BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BIRC5 genes in MCF-7 cells. These data demonstrate the selectivity of salinomycin in killing human mammary tumor cells. The cell death observed only in MCF-7 tumor cells was confirmed by gene expression analysis, where there was downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. These data contribute to clarifying the mechanism of action of salinomycin as a promising antitumor drug and, for the first time, we observed the higher resistance of HB4a non-tumor breast cells to salinomycin. PMID:26932586

  5. MicroRNA-375 targets Hippo-signaling effector YAP in liver cancer and inhibits tumor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Angela M.; Poon, Ronnie T.P.; Luk, John M.

    2010-04-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant form of liver cancer that ranks the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China and many Asia regions. The dismal outcome reflects the need for a better understanding of the transcriptional control of oncogenic signaling pathway. Our recent findings have identified yes-associated protein (YAP) is a potent oncogenic driver and independent prognostic risk factor of HCC. The present study aims to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of YAP targeted by microRNA (miRNA). miR-375 is a putative target and was found significantly down-regulated in the tumor versus adjacent non-tumor tissues of HCC patients (n = 48). As determined by luciferase reporter assay, we found ectopic expression of miR-375 could diminish the transcriptional activity of YAP. Furthermore, immunoblotting revealed miR-375 suppressed endogenous YAP protein level. Functional assays showed that miR-375 was able to inhibit proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. Conclusion: miR-375 is an important regulator of YAP oncogene, implicating a potential therapeutic role in HCC treatment.

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... series References Keefe EB. Hepatic failure and liver transplantation. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... 2011:chap 157. Martin P, Rosen HR. Liver transplantation. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  12. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  13. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed The biopsy helps diagnose many liver diseases . The procedure also helps assess the stage (early, advanced) of liver disease. This is especially important in hepatitis C infection. ...

  14. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  15. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ...

  16. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  17. Estrogen-related receptor γ is upregulated in liver cancer and its inhibition suppresses liver cancer cell proliferation via induction of p21 and p27

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Yu Na; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Sungwoo; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) regulates cell growth and tumorigenesis in various cancers. However, the clinical relevance of ERRγ to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here we examined the clinical significance of ERRγ in HCC and its potential as a therapeutic target. ERRγ levels in tissues from completely resected specimens from 190 HCC patients were examined immunohistochemically and their association with clinical stage and pathological grade was analyzed. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ERRγ (siRNA-ERRγ) or an ERRγ inverse agonist, GSK5182, were also used to examine the effects of ERRγ inhibition on the proliferation and growth of a human hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor tissues showed higher levels of ERRγ-positivity than adjacent non-tumor lesions. Tumors showing high levels of ERRγ immunoreactivity also had advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages and a higher Edmondson–Steiner grade. In addition, high-level expression of ERRγ in tumors of advanced TNM stage correlated with poorer overall survival. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 cells with siRNA-ERRγ or GSK5182 inhibited proliferation through G1 arrest, increased expression of p21 and p27 and decreased expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. GSK5182-induced reactive oxygen species also suppressed the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells. The present study showed that ERRγ expression is clinically significant in HCC; therefore, it can be considered a biomarker for HCC diagnosis. Moreover, the results provide a rationale for the use of ERRγ inhibitors such as GSK5182 as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:26940882

  18. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  19. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  20. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  1. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  2. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  3. Liver bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

  4. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  5. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  6. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search: Your Liver Liver Health and Wellness Recipes Liver Disease Information Patients & Families Caregiver's FAQ Become an Organ ... 2013 Liver Awareness Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Liver Tumors- Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Yin, Meng; Glockner, James F; Takahashi, Naoki; Araoz, Philip A; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Ehman, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the potential value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for characterizing solid liver tumors. Materials and Methods Forty-four liver tumors (metastases-14, hepatocellular carcinoma- 12, hemangioma-9, cholangiocarcinoma-5, focal nodular hyperplasia-3, and hepatic adenoma-1) were evaluated with MRE. MRE was performed on a 1.5 T scanner with a modified phase-contrast, gradient echo sequence to collect axial wave images sensitized along the through-plane motion direction. The tumors were identified in T2-, T1-weighted and gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images and the MRE images were obtained through the tumor. A stiffness map (elastogram) was generated by an automated process using an inversion algorithm. The mean shear stiffness of the tumor was calculated using a manually specified region of interest placed over the tumor in the stiffness map. The stiffness value of non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma was also calculated. Statistical analysis was performed on the stiffness values for differentiation between normal liver, fibrotic liver, benign tumors and malignant tumors. Results Malignant liver tumors had significantly higher mean shear stiffness than benign tumors, fibrotic liver and normal liver (10.1kPa vs. 2.7kpa (p<0.001), vs. 5.9kPa (p<0.001) and vs. 2.3kPa (p<0.001) respectively). Fibrotic livers had stiffness values overlapping both the benign and malignant tumors. Cut-off values of 5kPa accurately differentiate malignant tumors from benign tumors and normal liver parenchyma in this preliminary investigation. Conclusions MR elastography is a promising, non-invasive technique for assessing solid liver tumors. MRE may provide new, quantitative tissue characterization parameters for differentiating benign and malignant liver tumors. PMID:18492904

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  9. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver; the best test for detecting hepatitis Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) – an enzyme related to the bile ducts ... only moderately elevated or close to normal. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ALP may be significantly increased with obstructed ...

  10. Liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, E. J.; Iredale, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Liver fibrosis and its related complications continue to represent a significant worldwide healthcare burden. Over the past decade there has been considerable improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying hepatic fibrosis. This greater insight into the relevant basic sciences may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies designed to block the fibrogenic cascade or even enhance matrix degradation. In addition, there have been significant advances in the management of the complications of cirrhosis, with specific treatments now available for some conditions. Perhaps most notably, liver transplantation is now a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and should be considered in all patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:9683971

  11. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Risks for any anesthesia are: Problems breathing Reactions to medications Risks for any surgery are: Bleeding Heart attack or stroke Infection Liver transplant surgery and management after surgery carry major risks. There is ...

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  13. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  14. [Liver intervention].

    PubMed

    Oi, H

    2000-12-01

    Interventional radiology is now widely performed for the treatment of liver tumors, because surgery is sometimes limited by poor liver function. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipiodol TACE shows a strong antitumor effect because of the overflow of excess iodized oil into the portal veins, and segmental TACE is recommended to avoid deteriorating liver function. Selective CT arteriography is performed in order to decide on the treatment area, and TACE under CT guidance leads to effective results in terms of dense accumulation of the chemotherapeutic drug in the individual tumors that are affected by the ischemic state and anticancer drugs. Percutaneous microwave or radiofrequency coagulation therapy is adequate for a few of the hypovascular tumors. Excessive coagulation through the needle tract is indispensable in these therapies, and precisely designed puncture is necessary to minimize damage to the liver parenchyma. Selective chemotherapy to the tumor-bearing organ is the first step in a number of liver tumors. Continuous intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is performed for multiple liver metastases. The reservoir implantation technique is percutaneously achieved via the left subclavian artery under ultrasound guidance, without the exposure of an artery in the incision method, which can induce thrombus formation. PMID:11197832

  15. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  16. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  17. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  18. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  19. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  20. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Liver cancer stages Tests for liver cancer If you have some of the signs ... cancer has come back (recurred). Other blood tests Liver function tests (LFTs): Because liver cancer often develops ...

  1. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

  2. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  3. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  4. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  5. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  6. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  8. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  14. Cytotoxicity of Agaricus sylvaticus in non-tumor cells (NIH/3T3) and tumor (OSCC-3) using tetrazolium (MTT) assay.

    PubMed

    Orsine, Joice Vinhal Costa; Marques Brito, Luíssa; Silva, Renata Carvalho; Santos Almeida, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effect of the non-fractionated aqueous extract of A. sylvaticus mushroom in cultures of non-tumor cells (NIH3T3) and tumor cells (OSCC-3). The cells were maintained in DMEN cell culture medium added of 10% of fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic. For the cytotoxicity test we prepared the aqueous mushroom extract at concentrations of 0.01 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.02 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.04 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.08 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.16 mg.ml⁻¹, and 0.32 mg.ml⁻¹. For the culture, 2 x 10⁵ cells/ml was deposited in 96-well microplates during 24 hour incubation with subsequent exchange of medium by another containing the mushroom concentrations. After 24 hour incubation the medium was discarded and 100 ml of tetrazolium blue (MTT) was added at a concentration of 5 mg.ml⁻¹. The microplates were incubated for 2 h at 37° C. Spectrophotometric analysis was performed using 570 nm wavelength. From the values of the optical densities we determined the drug concentration capable of reducing cell viability by 50%. Therefore, the mushroom A. sylvaticus, at all concentrations tested, did not show cytotoxic effects, once the inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) obtained for tumor cells OSCC-3 was 0.06194 mg.ml⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ checked for non-tumor cells NIH3T3 was 0,06468 mg.ml⁻¹. This test made it possible to determine that A. sylvaticus mushroom has no cytotoxic effects, suggesting its use safe for human consumption. PMID:23889648

  15. Post-mortem testing; germline BRCA1/2 variant detection using archival FFPE non-tumor tissue. A new paradigm in genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Aagaard, Mads Malik; Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Accurate estimation of cancer risk in HBOC families often requires BRCA1/2 testing, but this may be impossible in deceased family members. Previous, testing archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for germline BRCA1/2 variants was unsuccessful, except for the Jewish founder mutations. A high-throughput method to systematically test for variants in all coding regions of BRCA1/2 in archival FFPE samples of non-tumor tissue is described, using HaloPlex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing. In a validation study, correct identification of variants or wild-type was possible in 25 out of 30 (83%) FFPE samples (age range 1-14 years), with a known variant status in BRCA1/2. No false positive was found. Unsuccessful identification was due to highly degraded DNA or presence of large intragenic deletions. In clinical use, a total of 201 FFPE samples (aged 0-43 years) were processed. Thirty-six samples were rejected because of highly degraded DNA or failed library preparation. Fifteen samples were investigated to search for a known variant. In the remaining 150 samples (aged 0-38 years), three variants known to affect function and one variant likely to affect function in BRCA1, six variants known to affect function and one variant likely to affect function in BRCA2, as well as four variants of unknown significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and three VUS in BRCA2 were discovered. It is now possible to test for germline BRCA1/2 variants in deceased persons, using archival FFPE samples from non-tumor tissue. Accurate genetic counseling is achievable in families where variant testing would otherwise be impossible. PMID:26733283

  16. Liver segmentation for CT images using GVF snake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Fan; Zhao Binsheng; Kijewski, Peter K.; Wang Liang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2005-12-15

    Accurate liver segmentation on computed tomography (CT) images is a challenging task especially at sites where surrounding tissues (e.g., stomach, kidney) have densities similar to that of the liver and lesions reside at the liver edges. We have developed a method for semiautomatic delineation of the liver contours on contrast-enhanced CT images. The method utilizes a snake algorithm with a gradient vector flow (GVF) field as its external force. To improve the performance of the GVF snake in the segmentation of the liver contour, an edge map was obtained with a Canny edge detector, followed by modifications using a liver template and a concavity removal algorithm. With the modified edge map, for which unwanted edges inside the liver were eliminated, the GVF field was computed and an initial liver contour was formed. The snake algorithm was then applied to obtain the actual liver contour. This algorithm was extended to segment the liver volume in a slice-by-slice fashion, where the result of the preceding slice constrained the segmentation of the adjacent slice. 551 two-dimensional liver images from 20 volumetric images with colorectal metastases spreading throughout the livers were delineated using this method, and also manually by a radiologist for evaluation. The difference ratio, which is defined as the percentage ratio of mismatching volume between the computer and the radiologist's results, ranged from 2.9% to 7.6% with a median value of 5.3%.

  17. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  18. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  19. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  20. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  1. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  2. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  3. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  4. Metabolic liver disease.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Pat

    2012-06-01

    Diagnosis of metabolic liver disease requires a high level of diagnostic suspicion. Diet is usually the primary treatment for metabolic liver disease. Where indicated, liver transplantation provides lifelong functional correction of liver-based metabolic defects. Liver cell therapy warrants further study for the future treatment of metabolic liver disease. All families should receive genetic advice and pre-emptive management of future affected siblings. PMID:22521124

  5. TNF-{alpha} similarly induces IL-6 and MCP-1 in fibroblasts from colorectal liver metastases and normal liver fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Lars; Seggern, Lena von; Schumacher, Jennifer; Goumas, Freya; Wilms, Christian; Braun, Felix; Broering, Dieter C.

    2010-07-02

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the predominant cell type of the neoplastic stroma of solid tumors, yet their biology and functional specificity for cancer pathogenesis remain unclear. We show here that primary CAFs from colorectal liver metastases express several inflammatory, tumor-enhancing factors, including interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Both molecules were intensely induced by TNF-{alpha} on the transcript and protein level, whereas PDGF-BB, TGF-{beta}1 and EGF showed no significant effects. To verify their potential specialization for metastasis progression, CAFs were compared to fibroblasts from non-tumor liver tissue. Interestingly, these liver fibroblasts (LFs) displayed similar functions. Further analyses revealed a comparable up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by TNF-{alpha}, and of alpha-smooth muscle actin, by TGF-{beta}1. Moreover, the proliferation of both cell types was induced by PDGF-BB, and CAFs and LFs displayed an equivalent migration towards HT29 colon cancer cells in Boyden chamber assays. In conclusion, colorectal liver metastasis may be supported by CAFs and resident fibroblastic cells competent to generate a prometastatic microenvironment through inflammatory activation of IL-6 and MCP-1.

  6. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  7. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  8. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  9. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  11. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  12. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  13. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. PMID:27373614

  14. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  15. [Surgical margin status in hepatectomy for liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Salloum, C; Castaing, D

    2008-12-01

    It is admitted that only complete tumor clearance with negative surgical margins provides benefit for patients undergoing surgery for hepatobiliary malignancies. For hepatocellular carcinoma, since micrometastases disseminate via portal venous branches, anatomic resection is preferred over non-anatomic resection in liver resection carried out with curative intent. Thus, an anatomic liver resection with a wider resection margin theoretically gives a higher potential for cure. However, preserving non-tumorous liver parenchyma is an important consideration, especially in cirrhotic liver resection to decrease the incidence of postoperative liver failure. The optimal liver resection margin is still controversial. It seems that a resection margin of 2 cm is associated with a decreased postoperative recurrence rate and improved survival outcomes especially for hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. CT Imaging Findings after Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Olga R.; Thornton, Eavan; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Mahadevan, Anand; Raptopoulos, Vassilious; Brook, Alexander; Najarian, Robert; Sheiman, Robert; Siewert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study radiological response to stereotactic radiotherapy for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study CTs of 68 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy for liver tumors between 01/2006 and 01/2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated lesion volume and enhancement pattern of the lesion and of juxtaposed liver parenchyma. Results. 36 subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 25 with liver metastases, and seven with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) were included in study. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 7.1 months for HCC, 6.4 ± 5.1 months for metastases, and 10.1 ± 4.8 months for the CCC. Complete response was seen in 4/36 (11.1%) HCCs and 1/25 (4%) metastases. Partial response (>30% decrease in long diameter) was seen in 25/36 (69%) HCCs, 14/25 (58%) metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Partial response followed by local recurrence (>20% increase in long diameter from nadir) occurred in 2/36 (6%) HCCs and 4/25 (17%) metastases. Liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion demonstrated a prominent halo of delayed enhancement in 27/36 (78%) of HCCs, 19/21 (91%) of metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Conclusion. Sustainable radiological partial response to stereotactic radiotherapy is most frequent outcome seen in liver lesions. Prominent halo of delayed enhancement of the adjacent liver is frequent finding. PMID:26221135

  17. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  18. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure. PMID:25951555

  19. Liver disease in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. PMID:26167064

  20. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients. PMID:25009372

  1. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  2. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  5. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  8. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  11. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  17. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  18. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  19. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  20. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  6. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  8. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  9. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  10. Managing synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a multidisciplinary international consensus.

    PubMed

    Adam, René; de Gramont, Aimery; Figueras, Joan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kunstlinger, Francis; Loyer, Evelyne; Poston, Graeme; Rougier, Philippe; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Sobrero, Alberto; Teh, Catherine; Tejpar, Sabine; Van Cutsem, Eric; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Påhlman, Lars

    2015-11-01

    An international panel of multidisciplinary experts convened to develop recommendations for managing patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (CRCLM). A modified Delphi method was used. CRCLM is defined as liver metastases detected at or before diagnosis of the primary CRC. Early and late metachronous metastases are defined as those detected ⩽12months and >12months after surgery, respectively. To provide information on potential curability, use of high-quality contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before chemotherapy is recommended. Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used preoperatively to aid detection of subcentimetric metastases, and alongside CT in difficult situations. To evaluate operability, radiology should provide information on: nodule size and number, segmental localization and relationship with major vessels, response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, non-tumoral liver condition and anticipated remnant liver volume. Pathological evaluation should assess response to preoperative chemotherapy for both the primary tumour and metastases, and provide information on the tumour, margin size and micrometastases. Although the treatment strategy depends on the clinical scenario, the consensus was for chemotherapy before surgery in most cases. When the primary CRC is asymptomatic, liver surgery may be performed first (reverse approach). When CRCLM are unresectable, the goal of preoperative chemotherapy is to downsize tumours to allow resection. Hepatic resection should not be denied to patients with stable disease after optimal chemotherapy, provided an adequate liver remnant with inflow and outflow preservation remains. All patients with synchronous CRCLM should be evaluated by a hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team. PMID:26417845

  11. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  12. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Cod liver oil might slow blood clotting. Taking cod liver oil along with medications that ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American men, have an increased ...

  14. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Gastroenterological Association. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and ...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood count (CBC) Liver biopsy Liver function tests Coagulation studies Tests to rule out other diseases include: ... over-the-counter medicines. MEDICINES FROM YOUR DOCTOR "Water pills" (diuretics) to get rid of fluid build- ...

  16. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Liver failure causes many problems, including malnutrition, problems with blood clotting, bleeding form the gastrointestinal tract, and jaundice. Frequently, patients who undergo liver transplantation are quite ill, and require ...

  17. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  18. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet helps ...

  19. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider diagnose ...

  20. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  1. Liver angioscintigraphy: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dragoteanu, Mircea; Cotul, Sabin O; Pîgleşan, Cecilia; Tamaş, Stefan

    2004-03-01

    Liver angioscintigraphy (LAS) is a radio-isotope method for the investigation of liver perfusion and its alteration in various hepatic diseases. It measures the arterial and portal venous fractions of total liver blood flow. The percentage of liver blood flow supplied by hepatic artery is estimated mathematically by the hepatic perfusion index (HPI), normally between 25 % and 40 %. The decrease of portal blood flow in liver cirrhosis is compensated ("buffer" mechanisms) by increased arterial supply, with higher HPI value. For a patient with chronic liver disease, HPI over 50% suggests arterialization of hepatic perfusion, guiding the diagnose to liver cirrhosis. Splenic curve is completing the diagnostic information of the hepatic curve. Corroborated with per rectal scintigraphy and liver SPECT, LAS offers a good hemodynamic staging of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. Malignant tumors (primitive or metastases) increase the arterial supply of the liver and decrease the portal flow, HPI being over 50% (currently 65 % - 90 %). Benign tumors do not change portal/arterial liver blood flow ratio. SPECT or non-scintigraphic morphological investigations increase the diagnostic value of LAS for primitive liver tumors. Liver cancer occurring on cirrhosis is a limitative factor for LAS. Hepatic metastases increase the arterial perfusion (and HPI value) very quickly, before their size allows morphologic imaging diagnosis. LAS is therefore an early method to diagnose liver metastases being especially used in colorectal cancer. Other clinical applications of LAS are: follow up of liver toxicity of drugs, evaluation of portal vein permeability, post surgery follow up of the liver tumor patients. PMID:15054528

  2. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  3. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  4. Oncolytic virotherapy for advanced liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju-Fang; Chen, Pei-Jer; Sze, Daniel Y; Reid, Tony; Bartlett, David; Kirn, David H; Liu, Ta-Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Primary and metastatic neoplasms of the liver account for more than a million deaths per year worldwide. Despite decades of research, effective novel therapies for these cancers are urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapeutics represent a novel class of pharmacophore that holds promise for the treatment of hepatic neoplasms. Cancer-specific replication is followed by oncolysis, virus spreading and infection of adjacent cancer cells. This process is then repeated. Virotherapeutics target multiple genetic pathways involved in carcino-genesis, and demonstrate activity against apoptosis-resistant tumour cells. This platform can also exploit the advantage of multiple intrinsic anti-cancer therapeutic mechanisms, combining direct viral oncolysis with therapeutic transgene expression. Recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical studies are revealing the potential of this unique therapeutic class, in particular for liver cancers. This review summarizes the available data on applying oncolytic virotherapeutics to hepatic neoplasms to date, and discusses the challenges and future directions for virotherapy. PMID:19175689

  5. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Bataller, Ramón; Burra, Patrizia; DiMartini, Andrea; Graziadei, Ivo; Lucey, Michael R; Mathurin, Philippe; OʼGrady, John; Pageaux, Georges; Berenguer, Marina

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol-related liver disease is the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation (LT), yet as many as 90% to 95% of patients with alcohol-related end-stage liver disease are never formally evaluated for LT. Furthermore, despite its significance as a cause of chronic liver disease and indication for LT, it has received little attention in recent years for several reasons, including the good posttransplant short-term results, and the lack of specific "drugs" used for this disease. A writing group, endorsed by the International Liver Transplant Society, was convened to write guidelines on Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease to summarize current knowledge and provide answers to controversial and delicate ethical as well as clinical problems. We report here a short version of the guidelines (long version available at www.ilts.org) with the final recommendations graded for level of evidence. The writing group membership is expected to remain active for 5 years, reviewing the guideline annually, and updating the online version when appropriate. PMID:26985744

  6. Acute liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the presence of coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ≥ 1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy due to severe liver damage in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Although the mortality due to ALF without liver transplantation is over 80%, the survival rates of patients have considerably improved with the advent of liver transplantation, up to 60% to 90% in the last two decades. Recent large studies in Western countries reported 1, 5, and 10-year patient survival rates after liver transplantation for ALF of approximately 80%, 70%, and 65%, respectively. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has mainly evolved in Asian countries where organ availability from deceased donors is extremely scarce, has also improved the survival rate of ALF patients in these regions. According to recent reports, the overall survival rate of adult ALF patients who underwent LDLT ranges from 60% to 90%. Although there is still controversy regarding the graft type, optimal graft volume, and ethical issues, LDLT has become an established treatment option for ALF in areas where the use of deceased donor organs is severely restricted. PMID:25343108

  7. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  8. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  9. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  10. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  11. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  12. [Tumours and liver transplants].

    PubMed

    Mejzlík, Vladimír; Husová, Libuše; Kuman, Milan; Štěpánková, Soňa; Ondrášek, Jiří; Němec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation as a curative treatment method can be used for selected primary liver tumours, in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma and rather rare semi-malignant tumours such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, further for infiltration of liver by metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (provided that metastases are only located in the liver and the primary tumour was removed) and for benign tumours (hemangiomas and adenomas) with oppression symptoms and size progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is not indicated for liver transplantation at the CKTCH Brno. In recent years liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma have increased and hepatocellular carcinoma has also been more frequently found ex post, in the explanted livers. Liver transplantation is indicated in selected patients with a good chance of long-term survival after liver transplantation (a generally accepted limit is 5 year survival of 50 % after transplantation). By 20 March 2015 there were liver transplants carried out on 38 patients - in 25 of them was hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed before transplantation and in 13 it was found in the liver explants. 5 year survival following transplantation is reached by 53 % of this cohort. 32 % patients suffered from chronic hepatitis C. The longest surviving (32 years) patient at CKTCH Brno had liver transplanted for a big fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, which points to the prognostic significance of tumour histology: the criterion only considered in some indication schemes for practical reasons. Benign liver tumours (adenomatosis, cystadenoma, hemangioma with oppression symptoms) are rather rare indications and the transplantation results are favourable. 4 patients underwent transplantation for infiltration of liver by carcinoid, tumour recurrence occurred in one. PMID:26375706

  13. GSK-3β signaling determines autophagy activation in the breast tumor cell line MCF7 and inclusion formation in the non-tumor cell line MCF10A in response to proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, E; Sánchez-Aguayo, I; Daza, P; Ruano, D

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system and the autophagy–lysosome pathway are the two main mechanisms for eukaryotic intracellular protein degradation. Proteasome inhibitors are used for the treatment of some types of cancer, whereas autophagy seems to have a dual role in tumor cell survival and death. However, the relationship between both pathways has not been extensively studied in tumor cells. We have investigated both proteolytic systems in the human epithelial breast non-tumor cell line MCF10A and in the human epithelial breast tumor cell line MCF7. In basal condition, tumor cells showed a lower proteasome function but a higher autophagy activity when compared with MCF10A cells. Importantly, proteasome inhibition (PI) leads to different responses in both cell types. Tumor cells showed a dose-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)β inhibition, a huge increase in the expression of the transcription factor CHOP and an active processing of caspase-8. By contrast, MCF10A cells fully activated GSK-3β and showed a lower expression of both CHOP and processed caspase-8. These molecular differences were reflected in a dose-dependent autophagy activation and cell death in tumor cells, while non-tumor cells exhibited the formation of inclusion bodies and a decrease in the cell death rate. Importantly, the behavior of the MCF7 cells can be reproduced in MCF10A cells when GSK-3β and the proteasome were simultaneously inhibited. Under this situation, MCF10A cells strongly activated autophagy, showing minimal inclusion bodies, increased CHOP expression and cell death rate. These findings support GSK-3β signaling as a key mechanism in regulating autophagy activation or inclusion formation in human tumor or non-tumor breast cells, respectively, which may shed new light on breast cancer control. PMID:23559006

  14. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  16. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  17. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  20. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  2. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  7. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  11. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  13. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  14. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  15. [Liver and drug metabolism].

    PubMed

    Mikheeva, O M

    2011-01-01

    Liver metabolism aims to change the biological activity of drugs to make them water-soluble to be excreted with bile and urine. The degree of metabolism depends on fermentative capacity for each drag (P450 fermentative system is localized in microsomal fraction of hepatocyte). Metabolism ability also changes under the influence of other substances. Liver diseases lead up to decrease of drug clirens and to increase the semi-excretion time because of reduction of liver metabolism. Therefore the drags usually undergoing intensive liver metabolism necessitate a high risk of overdose when liver diseases present. On the other hand no risk of overdose exist when drags with low liver metabolism are used. PMID:21560652

  16. Liver transplantation in India.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Kota, Venugopal; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Liver transplantation as an established form of treatment for end-stage liver disease has gained acceptance in India over the last 10 years. Liver transplantation in India has unique features that have contributed to the growth of both deceased donor and living donor transplantations of which living donor currently dominates the picture. Living donor contributes to 80% and deceased donor to 20% of the liver transplants currently performed in India. The majority of these transplants are performed within the private sector with public sector hospitals lagging behind significantly. This article gives an overview of the evolution of liver transplantation in India and the potential future challenges. Liver Transplantation 22 1019-1024 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082718

  17. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  18. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  19. Nuclear receptor CAR-regulated expression of the FAM84A gene during the development of mouse liver tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Saito, Kosuke; Takizawa, Daichi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR is a phenobarbital (PB)-activated transcription factor. Using a mouse model of two-step liver tumorigenesis, in which tumor growth was initiated by diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and promoted by chronic treatment with PB, we previously demonstrated that tumors developed only in the presence of CAR. Here, we have identified the FAM84A (family with sequence similarity 84, member A) gene as a CAR-regulated gene that is over-expressed during development of phenobarbital-promoted mouse liver tumors. FAM84A mRNA was induced in the liver of DEN/PB-treated mice prior to the development of liver tumors and this induction continued in the non-tumor as well as tumor tissues of a tumor-bearing liver. Western blotting demonstated that FAM84A protein expression increased in mouse liver after PB treatment; however, the FAM84A protein in liver and liver tumors was not phosphorylated at the serine 38 residue, which has been reported to correlate with morphological changes in cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed the cytoplasmic localization of FAM84A protein and its expression during tumor development in normal tissues (especially in hepatocytes around the central vein), eosinophilic foci, adenomas and carcinomas. HepG2 cell-based reporter assays indicated that CAR activated the FAM84A promoter. Exogenous over-expression of FAM84A in HepG2 cells resulted in increased cell migration. The physiological function of FAM84A remains unknown, but our results suggest that FAM84A is up-regulated by CAR during the development of liver tumors, and may play an important role in the progression of liver cancer by increasing cell migration. PMID:21424122

  20. Statins and the Liver.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Cynthia; Bahrainy, Samira; Gill, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    Lipid lowering, particularly with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins"), reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with chronic liver disease present challenges to the use of lipid medications. In the case of most liver disorders, the concern has been one of safety. There is evidence that most lipid-lowering medications can be used safely in many situations, although large outcomes trials are lacking. This review examines lipid physiology and cardiovascular risk in specific liver diseases and reviews the evidence for lipid lowering and the use of statins in chronic liver disease. PMID:26893001

  1. A new iterative method for liver segmentation from perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draoua, Ahmed; Albouy-Kissi, Adélaïde; Vacavant, Antoine; Sauvage, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and the majority of patients with liver cancer will die within one year as a result of the cancer. Liver segmentation in the abdominal area is critical for diagnosis of tumor and for surgical procedures. Moreover, it is a challenging task as liver tissue has to be separated from adjacent organs and substantially the heart. In this paper we present a novel liver segmentation iterative method based on Fuzzy C-means (FCM) coupled with a fast marching segmentation and mutual information. A prerequisite for this method is the determination of slice correspondences between ground truth that is, a few images segmented by an expert, and images that contain liver and heart at the same time.

  2. Human Liver Progenitor Cells for Liver Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine A.; Prigent, Julie; Sokal, Etienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high proliferative capacity, resistance to cryopreservation, and ability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, stem and progenitor cells have recently emerged as attractive cell sources for liver cell therapy, a technique used as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of various hepatic ailments ranging from metabolic disorders to end-stage liver disease. Although stem and progenitor cells have been isolated from various tissues, obtaining them from the liver could be an advantage for the treatment of hepatic disorders. However, the techniques available to isolate these stem/progenitor cells are numerous and give rise to cell populations with different morphological and functional characteristics. In addition, there is currently no established consensus on the tests that need to be performed to ensure the quality and safety of these cells when used clinically. The purpose of this review is to describe the different types of liver stem/progenitor cells currently reported in the literature, discuss their suitability and limitations in terms of clinical applications, and examine how the culture and transplantation techniques can potentially be improved to achieve a better clinical outcome. PMID:26858860

  3. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  6. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  8. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  9. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  10. Liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pirenne, J; Aerts, R; Yoong, K; Gunson, B; Koshiba, T; Fourneau, I; Mayer, D; Buckels, J; Mirza, D; Roskams, T; Elias, E; Nevens, F; Fevery, J; McMaster, P

    2001-03-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) may provoke massive hepatomegaly and severe physical and social handicaps. Data on orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for PLD are rare and conflicting. Conservative surgery (resection or fenestration) is indicated for large single cysts, but its value for small diffuse cysts is questionable. In addition, conservative surgery is not devoid of morbidity and mortality. OLT offers the prospect of a fully curative treatment, but controversy remains because those patients usually have preserved liver function. Thus, we reviewed our experience with OLT for PLD. Sixteen adult women underwent OLT for small diffuse PLD between 1990 and 1999. Mean age was 45 years (range, 34 to 56 years). Fourteen patients had combined liver and kidney cystic disease, but only 1 patient required combined liver and kidney transplantation, whereas 13 patients underwent OLT alone. Two patients had isolated PLD. Indications for transplantation were massive hepatomegaly causing physical handicaps (n = 16), social handicaps (n = 16), malnutrition (n = 4), and cholestasis and/or portal hypertension (n = 5). OLT caused no technical difficulty in 15 of 16 patients (surgery duration, 6.8 hours; range, 5 to 8 hours), with blood transfusions of 7.9 units (range, 0 to 22 units). One patient who underwent attempted liver-mass reduction pre-OLT died of bleeding and pulmonary emboli. Native liver weight was 10 to 20 kg. Posttransplantation immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine or FK506, azathioprine, and steroids (discontinued at 3 months). Morbidity included biliary stricture (2 patients), revision for bleeding and hepatitis (1 patient), pneumothorax and subphrenic collection (1 patient), and tracheostomy (1 patient). One patient died of lung cancer 6 years posttransplantation. Both patient and graft survival rates are 87.5% (follow-up, 3 months to 9 years). Of 15 patients who underwent OLT alone, only 1 patient needed a kidney transplant 4 years after OLT. Kidney

  11. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan; Dick, Travis B; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in the general population and a growing indication for liver transplant. Longer wait times and challenges with pretransplant survivorship are expected, underscoring the need for improved management of attendant comorbidities. Recognition with potential modification of obesity, sarcopenia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease in patients with NAFLD may have important implications in the pretransplant and posttransplant periods. Although patients with NAFLD have generally favorable postoperative outcomes, they are at risk for developing recurrent disease in their allograft, driving the need for pharmacotherapies and dietary innovations appropriate for use in the posttransplant period. PMID:27063277

  12. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  13. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both of ...

  14. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

  15. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  16. Nutrition and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Teran, J C

    1999-08-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients with liver diseases. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in cirrhosis involves many factors, including poor oral intake, malabsorption, and metabolic abnormalities similar to stress. Encephalopathy may complicate cirrhosis but is usually not caused by diet. Protein restriction is only necessary in rare patients with refractory encephalopathy. The use of branched-chain amino-acid solutions is not supported by the literature. Chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis are not usually associated with protein-energy malnutrition, but vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common, especially with significant cholestasis. Fatty liver may result from excessive triglyceride uptake and production by the liver or by a secretory defect. Therapy for fatty liver depends on its cause. Chronic total parenteral nutrition may induce fatty liver and inflammation especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome. Deficiency of choline in parenteral nutrition has been proposed as the mechanism for liver disease. Acute liver diseases such as fulminant hepatic failure or alcoholic hepatitis are considered hypercatabolic diseases and thus require prompt nutritional intervention with a high-calorie enteral or parenteral formula. In fulminant hepatic failure, low-protein, fluid-restricted formulas are recommended. PMID:10980970

  17. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  18. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  19. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. PMID:24951302

  20. VEGF levels and the angiogenic potential of the microenvironment can affect surgical strategy for colorectal liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Eveno, Clarisse; Pocard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The hypotheses emerging from basic research on colorectal liver metastases must be tested in clinical situations for the adaptation of current treatment strategies. Pre-metastatic niches have been shown to exist in human colorectal synchronous metastases, with the liver parenchyma adjacent to the synchronous liver metastases providing a favorable, angiogenic environment for metastatic tumor growth. The role of the VEGF signaling pathway in liver regeneration and tumor growth remains unclear, but the use of antiangiogenic agents in combination with surgical treatment is almost certainly beneficial. PMID:23257830

  1. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  2. Proteoglycans in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  3. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  4. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  5. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  6. Compression of adjacent anatomical structures by pulmonary artery dilation.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients' characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  7. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  8. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-01

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R. PMID:26033441

  9. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  10. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  11. Infrared spectroscopic imaging detects chemical modifications in liver fibrosis due to diabetes and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K.; Gambacorta, Francesca V.; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of stroma as a rich diagnostic region in tissue biopsies is growing as there is an increasing understanding that disease processes in multiple organs can affect the composition of adjacent connective tissue regions. This may be especially true in the liver, since this organ’s central metabolic role exposes it to multiple disease processes. We use quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopic imaging to study changes in the chemical status of hepatocytes and fibrotic regions of liver tissue that result from the progression of liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma and the potentially confounding effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27375956

  12. Infrared spectroscopic imaging detects chemical modifications in liver fibrosis due to diabetes and disease.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Gambacorta, Francesca V; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    The importance of stroma as a rich diagnostic region in tissue biopsies is growing as there is an increasing understanding that disease processes in multiple organs can affect the composition of adjacent connective tissue regions. This may be especially true in the liver, since this organ's central metabolic role exposes it to multiple disease processes. We use quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopic imaging to study changes in the chemical status of hepatocytes and fibrotic regions of liver tissue that result from the progression of liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma and the potentially confounding effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27375956

  13. Capecitabine-related liver lesions: sinusoidal dilatation mimicking liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Groom, Katherine; Penna, Marta; Arul, Dhili; Steward, Michael; Leonard, Pauline; Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    A 30-year-old lady treated with capecitabine for primary colon adenocarcinoma developed liver lesions suspicious for metastasis. Liver biopsies showed sinusoidal dilatation thought to be secondary to capecitabine. This case highlights the importance of differentiating between benign and malignant liver lesions during cancer surveillance preventing unnecessary liver resections for benign disease. PMID:27398193

  14. Infections in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Nanchal, Rahul S; Ahmad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    Infectious complications are common occurrences in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Frequent infections precipitate decompensation of liver disease leading to acute or chronic liver failure, organ dysfunction, de-listing from transplant, and major morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of microorganisms has shifted with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, which has major implications for both therapy and prophylaxis. Cirrhosis is often associated with an underlying noninfectious systemic inflammatory state that makes diagnosis of infections particularly challenging. Adequate resuscitation and timely administration of appropriate antibiotics are pivotal to improved outcomes from infections in ESLD. PMID:27339680

  15. Imaging of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariff, Ben; Lloyd, Claire R; Khan, Sameer; Shariff, Mohamed; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Bansi, Devinder S; Khan, Shahid A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Lim, Adrian KP

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identification and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality. PMID:19294758

  16. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  17. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  18. Managing alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease continues to be a significant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A number of diagnostic and prognostic models have been developed in the management of this condition, although specific roles for liver biopsy still remain particularly in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis. Despite a large number of recent treatment trials, the ideal pharmacotherapy approach remains undefined. Most essential is the supportive care and focus on abstinence and nutrition. Owing in part to a great deal of attention from governmental funding sources, a number of new treatment approaches are undergoing rigorous evaluation, hopefully providing future treatment options in this very severe condition. PMID:26523266

  19. Liver Transplantation for Cholestatic Liver Diseases in Adults.

    PubMed

    Khungar, Vandana; Goldberg, David Seth

    2016-02-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an established lifesaving therapy for patients with cholestatic liver diseases, including primary cholestatic diseases, namely primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as secondary forms of cholestatic liver disease, including those with cholestatic complications of LT needing a retransplant. Patients with cholestatic liver diseases can be transplanted for complications of end-stage liver disease or for disease-specific symptoms before the onset of end-stage liver disease. These patients should be regularly assessed. Patient survival after LT for cholestatic liver diseases is generally better than for other indications. PMID:26593299

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, Bcl-2, COX-2, C-erb-B2, EPO-R, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin in non tumoral gastric mucous membrane.

    PubMed

    Sereno, M; García-Cabezas, M A; De Castro, J; Cejas, P; Saenz, E Casado; Belda-Iniesta, C; Feijoo, J Barriuso; Larrauri, J; Nistal, M; Baron, M Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    Different authors have investigated the immunohistochemical expression of some proteins in the adenocarcinoma of the stomach, including cell cycle regulators proteins like p53 and Bcl-2; growth factors (c-erb-B2 and EPO-R); angiogenesis-related markers such as COX-2 and cellular adhesion molecules (beta-catenin and E-cadherin). While these proteins have been studied in gastric adenocarcinoma, their immunophenotyping in non tumoral gastric mucous membrane remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the expression, function and behavior of these proteins in normal gastric mucous membrane to contribute to gain further knowledge on the significance of their loss or overexpression in malignant gastric tumors. PMID:17213037

  1. Liver Transplantation for Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Narendra S; Kumar, Naveen; Saigal, Sanjiv; Rai, Rahul; Saraf, Neeraj; Soin, Arvinder S

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common indication for liver transplantation. It is a much debated indication for deceased donor liver transplantation due to organ shortage and potential of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. A six-month abstinence before liver transplantation is required at most centers to decrease chances of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. However, this rule is not relevant for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis or severely decompensated patients who are unlikely to survive till 6 months. Long-term care of these patients after liver transplantation includes assessment of relapse, smoking, and surveillance of de novo malignancies. Current review discusses role of abstinence, factors affecting alcohol relapse, liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis, role of living donor liver transplantation, and long-term care of ALD patients who undergo liver transplantation. PMID:27194896

  2. Image registration using a weighted region adjacency graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Muhannad; Fisher, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Image registration is an important problem for image processing and computer vision with many proposed applications in medical image analysis.1, 2 Image registration techniques attempt to map corresponding features between two images. The problem is particularly difficult as anatomy is subject to elastic deformations. This paper considers this problem in the context of graph matching. Firstly, weighted Region Adjacency Graphs (RAGs) are constructed from each image using an approach based on watershed saliency. 3 The vertices of the RAG represent salient regions in the image and the (weighted) edges represent the relationship (bonding) between each region. Correspondences between images are then determined using a weighted graph matching method. Graph matching is considered to be one of the most complex problems in computer vision, due to its combinatorial nature. Our approach uses a multi-spectral technique to graph matching first proposed by Umeyama4 to find an approximate solution to the weighted graph matching problem (WGMP) based on the singular value decomposition of the adjacency matrix. Results show the technique is successful in co-registering 2-D MRI images and the method could be useful in co-registering 3-D volumetric data (e.g. CT, MRI, SPECT, PET etc.).

  3. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  4. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  5. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  6. Right adrenal gland neuroblastoma infiltrating the liver and mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Elenain, Ahmed; Naiem, Yousif; Hamedhosam-eldin@hotmail.com, Hosam; Emam, Mohamed; Elkashef, Wagdi; AbdelRafee, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid pediatric malignancy. The most common site is abdomen with predominance of suprarenal medulla. Infiltration of the tumour to the liver is rare. No cases were reported in the literature about the misdiagnosis of neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma in the liver. Presentation of case We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma misdiagnosed as mesenchymal hamartoma in liver in a six-month-old female infant presented with fever and abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed large cystic lesion occupying most of the right liver enchroaching upon right suprarenal region and displacing the right kidney inferior suggestive for mesenchymal hamartoma. Right adrenalectomy with en-bloc resection of the adjacent liver segments was done. Postoperative pathology revealed neuroblastoma with positive specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). Discussion Although neuroblastoma is the second most common pediatric abdominal malignancy with specific diagnostic modalities, a misdiagnosis of a case with neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma is rare. Histopathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma with positive IHC is essential as shown in our case. Conclusion We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma which arose from the right adrenal gland and infiltrated the adjacent liver substance mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver. Neuroblastoma is rarely presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Neuroblastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal mass in all infants and children. PMID:26036461

  7. Pregnancy after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlo B; Doria, Cataldo

    2014-11-01

    Women constitute >30% of patients undergoing liver transplantation (orthotopic liver transplantation, OLT) and about 8% are of reproductive age, and 5% are pediatric females who will mostly survive into adulthood and will consider pregnancy. Although pregnancy in OLT recipients is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, preeclampsia, anemia, preterm deliveries, and cesarean section, acute rejection and liver allograft loss do not appear to be increased and pregnancy-related maternal death is uncommon. The incidence of structural malformations in the newborn of liver transplant recipients is reported to be 4.4%, which is similar to the rate of 3-5% in the US general population. Patients are advised to defer conception for at least 1-2 years after OLT, while maintaining effective contraception. Pregnancy after OLT usually results in a favorable maternal and neonatal outcome when there is coordinated pre- and perinatal care by a multidisciplinary team composed of obstetric-gynecologists, and a transplant team. PMID:25257968

  8. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 900 drugs and supplements.​​ Recent discoveries from NIDDK research include: New medication shows promise against liver fibrosis ... linked to biliary atresia in newborn animals Support Research NIDDK invests in basic, clinical and translational research ...

  9. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  10. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... VHA Forms & Publications Quality & Safety Quality of Care Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data ... decreases the strain on your liver and other organs, and will make your recovery from surgery easier. ...

  11. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

  12. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  13. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. When taken in appropriate doses by mouth, cod ... young children. Heart disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Wound healing. Glaucoma. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to ...

  14. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AST). This enzyme, which plays a role in processing proteins, is found in the liver, heart, muscles, ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  15. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... sanitation exist. Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India have significant health problems from this disease. Risk ... are the usual treatment for liver abscess. A drug such as paromomycin or diloxanide must also be ...

  16. Analgesia after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Zoka

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses postoperative analgesia in patients with end-stage liver disease who have undergone liver transplantation (LT). Postoperative analgesia determines how patients perceive LT. Although important, this topic is underrepresented in the current literature. With an increased frequency of fast tracking in LT, efficient intra- and postoperative analgesia are undergoing changes. We herein review the current literature, compare the benefits and disadvantages of the therapeutic options, and make recommendations based on the current literature and clinical experience. PMID:26413222

  17. Classification of Liver Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Hanna, Sherif S.; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    The classification of liver injuries is important for clinical practice, clinical research and quality assurance activities. The Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma proposed the OIS for liver trauma in 1989. The purpose ofthe present study was to apply this scale to a cohort ofliver trauma patients managed at a single Canadian trauma centre from January 1987 to June 1992.170 study patients were identified and reviewed. The mean age was 30, with 69% male and a mean ISS of 33.90% had a blunt mechanism ofinjury. The 170 patients were categorized into the 60IS grades ofliver injury. The number of units of blood transfused, the magnitude of the operative treatment required, the liver-related complications and the liver-related mortality correlated well with the OIS grade. The OIS grade was unable to predict the need for laparotomy or the length of stay in hospital. We conclude that the OIS is a useful, practical and important tool for the categorization of liver injuries, and it may prove to be the universally accepted classification scheme in liver trauma. PMID:8809585

  18. Liver transplantation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Masood; Elrayah, Elgaily A; Traynor, Oscar; McCormick, P Aiden

    2016-07-01

    The Irish National Liver Transplant program commenced in 1993 in St. Vincent's University Hospital in Dublin. It is an adult-only program and is the only liver transplant program in Ireland. Pediatric recipients are referred to King's College Hospital in the United Kingdom. To date, almost 1000 adult liver transplants have been performed. Current 1-year patient survival is 93%, and 5-year survival is 79%. The program is fully funded by the government health service. There is a close collaboration with the United Kingdom Organ Donation and Transplant Directorate, and there is an arrangement for organ sharing for super-urgent transplants. Traditionally, organ donation rates have been high in Ireland. However, demand for liver transplant has increased over the past 20 years, and waiting lists are now lengthening. Deceased cardiac death donation is now being considered, but there are no plans for living related donor liver transplant. Donor coordinators have recently been appointed to the major hospitals in Ireland, and it is hoped that this initiative will lead to an increase in organ donation rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1014-1018 2016 AASLD. PMID:27065358

  19. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  20. Pulmonary nodules causing false-positive liver scans. Preoperative and postoperative scintigraphic findings in three cases

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Kabuto, H.; Rikimaru, S.

    1984-04-01

    False-positive liver scans may occur due to intrinsic hepatic anatomy, extrinsic impression on the liver from adjacent structures, or external attenuation of gamma rays. However, reports of false-positive scans due to external attenuation by pulmonary nodules are very few, and postoperative changes in liver scintigraphy have not been reported. Three such cases are reported in this study. In each case, a pulmonary mass was located in the right posterior basal segment. The preoperative liver scan showed a focal ''cold'' area in the upper portion of the right lobe. This ''cold'' area was seen only in the posterior view, and after resection of the tumor it usually disappeared promptly unless direct liver invasion was present.

  1. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  2. Autoimmune liver disease, autoimmunity and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Neuberger, James M

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) represent the three major autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). PBC, PSC, and AIH are all complex disorders in that they result from the effects of multiple genes in combination with as yet unidentified environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous risk loci for PBC and PSC that host genes involved in innate or acquired immune responses. These loci may provide a clue as to the immune-based pathogenesis of AILD. Moreover, many significant risk loci for PBC and PSC are also risk loci for other autoimmune disorders, such type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting a shared genetic basis and possibly similar molecular pathways for diverse autoimmune conditions. There is no curative treatment for all three disorders, and a significant number of patients eventually progress to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation (LT). LT in this context has a favourable overall outcome with current patient and graft survival exceeding 80% at 5years. Indications are as for other chronic liver disease although recent data suggest that while lethargy improves after transplantation, the effect is modest and variable so lethargy alone is not an indication. In contrast, pruritus rapidly responds. Cholangiocarcinoma, except under rigorous selection criteria, excludes LT because of the high risk of recurrence. All three conditions may recur after transplantation and are associated with a greater risk of both acute cellular and chronic ductopenic rejection. It is possible that a crosstalk between alloimmune and autoimmune response perpetuate each other. An immunological response toward self- or allo-antigens is well recognised after LT in patients transplanted for non-autoimmune indications and sometimes termed "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Whether this is part of the spectrum of rejection or an autoimmune

  3. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F. )

    1990-04-15

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors {sup 55}FeCl3 and (2-{sup 14}C)glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated (2-14C)glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool.

  4. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  5. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  6. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  8. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  9. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  10. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  11. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  12. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  13. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  14. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  15. THEMES OF LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of 5 interlocking themes. These began in 1958-59 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g. familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and ALG. With this regimen, the world’s longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979) which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation became accepted as

  16. Themes of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Starzl, Thomas E; Fung, John J

    2010-06-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of five interlocking themes. These began in 1958-1959 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g., familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and antilymphoid globulin. With this regimen, the world's longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979), which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long-surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation

  17. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  18. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  19. Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Adjacent to the Alimentary Tract;Proton beam therapy; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Abei, Masato; Shoda, Junichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Tsuboi, Koji; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located adjacent to the alimentary tract. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven patients (median age, 69 years; range, 43-82 years) who had HCC located within 2 cm of the alimentary tract underwent proton beam therapy. Liver damage according to the Child-Pugh classification was Class A in 35 patients, Class B in 9, and Class C in 3. Treatment protocols of the early 16 patients and the late 31 patients were 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions and 77 GyE in 35 fractions, respectively. Results: During the median follow-up period of 23 months, 24 patients died; the remaining 23 patients were alive until September 2008. The median overall survival was 33.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8-57.0 months). Actuarial overall and local progression-free survival rates at 3 years were 50.0% and 88.1%, respectively. Grade 2 and 3 alimentary tract hemorrhage was observed in 3 (6.4%) and 1 (2.1%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: Our proton beam therapy strategy for HCC located adjacent to the alimentary tract seems to be effective but should be performed with caution.

  20. Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure: lessons learnt from acute liver failure setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajalingam, Rajesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a clinical entity with high risk of mortality. These patients can have severe liver dysfunction complicated with multiple organ failure. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for these patients. Literature regarding management of acute liver failure with special emphasis on liver transplantation was reviewed. Lessons learnt from the management of patients with acute liver failure which could be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure are discussed. Significant improvement in outcomes of acute liver failure has been reported across the world. Several aspects in transplantation for acute liver failure were found to be relevant to the management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. These include defining criteria to identify patients needing early liver transplantation, prioritizing patients with acute liver failure on the waiting list, defining when to abandon transplantation in acute liver failure, emphasis on graft quality and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to manage multiple organ dysfunction. Useful lessons can be learnt from the progress made in the management of acute liver failure and these can be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:25788191

  1. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  2. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Disease in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myungsoo; Son, Seok Hyun; Won, Yong Kyun; Kay, Chul Seung

    2014-01-01

    Liver metastasis in solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, is the most frequent and lethal complication. The development of systemic therapy has led to prolonged survival. However, in selected patients with a finite number of discrete lesions in liver, defined as oligometastatic state, additional local therapies such as surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and radiotherapy can lead to permanent local disease control and improve survival. Among these, an advance in radiation therapy made it possible to deliver high dose radiation to the tumor more accurately, without impairing the liver function. In recent years, the introduction of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has offered even more intensive tumor dose escalation in a few fractions with reduced dose to the adjacent normal liver. Many studies have shown that SABR for oligometastases is effective and safe, with local control rates widely ranging from 50% to 100% at one or two years. And actuarial survival at one and two years has been reported ranging from 72% to 94% and from 30% to 62%, respectively, without severe toxicities. In this paper, we described the definition and technical aspects of SABR, clinical outcomes including efficacy and toxicity, and related parameters after SABR in liver oligometastases from colorectal cancer. PMID:24868526

  3. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for oligometastatic disease in liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsoo; Son, Seok Hyun; Won, Yong Kyun; Kay, Chul Seung

    2014-01-01

    Liver metastasis in solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, is the most frequent and lethal complication. The development of systemic therapy has led to prolonged survival. However, in selected patients with a finite number of discrete lesions in liver, defined as oligometastatic state, additional local therapies such as surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and radiotherapy can lead to permanent local disease control and improve survival. Among these, an advance in radiation therapy made it possible to deliver high dose radiation to the tumor more accurately, without impairing the liver function. In recent years, the introduction of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has offered even more intensive tumor dose escalation in a few fractions with reduced dose to the adjacent normal liver. Many studies have shown that SABR for oligometastases is effective and safe, with local control rates widely ranging from 50% to 100% at one or two years. And actuarial survival at one and two years has been reported ranging from 72% to 94% and from 30% to 62%, respectively, without severe toxicities. In this paper, we described the definition and technical aspects of SABR, clinical outcomes including efficacy and toxicity, and related parameters after SABR in liver oligometastases from colorectal cancer. PMID:24868526

  4. Imaging in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Monti, L; Soglia, G; Tomà, P

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation has become an established curative treatment in adult patients with acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases. In pediatric cases the number of cadaveric donor livers is not sufficient and to overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts, technical variants of liver transplantation have been practiced. Reduced-size cadaveric and split cadaveric allografts have become an important therapeutic option, expanding the availability of size-appropriate organs for pediatric recipients with terminal liver disease. The number of pediatric deaths awaiting liver transplantation has been reduced by the introduction of living-related liver transplantation, developed to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children. It is important for radiologists to know that children have distinct imaging of liver transplantation that distinguish them from adults. A multidisciplinary pediatric liver transplantation team should be skilled in pediatric conditions and in associated processes, risks and complications. Radiologists should know the common pediatric liver diseases that lead to liver transplantation, the anastomotic techniques and the expected postoperative imaging findings. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging such us ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric liver transplantation and in potential liver donors. PMID:26909515

  5. HCV in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Germani, Giacomo; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    HCV-related cirrhosis represents the leading indication for liver transplantation in the Western countries. HCV reinfection after liver transplantation occurs in virtually all patients transplanted for HCV-related liver disease Histological evidence of chronic HCV infection develops in 50 to 90 % of patients by 12 months after liver transplantation, and cirrhosis occurs in about 20 % of patients within 5 years after transplant. Several studies have evaluated host, viral, and transplant-related factors that might be associated with the severity of HCV recurrence. Among host factors, immunosuppression is one of the major factors that accounts for accelerated HCV recurrence and it has been an area of extensive research and controversy. Donor age, steatosis, and immunogenetic factors are also relevant in determining the outcome in patients transplanted for HCV-related cirrhosis. A major step to prevent complications of HCV recurrence related to the rapid fibrosis is the posttransplant antiviral treatment. Two strategies have been tried: pre-emptive or other strategies as soon as possible after liver transplantation or elective therapy once there is histological evidence of recurrent hepatitis C. Retransplantation due to graft failure from recurrent hepatitis C is rarely an option in the era of organ shortage as it is associated with poor outcome, but many case needs to be considered early in the evolution of disease. New antivirals may change the outcome dramatically of patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis. PMID:22829333

  6. Anesthesia for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) have complex problems such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), hepatic encephalopathy, intracranial hypertension, (ICP), left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), high Model of end liver disease (MELD) scores, hyponatremia, and coagulopathies. The anesthesia management for liver transplantation can be very complex, dynamic and challenging. Anesthesia agents affect hepatic blood flow and anesthetic drug distribution, metabolism and elimination maybe altered in end stage liver disease. Other non-anesthetic agents such as nitric oxide, epoprosterenol, THAM, hypertonic saline, fibrinogen concentrates, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, packed red blood cells, recombinant plasminogen activator, calcium chloride, epinephrine etc. may play a vital role in the perioperative management of these patients. Intraoperative hemostasis and coagulation management can be very arduous as these patients may bleed or be at risk for thrombosis. Monitoring modalities such as Thromboelastography (TEG), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE), Bispectral Index (BIS) and Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter (ONSD) ultrasound play a significant role in various circumstances. Surgical techniques include complete or partial occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with or without use of venovenous bypass (VVBP) or portocaval shunts. Post reperfusion syndrome (PRS) is a crucial event in this procedure, where patients may experience arrhythmia and/or cardiac arrest. Anesthetic handling of this phase has been recapitulated in detail. Provision of anesthesia services to the living liver transplant donor and pain management has been outlined. PMID:26118926

  7. Angiogenesis and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that hepatic angiogenesis, regardless of the etiology, takes place in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that are characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. Because anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to be efficient in the prevention of fibrosis in experimental models of CLDs, it is suggested that blocking angiogenesis could be a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced fibrosis. Consequently, efforts are being directed to revealing the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. Literature evidences indicate that hepatic angiogenesis and fibrosis are closely related in both clinical and experimental conditions. Hypoxia is a major inducer of angiogenesis together with inflammation and hepatic stellate cells. These profibrogenic cells stand at the intersection between inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis and play also a pivotal role in angiogenesis. This review mainly focuses to give a clear view on the relevant features that communicate angiogenesis with progression of fibrosis in CLDs towards the-end point of cirrhosis that may be translated into future therapies. The pathogenesis of hepatic angiogenesis associated with portal hypertension, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease are also discussed to emphasize the various mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25848465

  8. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  9. Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

  10. Kidney Injury in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Regner, Kevin R; Singbartl, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in patients with liver disease and increases morbidity and mortality. Hepatorenal syndrome is a common cause of AKI in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and is due to alterations in systemic and renal hemodynamics. Serum creatinine-based estimation of kidney function is a key component of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score in liver transplant candidates. Continuous renal replacement therapy is used in critically ill patients with liver failure and AKI. Simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK) may be required in patients with liver failure and prolonged AKI. Identification of appropriate candidates for SLK remains controversial. PMID:27339675

  11. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  12. Liver disease in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Mavis, Alisha M; Alonso, Estella M

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses common liver diseases in the adolescent. Briefly reviewed is the evaluation of the adolescent with new-onset liver enzyme elevation. Then the article discusses common liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis, metabolic disease, biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis, and inherited disorders of cholestasis. Finally, a management approach to the adolescent with liver disease is outlined, noting the challenges that must be addressed to effectively care for not only liver disease in the adolescent but also the patient as a whole. PMID:25454303

  13. Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/− transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application. PMID:23078060

  14. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  15. Genomic Profiling Reveals Unique Molecular Alterations in Hepatoblastomas and Adjacent Hepatocellular Carcinomas in B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Sachin; Pandiri, Arun R; Nagai, Hiroaki; Wang, Yu; Foley, Julie; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Ton, Thai-Vu; DeVito, Michael; Shockley, Keith R; Peddada, Shyamal D; Gerrish, Kevin E; Malarkey, David E; Hooth, Michelle J; Sills, Robert C; Hoenerhoff, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    The cell of origin of hepatoblastoma (HB) in humans and mice is unknown; it is hypothesized to be a transformed hepatocyte, oval cell, or hepatic progenitor cell. In mice, current dogma is that HBs arise from preexisting hepatocellular neoplasms as a result of further neoplastic transformation. However, there is little evidence supporting this direct relationship. To better understand the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and HB and determine molecular similarities between mouse and human HB, global gene expression analysis and targeted mutation analysis were performed using HB, HCC, and adjacent liver from the same animals in a recent National Toxicology Program bioassay. There were significant differences in Hras and Ctnnb1 mutation spectra, and by microarray, HBs showed dysregulation of embryonic development, stem cell pluripotency, and genomic imprinting compared to HCC. Meta-analysis showed similarities between HB, early mouse embryonic liver, and hepatocyte-derived stem/progenitor cells compared to HCC. Our data show that there are striking differences between HB and HCC and suggest that HB is a significantly different entity that may arise from a hepatic precursor cell. Furthermore, mouse HB is similar to the human disease at the pathway level and therefore is likely a relevant model for evaluating human cancer hazard. PMID:26289556

  16. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  17. Prostaglandins of the E-series inhibit connective tissue proliferation in the liver wound of the rat.

    PubMed

    Arend, A; Aunapuu, M; Masso, R; Selstam, G

    2005-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to relate wound healing of an internal organ to prostaglandins of the E and F series. A small liver wound was induced by a galvanic cauter via the abdominal route under general anesthesia and prostaglandin E1, E2 and F2alpha were injected twice daily at a dose of 250 microg/kg. Proliferation of the connective tissue in the liver wound was estimated morphometrically 6 days after liver wound infliction. Levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha were measured in the liver wound as well as in normal liver tissue from adjacent lobes using radioimmunoassay. The results show that exogenous prostaglandins of the E-series suppress connective tissue proliferation. Three minutes after the last prostaglandin E2 injection, high prostaglandin concentrations were measured both in the liver wound and in the liver tissue of the adjacent lobe. Prostaglandin F2alpha injections had no effect on wound healing. We believe that the rat thermic liver wound model can be used for different studies on wound healing mechanisms and that prostaglandins of the E-series are involved in wound healing in the specific time period studied. PMID:15835401

  18. Neoplasms of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, K.; Ishak, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Primary Liver Cancer is perhaps the most prevalent malignancy in the world, particularly in South East Asia and Africa. After the discovery of hepatitis B virus as a cause of chronic liver disease often terminating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and, more recently, the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomal DNA, the progress made in this field has been remarkable. This book contains 35 chapters and covers all topical aspects, such as oncogenes, epidemiology, carcinogenic role of hepatitis viruses, histopathology, new imaging techniques and new treatment modalities that include ultrasound-guided intratumor injections of ethanol and targeting chemotherapy.

  19. Obesity and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Armstrong, John; Hurton, Scott; Molinari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese patients (OPs) waiting for a liver transplant continues to increase. Despite the significant advances occurred in bariatric medicine, obesity is still considered a relative contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The main aim of this review is to appraise the literature on the outcomes of OPs undergoing LT, treatments that might reduce their weight before, during or after surgery, and discuss some of the controversies and limitations of the current knowledge with the intent of highlighting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26421262

  20. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available. PMID:9053549

  1. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  2. Surface-based registration of liver in ultrasound and CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Ehsan; Lu, Kongkuo; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford J.; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Venkatesan, Aradhana; Kruecker, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive modality for real-time image-guided interventions. Fusion of US imaging with a diagnostic imaging modality such as CT shows great potential in minimally invasive applications such as liver biopsy and ablation. However, significantly different representation of liver in US and CT turns this image fusion into a challenging task, in particular if some of the CT scans may be obtained without contrast agents. The liver surface, including the diaphragm immediately adjacent to it, typically appears as a hyper-echoic region in the ultrasound image if the proper imaging window and depth setting are used. The liver surface is also well visualized in both contrast and non-contrast CT scans, thus making the diaphragm or liver surface one of the few attractive common features for registration of US and non-contrast CT. We propose a fusion method based on point-to-volume registration of liver surface segmented in CT to a processed electromagnetically (EM) tracked US volume. In this approach, first, the US image is pre-processed in order to enhance the liver surface features. In addition, non-imaging information from the EM-tracking system is used to initialize and constrain the registration process. We tested our algorithm in comparison with a manually corrected vessel-based registration method using 8 pairs of tracked US and contrast CT volumes. The registration method was able to achieve an average deviation of 12.8mm from the ground truth measured as the root mean square Euclidean distance for control points distributed throughout the US volume. Our results show that if the US image acquisition is optimized for imaging of the diaphragm, high registration success rates are achievable.

  3. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  4. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  5. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  6. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  7. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  8. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  9. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  10. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  11. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  12. Apical infection spreading to adjacent teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes apical infection on tooth number 24 that spread to adjacent teeth, resulting in devitalized teeth numbers 23 and 25. The 25-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to the endodontic resident clinic because of uncontrolled apical infection. Root-end surgery and root-end filling of teeth numbers 23, 24, and 25 were performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a periapical cyst; however, the clinical surgical finding of a purulence-filled bone cavity also revealed a periapical abscess. After root-end surgery and regenerative therapy using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Bio-Oss xenograft material, and Bio-Gide resorbable collagen membrane, the patient had no symptoms. Radiographs showed the apical lesion had healed satisfactorily at the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-ups. The clinical implication of this rare case suggests the importance of standard endodontic diagnostic procedures for pulpal and apical diagnosis, prevention of apical periodontitis exacerbation by reducing bacterial factors, and the effectiveness of healing large bone defects using regenerative materials. PMID:21458327

  13. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. I. Data and analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    In this two-part paper, responses of two, adjacent, seven-story buildings in Norwalk, California, to the Whittier-Narrows, Calif, earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987 are studied. Building A, instrumented according to code recommendations, and building B, extensively instrumented, are offset by 16.3 m from one another. The data set includes motions from the superstructure of both buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of building B, and from three free-field sites. Part I of the paper includes descriptions of the buildings, site, instrumentation, and analysis of the data of each building. System identification and spectral analysis techniques are employed in part I. Building A has identical first-mode frequencies of 0.65 Hz for both building axes. The strong-motion response characteristics of building A are considerably different than those determined from low-amplitude tests. Building B has fundamental modes at 0.76 Hz and 0.83 Hz in the major and minor axes, respectively. Torsional and diaphragm effects in building B are negligible.

  14. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  15. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  16. Parasites of two native fishes in adjacent Adirondack lakes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    This survey of parasites in 2 adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. Between lakes, white suckers had significant differences in the prevalence of 4 parasite species (Myxobolus sp. 2, Myxobolus bibulatus, Octospinifer macilentis, and Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli) and mean abundances of 4 parasites (neascus larvae, Octospinifer macilentis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli, and Glaridacris confusus). Redbreast sunfish had significant differences in the prevalence of 3 species (Myxobolus uvuliferis, a coccidian species, and Spinitectus carolini) and differences in parasite mean abundance of 5 species (neascus larvae, Clinostomum marginatum , Leptorhynchoides thecatus, Spinitectus carolini, and Eustrongylides sp.). Differences in component communities between lakes were found and, although the exact causes cannot be determined by this study, we speculate on several possible explanations. PMID:23384764

  17. Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease There are a ... liver that can be treated with nonsurgical, interventional radiology techniques. Portal Hypertension Seen most frequently in patients ...

  18. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  19. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients. PMID:25291138

  20. Solitary liver nodules.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A W; Curry, B; Jacques, J

    1975-05-17

    There has been confusion in the literature over the nomenclature of solitary liver nodules. Several such lesions have recently been reported in patients taking oral contraceptives. Similarities exist between these cases that suggest they may be examples of focal nodular hyperplasia. Here three further cases are presented. The criteria for making the diagnosis and its importance are discussed. PMID:165001

  1. The EPA Liver Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

  2. Ton That Tung's livers.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Born in the early 20th century, the Vietnamese surgeon Ton That Tung received his medical education in French colonial Indochina at the fledgling l'Ecole de Médecine de Hanoi, the first indigenous medical school in Southeast Asia. The benefactor of a postgraduate position at the medical school, Ton That Tung subsequently obtained his surgical training at the Phù Doãn Hospital in Hanoi and concurrently developed a passion for the study of liver anatomy, pathology, and surgery. His contributions to an understanding of liver anatomy based on meticulous dissection of autopsy specimens antedated and rivaled later work by the famous Western anatomists Couinaud, Healey, Schroy, and others. Ton That Tung's contributions, however, were overshadowed by the intense national struggles of the Vietnamese to establish independent rule and self-governance from the French and by eventual alignment with eastern bloc Communist countries, thus isolating much of his work behind the "Iron Curtain" until well after the end of the Cold War. Nevertheless, Ton That Tung remains a pioneer in liver anatomy and liver surgery. His commitment to surgical science and, more importantly, to the Vietnamese people stands as a tribute to the tireless pursuit of his ideals. PMID:24335785

  3. Glycosylation and Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anand; Herrera, Harmin; Block, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is the 5th most common cancer, but the 2nd leading cause of cancer death, in the world, with more than 700,000 fatalities annually. The major etiology of liver cancer is infection with an hepatotropic virus such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). While chronic viral infection remains the main cause of liver disease and risk of HCC, rates of non –viral associated HCC are occurring at an alarmingly increasing rate. Like many cancers, survival rates are closely associated with time of detection. If HCC is caught early, survival rates can be as high as 50%. Regrettably, most cases of HCC are caught late where survival rates can be as low as 2–7%. Thus, there has been great interest in discovering serum biomarkers that could be used to identify those with HCC. To this end, many groups have examined the N-linked glycans to identify changes that occur with HCC. As the liver secretes the vast majority of proteins into the serum, this has often been a starting point for study. In serum, alterations in core fucosylation, outer-arm fucosylation, increased sialylation and glycan branching have been observed in patients with HCC. Similar findings have been found directly in HCC tissue suggesting that these glycan changes may play a role in tumor formation and development. PMID:25727150

  4. [Dietotherapy children with liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, E V; Strokova, T V; Topil'skaia, N V; Isakova, V A

    2009-01-01

    In children with liver diseases disorders of the nutritional status appear more quickly and delay normal growth and development. Administration of the nutritional support based on nosological and syndromal approaches lets provide optimal conditions for normalization of the liver functions, improves efficiency of therapy and prognosis of the disease. The article contents modern recommendations on the organization of nutrition in children with different liver diseases, correction of metabolic disorders during complications of liver pathology. PMID:20120964

  5. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Elizabeth M; Wong, Vincent W-S; Nobili, Valerio; Day, Christopher P; Sookoian, Silvia; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Sirlin, Claude B; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Rinella, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disorder characterized by excess accumulation of fat in hepatocytes (nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)); in up to 40% of individuals, there are additional findings of portal and lobular inflammation and hepatocyte injury (which characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)). A subset of patients will develop progressive fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular complications are life-threatening co-morbidities of both NAFL and NASH. NAFLD is closely associated with insulin resistance; obesity and metabolic syndrome are common underlying factors. As a consequence, the prevalence of NAFLD is estimated to be 10-40% in adults worldwide, and it is the most common liver disease in children and adolescents in developed countries. Mechanistic insights into fat accumulation, subsequent hepatocyte injury, the role of the immune system and fibrosis as well as the role of the gut microbiota are unfolding. Furthermore, genetic and epigenetic factors might explain the considerable interindividual variation in disease phenotype, severity and progression. To date, no effective medical interventions exist that completely reverse the disease other than lifestyle changes, dietary alterations and, possibly, bariatric surgery. However, several strategies that target pathophysiological processes such as an oversupply of fatty acids to the liver, cell injury and inflammation are currently under investigation. Diagnosis of NAFLD can be established by imaging, but detection of the lesions of NASH still depend on the gold-standard but invasive liver biopsy. Several non-invasive strategies are being evaluated to replace or complement biopsies, especially for follow-up monitoring. PMID:27188459

  7. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  8. Rayleigh wave tomography of China and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongxian; Su, Wei; Peng, Yanju; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Hongyi

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a tomographic study on the S wave velocity structure of China and adjacent regions. Group velocity dispersions of fundamental Rayleigh waves along more than 4000 paths were determined with frequency-time analysis. The study region was divided into a 1° × 1° grid, and velocities in between grid nodes were calculated by bilinear interpolation. The Occam's inversion scheme was adopted to invert for group velocity distributions. This method is robust and allows us to use a fine grid in model parameterization and thus helps to restore a more realistic velocity pattern. Checkerboard tests were carried out, and the lateral resolution was estimated to be 4°-6° in China and its eastern continental shelves. The resulting group velocity maps from 10 to 184 s showed good correlation with known geological and tectonic features. The pure path dispersion curves at each node were inverted for shear wave velocity structures. The three-dimensional velocity model indicates thick lithospheres in the Yangtze and Tarim platforms and hot upper mantles in Baikal and western Mongolia, coastal area and continental shelves of eastern China, and Indochina and South China Sea regions. The Tibetan Plateau has a very thick crust with a low-velocity zone in its middle. Beneath the crust a north dipping high-velocity zone, mimicking a subducting plate, reaches to 200 km in depth and reaches to the Kunlun Mountains northward. In northern Tibet a low-velocity zone immediately below the Moho extends eastward then turns southward along the eastern edge of the plateau until it connects to the vast low-velocity area in Indochina and the South China Sea.

  9. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-03-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ˜150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (˜1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  10. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  12. Hedgehog Signaling in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Omenetti, Alessia; Choi, Steve; Michelotti, Gregory; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of Hedgehog (Hh), a morphogenic signaling pathway that controls progenitor cell fate and tissue construction during embryogenesis occurs during many types of liver injury in adult. The net effects of activating the Hedgehog pathway include expansion of liver progenitor populations to promote liver regeneration, but also hepatic accumulation of inflammatory cells, liver fibrogenesis, and vascular remodeling. All of these latter responses are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. In addition, Hh signaling may play a role in primary liver cancers, such as cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Study of Hedgehog signaling in liver cells is in its infancy. Additional research in this area is justified given growing experimental and clinical data supporting a role for the pathway in regulating outcomes of liver injury. PMID:21093090

  13. Endoderm specification and liver development.

    PubMed

    Goessling, W; Stainier, D Y

    2016-01-01

    The endoderm is the innermost embryonic germ layer, and in zebrafish, it gives rise to the lining of the gut, the gills, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and derivatives of the pharyngeal pouch. These organs form the gastrointestinal tract and are involved with the absorption, delivery, and metabolism of nutrients. The liver has a central role in regulating these processes because it controls carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, and breakdown of endogenous and xenobiotic products. Liver dysfunction frequently leads to significant morbidity and mortality; however, in most settings of organ injury, the liver exhibits remarkable regenerative capacity. In this chapter, we review the principal mechanisms of endoderm and liver formation and provide protocols to assess liver formation and liver regeneration. PMID:27312502

  14. Lipids changes in liver cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-ting; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism. Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs, these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed. Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide, and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases, which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer. PMID:17565510

  15. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

  16. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases. PMID:26447962

  17. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  18. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  19. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  20. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  1. Voriconazole and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Mihăilă, Romeo-Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Voriconazole is an azole useful for the prophylaxis and the treatment of aspergillosis and other fungal infections in immunosuppressed subjects, as those found in aplasia after aggressive polychemotherapy treatments, after hematopoietic stem cell, liver or lung transplantation. Its administration in therapeutic doses lead to extremely varied serum levels from patient to patient and even to the same patient. The explanations are varied: nonlinear pharmacokinetics, certain patient-related factors, including genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C19 gene, the kidney and liver function, simultaneous administration with other drugs metabolised by the same cytochrome. It is recommended to maintain the serum concentrations of voriconazole between 1.5 and 4 μg/mL. At lower values its efficacy decreases and at higher values the risk of neurological toxicity increases. Even at these concentrations it is not excluded the possible appearance of a variety of toxic effects, including on the liver, manifested by cholestasis, hepatocytolisis, or their combination. It is recommended to monitor the clinical and laboratory evolution of all patients treated with voriconazole, and of the serum levels of the drug of those who belong to risk groups, even if there is still no consensus on this issue, given the lack of correlation between the serum level and the occurrence of adverse effects in many patients. PMID:26207164

  2. Tropical liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, K. G.; Yap, I.; Wong, S. T.; Wee, A.; Guan, R.; Kang, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-one consecutive cases of liver abscesses seen at the National University Hospital, Singapore from 1988 to 1994 were reviewed. Twenty-seven cases (65%) were pyogenic, six (15%) amoebic, two (5%) tuberculous and six (15%) indeterminate. The predominance of pyogenic abscesses is in marked contrast to previous studies from the region a decade ago in which amoebic abscesses were the commonest type. The commonest pathogen causing pyogenic abscess was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Two cases were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and this organism needs to be actively looked for in smears and cultures of aspirated material. As the majority of organisms isolated were resistant to ampicillin, empirical antibiotic treatment for suspected pyogenic abscess should include gentamicin or a cephalosporin. Percutaneous needle aspiration of the abscess was performed for 85% of pyogenic abscesses and surgery was necessary in only two cases because of complications. We found that percutaneous aspiration of liver abscess is helpful to confirm the diagnosis, provides a better bacteriological culture yield, gives a good outcome, and may uncover clinically unsuspected conditions like malignancy and tuberculoma which may mimic the presentation of liver abscesses. We recommend routine cytological examination of aspirated abscess material as well as stains and cultures for acid-fast bacilli. PMID:9122104

  3. Living donor liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mekeel, Kristin L; Moss, Adyr A; Reddy, Kunam S; Douglas, David D; Vargas, Hugo E; Carey, Elizabeth J; Byrne, Thomas J; Harrison, M E; Rakela, Jorge; Mulligan, David C

    2008-05-01

    In the current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease system, patients with polycystic liver disease (PCLD) who have a poor quality of life secondary to their massive hepatomegaly are no longer competitive for a deceased donor liver transplant if their liver function is well preserved. Traditionally, a caval resection has been advocated in these patients because of the difficulty of the hepatectomy with hepatomegaly, which makes living donation impossible. This series looks at 3 patients who underwent a caval sparing hepatectomy and subsequent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for PCLD. Graft and patient survival was 100%, and there were few complications in either donors or recipients. LDLT is an ideal option for patients with PCLD and preserved liver function but poor quality of life. PMID:18433036

  4. Transplantable liver production plan: "Yamaton"--liver project, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-10-01

    Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called "Yamaton" projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat-mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

  5. [Liver replacement therapy. Reliable indications in acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Rifai, K; Ott, M; Bahr, M M; Schneider, A; Manns, M P

    2003-12-01

    Extracorporeal liver support devices aim at improving the therapeutical options for liver failure. Numerous artificial and bioartificial devices have been tested to reduce the high mortality of this dynamic disease. In particular, the detoxification function of the liver should be upheld, by means of a number of different procedures, either until liver function is restored or until transplantation. Both purely artificial, machine-based procedures including different forms of dialysis and hemoadsorption as well as bioartificial procedures based on hepatocytes are being tested, as are different types of extracorporeal liver perfusion. This paper provides an overview of the different methods and devices and their clinical evidence in order to give a recommendation for the handling of the expensive devices. There is no current indication for the application of liver support devices outside of clinical studies at specialised centres. PMID:14689190

  6. Metabolic Profiles are Principally Different between Cancers of the Liver, Pancreas and Breast

    PubMed Central

    Budhu, Anuradha; Terunuma, Atsushi; Zhang, Geng; Hussain, S. Perwez; Ambs, Stefan; Wang, Xin Wei

    2014-01-01

    Molecular profiling of primary tumors may facilitate the classification of patients with cancer into more homogenous biological groups to aid clinical management. Metabolomic profiling has been shown to be a powerful tool in characterizing the biological mechanisms underlying a disease but has not been evaluated for its ability to classify cancers by their tissue of origin. Thus, we assessed metabolomic profiling as a novel tool for multiclass cancer characterization. Global metabolic profiling was employed to identify metabolites in paired tumor and non-tumor liver (n=60), breast (n=130) and pancreatic (n=76) tissue specimens. Unsupervised principal component analysis showed that metabolites are principally unique to each tissue and cancer type. Such a difference can also be observed even among early stage cancers, suggesting a significant and unique alteration of global metabolic pathways associated with each cancer type. Our global high-throughput metabolomic profiling study shows that specific biochemical alterations distinguish liver, pancreatic and breast cancer and could be applied as cancer classification tools to differentiate tumors based on tissue of origin. PMID:25210494

  7. MicroRNA-152-mediated dysregulation of hepatic transferrin receptor 1 in liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kindrat, Iryna; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; de Conti, Aline; Shpyleva, Svitlana; Mudalige, Thilak K; Kobets, Tetyana; Erstenyuk, Anna M; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2016-01-12

    Over-expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC) is observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, there is a lack of conclusive information regarding the mechanisms of this dysregulation. In the present study, we demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of TFRC mRNA and protein in preneoplastic livers from relevant experimental models of human hepatocarcinogenesis and in human HCC cells. Additionally, using the TCGA database, we demonstrated an over-expression of TFRC in human HCC tissue samples and a markedly decreased level of microRNA-152 (miR-152) when compared to non-tumor liver tissue. The results indicated that the increase in levels of TFRC in human HCC cells and human HCC tissue samples may be attributed, in part, to a post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by a down-regulation of miR-152. This was evidenced by a strong inverse correlation between the level of TFRC and the expression of miR-152 in human HCC cells (r = -0.99, p = 4. 7 × 10-9), and was confirmed by in vitro experiments showing that transfection of human HCC cell lines with miR-152 effectively suppressed TFRC expression. This suggests that miR-152-specific targeting of TFRC may provide a selective anticancer therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26657500

  8. Liver transplantation for a giant mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an adult: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Cai, Jin-Zhen; Guo, Qing-Jun; Li, Jun-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Hu, Zhan-Dong; Cooper, David KC; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver (MHLs) in adults are rare and potentially premalignant lesions, which present as solid/cystic neoplasms. We report a rare case of orthotopic liver transplantation in a patient with a giant MHL. In 2013, a 34-year-old female sought medical advice after a 2-year history of progressive abdominal distention and respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed an extensive mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of her abdomen revealed multiple liver cysts, with the diameter of largest cyst being 16 cm × 14 cm. The liver hilar structures were not clearly displayed. The adjacent organs were compressed and displaced. Initial laboratory tests, including biochemical investigations and coagulation profile, were unremarkable. Tumor markers, including levels of AFP, CEA and CA19-9, were within the normal ranges. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation in November 2013, the liver being procured from a 40-year-old man after cardiac death following traumatic brain injury. Warm ischemic time was 7.5 min and cold ischemic time was 3 h. The recipient underwent classical orthotopic liver transplantation. The recipient operative procedure took 8.5 h, the anhepatic phase lasting for 1 h without the use of venovenous bypass. The immunosuppressive regimen included intraoperative induction with basiliximab and high-dose methylprednisolone, and postoperative maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. The recipient’s diseased liver weighed 21 kg (dry weight) and measured 41 cm × 32 cm × 31 cm. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an MHL. The patient did not experience any acute rejection episode or other complication. All the laboratory tests returned to normal within one month after surgery. Three months after transplantation, the immunosuppressive therapy was reduced to tacrolimus monotherapy, and the T-tube was removed after cholangiography showed no abnormalities. Twelve months

  9. Liver transplantation for a giant mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an adult: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Cai, Jin-Zhen; Guo, Qing-Jun; Li, Jun-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Hu, Zhan-Dong; Cooper, David K C; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-05-28

    Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver (MHLs) in adults are rare and potentially premalignant lesions, which present as solid/cystic neoplasms. We report a rare case of orthotopic liver transplantation in a patient with a giant MHL. In 2013, a 34-year-old female sought medical advice after a 2-year history of progressive abdominal distention and respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed an extensive mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of her abdomen revealed multiple liver cysts, with the diameter of largest cyst being 16 cm × 14 cm. The liver hilar structures were not clearly displayed. The adjacent organs were compressed and displaced. Initial laboratory tests, including biochemical investigations and coagulation profile, were unremarkable. Tumor markers, including levels of AFP, CEA and CA19-9, were within the normal ranges. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation in November 2013, the liver being procured from a 40-year-old man after cardiac death following traumatic brain injury. Warm ischemic time was 7.5 min and cold ischemic time was 3 h. The recipient underwent classical orthotopic liver transplantation. The recipient operative procedure took 8.5 h, the anhepatic phase lasting for 1 h without the use of venovenous bypass. The immunosuppressive regimen included intraoperative induction with basiliximab and high-dose methylprednisolone, and postoperative maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. The recipient's diseased liver weighed 21 kg (dry weight) and measured 41 cm × 32 cm × 31 cm. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an MHL. The patient did not experience any acute rejection episode or other complication. All the laboratory tests returned to normal within one month after surgery. Three months after transplantation, the immunosuppressive therapy was reduced to tacrolimus monotherapy, and the T-tube was removed after cholangiography showed no abnormalities. Twelve months

  10. Chromosome region maintenance 1 expression and its association with clinical pathological features in primary carcinoma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    XIE, QIAO-LING; LIU, YUE; ZHU, YING

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence and metastasis are the major factors affecting the prognosis; thus, investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of invasion and metastasis, and detection of novel drug target may improve the mortality rate of liver cancer patients. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) recognizes specific leucine-rich nuclear export signal sequences, and its overexpression is associated with tumor-suppressor gene inactivation, proliferation, invasion and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of CRM1 expression with the clinical and pathological features of primary liver cancer. In total, 152 cases diagnosed with liver cancer were included. CRM1 expression was detected in cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical assay. No statistically significant difference was found between the CRM1 expression levels in tumor and adjacent normal tissues (P=0.106). However, CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues was higher compared with that in tumor tissues in the negative hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg; P=0.029) and low differentiation (P=0.004) groups. In tumor tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation (P=0.045), whereas in adjacent normal tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with the tumor diameter (P=0.004). Therefore, it can be concluded that CRM1 is highly expressed in both tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, CRM1 expression is associated with the tumor differentiation degree and diameter. Lower differentiation and larger tumor diameter resulted in higher CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues, and higher tendency for invasion and metastasis. In addition, the risk of invasion and metastasis remains in chronic hepatitis B patients with negative HBeAg. PMID:27347018

  11. Liver transplantation in acute liver failure: A challenging scenario

    PubMed Central

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Silva, Marcelo Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a critical medical condition defined as rapid development of hepatic dysfunction associated with encephalopathy. The prognosis in these patients is highly variable and depends on the etiology, interval between jaundice and encephalopathy, age, and the degree of coagulopathy. Determining the prognosis for this population is vital. Unfortunately, prognostic models with both high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of death have not been developed. Liver transplantation has dramatically improved survival in patients with acute liver failure. Still, 25% to 45% of patients will survive with medical treatment. The identification of patients who will eventually require liver transplantation should be carefully addressed through the combination of current prognostic models and continuous medical assessment. The concerns of inaccurate selection for transplantation are significant, exposing the recipient to a complex surgery and lifelong immunosuppression. In this challenging scenario, where organ shortage remains one of the main problems, alternatives to conventional orthotopic liver transplantation, such as living-donor liver transplantation, auxiliary liver transplant, and ABO-incompatible grafts, should be explored. Although overall outcomes after liver transplantation for acute liver failure are improving, they are not yet comparable to elective transplantation. PMID:26819519

  12. Liver transplantation in acute liver failure: A challenging scenario.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Silva, Marcelo Oscar

    2016-01-28

    Acute liver failure is a critical medical condition defined as rapid development of hepatic dysfunction associated with encephalopathy. The prognosis in these patients is highly variable and depends on the etiology, interval between jaundice and encephalopathy, age, and the degree of coagulopathy. Determining the prognosis for this population is vital. Unfortunately, prognostic models with both high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of death have not been developed. Liver transplantation has dramatically improved survival in patients with acute liver failure. Still, 25% to 45% of patients will survive with medical treatment. The identification of patients who will eventually require liver transplantation should be carefully addressed through the combination of current prognostic models and continuous medical assessment. The concerns of inaccurate selection for transplantation are significant, exposing the recipient to a complex surgery and lifelong immunosuppression. In this challenging scenario, where organ shortage remains one of the main problems, alternatives to conventional orthotopic liver transplantation, such as living-donor liver transplantation, auxiliary liver transplant, and ABO-incompatible grafts, should be explored. Although overall outcomes after liver transplantation for acute liver failure are improving, they are not yet comparable to elective transplantation. PMID:26819519

  13. Role of liver progenitors in acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Dollé, Laurent; Manka, Paul; Coombes, Jason; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Syn, Wing-Kin

    2013-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results from the acute and rapid loss of hepatocyte function and frequently exhibits a fulminant course, characterized by high mortality in the absence of immediate state-of-the-art intensive care and/or emergency liver transplantation (ELT). The role of hepatocyte-mediated liver regeneration during acute and chronic liver injury has been extensively investigated, and recent studies suggest that hepatocytes are not exclusively responsible for the regeneration of the injured liver during fulminant liver injury. Liver progenitor cells (LPC) (or resident liver stem cells) are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of the LPC population during ALF, and the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens, and hormones in the LPC response. We will highlight the potential interaction among cellular compartments during ALF, and discuss the possible prognostic value of the LPC response on ALF outcomes. PMID:24133449

  14. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research. PMID:26047667

  15. Experimental models of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research. PMID:26047667

  16. Pregnancy-related liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Jamwal, Kapil D; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A; Eapen, Chundamannil E

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy-related liver disorders accounted for 8% of all maternal deaths at our center from 1999 to 2011. Of the three pregnancy-related liver disorders (acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), HELLP (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and pre-eclamptic liver dysfunction, which can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcome, AFLP is most typically under - diagnosed. Risk of maternal death can be minimised by timely recognition and early/aggressive multi-specialty management of these conditions. Urgent termination of pregnancy remains the cornerstone of therapy for some of these life threatening disorders, but recent advancements in our understanding help us in better overall management of these patients. This review focuses on various aspects of pregnancy-related liver disorders. PMID:25755551

  17. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  18. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  19. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  2. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  3. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  5. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  11. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  12. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  14. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  15. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50. Dangerous cargo means “certain dangerous cargo” as defined in § 160... adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A . The waters bounded...

  19. Imaging of atypical hemangiomas of the liver with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Vilgrain, V; Boulos, L; Vullierme, M P; Denys, A; Terris, B; Menu, Y

    2000-01-01

    Compared with the imaging features of typical hepatic hemangiomas, the imaging features of atypical hepatic hemangiomas have not been well studied or well described. Knowledge of the entire spectrum of atypical hepatic hemangiomas is important and can help one avoid most diagnostic errors. A frequent type of atypical hepatic hemangioma is a lesion with an echoic border at ultrasonography. Less frequent types are large, heterogeneous hemangiomas; rapidly filling hemangiomas; calcified hemangiomas; hyalinized hemangiomas; cystic or multilocular hemangiomas; hemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels; and pedunculated hemangiomas. Adjacent abnormalities consist of arterial-portal venous shunt, capsular retraction, and surrounding nodular hyperplasia; hemangiomas can also develop in cases of fatty liver infiltration. Associated lesions include multiple hemangiomas, hemangiomatosis, focal nodular hyperplasia, and angiosarcoma. Types of atypical evolution are hemangiomas enlarging over time and hemangiomas appearing during pregnancy. Complications consist of inflammation, Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, intratumoral hemorrhage, hemoperitoneum, volvulus, and compression of adjacent structures. In some cases, such as large heterogeneous hemangiomas, calcified hemangiomas, pedunculated hemangiomas, or hemangiomas developing in diffuse fatty liver, a specific diagnosis can be established with imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging. However, in other atypical cases, the diagnosis will remain uncertain at imaging, and these cases will require histopathologic examination. PMID:10715338

  20. Focal lesions in normal liver.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Martin, Diego R; Balci, N Cem

    2005-10-01

    A variety of lesions occur in the normal liver. This review will describe the most common benign, malignant, and infectious lesions. Illustration will be made of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the most common of these. Due to the high accuracy for liver lesion detection and characterization, and the intrinsic safety of the modality, MR should be considered the primary imaging tool to investigate liver diseases. PMID:16174062

  1. Radiation-Associated Liver Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Charlie C.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Dawson, Laura A.; Li, X. Allen; Das, Shiva K.; Miften, Moyed; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2010-03-01

    The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

  2. Optimization of tuned mass damper for adjacent buildings with equal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekdaş, Gebrail; Nigdeli, Sinan Melih

    2013-10-01

    During earthquakes, adjacent structures may collide to each other because of insufficient seismic gap. By using tuned mass dampers (TMD), the sway of adjacent buildings be reduced and pounding of structures is prevented. In this case, TMDs must be tuned according to the properties of adjacent structures in order to reduce seismic gap (maximum difference of displacements). Also, adjacent structures with equal properties may collide because live-loads on structures is not constant. Change of live-load affects seismic behavior of structures. In this paper, TMDs for adjacent structures with equal properties are optimized by using harmony search algorithm. The approach is effective to reduce the value of seismic gap needed for protection of structures.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  4. Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ashraf J.; Bani Hani, Murad; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Cunningham, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of CRLM is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal outcomes. Over the past several decades, the 5-year survival following resection of CRLM has increased and the criteria for resection have broadened substantially. Even patients with multiple, bilateral CRLM, previously thought unresectable, may now be candidates for resection. Two-stage hepatectomy, repeat curative-intent hepatectomy, and even selected resection of extrahepatic metastases have further increased the number of patients who may be treated with curative intent. Multiple liver-directed therapies exist to treat unresectable, incurable patients with adequate survival benefit and morbidity rates. PMID:22312501

  5. BCRP protein levels do not differ regionally in adult human livers, but decline in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Riches, Zoe; Abanda, Ngu; Collier, Abby C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the ontogeny and variability of the BCRP (ABCG2) transporter in healthy human liver. Levels of BCRP mRNA and protein were determined with q-RT-PCR and western blot in a cohort of 87 human livers aged from 7 days to 87 years. A study of the regional expression of BCRP within adult livers was also performed in a nested cohort of 14 individuals with multiple samples per person collected from pre-selected sites. Levels of BCRP mRNA were not significantly different at any age, but protein levels for BCRP were lower in the elderly compared with adults (p < 0.001) and children (p < 0.05). The intra-liver levels of BCRP protein ranged approximately 6.5-fold and inter-liver BCRP protein varied 8.5-fold in the cohort. No differences in BCRP mRNA or protein were observed with sex or ethnicity, although higher levels of BCRP mRNA were observed in livers from overweight individuals (Body Mass Index ≥ 25-29.9) as compared to underweight or ideal weight individuals. There were no differences in the levels of BCRP mRNA or protein in different regions of the large lobe (n = 3 regions), small lobe (n = 3 regions), directly adjacent to the portal vein or directly adjacent to the common bile duct. This indicates that BCRP researchers can source tissue from all parts of the adult liver without artificial bias in their results. Lower BCRP protein expression in the elderly may be associated with compromised xeno- and endobiotic transport. PMID:26462791

  6. Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver does several things: • It helps digest your food. • It clears wastes from your blood. • It makes proteins that help your blood to clot. • It stores the sugars (glycogen) that are used for ... liver also controls the way your body uses food and the way it works with your immune ...

  7. Therapy of Liver Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Lübbert, Christoph; Wiegand, Johannes; Karlas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Liver abscess (LA) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods This review comprehensively describes epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of LA, with a strong focus on antimicrobial treatment choices and the impact of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Results In industrialized areas, pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) accounts for over 80% of the cases, whereas Entamoeba histolyticais responsible for up to 10% of the cases, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. Highly virulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniaehave emerged as a predominant cause of PLA in Asian countries and tend to spread to the USA, Australia, and European countries, therefore requiring special alertness. Most common symptoms of LA are fever, chills, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain, although a broad spectrum of non-specific symptoms may also occur. Conclusion Imaging studies (ultrasound, computed tomography scan) and microbiological findings play a crucial role in the diagnosis of LA. The treatment of choice for PLA is a multimodal approach combining broad-spectrum antibiotics and aspiration or drainage of larger abscess cavities. Amebic LA can be cured by metronidazole therapy without drainage. PMID:26287275

  8. [Liver metastasis: therapeutic strategy].

    PubMed

    Gennari, L; Doci, R; Bignami, P

    1996-01-01

    The liver is one of the most frequent sites of metastatic growth, in particular from digestive malignancies (DM). The first goal is to reduce the incidence of metastases. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapies have been demonstrated to reduce the recurrence rate and to improve survival in Dukes C colon cancer. Fluorouracil is the pivot of adjuvant treatment modulated by Leucovorin or Levamisol. A short postoperative administration of fluorouracil by intraportal route has been tested, but the results are controversial. Adjuvant treatments for different DM are under investigation. When hepatic metastases are clinically evident, therapeutic decisions depend on several factors: site and nature of primary, extent of hepatic and extrahepatic disease, patient characteristics, efficacy of treatments. A staging system should be adopted to allow a rational approach. In selected cases a locoregional treatment can achieve consistent results. Hepatic Intrarterial Chemotherapy (HIAC) for colorectal metastases achieves objective responses in more than 50% of patients. Survival seems positively affected. When feasible, Ro hepatic resection is the most effective treatment, five-year survival rate being about 30% when metastases are from colorectal cancer. Since the liver is the most frequent site of recurrence after resection, repeat resection have been successfully performed. PMID:9214269

  9. Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Rodrigo; Young, Lionel W.; Ledesma-Medina, Jocyline; Cienfuegos, Javier; Gartner, J. Carlton; Bron, Klaus M.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The postoperative diagnostic imaging examinations of 44 children who underwent 59 orthotopic liver transplantations were reviewed. The imaging modalities used for the evaluation of suspected complications include plain roentgenography, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), nuclear scintigraphy, arteriography, percutaneous and operative cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The main postoperative complications included ischemia, thrombosis (hepatic artery and portal vein), infarction, obstruction or leakage of the biliary anastomosis, hepatic and perihepatic infection, and allograft rejection. US, the most frequently used abdominal imaging modality, was best suited for detection of biliary duct dilatation, fluid collections in or around the transplanted liver, and hepatic arterial, inferior vena caval, and portal vein thrombosis. CT was especially helpful in corroborating findings of infection and in locating abscesses. Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (early- and late-phase imaging) provided a sensitive, although nonspecific, means of assessing allograft vascularization and morphology. Angiography showed vascularity most clearly, and cholangiography was the most useful In the assessment of bile duct patency. A diagnostic imaging algorithm is proposed for evaluation of suspected complications. PMID:3901104

  10. miR-221 overexpression contributes to liver tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Pascal; Volinia, Stefano; McJunkin, Katherine; Marchio, Agnès; Battiston, Carlo; Terris, Benoît; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Lowe, Scott W; Croce, Carlo M; Dejean, Anne

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression and can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Expression patterns of miRNAs and their role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still poorly understood. We profiled miRNA expression in tissue samples (104 HCC, 90 adjacent cirrhotic livers, 21 normal livers) as well as in 35 HCC cell lines. A set of 12 miRNAs (including miR-21, miR-221/222, miR-34a, miR-519a, miR-93, miR-96, and let-7c) was linked to disease progression from normal liver through cirrhosis to full-blown HCC. miR-221/222, the most up-regulated miRNAs in tumor samples, are shown to target the CDK inhibitor p27 and to enhance cell growth in vitro. Conversely, these activities can be efficiently inhibited by an antagomiR specific for miR-221. In addition, we show, using a mouse model of liver cancer, that miR-221 overexpression stimulates growth of tumorigenic murine hepatic progenitor cells. Finally, we identified DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4), a modulator of mTOR pathway, as a bona fide target of miR-221. Taken together, these data reveal an important contribution for miR-221 in hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest a role for DDIT4 dysregulation in this process. Thus, the use of synthetic inhibitors of miR-221 may prove to be a promising approach to liver cancer treatment. PMID:20018759

  11. miR-221 overexpression contributes to liver tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Pascal; Volinia, Stefano; McJunkin, Katherine; Marchio, Agnès; Battiston, Carlo; Terris, Benoît; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Lowe, Scott W.; Croce, Carlo M.; Dejean, Anne

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression and can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Expression patterns of miRNAs and their role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still poorly understood. We profiled miRNA expression in tissue samples (104 HCC, 90 adjacent cirrhotic livers, 21 normal livers) as well as in 35 HCC cell lines. A set of 12 miRNAs (including miR-21, miR-221/222, miR-34a, miR-519a, miR-93, miR-96, and let-7c) was linked to disease progression from normal liver through cirrhosis to full-blown HCC. miR-221/222, the most up-regulated miRNAs in tumor samples, are shown to target the CDK inhibitor p27 and to enhance cell growth in vitro. Conversely, these activities can be efficiently inhibited by an antagomiR specific for miR-221. In addition, we show, using a mouse model of liver cancer, that miR-221 overexpression stimulates growth of tumorigenic murine hepatic progenitor cells. Finally, we identified DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4), a modulator of mTOR pathway, as a bona fide target of miR-221. Taken together, these data reveal an important contribution for miR-221 in hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest a role for DDIT4 dysregulation in this process. Thus, the use of synthetic inhibitors of miR-221 may prove to be a promising approach to liver cancer treatment. PMID:20018759

  12. Bioartificial liver support anno 2001.

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, Robert A F M

    2002-12-01

    Despite maximal intensive care, mortality of acute fulminant hepatic failure is high: 60%-75% in several studies. In addition patients with chronic liver insufficiency suffer from a bad quality of life: all patients suffer from fatigue; symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, and itching are often present. Analogous to artificial kidney treatment in patients with renal failure, an artificial liver assist device is needed not only to bridge patients with fulminant hepatic failure to liver transplantation or own liver regeneration, but also to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic liver insufficiency. Several modalities of artificial liver support are under investigation, like plasma exchange, haemodialysis, haemadsorption, albumin dialysis, liver cell transplantation, and the bioartificial liver. Artificial livers based on only supportive detoxification function do not show significant improvement of survival in controlled studies. Bioartificial liver support systems have also the potential to support hepatic synthetic functions. Bioreactors can be charged with freshly isolated or cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes, but also by human hepatoma cell lines. Several uncontrolled studies in humans show safety of such a treatment, even by using porcine cells. Transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus to recipients has not been found. Furthermore, beneficial effects have been reported on symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, on the height of intracranial pressure and on hemodynamic parameters. By using porcine cells immunological problems (e.g., serum sickness) can be expected during treatments longer than one week. However, "proof of the pudding" in the sense of improvement of survival is not yet available. The creation of a "liver dialysis unit" in the near future depends mainly on the development of well-differentiated immortalized human hepatocytes. Some progress in this field has already been obtained. PMID:12602524

  13. Recurrence of autoimmune liver diseases after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Nabiha; Renner, Eberhard L

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatment modality for end stage liver disease caused by many etiologies including autoimmune processes. That said, the need for transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but not for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), has decreased over the years due to the availability of effective medical treatment. Autoimmune liver diseases have superior transplant outcomes than those of other etiologies. While AIH and PBC can recur after LT, recurrence is of limited clinical significance in most, but not all cases. Recurrent PSC, however, often progresses over years to a stage requiring re-transplantation. The exact incidence and the predisposing factors of disease recurrence remain debated. Better understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk factors of recurrent autoimmune liver diseases is required to develop preventive measures. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, clinical course, and treatment of recurrent autoimmune liver disease (AIH, PBC, PSC) following LT. PMID:26689244

  14. 25 Ways to Love Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  15. More People Surviving Sudden Liver Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lee, a liver specialist at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Acute liver failure, ... division of digestive and liver diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; David Bernstein, M. ...

  16. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  17. Loss of brain function - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of chronic liver damage. Common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States are: Chronic hepatitis B ... hepatitis Bile duct disorders Some medicines Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Once you have ...

  18. Chronic Liver Disease and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Hispanic Americans Among the Hispanic/Latino population, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  19. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-Zhi; Li, Jia-Liang; Xu, Ke-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the primary tumor site, liver cancer can be divided into two categories: (1) primary liver cancer and (2) metastatic cancer to the liver from a distant primary site. Guided cryoablation via many imaging methods induces iceball formation and tumor necrosisand is an attractive option for treating unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer. There are several advantages to using cryoablation for the treatment of liver cancer: it can be performed percutaneously, intraoperatively, and laparoscopically; iceball formation can be monitored; it has little impact on nearby large blood vessels; and it induces a cryo-immunological response in situ. Clinically, primary research has shown that percutaneous cryoablation of liver cancer is relatively safe and efficient, and it can be combined with other methods, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunology, to control disease. Although research is preliminary, cryosurgery is fast becoming an alternative treatment method for HCC or liver tumors. Here, we review the mechanisms of liver tumor cryoablation, cryoablation program selection, clinical efficiency, and complications following treatment. PMID:26355719

  20. The Liver, Regulator of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this theme issue is to review the basic physiological, nutritional, and pathological facts pertaining to the liver. It is an educational tool through which university teachers and people in charge of training may enhance their teaching programs. The main liver diseases seen in young children and pregnant women in tropical regions is…

  1. Current Issues in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The state of liver transplantation continues to evolve. This article focuses on 3 separate yet important issues within this field. First, there is a proposal to change the allocation of donor livers in the United States. The fundamental premise of this proposal is to equalize access to donor livers across the country. To accomplish this goal, the proposal is to increase the geographic area of liver allocation. As might be expected, there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the possibility of a major change in liver allocation and distribution. A second area of interest, and perhaps the most important therapeutic breakthrough in the field of hepatology, is the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. With cure rates up to 100%, an increasing proportion of liver transplant candidates and recipients are being cured of HCV infection with therapies that have minimal side effects. Consequently, the impact of HCV infection on patient and graft survival will likely improve substantially over the next few years. Finally, this article reviews the role of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) in antibody-mediated rejection. Long recognized as an important factor in graft survival in renal transplantation, DSAs have recently been shown to be a strong predictor of graft and patient survival in liver transplantation. However, the importance of DSAs in liver transplantation is uncertain, in large part due to the absence of proven therapies. PMID:27231452

  2. Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Bansal, Kalpana; Manchanda, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver. PMID:24040591

  3. LIVER AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed the following specific aims: Specific Aim 1 will be to develop a model and the liver phenotype (defined as above) is maintained. In Specific Aim 2, we will demonstrate that manipulation of the host environment will induce changes in liver tissues. We will exa...

  4. Nitric oxide in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Yasuko; Kim, Moon Young

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives play important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver. Despite its diverse and complicated roles, certain patterns of the effect of NO on the pathogenesis and progression of liver diseases are observed. In general, NO derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) is protective against disease development, while inducible NOS (iNOS)-derived NO contributes to pathological processes. This review addresses the roles of NO in the development of various liver diseases with a focus on recently published articles. We present here two recent advances in understanding NO-mediated signaling - nitrated fatty acids (NO2-FAs) and S-guanylation - and conclude with suggestions for future directions in NO-related studies on the liver. PMID:26027855

  5. Diverse routes to liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Alison, Malcolm R; Lin, Wey-Ran

    2016-02-01

    The liver's ability to regenerate is indisputable; for example, after a two-thirds partial hepatectomy in rats all residual hepatocytes can divide, questioning the need for a specific stem cell population. On the other hand, there is a potential stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering, giving rise to ductular reactions composed of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) when the liver's ability to regenerate is hindered by replicative senescence, but the functional relevance of this response has been questioned. Several papers have now clarified regenerative mechanisms operative in the mouse liver, suggesting that the liver is possibly unrivalled in its versatility to replace lost tissue. Under homeostatic conditions a perivenous population of clonogenic hepatocytes operates, whereas during chronic damage a minor population of periportal clonogenic hepatocytes come to the fore, while the ability of HPCs to completely replace the liver parenchyma has now been shown. PMID:26510495

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Rabbit Liver In Vivo: Effect of the Pringle Maneuver on Pathologic Changes in Liver Surrounding the Ablation Zone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Ryu, Jeong-ah; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Sung, Yon Mi; Cho, Eun Yoon; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to evaluate the effect of the Pringle maneuver (occlusion of both the hepatic artery and portal vein) on the pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone in rabbit livers. Materials and Methods Radiofrequency (RF) ablation zones were created in the livers of 24 rabbits in vivo by using a 50-W, 480-kHz monopolar RF generator and a 15-gauge expandable electrode with four sharp prongs for 7 mins. The tips of the electrodes were placed in the liver parenchyma near the porta hepatis with the distal 1 cm of their prongs deployed. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the groups with (n=12 rabbits) and without (n=12 rabbits) the Pringle maneuver. Three animals of each group were sacrificed immediately, three days (the acute phase), seven days (the early subacute phase) and two weeks (the late subacute phase) after RF ablation. The ablation zones were excised and serial pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone were evaluated. Results With the Pringle maneuver, portal vein thrombosis was found in three cases (in the immediate [n=2] and acute phase [n=1]), bile duct dilatation adjacent to the ablation zone was found in one case (in the late subacute phase [n=1]), infarction adjacent to the ablation zone was found in three cases (in the early subacute [n=2] and late subacute [n=1] phases). None of the above changes was found in the livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver. On the microscopic findings, centrilobular congestion, sinusoidal congestion, sinusoidal platelet and neutrophilic adhesion, and hepatocyte vacuolar and ballooning changes in liver ablated with Pringle maneuver showed more significant changes than in those livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver (p < 0.05) Conclusion Radiofrequency ablation with the Pringle maneuver created more severe pathologic changes in the portal vein, bile ducts and liver parenchyma

  7. Irreversible electroporation of the liver: is there a safe limit to the ablation volume?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Velázquez, P.; Castellví, Q.; Villanueva, A.; Quesada, R.; Pañella, C.; Cáceres, M.; Dorcaratto, D.; Andaluz, A.; Moll, X.; Trujillo, M.; Burdío, J. M.; Berjano, E.; Grande, L.; Ivorra, A.; Burdío, F.

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation is a fast-growing liver ablation technique. Although safety has been well documented in small ablations, our aim is to assess its safety and feasibility when a large portion of liver is ablated. Eighty-seven mice were subjected to high voltage pulses directly delivered across parallel plate electrodes comprising around 40% of mouse liver. One group consisted in 55 athymic-nude, in which a tumor from the KM12C cell line was grown and the other thirty-two C57-Bl6 non-tumoral mice. Both groups were subsequently divided into subsets according to the delivered field strength (1000 V/cm, 2000 V/cm) and whether or not they received anti-hyperkalemia therapy. Early mortality (less than 24 hours post-IRE) in the 2000 V/cm group was observed and revealed considerably higher mean potassium levels. In contrast, the animals subjected to a 2000 V/cm field treated with the anti-hyperkalemia therapy had higher survival rates (OR = 0.1, 95%CI = 0.02–0.32, p < 0.001). Early mortality also depended on the electric field magnitude of the IRE protocol, as mice given 1000 V/cm survived longer than those given 2000 V/cm (OR = 4.7, 95%CI = 1.8–11.8, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that ionic disturbances, mainly due to potassium alterations, should be warned and envisioned when large volume ablations are performed by IRE. PMID:27032535

  8. Irreversible electroporation of the liver: is there a safe limit to the ablation volume?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velázquez, P; Castellví, Q; Villanueva, A; Quesada, R; Pañella, C; Cáceres, M; Dorcaratto, D; Andaluz, A; Moll, X; Trujillo, M; Burdío, J M; Berjano, E; Grande, L; Ivorra, A; Burdío, F

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation is a fast-growing liver ablation technique. Although safety has been well documented in small ablations, our aim is to assess its safety and feasibility when a large portion of liver is ablated. Eighty-seven mice were subjected to high voltage pulses directly delivered across parallel plate electrodes comprising around 40% of mouse liver. One group consisted in 55 athymic-nude, in which a tumor from the KM12C cell line was grown and the other thirty-two C57-Bl6 non-tumoral mice. Both groups were subsequently divided into subsets according to the delivered field strength (1000 V/cm, 2000 V/cm) and whether or not they received anti-hyperkalemia therapy. Early mortality (less than 24 hours post-IRE) in the 2000 V/cm group was observed and revealed considerably higher mean potassium levels. In contrast, the animals subjected to a 2000 V/cm field treated with the anti-hyperkalemia therapy had higher survival rates (OR = 0.1, 95%CI = 0.02-0.32, p < 0.001). Early mortality also depended on the electric field magnitude of the IRE protocol, as mice given 1000 V/cm survived longer than those given 2000 V/cm (OR = 4.7, 95%CI = 1.8-11.8, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that ionic disturbances, mainly due to potassium alterations, should be warned and envisioned when large volume ablations are performed by IRE. PMID:27032535

  9. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient’s renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient’s lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network “Eurotransplant”. The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  10. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-12-24

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient's renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient's lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network "Eurotransplant". The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  11. Rat liver imidase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y S; Ramaswamy, S; Jakoby, W B

    1993-05-25

    Imidase, an enzyme variously identified as dihydropyrimidinase (EC 3.5.2.2), hydantoinase, dihydropyrimidine hydrase, and dihydropyrimidine amidohydrolase, has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from rat liver. Although a component in the chain of pyrimidine catabolism, imidase is capable of serving in a broader role that includes detoxication of xenobiotics. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of imides that range from the linear to the heterocyclic and that include hydantoins, dihydropyrimidines, and phthalimide. For some substrates, the reaction is experimentally reversible. The pH activity curves are a function of the pKa of the individual substrate's imino group, with cleavage favored at a pH near the respective pKa value. There is evidence for stereoselectivity and for stereospecificity. A mechanism is proposed for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:8388376

  12. When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child for Surgery Hepatitis Hereditary Hemochromatosis Digestive System Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel What Happens in the Operating Room? Hepatitis Your Liver Your Digestive System Anesthesia - ...

  13. Polycystic liver disease: an overview of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Cnossen, Wybrich R; Drenth, Joost P H

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is the result of embryonic ductal plate malformation of the intrahepatic biliary tree. The phenotype consists of numerous cysts spread throughout the liver parenchyma. Cystic bile duct malformations originating from the peripheral biliary tree are called Von Meyenburg complexes (VMC). In these patients embryonic remnants develop into small hepatic cysts and usually remain silent during life. Symptomatic PLD occurs mainly in the context of isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In advanced stages, PCLD and ADPKD patients have massively enlarged livers which cause a spectrum of clinical features and complications. Major complaints include abdominal pain, abdominal distension and atypical symptoms because of voluminous cysts resulting in compression of adjacent tissue or failure of the affected organ. Renal failure due to polycystic kidneys and non-renal extra-hepatic features are common in ADPKD in contrast to VMC and PCLD. In general, liver function remains prolonged preserved in PLD. Ultrasonography is the first instrument to assess liver phenotype. Indeed, PCLD and ADPKD diagnostic criteria rely on detection of hepatorenal cystogenesis, and secondly a positive family history compatible with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Ambiguous imaging or screening may be assisted by genetic counseling and molecular diagnostics. Screening mutations of the genes causing PCLD (PRKCSH and SEC63) or ADPKD (PKD1 and PKD2) confirm the clinical diagnosis. Genetic studies showed that accumulation of somatic hits in cyst epithelium determine the rate-limiting step for cyst formation. Management of adult PLD is based on liver phenotype, severity of clinical features and quality of life. Conservative treatment is recommended for the majority of PLD patients. The primary aim is to halt cyst growth to allow abdominal decompression and ameliorate symptoms. Invasive procedures are required

  14. Screening in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  15. Extracorporeal Liver Support and Liver Transplant for Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Chen, Harvey Shi-Hsien; Nyberg, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) as a unique entity is slowly evolving, as are therapies to improve survival of affected patients. Further investigation into its disease process and proper treatments with critical timing are important for improving patient survival. At this time, liver transplant is the only treatment known to improve survival in liver-failure patients. However, liver transplantation has its own disadvantages, such as organ shortage and the need for lifelong immunotherapy. Bridging therapies such as extracorporeal liver-support systems are attractive options to stabilize patients until transplantation or spontaneous recovery. The goals of these liver-support systems are to remove detoxification products, reduce systemic inflammation, and enhance regeneration of the injured liver. These devices have been under development for the past decade; a few are in clinical trials. At this time, there is no proven clearcut survival benefit in these devices, but they may improve the outcome of challenging cases and potentially avoid or postpone liver transplantation in some cases. PMID:27172357

  16. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  18. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  19. Multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae causing paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M; Gurçay, O

    1992-03-01

    This report describes a case of multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae that caused a spinal cord compression. This case was treated radically with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). PMID:1550511

  20. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  1. Utility of the dual-specificity protein kinase TTK as a therapeutic target for intrahepatic spread of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ruoyu; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haohai; Zhou, Huandi; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; He, Lian; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Chengyu; Miksad, Rebecca A; Ghaziani, Tahereh; Robson, Simon C; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Therapies for primary liver cancer, the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, remain limited. Following multi-omics analysis (including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing), we were able to identify the dual-specific protein kinase TTK as a putative new prognostic biomarker for liver cancer. Herein, we show that levels of TTK protein are significantly elevated in neoplastic tissues from a cohort of liver cancer patients, when compared with adjacent hepatic tissues. We also tested the utility of TTK targeted inhibition and have demonstrated therapeutic potential in an experimental model of liver cancer in vivo. Following lentiviral shRNA knockdown in several human liver cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that TTK boosts cell growth and promotes cell spreading; as well as protects against senescence and decreases autophagy. In an experimental animal model, we show that in vitro knockdown of TTK effectively blocks intrahepatic growth of human HCC xenografts. Furthermore, we note that, in vivo silencing of TTK, by systemically delivering TTK siRNAs to already tumor-bearing liver, limits intrahepatic spread of liver cancer cells. This intervention is associated with decreased tumor aggressiveness, as well as increased senescence and autophagy. Taken together, our data suggest that targeted TTK inhibition might have clinical utility as an adjunct therapy in management of liver cancer. PMID:27618777

  2. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, C.; Garreau, F.; Bougueleret, L.; Cariani, E.; Thiers, V.; Croissant, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C. ); Grzeschik, K.H. )

    1988-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration.

  3. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579

  4. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  5. Feasibility of simultaneous operation of passive remote microwave sensors and active services occupying adjacent frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    To ensure proper sensor operations, it is necessary to understand the situation of potential interference to sensors due to active equipment sharing common frequency bands as well as equipment occupying adjacent bands. The feasibility of sharing common frequency bands between passive sensors and other active services was analyzed. Potential interference to sensors due to equipment in bands adjacent to sensor frequency bands is examined and criteria to avoid interference is developed.

  6. [Focal liver lesion, incidental finding].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C

    2012-10-01

    The differential diagnosis of incidentally found Focal Liver Lesions (FLL) is complex. Screening procedures so far are only defined for patients with liver cirrhosis. Characterization of a FLL begins as soon as it is detected. Taking patients history and thorough clinical examination are essential. An imaging procedure that is used to detect liver masses should also allow the examiner to determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. Conventional B-mode US and colour Doppler imaging are effective at detecting and characterizing typical liver cysts and calcifications. Laboratory data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and imaging guided liver biopsy are complementary methods.Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a well established diagnostic imaging technique for a variety of indications and applications. One of the most important applications is in the liver where it is frequently a first-line technique for the detection and diagnosis (characterization) of focal liver lesions (FLL). In this setting the accurate differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is critical to ensure the patient undergoes the appropriate therapeutic option. This has been documented in recently published guidelines, in particular in terms of the enhancement patterns of the most common FLL hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia hepatocellular adenoma and their differentiation from malignant lesions. In this article the role of CEUS in the characterization of incidentally found FLL is described. PMID:23033169

  7. Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the functioning of the heart and the liver have been described, with heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions that simultaneously affect both. The heart is one of the most adversely affected organs in patients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmias and electrocardiographic changes are observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia is influenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances, impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT interval-prolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions. PMID:25866603

  8. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  9. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  10. Extracorporeal liver support devices for listed patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karla C L; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Jalan, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    An alternative to liver transplantation for patients with liver failure remains an unmet need. In acute liver failure, the ideal extracorporeal liver support device (ELSD) would replace the functions of the failing liver in order to permit spontaneous recovery, given the incredible regenerative potential of the liver, negating the need for transplantation. In acute-on-chronic liver failure, an ELSD would ideally support hepatic function until a recovery to liver function before acute decompensation or until liver transplantation. In decompensated cirrhosis, an ELSD could again be used to support hepatic function until transplant. In addition, ELSDs may have the potential to treat the multiorgan failure that accompanies liver failure including hepatic encephalopathy, renal failure, and immune dysfunction or indeed potential to promote liver regeneration. Creation of an extracorporeal bioartificial liver able to completely replace liver function remains an unmet need. This review will describe a number of technologies suitable for clinical trials in humans, which have resulted from decades of engineering and biological research to develop a bioreactor able to adequately sustain functional hepatocytes. In addition, this review will describe artificial liver support devices that are primarily designed to replace the detoxifying functions of the liver and will consider the current data available or studies required to support their use in liver failure patients on the transplant waiting list. Liver Transplantation 22 839-848 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785141

  11. Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Karani, John B. Yu, Dominic F.Q.C.; Kane, Pauline A.

    2005-04-15

    Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.

  12. Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Winston; Shah, Vijay H

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease includes a broad clinical-histological spectrum from simple steatosis, cirrhosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma as a complication of cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can be conceptually divided into (1) ethanol-mediated liver injury, (2) inflammatory immune response to injury, (3) intestinal permeability and microbiome changes. Corticosteroids may improve outcomes, but this is controversial and probably only impacts short-term survival. New pathophysiology-based therapies are under study, including antibiotics, caspase inhibition, interleukin-22, anakinra, FXR agonist and others. These studies provide hope for better future outcomes for this difficult disease. PMID:27373608

  13. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  14. Liver diseases in pregnancy: liver transplantation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-11-21

    Pregnancy in patients with advanced liver disease is uncommon as most women with decompensated cirrhosis are infertile and have high rate of anovulation. However, if gestation ensued; it is very challenging and carries high risks for both the mother and the baby such as higher rates of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, pulmonary hypertension, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, and a potential for life-threatening variceal hemorrhage and hepatic decompensation. In contrary, with orthotopic liver transplantation, menstruation resumes and most women of childbearing age are able to conceive, give birth and lead a better quality of life. Women with orthotopic liver transplantation seeking pregnancy should be managed carefully by a team consultation with transplant hepatologist, maternal-fetal medicine specialist and other specialists. Pregnant liver transplant recipients need to stay on immunosuppression medication to prevent allograft rejection. Furthermore, these medications need to be monitored carefully and continued throughout pregnancy to avoid potential adverse effects to mother and baby. Thus delaying pregnancy 1 to 2 years after transplantation minimizes fetal exposure to high doses of immunosuppressants. Pregnant female liver transplant patients have a high rate of cesarean delivery likely due to the high rate of prematurity in this population. Recent reports suggest that with close monitoring and multidisciplinary team approach, most female liver transplant recipient of childbearing age will lead a successful pregnancy. PMID:24282354

  15. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: II. Liver, spleen, and small and large intestines.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Müller, U; Dicht, S; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings of the liver, spleen and intestines of five healthy calves during six examinations in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The liver was located in the right hemiabdomen adjacent to the diaphragm and right abdominal wall. The caudal vena cava was seen dorsomedially and the portal vein further ventrally. The umbilical vein was seen running from the navel to the liver in all calves in the first scan and in four calves in the second scan. The spleen ran dorsoventrally adjacent to the costal part of the left abdominal wall and appeared sickle-shaped on transverse images. Differentiation of small and large intestines was only possible when the former contained fluid content and the latter gaseous content. The small intestine was in the left hemiabdomen dorsal to the abomasum and caudodorsal to the rumen at the first two examinations. Growth of the forestomachs caused displacement of the small intestine to the right and toward the ventral abdomen caudal to the liver and adjacent to the right abdominal wall. The large intestine was located caudodorsally, and the typical features of the spiral colon were apparent in the dorsal plane. The location of the caecum varied from dorsal to the spiral colon to adjacent to the right abdominal wall with the apex always pointing caudally. The rectum was easily identified in the pelvic region. The size, volume and density of the described organs throughout the study are shown in several tables. PMID:24794236

  16. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir; Noritake, Hidenao; Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Uezato, Tadayoshi; Miura, Naoyuki

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  17. Polycystic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Onori, P.; Franchitto, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Carpino, G.; Alvaro, D.; Francis, H.; Alpini, G.; Gaudio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are genetic disorders with heterogeneous etiologies and a range of phenotypic presentations. PCLD exhibits both autosomal or recessive dominant pattern of inheritance and is characterized by the progressive development of multiple cysts, isolated or associated with polycystic kidney disease, that appear more extensive in women. Cholangiocytes have primary cilia, functionally important organelles (act as mechanosensors) that are involved in both normal developmental and pathological processes. The absence of polycystin-1, 2, and fibrocystin/polyductin, normally localized to primary cilia, represent a potential mechanism leading to cyst formation, associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, enhanced fluid secretion, abnormal cell–matrix interactions, and alterations in cell polarity. Proliferative and secretive activities of cystic epithelium can be regulated by estrogens either directly or by synergizing growth factors including nerve growth factor, IGF1, FSH and VEGF. The abnormalities of primary cilia and the sensitivity to proliferative effects of estrogens and different growth factors in PCLD cystic epithelium provide the morpho-functional basis for future treatment targets, based on the possible modulation of the formation and progression of hepatic cysts. PMID:20138815

  18. Radiology of liver circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions.

  19. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

  1. MedlinePlus: Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources Reference Desk Find an Expert For You Children Patient Handouts Summary Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove ...

  2. The rare benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, T; Treska, V; Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Molacek, J; Mirka, H; Ferda, J; Ohlidalova, K

    2007-01-01

    As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic. From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma. Only 7.3% of them form a different histological type of a tumor than this most frequently occurring trio of tumors. The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant. It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:17694811

  3. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Calcium Signaling in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria Jimena; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is a highly versatile second messenger that regulates a wide range of functions in every type of cell and tissue. To achieve this versatility, the Ca2+ signaling system operates in a variety of ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range. This is particularly well exemplified for Ca2+ signals in the liver, which modulate diverse and specialized functions such as bile secretion, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. These Ca2+ signals are organized to control distinct cellular processes through tight spatial and temporal coordination of [Ca2+]i signals, both within and between cells. This article will review the machinery responsible for the formation of Ca2+ signals in the liver, the types of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular signals that occur, the physiological role of Ca2+ signaling in the liver, and the role of Ca2+ signaling in liver disease. PMID:23720295

  5. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  6. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    MedlinePlus

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease What is Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)? FAT N AFLD is a name that is given to a ... and under “Liver Health Information view ‘Nonalcoholic fatty liver Disease (NAFLD/NASH)’ IMPORTANT REMINDER: This information from the ...

  7. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  8. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  9. Cooperation of liver cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, Z

    2001-01-01

    through the synthesis of potent positive as well as negative signals such as, respectively, hepatocyte-growth-factor or TGF-beta. Although hepatocytes seem not to produce TGF-beta, a pleiotropic cytokine synthesized and secreted in the latent form by Kupffer and stellate cells, they may contribute to its actions in the liver by the intracellular activation of latent TGF-beta, and secretion of the biologically active isoform. Many mediators that reach the liver during inflammatory processes, such as endotoxins, immune-complexes, anaphylatoxins, and PAF, increase glucose output in the perfused liver, but fail to do so in isolated hepatocytes, acting indirectly via prostaglandins released from Kupffer cells. In the liver, prostaglandins synthesized from arachidonic acid mainly in Kupffer cells in a response to various inflammatory stimuli, modulate hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing glycogenolysis in adjacent hepatocytes. The release of glucose from glycogen supports the increased demand for energetic fuel by the inflammatory cells such as leukocytes, and additionally enables enhanced glucose turnover in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells which is necessary for effective defense of these cells against invading microorganisms and oxidative stress in the liver. Leukotrienes, another oxidation product of arachidonic acid, have vasoconstrictive, cholestatic, and metabolic effects in the liver. A transcellular synthesis of cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) functions in the liver: LTA4, an important intermediate, is synthesized in Kupffer cells, taken up by hepatocytes, converted into the potent LTC4, and then released into extracellular space, acting in a paracrine way on Kupffer and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Thus, hepatocytes are target cells for the action of eicosanoids and the site of their transformation and degradation, but can not directly oxidate arachidonic acid to eicosanoids. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:11729749

  10. Osteoporosis across chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guarino, M; Loperto, I; Camera, S; Cossiga, V; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Caporaso, N; Morisco, F

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a complication of chronic liver disease, with impact on morbidity, quality of life, and survival. The progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with liver disease. So, it is fundamental to make better the quality of life and to prevent complications. Metabolic bone disorders are common complications of chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients with CLD have an increased risk of bone fractures, with significant impact on morbidity, quality of life, and even on survival. Bone diseases, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and osteopenia, are frequently observed in many types of liver disease. The pathogenesis of damage and the mechanisms of bone loss are different in relation to the specific liver disease. The relevance of these conditions induced many authors to create a new nosographic entity known as "hepatic osteodystrophy", although this term is rarely used anymore and it is now commonly referred to as osteopenia or osteoporosis associated with chronic liver disease. This review is based on the personal experiences of the authors and upon research done of the available literature on this subject matter. The authors searched the PubMed database for publications containing the term "liver disease" in combination with "bone disease", "hepatic osteodistrophy", "osteoporosis", "osteopenia", "osteomalacia", and "fractures". They selected publications from the past 10 years but did not exclude older seminal publications, especially for colestatic liver diseases. This review of literature shows that osteoporosis crosses all CLD. It is important to underline that the progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with CLD. It is fundamental to make better the quality of life and it is mandatory to prevent complications and in particular the osteoporotic ones, especially fractures. PMID:26846777

  11. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  12. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  13. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed. PMID:25523277

  14. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  15. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25962254

  16. EGFR Signaling in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Komposch, Karin; Sibilia, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by several ligands leading to the activation of diverse signaling pathways controlling mainly proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The EGFR signaling axis has been shown to play a key role during liver regeneration following acute and chronic liver damage, as well as in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) highlighting the importance of the EGFR in the development of liver diseases. Despite the frequent overexpression of EGFR in human HCC, clinical studies with EGFR inhibitors have so far shown only modest results. Interestingly, a recent study has shown that in human HCC and in mouse HCC models the EGFR is upregulated in liver macrophages where it plays a tumor-promoting function. Thus, the role of EGFR in liver diseases appears to be more complex than what anticipated. Further studies are needed to improve the molecular understanding of the cell-specific signaling pathways that control disease development and progression to be able to develop better therapies targeting major components of the EGFR signaling network in selected cell types. In this review, we compiled the current knowledge of EGFR signaling in different models of liver damage and diseases, mainly derived from the analysis of HCC cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). PMID:26729094

  17. Neurologic complications after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Saša A

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic complications are relatively common after solid organ transplantation and affect 15%-30% of liver transplant recipients. Etiology is often related to immunosuppressant neurotoxicity and opportunistic infections. Most common complications include seizures and encephalopathy, and occurrence of central pontine myelinolysis is relatively specific for liver transplant recipients. Delayed allograft function may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors typically manifests with tremor, headaches and encephalopathy. Reduction of neurotoxic immunosuppressants or conversion to an alternative medication usually result in clinical improvement. Standard preventive and diagnostic protocols have helped to reduce the prevalence of opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections, but viral and fungal CNS infections still affect 1% of liver transplant recipients, and the morbidity and mortality in the affected patients remain fairly high. Critical illness myopathy may also affect up to 7% of liver transplant recipients. Liver insufficiency is also associated with various neurologic disorders which may improve or resolve after successful liver transplantation. Accurate diagnosis and timely intervention are essential to improve outcomes, while advances in clinical management and extended post-transplant survival are increasingly shifting the focus to chronic post-transplant complications which are often encountered in a community hospital and an outpatient setting. PMID:24023979

  18. Neurologic complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Saša A

    2013-08-27

    Neurologic complications are relatively common after solid organ transplantation and affect 15%-30% of liver transplant recipients. Etiology is often related to immunosuppressant neurotoxicity and opportunistic infections. Most common complications include seizures and encephalopathy, and occurrence of central pontine myelinolysis is relatively specific for liver transplant recipients. Delayed allograft function may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors typically manifests with tremor, headaches and encephalopathy. Reduction of neurotoxic immunosuppressants or conversion to an alternative medication usually result in clinical improvement. Standard preventive and diagnostic protocols have helped to reduce the prevalence of opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections, but viral and fungal CNS infections still affect 1% of liver transplant recipients, and the morbidity and mortality in the affected patients remain fairly high. Critical illness myopathy may also affect up to 7% of liver transplant recipients. Liver insufficiency is also associated with various neurologic disorders which may improve or resolve after successful liver transplantation. Accurate diagnosis and timely intervention are essential to improve outcomes, while advances in clinical management and extended post-transplant survival are increasingly shifting the focus to chronic post-transplant complications which are often encountered in a community hospital and an outpatient setting. PMID:24023979

  19. Lipids in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  20. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarpel, Umut; Schwartz, Myron

    2007-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma can only be cured by physical removal or destruction of the tumor before it has spread. This can be accomplished by the ablation of the tumor, surgical resection of the tumor-bearing liver, or by liver transplantation. Ablation and resection can only be performed in patients who will be left with sufficient liver volume to sustain normal hepatic function. Unfortunately, the same disease that caused the HCC also limits the amount of parenchymal loss that can be tolerated by the patient. Liver transplantation is an appealing treatment option because it has the potential to cure patient of both the cancer and the predisposinig liver disease. Excellent survival rates are possible in patients with early HCC who receive a transplant, but dismal results are seen when patients with advanced tumors are transplanted.Wide criteria for transplant allow for more patients to be cured of HCC, but this comes at the expense of a greater overall recurrence rate. The acceptable recurrence rate is not a concrete number, but this is a function of donor organ availability. A 50% cure rate is viewed as an excellent outcome for many accepted cancer operations; however, in the case of transplant for HCC, this would represent a poor use of the scarce donor resource when the same liver offers a 70% 5-year survival rate to a non-HCC patient. These issues and methods retarding tumor progression while on the transplant waiting list are reviewed herein. PMID:17877492

  1. Liver diseases in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Majid; Vakilian, Farveh; Amin, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a growing public health concern as a consequence of the ageing of the population and the improved survival of patients with HF. HF is defined as impaired organ perfusion and/or high filling pressure. It is a systemic and chronic disease and as such involves many organs, not least the liver and kidney. The complex vascular system of the liver and its high metabolic activity render it vulnerable to circulation disturbances and trigger many molecular and haemodynamic changes in patients. There are many studies describing the impact of liver disease on patient outcomes. Hepatic dysfunction is commonly seen in HF patients and is closely correlated with a poor outcome. Knowledge about the mechanisms and impacts of liver disease in HF helps us to know the stage of the disease and treat it properly. Moreover, many drugs and toxins that are metabolised in the liver and contribute to drug interactions should also be taken into account when prescribing medication for HF patients. In light of the above-mentioned points, the authors have compiled this review on congestive hepatopathy with the aim of providing physicians and cardiologists with a succinct and useful guide on the role of the liver in HF. PMID:27326014

  2. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    To date, nine case-control studies conducted in developed countries have identified an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and liver cancer. The most recent population-based data from both developed and developing countries failed to confirm such an association, however. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in eight developing countries (Chile, China, Colombia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Philippines, and Thailand), in which 122 women with liver cancer were matched with 802 controls, found no elevated risk for OC users compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). This study is particularly significant since it was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection, an important risk factor for primary liver cancer, is widespread. In addition, population mortality data from the US, UK, Japan, and Sweden have failed to document increases in liver cancer cases coincident with increases in OC use. Given that population statistics can detect changes on the magnitude of a 40-50% decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer related to OC use, they should be able to detect increases of two to 20 times the risk of liver cancer. The increased risk of liver cancer found in the case-control studies may reflect bias resulting from the small size of these studies. PMID:12348250

  3. Lipids in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-03-28

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  4. Clinically applicable magnetic-labeling of natural killer cells for MRI of transcatheter delivery to liver tumors: preclinical validation for clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kangan; Gordon, Andrew C; Zheng, Linfeng; Li, Weiguo; Guo, Yang; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Guixiang; Han, Guohong; Larson, Andrew C; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2015-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that MRI can monitor intraportal vein (IPV) transcatheter delivery of clinically applicable heparin-protamine-ferumoxytol (HPF) nanocomplex-labeled natural killer (NK) cells to liver tumor. Materials & methods Liver tumor rat models underwent catheterization for IPV infusion of HPF-labeled NK cells (NK-92MI cell line). MRI measurements within tumor and adjacent liver tissues were compared pre- and post-NK cell infusion. Histology studies were used to identify NK cells in the target tumors. Results For first time, we demonstrated that MRI tracks HPF-labeled NK cells migration within liver following IPV delivery. Conclusion IPV transcatheter infusion permitted selective delivery of NK cells to liver tissues and MRI allowed tracking NK cell biodistributions within the tumors. PMID:26080698

  5. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Masquerading as Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vinit; Arora, Anil; Tyagi, Pankaj; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Bansal, Rinkesh K.; Gupta, Varun; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Malignancy masquerading as liver abscess, and presenting with fever, is mainly described in patients with colorectal cancers with liver metastasis. Primary liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as non-resolving liver abscess is extremely uncommon and carries a dismal prognosis. We present a rare case of non-resolving liver abscess as a presenting manifestation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25941437

  6. An Apo-14 Promoter-Driven Transgenic Zebrafish That Marks Liver Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Several transgenic zebrafish lines for liver development studies had been obtained in the first decade of this century, but not any transgenic GFP zebrafish lines that mark the through liver development and organogenesis were reported. In this study, we analyzed expression pattern of endogenous Apo-14 in zebrafish embryogenesis by whole-mount in situ hybridization, and revealed its expression in liver primordium and in the following liver development. Subsequently, we isolated zebrafish Apo-14 promoter of 1763 bp 5′-flanking sequence, and developed an Apo-14 promoter-driven transgenic zebrafish Tg(Apo14: GFP). And, maternal expression and post-fertilization translocation of Apo-14 promoter-driven GFP were observed in the transgenic zebrafish line. Moreover, we traced onset expression of Apo-14 promoter-driven GFP and developmental behavior of the expressed cells in early heterozygous embryos by out-crossing the Tg(Apo14: GFP) male to the wild type female. Significantly, the Apo-14 promoter-driven GFP is initially expressed around YSL beneath the embryo body at 10 hpf when the embryos develop to tail bud prominence. In about 14-somite embryos at 16–17 hpf, a typical “salt-and-pepper” expression pattern is clearly observed in YSL around the yolk sac. Then, a green fluorescence dot begins to appear between the notochord and the yolk sac adjacent to otic vesicle at about 20 hpf, which is later demonstrated to be liver primordium that gives rise to liver. Furthermore, we investigated dynamic progression of liver organogenesis in the Tg(Apo14: GFP) zebrafish, because the Apo-14 promoter-driven GFP is sustainably expressed from hepatoblasts and liver progenitor cells in liver primordium to hepatocytes in the larval and adult liver. Additionally, we observed similar morphology between the liver progenitor cells and the GFP-positive nuclei on the YSL, suggesting that they might originate from the same progenitor cells in early embryos. Overall, the current study

  7. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  8. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  9. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

  10. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna L.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  11. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  12. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  13. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  14. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  15. Adjacent Codons Act in Concert to Modulate Translation Efficiency in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Caitlin E; Brule, Christina E; Dean, Kimberly M; Fields, Stanley; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-28

    Translation elongation efficiency is largely thought of as the sum of decoding efficiencies for individual codons. Here, we find that adjacent codon pairs modulate translation efficiency. Deploying an approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that scored the expression of over 35,000 GFP variants in which three adjacent codons were randomized, we have identified 17 pairs of adjacent codons associated with reduced expression. For many pairs, codon order is obligatory for inhibition, implying a more complex interaction than a simple additive effect. Inhibition mediated by adjacent codons occurs during translation itself as GFP expression is restored by increased tRNA levels or by non-native tRNAs with exact-matching anticodons. Inhibition operates in endogenous genes, based on analysis of ribosome profiling data. Our findings suggest translation efficiency is modulated by an interplay between tRNAs at adjacent sites in the ribosome and that this concerted effect needs to be considered in predicting the functional consequences of codon choice. PMID:27374328

  16. Liver-Regenerative Transplantation: Regrow and Reset.

    PubMed

    Collin de l'Hortet, A; Takeishi, K; Guzman-Lepe, J; Handa, K; Matsubara, K; Fukumitsu, K; Dorko, K; Presnell, S C; Yagi, H; Soto-Gutierrez, A

    2016-06-01

    Liver transplantation, either a partial liver from a living or deceased donor or a whole liver from a deceased donor, is the only curative therapy for severe end-stage liver disease. Only one-third of those on the liver transplant waiting list will be transplanted, and the demand for livers is projected to increase 23% in the next 20 years. Consequently, organ availability is an absolute constraint on the number of liver transplants that can be performed. Regenerative therapies aim to enhance liver tissue repair and regeneration by any means available (cell repopulation, tissue engineering, biomaterials, proteins, small molecules, and genes). Recent experimental work suggests that liver repopulation and engineered liver tissue are best suited to the task if an unlimited availability of functional induced pluripotent stem (iPS)-derived liver cells can be achieved. The derivation of iPS cells by reprogramming cell fate has opened up new lines of investigation, for instance, the generation of iPS-derived xenogeneic organs or the possibility of simply inducing the liver to reprogram its own hepatocyte function after injury. We reviewed current knowledge about liver repopulation, generation of engineered livers and reprogramming of liver function. We also discussed the numerous barriers that have to be overcome for clinical implementation. PMID:26699680

  17. Liver-Regenerative Transplantation: Regrow and Reset

    PubMed Central

    de l’Hortet, A. Collin; Takeishi, K.; Guzman-Lepe, J.; Handa, K.; Matsubara, K.; Fukumitsu, K.; Dorko, K.; Presnell, S. C.; Yagi, H.; Soto-Gutierrez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation, either a partial liver from a living or deceased donor or a whole liver from a deceased donor, is the only curative therapy for severe end-stage liver disease. Only one-third of those on the liver transplant waiting list will be transplanted, and the demand for livers is projected to increase 23% in the next 20 years. Consequently, organ availability is an absolute constraint on the number of liver transplants that can be performed. Regenerative therapies aim to enhance liver tissue repair and regeneration by any means available (cell repopulation, tissue engineering, biomaterials, proteins, small molecules, and genes). Recent experimental work suggests that liver repopulation and engineered liver tissue are best suited to the task if an unlimited availability of functional induced pluripotent stem (iPS)–derived liver cells can be achieved. The derivation of iPS cells by reprogramming cell fate has opened up new lines of investigation, for instance, the generation of iPS-derived xenogeneic organs or the possibility of simply inducing the liver to reprogram its own hepatocyte function after injury. We reviewed current knowledge about liver repopulation, generation of engineered livers and reprogramming of liver function. We also discussed the numerous barriers that have to be overcome for clinical implementation. PMID:26699680

  18. Liver Hydatid Cyst and Acute Cholangitis: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nemati Honar, Behzad; Hayatollah, Gholamhossein; Nikshoar, Mohammadreza; Forootan, Mojgan; Feizi, Ali Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Amongst the cause of cystic hepatic disease, hydatid cyst is common in the Asia, South America, and Africa. The definitive therapy for hepatic hydatid disease is surgical resection. Rupture of the hydatid cyst into the biliary tree can lead to serious cholangitis. In this report, a 22-year-old man is presented with the signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. Ultrasonography reported dilated common bile duct (CBD) with sludge and stones, a hydatid cyst adjacent to the gall bladder and mild thickening of gallbladder wall without a stone. MRCP revealed dilated CBD with a cyst in segment fifth of liver. Due to signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in addition to lab data and imaging modalities, the ruptured hydatid cyst into a biliary tree was considered, and surgical intervention was performed to extract daughter vesicles from the CBD. Post intervention, signs and symptoms and cholestasis enzymes were subsided. PMID:27309273

  19. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  20. Liver autophagy in anorexia nervosa and acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Kheloufi, Marouane; Boulanger, Chantal M; Durand, François; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic pathway for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, is crucial for cell homeostasis, and survival under stressful conditions. During starvation, autophagy is induced in numerous organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, and promotes survival by supplying nutrients and energy. In the early neonatal period, when transplacental nutrients supply is interrupted, starvation-induced autophagy is crucial for neonates' survival. In adult animals, autophagy provides amino acids and participates in glucose metabolism following starvation. In patients with anorexia nervosa, autophagy appears initially protective, allowing cells to copes with nutrient deprivation. However, when starvation is critically prolonged and when body mass index reaches 13 kg/m(2) or lower, acute liver insufficiency occurs with features of autophagic cell death, which can be observed by electron microscopy analysis of liver biopsy samples. In acetaminophen overdose, a classic cause of severe liver injury, autophagy is induced as a protective mechanism. Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Autophagy is also activated as a rescue mechanism in response to Efavirenz-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. However, Efavirenz overdose blocks autophagy leading to liver cell death. In conclusion, in acute liver injury, autophagy appears as a protective mechanism that can be however blocked or overwhelmed. PMID:25250330

  1. Gut-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been among the leading causes of cirrhosis and liver-related death worldwide for decades. Early discoveries in alcoholic liver disease identified increased levels of bacterial endotoxin in the portal circulation, suggesting a role for gut-derived toxins in ALD. Indeed, alcohol consumption can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and result in increased gut permeability that increasingly is recognized as a major factor in ALD. Bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, is a prototypic microbe-derived inflammatory signal that contributes to inflammation in ALD through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4. Recent studies also have shown that alcohol consumption is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, and the dysbalance of pathogenic and commensal organisms in the intestinal microbiome may contribute to the abnormal gut-liver axis in ALD. Indeed, bacterial decontamination improves ALD both in human and animal models. This short review summarizes recent findings and highlights emerging trends in the gut-liver axis relevant to ALD. PMID:25447847

  2. Liver Autophagy in Anorexia Nervosa and Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kheloufi, Marouane; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Durand, François

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic pathway for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, is crucial for cell homeostasis, and survival under stressful conditions. During starvation, autophagy is induced in numerous organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, and promotes survival by supplying nutrients and energy. In the early neonatal period, when transplacental nutrients supply is interrupted, starvation-induced autophagy is crucial for neonates' survival. In adult animals, autophagy provides amino acids and participates in glucose metabolism following starvation. In patients with anorexia nervosa, autophagy appears initially protective, allowing cells to copes with nutrient deprivation. However, when starvation is critically prolonged and when body mass index reaches 13 kg/m2 or lower, acute liver insufficiency occurs with features of autophagic cell death, which can be observed by electron microscopy analysis of liver biopsy samples. In acetaminophen overdose, a classic cause of severe liver injury, autophagy is induced as a protective mechanism. Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Autophagy is also activated as a rescue mechanism in response to Efavirenz-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. However, Efavirenz overdose blocks autophagy leading to liver cell death. In conclusion, in acute liver injury, autophagy appears as a protective mechanism that can be however blocked or overwhelmed. PMID:25250330

  3. Accuracy of Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy after Liver Transplantation and Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Hanns; Bechstein, Wolf O.; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Biliary complications are the most frequent complications after common liver surgeries. In this study, accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and impact of hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated. Methods. Between November 2007 and February 2016, 131 patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy after having liver surgery. 39 patients with 42 scans after LTX (n = 13) or hepatic resection (n = 26) were evaluated in the study; 27 were male, with mean age 60 years. The subjects underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled Mebrofenin. The results were compared to ERCP as gold standard performed within one month after HBS. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. We compared LTX patients to patients with other liver surgeries. Furthermore the influence of hyperbilirubinemia on HBS scans was evaluated. Results. HBS always provided the correct diagnosis in cases of bile leak in the liver-resected group (14/14). Overall diagnostic accuracy was 76% (19/25) in this group and 54% (7/13) in the LTX group. False negative (FN) diagnoses occurred more often among LTX patients (p = 0.011). Hyperbilirubinemia (>5 mg/dL) significantly influenced the excretion function of the liver, prolonging HBS's time-activity-curve (p = 0.001). Conclusions. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a reliable tool to detect biliary complications, but reduced accuracy must be considered after LTX. PMID:27563464

  4. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  5. Cell sources, liver support systems and liver tissue engineering: alternatives to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-05-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  6. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  7. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  8. Association of Chromosome Loss with Centromere-Adjacent Mitotic Recombination in a Yeast Disomic Haploid

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. A.; Fogel, S.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments designed to characterize the association between disomic chromosome loss and centromere-adjacent mitotic recombination were performed. Mitotic gene convertants were selected at two heteroallelic sites on the left arm of disomic chromosome III and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) Disomic chromosome loss is markedly enhanced (nearly 40-fold) over basal levels among mitotic gene convertants selected to arise close to the centromere; no such enhancement is observed among convertants selected to arise relatively far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is primarily associated with proximal allele conversion at the centromere-adjacent site, and many of these convertants are reciprocally recombined in the adjacent proximal interval. (3) Partial aneuploid exceptions provisionally identified as carrying left arm telocentrics have been found. A testable model is proposed suggesting that centromere involvement in genetic recombination may precipitate segregational disfunction leading to mitotic chromosome loss. PMID:324869

  9. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  10. Minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic 2 levels adjacent lumbar discectomy through 1 portal skin incision: Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Jong Gyue; Lee, Seung Myung; Kim, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lumbar disc herniation can occur in every lumbar intervertebral disc space and in multiple levels simultaneously. In the cases of 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniations of severe unilateral radiculopathic leg pain caused by compression of the nerve roots, respectively, multiple incision or long incision is generally needed for simultaneous removal of disc fragment in 2 levels. Objectives: We proposed the minimally invasive one portal skin incision endoscopic discectomy is effective and safe method to treat 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods: We have experimented total 8 cases of 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation having unilateral radiculopathic pain respectively. All cases are 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation. We have tried a percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal approach through minimal one portal skin incision and remove the two herniated disc materials in the adjacent levels. Results: The L2-L3 level was involved in 2 patients, L3-L4 level in 6 patients, while the L4-L5 level was involved in 7 patients, L5-S1 level in 1 patient. The mean follow-up was 18.5 months. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) of the patients prior to surgery was 7.75, and the mean postoperative VAS was 2.375. According to Macnab's criteria, 3 patients had excellent results, 4 patients had good results, 1 patient had fair results, and no patient had a poor result; satisfactory results were obtained in 87.5% of the cases. Conclusion: The percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal approach through 1 skin portal incision could be effective surgical method in unilateral adjacent 2 levels lumbar disc herniation. PMID:25972937

  11. The International Liver Transplant Society Guideline on Living Liver Donation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles M; Durand, Francois; Heimbach, Julie K; Kim-Schluger, Leona; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lerut, Jan; Lo, Chung-Mau; Quintini, Cristiano; Pomfret, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-06-01

    The following guideline represents the position of the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) on key preoperative, operative, and postoperative aspects surrounding living liver donation. These recommendations were developed from experts in the field from around the world. The authors conducted an analysis of the National Library of Medicine indexed literature on "living donor liver transplantation" [Medline search] using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Writing was guided by the ILTS Policy on the Development and Use of Practice Guidelines (www.ilts.org). ILTS members, and many more nonmembers, were invited to comment. Recommendations have been based on information available at the time of final submission (March 2016). The lack of randomized controlled trials in this field to date is acknowledged and is reflected in the grading of evidence. Intended for use by physicians, these recommendations support specific approaches to the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of care. PMID:27120453

  12. Malignant Infiltration of the Liver Presenting as Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Nicole E.; Sanders, Corron; Hughes, Randall S.; Fontana, Robert J.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Fix, Oren; Han, Steven H.; Naugler, Willscott E.; Zaman, Atif; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    There have been few reports of acute liver failure (ALF, with encephalopathy and coagulopathy) due to infiltration of the liver by malignant cells. We describe a case series of 27 patients with ALF caused by malignancy. We examined a large, multi-center ALF registry (1910 patients; mean age, 47.1±13.9 years) and found only 27 cases (1.4%) of ALF attributed to malignancy. Twenty cases (74%) presented with abdominal pain and 11 with ascites. The malignancies included lymphoma or leukemia (33%), breast cancer, (30%), and colon cancer (7%); 90% of the patients with lymphoma or leukemia had no history of cancer, compared to 25% of patients with breast cancer. Overall, 44% of the patients had evidence of liver masses by imaging. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy in 15 (55%) and autopsy for 6 cases. Twenty-four patients (89%) died within 3 weeks of ALF. PMID:25277846

  13. Noninvasive Measures of Liver Fibrosis and Severity of Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Catherine; Brown, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the degree of fibrosis is an important step in the assessment of disease severity in patients with chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy has been the gold standard for estimating the extent of inflammation and fibrosis, although the procedure has limitations such as sampling error and variability. Noninvasive testing has been shown to be equally predictive in ruling out fibrosis or ruling in advanced fibrosis. Serum biomarkers and imaging-based tests have more limited predictive ability when classifying intermediate stages, but these tools can help identify which patients should receive antiviral treatment sooner and require ongoing cancer surveillance without the need for biopsy. Using a combination of serum markers and imaging tests may also be helpful in providing functional assessment of portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease.

  14. Microemulsions as model fluids for enhanced oil recovery: dynamics adjacent to planar hydrophilic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Lipfert, F.; Kerscher, M.; Mattauch, S.; Richter, D.

    2012-10-01

    After the dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy, the model of Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the surface near lamellar ordered membranes. Reflections of hydrodynamic waves by the wall - or the volume conservation between the membrane and the wall - explain faster relaxations and, therefore, a lubrication effect that is important for flow fields in narrow pores. The whole scenery is now spectated by using different scenarios of a bicontinuous microemulsion exposed to clay particles and of a lamellar microemulsion adjacent to a planar wall. The Seifert concept could successfully be transferred to the new problems.

  15. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  16. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  17. New automatic liver segmentation and extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pinzheng; Xu, Qinzheng; Wang, Zheng

    2007-12-01

    Liver segmentation is critical in designing and developing computer-assisted systems that have been used for liver disease diagnosis before surgery or transplantation. The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized system for extracting liver contours and reconstructing liver volume using contrast-enhanced hepatic CT images. The automatic liver segmentation method adopted the graph optimal algorithm with ratio contour as its salient measure. This new cost function encoded the Gestalt laws and synthesized the gap length, the liver region area, the length of the closed contour and the average curvature of the closed boundary. With the extracted liver contours, a promising system to exclude tissues outside the liver was developed. It promised to save time and simplify liver volume reconstruction by minimizing intervention operations. Some 3D-rendered reconstruction results were also created to demonstrate the final results of our system.

  18. The isolated artery: an intrahepatic arterial pathway that can bypass the lobular parenchyma in mammalian livers.

    PubMed

    Ekataksin, W

    2000-02-01

    Controversy persists concerning the distribution of intrahepatic arterial termination. Apart from nourishing structures in the portal tract, several authors have suggested arterial supply to some isolated vascular beds that bypass the parenchyma, but this was not verified morphologically. In the present study, the existence of an isolated hepatic artery unaccompanied by a portal vein or a bile duct was shown in livers of pigs and other mammals including the dog, seal, ox, horse, and man. After colored media injection, liver blocks were sampled near the hepatic capsule and hepatic vein and subject to histologic assessment. The hepatic artery dissociated from superficial portal tract, ramified, and anastomosed extensively, forming a capsular plexus that drained at places into peripheral sinusoids in which resistive structural elaborations were observed. The artery also dissociated and fed an intramural plexus (vasa vasorum) of hepatic veins. This was collected into a vessel that penetrated the intima into the vein's lumen. In smaller sublobular veins, the plexus emptied into adjacent sinusoids; in central veins, the plexus was poorly developed. In canine and phocine livers, which have a special throttling musculature in sublobular veins, the isolated arterioles were numerous; in bovine and equine livers, which have a thick fibrous investment, the capsular plexus was well-developed. Occurrence of the isolated artery also was confirmed in the human but not in the rodent liver. In conclusion, the isolated artery is responsible for isolated vascular beds, in which the transintimal pathway can bypass the lobular sinusoids. PMID:10655246

  19. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  20. Liver transplantation at Mount Sinai.

    PubMed

    Kim-Schluger, L; Florman, S S; Gondolesi, G; Emre, S; Sheiner, P A; Fishbein, T M; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 2000 liver transplants have been performed over the past 12 years at Mount Sinai, with a recent exponential growth in living donor surgeries. Living-donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for our patients with end-stage liver disease. We are only beginning to recognize fully the advantages that 'scheduled' liver transplantation can offer. In this era of severe cadaver organ shortages, living donation offers patients the option of liver replacement in a timely fashion, before life-threatening complications of hepatic failure and/or carcinoma progression prohibit transplantation. The next era of transplantation at Mount Sinai will bring significant increases in the number of transplants performed with living donors, with projections of over 50% of the total transplants each year expected to involve living donations. We are committed to offering this option while recognizing that donor safety remains paramount and cannot be overemphasized. Proper donor and recipient selection, as well as surgical experience are imperative to success with this technically demanding procedure. Recurrent disease after transplantation, particularly with hepatitis C, remains a challenge clinically. Further investigations into the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of recurrent hepatitis C need to be addressed. Living donor transplantation could be an important option for these patients and would allow timely transplantation and the potential for improved survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11512318