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Sample records for adjacent normal thyroid

  1. Correlation of normal thyroid ultrasonography with thyroid tests

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Cafer; Üçler, Rıfkı; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid disorders are frequently seen in the community. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) is commonly used in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The relationship between heterogeneous echogenicity of thyroid gland and thyroid tests are well known. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of normal US with the thyroid tests. A total of 681 individuals were enrolled in the study. Individuals were separated into two groups as normal (group 1) and hypoechoic (group 2) according to the echogenicity in US. Subjects with nodular thyroid lesions were excluded from the study. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) values were recorded in both groups and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) was recorded in individuals with low TSH. Results 86.1% of individuals in group 1 had normal TSH, 93.7% had normal thyroid antibodies and in 77.6% of individuals, all thyroid tests performed were normal. In the 6.9% of the group 2, all reviewed thyroid tests were normal (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that US is correlated with normal thyroid function tests and is a valuable tool in the prediction of normal thyroid function. PMID:26435920

  2. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  3. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  4. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  5. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J.N.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  6. Low-normal thyroid function and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  7. Changes in the normal range of thyroidal radioiodine uptake

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, D. H.; Williams, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Three series of patients shown to be euthyroid but originally referred for thyroid uptake tests in vivo have been compared. In 1958-59, the `normal' mean thyroid uptake was 23·5% and 38·2% respectively at four and 24 hours. By 1967, the mean uptakes had dropped to 20·4% and 31·6%—a significant change at both times. By 1972 there was, however, no sign of a further reduction of the mean normal values for thyroid uptake. These results are compared with changes observed in other series in the USA and elsewhere. PMID:4646297

  8. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  9. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  10. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease. PMID:25082554

  11. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  12. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower ... thyroid cells that are normally present in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur ...

  13. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-09-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

  14. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Stefano; Vaira, Valentina; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Vicentini, Leonardo; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Lania, Andrea G

    2015-04-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in both cell growth and cell differentiation control. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the expression of different PKA regulatory subunits in benign and non benign human thyroid tumours and to correlate their expression with clinical phenotype. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Conversely, a significant increase in PRKAR1A expression was only demonstrated in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid tumors. In thyroid cancers without lymph nodal metastases PRKAR1A expression was higher in tumours of more than 2 cm in size (T2 and T3) compared to smaller ones (T1). In conclusion, our data shows that an increased PRKAR1A expression is associated with aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. PMID:25393625

  15. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  16. Normal vs cancer thyroid stem cells: the road to transformation.

    PubMed

    Zane, M; Scavo, E; Catalano, V; Bonanno, M; Todaro, M; De Maria, R; Stassi, G

    2016-02-18

    Recent investigations in thyroid carcinogenesis have led to the isolation and characterisation of a subpopulation of stem-like cells, responsible for tumour initiation, progression and metastasis. Nevertheless, the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells (SCs) remains unknown and it is still necessary to define the process and the target population that sustain malignant transformation of tissue-resident SCs or the reprogramming of a more differentiated cell. Here, we will critically discuss new insights into thyroid SCs as a potential source of cancer formation in light of the available information on the oncogenic role of genetic modifications that occur during thyroid cancer development. Understanding the fine mechanisms that regulate tumour transformation may provide new ground for clinical intervention in terms of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25961919

  17. Thyroid Levels in High-Normal Range May Be Linked to Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... in High-Normal Range May Be Linked to Cardiac Arrest Study isn't cause for alarm, cardiologist says, ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cardiac Arrest Thyroid Tests Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  18. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor expression in normal and diseased human thyroid and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Waser, Beatrice; Blank, Annika; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Perren, Aurel; Reubi, Jean C

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs may induce thyroid or pancreatic diseases in animals, raising questions about their use in diabetic patients. There is, however, controversy regarding expression of GLP1 receptors (GLP1R) in human normal and diseased thyroid and pancreas. Here, 221 human thyroid and pancreas samples were analyzed for GLP1R immunohistochemistry and compared with quantitative in vitro GLP1R autoradiography. Neither normal nor hyperplastic human thyroids containing parafollicular C cells express GLP1R with either method. Papillary thyroid cancer do not, and medullary thyroid carcinomas rarely express GLP1R. Insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells in the normal pancreas express a high density of GLP1R, whereas acinar cells express them in low amounts. Ductal epithelial cells do not express GLP1R. All benign insulinomas express high densities of GLP1R, whereas malignant insulinomas rarely express them. All ductal pancreatic carcinomas are GLP1R negative, whereas 6/20 PanIN 1/2 and 0/12 PanIN 3 express GLP1R. Therefore, normal thyroid, including normal and hyperplastic C cells, or papillary thyroid cancer are not targets for GLP1 analogs in humans. Conversely, all pancreatic insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells are physiological GLP1 targets, as well as most acini. As normal ductal epithelial cells or PanIN 3 or ductal pancreatic carcinomas do not express GLP1R, it seems unlikely that GLP1R is related to neoplastic transformation in pancreas. GLP1R-positive medullary thyroid carcinomas and all benign insulinomas are candidates for in vivo GLP1R targeting. PMID:25216224

  19. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  20. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  1. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  2. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation Can Normalize Thyroid Function in a Cystinosis Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, H P; Janssens, V; Van Der Smissen, P; Rocca, C J; Liao, X H; Refetoff, S; Pierreux, C E; Cherqui, S; Courtoy, P J

    2016-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication in cystinosis, a multisystemic lysosomal storage disease caused by defective transmembrane cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS gene). We recently demonstrated in Ctns(-/-) mice that altered thyroglobulin biosynthesis associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, combined with defective lysosomal processing, caused hypothyroidism. In Ctns(-/-) kidney, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation provides long-term functional and structural protection. Tissue repair involves transfer of cystinosin-bearing lysosomes from HSCs differentiated as F4/80 macrophages into deficient kidney tubular cells, via tunneling nanotubes that cross basement laminae. Here we evaluated the benefit of HSC transplantation for cystinotic thyroid and investigated the underlying mechanisms. HSC engraftment in Ctns(-/-) thyroid drastically decreased cystine accumulation, normalized the TSH level, and corrected the structure of a large fraction of thyrocytes. In the thyroid microenvironment, HSCs differentiated into a distinct, mixed macrophage/dendritic cell lineage expressing CD45 and major histocompatibility complex II but low CD11b and F4/80. Grafted HSCs closely apposed to follicles and produced tunneling nanotube-like extensions that crossed follicular basement laminae. HSCs themselves further squeezed into follicles, allowing extensive contact with thyrocytes, but did not transdifferentiate into Nkx2.1-expressing cells. Our observations revealed significant differences of basement lamina porosity between the thyroid and kidney and/or intrinsic macrophage invasive properties once in the thyroid microenvironment. The contrast between extensive thyrocyte protection and low HSC abundance at steady state suggests multiple sequential encounters and/or remanent impact. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of HSC transplantation to correct thyroid disease and supports a major multisystemic benefit of stem

  4. Optical characterization of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Basilio, F S; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

    2015-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method has a high percentage of inconclusive and false-negative results for benign and malignant lesions. Hence, it is important to search for a new method to assist medical evaluation during these surgical procedures. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and non-destructive method to assist medical evaluation. In this study, we investigated 17 human thyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. This initial investigation has demonstrated that thyroid fluorescence originates from many endogenous fluorophores and culminates in several bands. The fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by analysis of variance using Tukey test with individual confidence level of 98.06%. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions can potentially assist diagnosis. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool for the surgeon to identify differences between normal and pathological thyroid tissues. PMID:25731814

  5. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  6. Response to hypogravity of normal in vitro cultured follicular cells from thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, Antonella; Perrella, Giuseppina; Curcio, Francesco; Saverio, F.; Impiombato, Ambesi

    Aim of this investigation is the study of molecular modifications occurring in differentiated mammalian cells exposed to gravitational changes. The test system chosen is a well characterized clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5) in long-term culture. As a follow-up to our recent experiment performed during the MASER-7 sounding rocket mission, flown for European Space Agency by Swedish Space Corporation in May 1996, we evaluated FRTL5 cells responses to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone dependent cAMP production under acute hypogravity conditions obtained in a fast rotating clinostat. Following this approach, we evaluated the FRTL5 cells response to TSH under microgravity conditions in order to optimize experimental tools and strategies in preparation to, and in between real flight missions.

  7. Telomere length variation in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor: potential biomarker for breast cancer local recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Meeker, Alan K.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Kosti, Ourania; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.S.; Sidawy, Mary K.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Zheng, Yun-Ling

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk of local recurrence (LR) will facilitate therapeutic decision making in the management of early breast cancers. In the present study, we investigated whether telomere length in the normal breast epithelial cells surrounding the tumor is predictive of breast cancer LR; 152 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center were included in this nested case–control study. Cases (patients had LR) and controls (patients had no LR) were matched on year of surgery, age at diagnosis and type of surgery. Telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine the telomere length using formalin fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissues. Small telomere length variation (TLV), defined as the coefficient variation of telomere lengths among examined cells, in normal epithelial cells adjacent to the tumor was significantly associated with a 5-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.2–22.2) increased risk of breast cancer LR. When the subjects were categorized into quartiles, a significant inverse dose–response relationship was observed with lowest versus highest quartile odds ratio of 15.3 (Ptrend = 0.012). Patients who had large TLV had significantly better 10 year recurrence free survival rate compared with patients who had small TLV (80 versus 33%). The present study revealed that TLV in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor is a strong predictor of breast cancer LR. If confirmed by future studies, TLV in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor has the potential to become a promising biomarker for predicting breast cancer LR after breast conserving surgery. PMID:22072619

  8. Normal Variations of Sphenoid Sinus and the Adjacent Structures Detected in Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Azadeh; Ghafari, Roshanak; AnjomShoa, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The sphenoid sinus is a common target of paranasal surgery. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is likely to endanger the anatomic variations of vital structures adjacent to the sphenoid sinus. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the variations of sphenoid sinus and the related structures by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method In this descriptive-analytic study, CBCT images of 103 patients aged above 20-years were selected (206 sides). Degree of pneumatization of sphenoid sinus, pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process, protrusion of optic canal, vidian canal, and foramen rotundum, as well as prevalence of sinus septa were recorded. Examinations were performed using On-Demand software (Version 1); data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the pterygoid pneumatization and vidian canal protrusion (p< 0.001), and foramen rotundum protrusion (p< 0.001). The optic canal protrusion was found to be significantly associated with the anterior clinoid pneumatization and pterygoid process (p< 0.001). Statistically significant relationship was also observed between the carotid canal protrusion and pterygoid process pneumatization (p< 0.001). Conclusion The anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus tend to give rise to a complexity of symptoms and potentially serious complications. This variability necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the regional sphenoid sinus anatomy by a detailed CBCT sinus examination. PMID:26966706

  9. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  12. Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Jia, Li; Merino, Maria J.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Zhang, Lisa; Cam, Maggie; Patel, Dhaval; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer accounts for 3 to 9% of all cases of thyroid cancer, but the susceptibility genes are not known. Here, we report a germline variant of HABP2 in seven affected members of a kindred with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer and in 4.7% of 423 patients with thyroid cancer. This variant was associated with increased HABP2 protein expression in tumor samples from affected family members, as compared with normal adjacent thyroid tissue and samples from sporadic cancers. Functional studies showed that HABP2 has a tumor-suppressive effect, whereas the G534E variant results in loss of function. PMID:26222560

  13. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins, secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and the adjacent mucous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092

  14. Expression of receptors for VEGFs on normal human thyroid follicular cells and their role in follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Susarla, Radhika; Gonzalez, Ana-Maria; Watkinson, John C; Eggo, Margaret C

    2012-05-01

    Human thyroid follicular cells in culture expressed the mRNAs for the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFRs). The relative expression was neuropilin1 = neuropilin2 = VEGFR2 > VEGFR1 > VEGFR3. Western blotting for VEGFR2 showed labeling of proteins ~200-230 kDa. Clonal follicular thyroid cell lines (FRTL5 and FTC133) also expressed mRNAs for the VEGFR1 and 2 obviating concerns of endothelial cell contamination. In the primary cultures, TSH, which is essential for expression of differentiated function, reduced VEGFR2 mRNA levels by 60%. Immunostaining for VEGFRs and neuropilin2 (NRP2), showed expression on the plasma membrane but with the exception of neuropilin1 (NRP1), all VEGFRs were also found in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Antibody specific for phosphotyrosine 1214 in VEGFR2 showed that the receptor was phosphorylated in the primary cultures and the cell lines. When VEGFR signaling was blocked with a specific inhibitor, follicle formation in the primary cultures was enhanced suggesting that VEGFR activation was detrimental to follicle formation. Immunostaining of sections of normal thyroids and various pathologies showed staining for VEGFR2 and pVEGFR2. We conclude that normal thyroid follicular cell express VEGFRs. For VEGFR2 its subcellular localization suggests functions additional to that of a cell surface receptor and a role in follicular integrity. PMID:21751212

  15. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  16. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal location of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum). This article discusses ...

  17. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism. PMID:22658718

  18. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  19. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples. PMID:27375172

  20. Actin stress fiber disruption and tropomysin isoform switching in normal thyroid epithelial cells stimulated by thyrotropin and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, P.P.; Rickaert, F.; Lamy, F.; Authelet, M.; Dumont, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), through cyclic AMP, promotes both proliferation and differentiation expression in dog thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture, whereas the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) also stimulates proliferation but antagonizes differentiating effects of TSH. In this study, within 20 min both factors triggered the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers. This process preceded distinct morphological changes: cytoplasmic retraction and arborization in response to TSH and cyclic AMP, cell shape distortion, and increased motility in response to TPA and diacylglycerol. TSH and TPA also induced a marked decrease in the synthesis of three high M{sub r} tropomyosin isoforms, which were not present in dog thyroid tissue but appeared in culture during cell spreading and stress fiber formation. The tropomyosin isoform switching observed here closely resembled similar processes in various cells transformed by oncogenic viruses. However, it did not correlate with differentiation or mitogenic activation. Contrasting with current hypothesis on this process in transformed cells, tropomyosin isoform switching in normal thyroid cells was preceded and thus might be caused by early disruption of stress fibers.

  1. Iodine-131 Dose Dependent Gene Expression in Thyroid Cancers and Corresponding Normal Tissues Following the Chernobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Ruf, Christian; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Riecke, Armin; Hartmann, Julia; Meineke, Viktor; Boukheris, Houda; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V.

    2012-01-01

    The strong and consistent relationship between irradiation at a young age and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis in humans. We thus evaluated differential gene expression in thyroid tissue in relation to iodine-131 (I-131) doses received from the Chernobyl accident. Sixty three of 104 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in the Ukrainian-American cohort with individual I-131 thyroid dose estimates had paired RNA specimens from fresh frozen tumor (T) and normal (N) tissue provided by the Chernobyl Tissue Bank and satisfied quality control criteria. We first hybridized 32 randomly allocated RNA specimen pairs (T/N) on 64 whole genome microarrays (Agilent, 4×44 K). Associations of differential gene expression (log2(T/N)) with dose were assessed using Kruskall-Wallis and trend tests in linear mixed regression models. While none of the genes withstood correction for the false discovery rate, we selected 75 genes with a priori evidence or P kruskall/P trend <0.0005 for validation by qRT-PCR on the remaining 31 RNA specimen pairs (T/N). The qRT-PCR data were analyzed using linear mixed regression models that included radiation dose as a categorical or ordinal variable. Eleven of 75 qRT-PCR assayed genes (ACVR2A, AJAP1, CA12, CDK12, FAM38A, GALNT7, LMO3, MTA1, SLC19A1, SLC43A3, ZNF493) were confirmed to have a statistically significant differential dose-expression relationship. Our study is among the first to provide direct human data on long term differential gene expression in relation to individual I-131 doses and to identify a set of genes potentially important in radiation carcinogenesis. PMID:22848350

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  3. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation. PMID:26916531

  4. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Li, Wen-yu; Hu, Xing-yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01–0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  5. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Yu; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  6. Immeasurably low and non-TRH-stimulatable TSH associated with normal I-123 uptake in two goitrous euthyroid patients: possible existence of other thyroid-hormone regulated thyroid stimulators other than TSH.

    PubMed

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Saiki, Yasuhiko; Son, Cheol; Iwakura, Toshio; Kobayashi, Hiromasa; Ishihara, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    We described two euthyroid patients with normally functioning goiters, but with persistently undetectable and non-stimulatable TSH levels. Subject 1 was a 64-year-old woman with a large diffuse goiter who has been clinically and biochemically euthyroid without any medication for at least 19 years. Subject 2 was a 31-year-old woman with a small diffuse goiter who has been euthyroid for 4 years. Both patients had persistently undetectable levels of serum TSH, TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). Their basal TSH levels were very low and their T3 responses to TRH were very diminished or absent. In contrast, the basal levels of the other pituitary hormones and their responses to LHRH, GRH and CRH stimulation were all within normal limits in both patients. MRI images of pituitary glands, 123I thyroid uptake, and thyroid scans were normal. Ectopic thyroids were not detected on (99m)TcO4- and 123I total body scans. Factors interfering with the measurement of TSH were excluded by recovery studies. In subject 1 a T3-suppression test was positive and a perchlorate discharge test was negative. In subject 2 a T3-suppression test was negative. Euthyroid Graves' disease, subclinical hyperthyroidism, destructive thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis of extrathyroid origin, central hypothyroidism, and nonthyroidal illness were all ruled out by these observations. These results suggest that an unknown factor, such as thyrostimulin, but not TSH or TSAb, stimulates the thyroid and maintains euthyroidism, and may have a role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. PMID:15758559

  7. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Vatten, Lars J.; Bjøro, Trine; Bauer, Douglas C.; Bremner, Alexandra; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceresini, Graziano; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Iervasi, Giorgio; Imaizumi, Misa; Kearney, Patricia M.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Newman, Anne. B.; Peeters, Robin P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Razvi, Salman; Sgarbi, José A.; Stott, David J.; Trompet, Stella; Vanderpump, Mark P. J.; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Importance Some experts suggest that serum thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the current reference range should be considered abnormal, an approach that would reclassify many individuals as having mild hypothyroidism. Health hazards associated with such thyrotropin levels are poorly documented, but conflicting evidence suggests that thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective To assess the association between differences in thyroid function within the reference range and CHD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Individual participant data analysis of 14 cohorts with baseline examinations between July 1972 and April 2002 and with median follow-up ranging from 3.3 to 20.0 years. Participants included 55 412 individuals with serum thyrotropin levels of 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L and no previously known thyroid or cardiovascular disease at baseline. Exposures Thyroid function as expressed by serum thyrotropin levels at baseline. Mainoutcomes and Measures Hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. Results Among 55 412 individuals, 1813 people (3.3%) died of CHD during 643 183 person-years of follow-up. In 10 cohorts with information on both nonfatal and fatal CHD events, 4666 of 48 875 individuals (9.5%) experienced a first-time CHD event during 533 408 person-years of follow-up. For each 1-mIU/L higher thyrotropin level, the HR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.90-1.04) for CHD mortality and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97-1.03) for a first-time CHD event. Similarly, in analyses by categories of thyrotropin, the HRs of CHD mortality (0.94 [95% CI, 0.74-1.20]) and CHD events (0.97 [95% CI, 0.83-1.13]) were similar among participants with the highest (3.50-4.49 mIU/L) compared with the lowest (0.45-1.49 mIU/L) thyrotropin levels. Subgroup analyses by sex and age group yielded similar results. Conclusions and

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells: clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Ellen; Cline, Jason E; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S; Abel, Josef

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been speculated that PCBs may affect brain development by interfering with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Because most of the data are from animal studies, we established a model using primary normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells to determine if PCBs interfere with TH-dependent neural differentiation. NHNP cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in culture, and they express a variety of drug metabolism enzymes and nuclear receptors. Like triiodothyronine (T3), treatment with the mono-ortho-substituted PCB-118 (2,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.01-1 microM) leads to a dose-dependent increase of oligodendrocyte formation. This effect was congener specific, because the coplanar PCB-126 (3,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) had no effect. Similar to the T3 response, the PCB-mediated effect on oligodendrocyte formation was blocked by retinoic acid and the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist NH-3. These results suggest that PCB-118 mimics T3 action via the TH pathway. PMID:16002375

  9. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. PMID:10838808

  10. Apparent congenital athyreosis contrasting with normal plasma thyroglobulin levels and associated with inactivating mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene: are athyreosis and ectopic thyroid distinct entities?

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Parma, J; Deal, C; Vassart, G; Van Vliet, G

    1998-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the TSH receptor gene (TSH-R), usually leading to asymptomatic hyperthyrotropinemia, have been reported since 1995 in a total of eight pedigrees, with a pattern of transmission suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Although normal TSH secretion and action are not necessary for normal migration of the thyroid analage, they are essential for normal thyroid growth and function. In keeping with this concept, we report a severely hypothyroid boy with a normally located but very hypoplastic and hypofunctional thyroid caused by TSH-R loss-of-function mutations. The propositus' maternal great aunt also had apparent athyreosis. The propositus had undetectable uptake on 99mpertechnetate scintigraphy but normal plasma thyroglobulin at 15 days of age. He was found to be a compound heterozygote for TSH-R mutations, with the maternal allele carrying a splicing mutation (G to C transversion at position +3 of the donor site of intron 6) and the other allele a deletion of two nucleotides (2 bases of codon 655 in exon 10). The great aunt's TSH-R was normal. We also report the sex ratio of hypothyroid newborns referred to our center since 1989 with apparent athyreosis (5 girls, 7 boys) and with ectopic thyroid tissue (41 girls, 15 boys). We conclude that different genetic and nongenetic mechanisms for athyreosis and ectopic thyroid are likely, and that these two distinct entities are themselves heterogeneous. Our results further show that inactivating mutations in TSH-R may account for some cases of apparent congenital athyreosis and should be suspected, especially if plasma thyroglobulin levels are normal. PMID:9589691

  11. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: experience with patients with normal thyroids and nodular goiters.

    PubMed

    Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Cauzzo, Cristina; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The surgical approach to primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is changing. In patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA), a unilateral neck exploration (UNE) or a minimally invasive radio-guided surgery (MIRS) using the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) technique have recently been proposed. We investigated the role of IGP in a group of 84 patients with primary HPT who were homogeneously evaluated before surgery by a single-day imaging protocol including 99mTcO4/MIBI subtraction scan and neck ultrasound (US) and then operated on by the same surgical team. Quick parathyroid hormone (QPTH) was intraoperatively measured in all cases to confirm successful parathyroidectomy. In 70 patients with scan/US evidence of a single enlarged parathyroid gland (EPG) and with a normal thyroid gland, MIRS was planned. In the other 14 patients, the IGP technique was utilized during a standard bilateral neck exploration (BNE) because of the presence of concomitant nodular goiter (11 cases) or multiglandular disease (MGD) (3 cases). The IGP technique consisted of the following: (1) in the operating room, a low 99mTc-MIBI dose (37 MBq) was injected intravenously during anesthesia induction; (2) subsequently, the patient's neck was scanned with the probe by the surgeon to localize the cutaneous projection of the EPG; (3) in patients who underwent MIRS, the EPG was detected intraoperatively with the probe and removed through a small, 2 to 2.5 cm skin incision; (4) radioactivity was measured on the EPG both in vivo and ex vivo, the thyroid, the background and the parathyroid bed after EPG removal. In patients with concomitant nodular goiter, the radioactivity was also measured on the thyroid nodules. Surgical and pathologic findings were consistent with a single PA in 78 patients, parathyroid carcinoma in 2, and MGD in 4. MIRS was successfully performed in 67 of the 70 patients (97.7%) in whom this approach was planned. It must be pointed out that

  12. Tumor-induced solid stress activates β-catenin signaling to drive malignant behavior in normal, tumor-adjacent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers examining the impact of applied pressure on the malignant phenotype of murine colon tissue in vivo revealed that mechanical perturbations can drive malignant behavior in genetically normal cells. Their findings build upon an existing understanding of how the mechanical cues experienced by cells within a tissue become progressively modified as the tissue transforms. Using magnetically stimulated ultra-magnetic liposomes to mimic tumor growth -induced solid stress, Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers were able to stimulate β-catenin to promote the cancerous behavior of both a normal and genetically modified colon epithelium. In this perspective, we discuss their findings in the context of what is currently known regarding the role of the mechanical landscape in cancer progression and β-catenin as a mechanotransducer. We review data that suggest that mechanically regulated activation of β-catenin fosters development of a malignant phenotype in tissue and predict that mechanical cues may contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26439949

  13. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  14. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  15. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  16. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  17. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  18. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  19. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that is directly affecting the thyroid (primary hypothyroidism). The opposite situation, in which the TSH level ... making enough TSH to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism). In most healthy individuals, a normal TSH value ...

  20. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  1. Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Byers, Tim; Allen, Jenna; Finlayson, Christina; Helmke, Steve M; Hokanson, John E; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Murphy, James R; Newell, Keri; Queensland, Kelly M; Singh, Meenakshi; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Duncan, Mark W; Elias, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood. PMID:20087651

  2. Human lung and bladder carcinoma tumors as compared to their adjacent normal tissue have elevated AP-1 activity associated with the retinoblastoma gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Papadakis, E; Delakas, D; Theodosiou, V; Cranidis, A; Spandidos, D A

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma (Rb) promoter revealed the presence of a DNA region highly homologous to the recognition site for the cellular transcription factor AP-1. A pair of complementary oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 site was synthesized and used in gel retardation assays to determine the role of the AP-1 protein in the regulation of the Rb gene expression. Using nuclear extracts from Hela cells as well as from lung and bladder tumors, we found specific binding of the AP-1 protein to this oligonucleotide. This binding is elevated in Hela cells, in 10/13 lung and 3/8 bladder tumors as compared to adjacent normal tissue. These results suggest that AP-1 could be implicated in Rb gene transcriptional regulation through its interaction with the AP-1 binding site of the Rb gene promoter. PMID:8476221

  3. Detection and treatment of lung metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with normal chest X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumberger, M.; Arcangioli, O.; Piekarski, J.D.; Tubiana, M.; Parmentier, C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung metastases were demonstrated by total-body /sup 131/I scans in 23 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, at a time when chest x-ray was normal. This total-body /sup 131/I scan was performed after the administration of 2 mCi (in 11 patients) or 100 mCi (in 12 patients). Overall uptake of 131I in lungs was less than 1% of the administered dose in 11 patients. All patients were treated with radioiodine. No lung uptake was found in 20 patients at the last 100 mCi post-therapy scan. Among them, Tg level became undetectable during T4 treatment in eight, lung CT scan showed the disappearance of the micronodules in seven, and lung biopsy did not show evidence of disease in two patients. No patient developed radiation lung fibrosis. In conclusion, favorable responses to radioiodine treatment were observed despite relatively low overall uptake, in relation to the small size of lung metastases. This provides high concentrations of radioiodine and therefore high radiation doses.

  4. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain. PMID:25251231

  5. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  6. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  7. Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1981-01-01

    Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6896018

  8. Thyroid and menopause.

    PubMed

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  9. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... thyroid storm can be caused by treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine therapy.

  10. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Cancer Goiter - simple Hyperthyroidism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II PET scan Skin ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid ...

  11. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... is done to: Check for thyroid cancer Evaluate thyroid nodules or goiter Find the cause of an overactive ... the thyroid appears lighter, it could be a thyroid problem. Nodules that are darker can be overactive and may ...

  12. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  13. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  14. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... other thyroid blood tests Thyroid ultrasound Thyroid scan (nuclear medicine) Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule or ... Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(suppl ...

  15. Thyroid hormone regulates stromelysin expression, protease secretion and the morphogenetic potential of normal polarized mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    López-Barahona, M; Fialka, I; González-Sancho, J M; Asunción, M; González, M; Iglesias, T; Bernal, J; Beug, H; Muñoz, A

    1995-01-01

    Stromelysins are a group of proteases which degrade the extracellular matrix and activate other secreted proteases. Stromelysin (ST)-1 and ST-2 genes are induced by tumor promoters, oncogenes and growth factors, and have been involved in acquisition of the malignant phenotype. We show here that the thyroid hormone (T3) increases ST-1 and ST-2 expression in a non-transformed mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4) in a way that is dependent on the level of thyroid receptor/c-erbA (TR alpha-1) expression. In agreement with this, T3 increases the secreted stromelysin activity and enhances the gelatinolytic activity of type IV collagenase. We have also demonstrated that T3 affects the epithelial polarity of EpH4 cells, diminishing the transepithelial electrical resistance of monolayers cultured on permeable filters, causing an abnormal distribution of polarization markers and the disruption of the organized 3-D structures formed by these cells in type I collagen gels. These results indicate that the ligand-activated TR alpha-1 plays an important role in regulating the morphogenetic and invasive capacities of mammary epithelial cells. Because the c-erbA locus is altered in several types of carcinoma, an altered or deregulated TR alpha-1 expression may also be important for breast cancer development and metastasis. Images PMID:7720705

  16. Unveiling a novel biomarker panel for diagnosis and classification of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Paricharttanakul, N Monique; Saharat, Kittirat; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common human endocrine malignancy with increasing global incidence. Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) are well-differentiated thyroid cancers (WDTC) accounting for 95% of all thyroid cancer cases, with survival rates of almost 100% when diagnosed early. Since PTC and FTC have different modes of metastasis, they require different treatment strategies. Standard diagnosis by fine needle aspiration with cytopathological examination can be inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of all cases and difficult to definitively classify as WDTC. Currently, there is no single or panel of biomarkers available for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification. This study identified novel biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification using proteomics, which may be translated into a biomarker panel for clinical application. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential biomarkers in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines, and the biomarkers were validated in five PTC and five FTC tissues, with their adjacent normal tissues from Thai patients. Eight biomarkers could distinguish PTC from normal tissues, namely enolase 1, triose phosphate isomerase, cathepsin D, annexin A2, cofilin 1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), copine 1 and heat shock protein 27 kDa (HSP27). These biomarkers can also discriminate FTC from normal tissues, except for annexin A2. On the contrary, annexin A2, cofilin 1, PCNA and HSP27 can be used to classify the types of WDTC. These findings have potential for use as a novel multi-marker panel for more accurate diagnosis and classification to better guide physicians on thyroid cancer treatment. Moreover, our results suggest the involvement of proteins in cell growth and proliferation, and the p53 pathway in the carcinogenesis of WDTC, which may lead to targeted therapy for thyroid cancer. PMID:26782318

  17. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. PMID:26408676

  18. Association of RET codon 691 polymorphism in radiation-induced human thyroid tumours with C-cell hyperplasia in peritumoural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bounacer, A; Du Villard, J A; Wicker, R; Caillou, B; Schlumberger, M; Sarasin, A; Suárez, H G

    2002-01-01

    The RET proto-oncogene encodes a protein structurally related to transmembrane receptors with an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. In human thyroid gland, the RET proto-oncogene is normally expressed in parafollicular C-cells. Thyroid C-cell hyperplasia is associated with inherited medullary thyroid carcinomas and is considered as a pre-neoplastic stage of C-cells disease. It has also been observed in thyroid tissues adjacent to follicular and papillary carcinomas. In order to study the relationship between a misfunctioning of the RET proto-oncogene and the presence of C-cell hyperplasia, we compared a series of thyroid glands presenting sporadic or radiation-associated tumours, as well as samples of unrelated normal thyroid tissues, for alteration in exons 10 and 11 of the gene and for the presence or absence of C-cell hyperplasia. Here we report a significantly higher frequency of C-cell hyperplasia present in peritumoural thyroid tissues of radiation-induced epithelial thyroid tumours, than in peritumoural of sporadic thyroid tumours or in control normal thyroid tissues (P=0.001). A G691S RET polymorphism was present with a higher frequency in radiation-induced epithelial thyroid tumours (55%) than in sporadic tumours (20%) and in control normal thyroid tissues (15%). Interestingly, this polymorphism was associated in the majority (88%) of radiation-induced tumours with a C-cell hyperplasia in the peritumoural tissues. Several explanations for this association are discussed. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1929–1936. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600371 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085189

  19. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  20. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  1. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  2. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment. PMID:27186273

  3. Thyroid Function Testing in Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: Trimester-specific Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid is hyperstimulated, resulting in changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse obstetric outcome and fetal neurodevelopmental deficits. Gestational age-specific reference intervals are now available for thyroid function tests. Knowing the expected normal changes in hormone concentrations throughout pregnancy allows individualized supplementation when necessary. PMID:16418685

  4. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Meena, Ram Singh; Bhatia, Anmol; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis. PMID:26430320

  5. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  6. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  7. Thyroid diseases and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters. PMID:22278068

  8. An avian retrovirus expressing chicken pp59c-myc possesses weak transforming activity distinct from v-myc that may be modulated by adjacent normal cell neighbors.

    PubMed Central

    Filardo, E J; Humphries, E H

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that EF168, an avian retrovirus that expresses the chicken pp59c-myc proto-oncogene, transforms quail embryo fibroblasts in vitro. An EF168-transformed quail clone, EF168-28, containing a single provirus, synthesizes several hundred copies of c-myc RNA and expresses elevated levels of the pp59c-myc gene product. The EF168 provirus in EF168-28 was isolated as a molecular clone, and the nucleotide sequence of its c-myc allele was confirmed as identical to that of exons 2 and 3 of the chicken c-myc proto-oncogene. Extended infection of quail embryo fibroblast cultures with EF168 induced a number of in vitro transformation-associated parameters similar to those elicited by the oncogenic v-myc-encoding retrovirus MC29, including alteration of cellular morphology, anchorage-independent growth, and induction of immortalized cell lines. Despite the fact that EF168 and MC29 shared these biological activities, further analysis revealed that EF168 initiated transformation in quail embryo fibroblasts, bone marrow, or adherent peripheral blood cultures 100- to 1,000-fold less efficiently than did MC29. Further, in contrast to MC29-induced foci, EF168 foci were smaller, morphologically diffuse, and less prominent. Analysis of newly infected cells demonstrated efficient expression of EF168 viral RNA in the absence of transformation. These differences suggest that while the pp59v-myc gene product can exert dominant transforming activity on quail embryo fibroblasts, its ability to initiate transformation is distinct from that of the pp110gag-v-myc gene product encoded by MC29 and may be suppressed by adjacent nontransformed cell neighbors. Images PMID:1942247

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  10. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  11. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  12. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  13. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. PMID:24067547

  14. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  15. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... known prevention. Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Sometimes, people with family histories and genetic mutations related to thyroid cancer will have their thyroid ...

  16. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these results and the results of other tests to direct your care. Additional conditions ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Papillary carcinoma of ...

  17. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  18. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  19. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism ... Thyroid storm occurs in people with untreated hyperthyroidism. It is usually brought on by a major stress such as trauma, heart attack, or infection. Thyroid storm is very rare.

  20. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  1. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pituitary decreases TSH production. [ Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform ... Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism . [ Top ] What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

  2. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  3. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  4. Altered expression of mir-222 and mir-25 influences diverse gene expression changes in transformed normal and anaplastic thyroid cells, and impacts on MEK and TRAIL protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Sinéad T.; Smyth, Paul; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Leila; Spillane, Cathy; O'leary, John; Sheils, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer-related deaths each year. Our group and others have previously demonstrated dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression in the context of thyroid cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of synthetic manipulation of expression of miR-25 and miR-222 in benign and malignant thyroid cells. miR-25 and miR-222 expression was upregulated in 8505C (an anaplastic thyroid cell line) and Nthy-ori (a SV40-immortalised thyroid cell line) cells, respectively. A transcriptomics-based approach was utilised to identify targets of the two miRNAs and real-time PCR and western blotting were used to validate a subset of the targets. Almost 100 mRNAs of diverse functions were found to be either directly or indirectly targeted by both miR-222 and miR-25 [fold change ≥2, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05]. Gene ontology analysis showed the miR-25 gene target list to be significantly enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Fluidigm real-time PCR technologies were used to validate the downregulation of 23 and 22 genes in response to miR-25 and miR-222 overexpression, respectively. The reduction of the expression of two miR-25 protein targets, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MEK4), was also validated. Manipulating the expression of both miR-222 and miR-25 influenced diverse gene expression changes in thyroid cells. Increased expression of miR-25 reduced MEK4 and TRAIL protein expression, and cell adhesion and apoptosis are important aspects of miR-25 functioning in thyroid cells. PMID:27353001

  5. RAI Thyroid Bed Uptake After Total Thyroidectomy: A Novel SPECT-CT Anatomic Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Zeuren, Rebecca; Biagini, Agnese; Grewal, Ravinder K.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Kamani, Dipti; Sabra, Mona M.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent, more selective use of radioactive iodine (RAI) has led to reevaluation of the clinical importance of achieving complete total thyroidectomy with minimal residual normal thyroid tissue. We utilize the improved localization by post-RAI remnant ablation, single photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) to define specific anatomic sites of residual RAI-uptake foci after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to provide a novel classification system relating uptake to thyroid anatomy and preservation of adjacent neural structures. Study Design Retrospective. Method Radioactive iodine-uptake foci in thyroid bed were localized by SPECT/CT imaging at the time of RAI remnant ablation in 141 DTC patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Results Minimal residual RAI uptake (median 0.32% at 24 hours) in the thyroid bed was detected by diagnostic planar whole body scans in 93% and by posttherapy SPECT/CT imaging in 99% of subjects. Discrete RAI uptake foci were identified on the SPECT/CT imaging at Berry’s ligament (87%), at superior thyroid poles (79%), in paratracheal-lobar regions (67%), in isthmus-region (54%), and in pyramidal lobe (46%). Despite the residual foci, the nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) prior to remnant ablation (with a median thyroid-stimulating hormone of 0.36 m IU/L) was <0.6 ng/mL in 53% and <1 ng/mL in 73% of cases. Conclusion After extracapsular total thyroidectomy, highly sensitive detection tools identify microscopic residual RAI avid foci in thyroid bed in the majority of patients. These foci can be classified as 1) neural-related and 2) capsule-related. These common residual foci have no relationship to postoperative Tg, suggesting that attempts at radical removal of thyroid tissue in these locations may not be warranted. PMID:25891354

  6. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  7. microRNA-7 regulates cell growth, migration and invasion via direct targeting of PAK1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Wang, Xudong; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Xuan; He, Qinghua; Duan, Yuansheng

    2016-09-01

    The expression and function of microRNA-7 (miR-7) has been studied in a variety of different cancer types. However, to date, no studies have investigated the expression of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer. In the present study, the expression levels and biological function of miR‑7 were investigated in human thyroid cancer, with the aim of evaluating whether it may serve as a therapeutic biomarker. The expression levels of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer tissues, matched, adjacent normal tissues, normal thyroid tissues and human thyroid cancer cell lines were determined using RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. To explore the functional role of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer cell lines, MTT assays, cell migration and invasion assays were employed. TargetScan software identified p21 activated kinase‑1 (PAK1) as a putative interacting partner of miR‑7. Therefore, functional assays were performed to explore the effects of endogenous PAK1 in thyroid cancer. In the present study, miR‑7 was significantly downregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cells compared with normal thyroid tissue samples. A correlation between miR‑7 expression and thyroid tumor stage was also observed. Ectopic expression of miR‑7 was found to suppress the proliferation, migra-tion and invasion of thyroid cancer cells in vitro. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that PAK1 was a direct target of miR-7 in vitro. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that miR‑7 negatively regulates PAK1 protein expression but has no effect on PAK1 mRNA expression. Knockdown of PAK1 expression markedly suppressed thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results suggest that miR‑7 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting PAK1 directly and may therefore present a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:27430434

  8. Failure of perchlorate to inhibit Tc-99m isonitrile binding by the thyroid during myocardial perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Civelek, A C; Durski, K; Shafique, I; Matsumura, K; Sostre, S; Wagner, H N; Ladenson, P W

    1991-05-01

    The thyroid gland receives an average radiation dose of 3 rads during two Tc-99m isonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion studies, if 20 mCi is administered both at rest and at peak exercise. In patients with coronary artery disease, multiple myocardial perfusion studies may be required, resulting in a high level of thyroid radiation. We attempted to reduce this radiation exposure by blocking thyroidal Tc-99m MIBI uptake with oral potassium perchlorate (KCIO4). Fourteen normal subjects received 0.6g to 0.8g KCIO4 20-25 minutes before tracer injection. Subjects who received KCIO4 at rest (n = 11) did not receive KCIO4 at their stress study, and vice versa (n = 3). Thyroid uptake values were obtained with a thyroid probe 20 minutes after injection for both rest and stress studies and were corrected for saturation effects. There was no difference between fractional thyroid uptake values with and without preceding perchlorate administration: 1.9 +/- 0.5% and 1.8 +/- 0.3% (mean +/- SD), respectively. Failure to block Tc-99m MIBI uptake after intravenous (IV) injection is probably due to high thyroidal blood flow and nonspecific tracer accumulation. The concentration of this radioisotope in adjacent muscles also contributes to the high thyroid radiation dose. In summary, administration of KCIO4 before Tc-99m MIBI studies does not reduce the thyroidal radiation dose or uptake of this tracer, suggesting that thyroidal uptake of this tracer is not mediated by the iodine trapping mechanism. PMID:1647286

  9. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  10. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  11. Lingual thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L. K. Surej; Kurien, Nikhil Mathew; Jacob, M. M.; Menon, P. Varun; Khalam, Sherin A.

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an abnormal mass of ectopic thyroid tissue seen in base of tongue caused due to embryological aberrancy in development of thyroid gland. Most of the ectopic tissue is seen in the tongue. Their identification and proper management is essential since they may be the only functioning thyroid tissue occurring in the body. We report a case of lingual thyroid in a 40 year old female patient who was hypothyroid with posterior swelling of tongue. Tc-99 scintigraphy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and surgical excision of entire tissue was done by midline mandibular split osteotomy and patient was placed under lifelong thyroxine replacement. Follow up showed excellent results with minimum patient discomfort. PMID:26389046

  12. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  13. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  14. Thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek

    2014-03-01

    According to the literature, thyroid nodules (TNs) are quite rare in the first two decades of life and are predominantly non-cancerous, although cancerous TNs are more common in the first two decades of life than in adults. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to distinguish benign from malignant lesions preoperatively because the latter require a total thyroidectomy with or without neck lymph node dissection. A careful work-up and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are mandatory to improve the preoperative diagnosis. High-resolution thyroid ultrasound and real-time elastosonography are adjuvant presurgical tools in selecting patients for surgery, particularly those with indeterminate or non-diagnostic cytology. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in a patient with a thyroid nodule is a new laboratory predictor of thyroid cancer risk. The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from the follicular cell, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from calcitonin-producing cells. Patients with MTC are screened for germ-line RET mutations to detect carriers and identify family members for prophylactic or therapeutic thyroidectomy. PMID:24629865

  15. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  16. Recent developments in the investigation of thyroid regulation and thyroid carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C

    1998-01-01

    This review covers new mechanistic information spanning the past 10 years relevant to normal and abnormal thyroid growth and function that may assist in the risk assessment of chemicals inducing thyroid follicular cell neoplasia. Recent studies have shown that thyroid regulation occurs via a complex interactive network mediated through several different messenger systems. Increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels activate the signal transduction pathways to stimulate growth and differentiation of the follicular cell. The important role of TSH in growth as well as in function helps to explain how disruptions in the thyroid-pituitary axis may influence thyroid neoplasia in rodents. New investigations that couple mechanistic studies with information from animal cancer bioassays (e. g., sulfamethazine studies) confirm the linkage between prolonged disruption of the thyroid-pituitary axis and thyroid neoplasia. New initiation/promotion studies in rodents also support the concept that chronic stimulation of the thyroid induced by goitrogens can result in thyroid tumors. Some of these studies confirm previous suggestions regarding the importance of chemically induced thyroid peroxidase inhibition and the inhibition of 3,3',5, 5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4, thyroxine) deiodinases on disruption of the thyroid-pituitary axis leading to thyroid neoplasia. Some comparative physiologic and mechanistic data highlight certain differences between rodents and humans that could be expected to confer an increased vulnerability of rodents to chronic hypersecretion of TSH. New data from epidemiologic and molecular genetic studies in humans contribute further to an understanding of thyroid neoplasia. Acute exposure to ionizing radiation, especially in childhood, remains the only verified cause of thyroid carcinogenesis in humans. Iodine deficiency studies as a whole remain inconclusive, even though several new studies in humans examine the role of dietary iodine deficiency in

  17. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  18. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH (the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: T3 resin uptake Thyroid scan

  19. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  20. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland. PMID:26478012

  1. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  2. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid). A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement). An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid). Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb) of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search revealed new thyroid

  3. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  4. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  5. [Regulation of thyroid and pituitary functions by lipopolysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Iaglova, N V; Berezov, T T

    2010-01-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors-4 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide downregulates pituitary and thyroid function. Besides decrease of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion lipopolysaccharide affects secretion in follicular thyroid cells directly. The endotoxin partially activates and inhibits different phases of follicular thyrocytes' secretion. Lipopolysaccharide enhances thyroglobulin synthesis and exocytosis into follicular lumen and suppresses its resorbtion. It results in sharp drop of blood thyroxine concentration without decrease of deiodinases-mediated thiroxine to triiodothyronine conversion. Stimulation of the lipopolysaccharide-pretreated thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone increases resorbtion of thyroglobulin and thyroid hormone production. Combined stimulation of the thyroid gland increases protein bound thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration unlike only TSH stimulation resulting in increase of free thyroid hormone levels. It also proves that binding capacity of thyroid hormone serum transport proteins during nonthyroidal illness syndrome remains normal. PMID:21341506

  6. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  7. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported.

  8. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  9. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  10. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:26486481

  11. Airway obstruction secondary to large thyroid adenolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Malik, Paras; Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Lewis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is a rare benign neoplasm composed of normal thyroid and mature adipose tissue. Ordinarily, only a small amount of fat exists in a normal thyroid gland. CT and MRI may differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and fine-needle aspirate often assists diagnosis. Surgical excision for adenolipoma is considered curative. We report the case of a 67-year-old man presenting with a large neck lump and evidence of airway obstruction. Imaging revealed a 97×70 mm left thyroid mass with retropharyngeal extension and laryngotracheal compression. Hemithyroidectomy was performed with subsequent histology confirming a large thyroid adenolipoma. The patient's symptoms resolved and he remains asymptomatic with no sign of recurrence 2 years postsurgery. PMID:25199190

  12. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging.

    PubMed

    Bégin, M E; Langlois, M F; Lorrain, D; Cunnane, S C

    2008-01-01

    We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly. PMID:19415145

  13. Proteomic Profiling of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Takada, Michiya; Hayashi, Shigeo; Ban, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazuo; Akasu, Haruki; Igarashi, Takehito; Bando, Yasuhiko; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. We performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis on pooled protein extracts from patients with PTC and compared the results with those from normal thyroid tissue validated by real-time (RT) PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We detected 524 types of protein in PTC and 432 in normal thyroid gland. Among these proteins, 145 were specific to PTC and 53 were specific to normal thyroid gland. We have also identified two important new markers, nephronectin (NPNT) and malectin (MLEC). Reproducibility was confirmed with several known markers, but the one of two new candidate markers such as MLEC did not show large variations in expression levels. Furthermore, IHC confirmed the overexpression of both those markers in PTCs compared with normal surrounding tissues. Our protein data suggest that NPNT and MLEC could be a characteristic marker for PTC. PMID:22518348

  14. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Euthyroid Asymptomatic Patients with Thyroid Nodules with an Emphasis on Family History of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors–such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels–were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Results Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Conclusion Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients. PMID:26957911

  15. Thyroid pathologies accompanying primary hyperparathyroidism: a high rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kutlutürk, Koray; Otan, Emrah; Yağcı, Mehmet Ali; Usta, Sertaç; Aydın, Cemalettin; Ünal, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid pathologies and non-medullary thyroid cancer often accompany primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between thyroid diseases, especially micropapillary thyroid cancer, with PHPT. Material and Methods: Data regarding 46 patients who were operated on with a diagnosis of PHPT at Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, General Surgery Clinic between June 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Age, gender, levels of preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus, and the histopathological results of the removed parathyroid and thyroid tissues were evaluated. All of the patients had a preoperative diagnosis of PHPT and there was no history of radiation to the head and neck region in any of the patients. Results: Out of the 46 patients who were operated on for PHPT, 39 were female and 7 were male. The mean age was 52.8 years (25–76). Simultaneous thyroidectomy was performed in 35 patients (76.1%) due to an accompanying thyroid disorder. Papillary microcarcinoma was detected in 5 of these 35 (10.9%) patients who underwent thyroidectomy, two of which (40%) were multifocal tumors. The benign thyroid pathologies detected in the remaining 30 (65.2%) cases included lymphocytic thyroiditis in 3, Hashimoto thyroiditis in 1, follicular adenoma in 3 (two of which was Hurtle cell), and nodular colloidal goiter in 23 patients. The preoperative serum phosphate level was significantly higher in the group with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (p=0.013). Conclusion: In regions where goiter is endemic, thyroid diseases and thyroid papillary microcarcinoma occur in association with PHPT at a higher rate compared to the normal population. Therefore, we believe that patients who are planned for surgery due to PHPT should be thoroughly investigated for the presence of any concomitant malignant thyroid pathologies in the preoperative period. It should also be kept in mind that patients with high

  16. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism ) can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, trouble ... nodules make too much thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. Nodules that produce increased thyroid hormone are almost ...

  17. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  18. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( hypothyroidism ). Causes Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a ... TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. If there is no evidence of thyroid hormone ...

  19. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  20. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  1. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    PubMed

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  2. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  3. Noonan's Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterhus, Per; Aarskog, Dagfinn

    1973-01-01

    Thyroid abnormalities were studies in seven boys and three girls, 4- to 17-years-old, with Noonan's syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, ocular anomalies (wide spaced eyes, drooped eye lids, or strabismus), heart lesions, characteristics of Turner's syndrome, and normal karyotypes (chromosome arrangement). (MC)

  4. Thyroid function and ultrasonically determined thyroid size in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Perrild, H; Hegedüs, L; Baastrup, P C; Kayser, L; Kastberg, S

    1990-11-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 100 manic-depressive patients. Goiter was more common in patients treated with lithium for 1-5 years (44%) or more than 10 years (50%) than in patients who never received lithium (16%). Smoking contributed significantly to thyroid size and goiter. In nonsmoking patients, ultrasonically determined thyroid volume was significantly related to treatment duration. The mechanism behind this increased thyroid volume is unclear, as most patients had normal serum thyrotropin levels and no thyroid autoimmunity. Subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was found in 4% and 21% of patients treated for 1-5 and more than 10 years, respectively. Since few hypothyroid patients had autoimmunity or goiter, lithium may affect the thyroid gland directly. PMID:2221166

  5. Chronic autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Litta Modignani, R; Barantani, E; Mazzolari, M; Pincetti Nervi, M; Macchi, R

    1991-01-01

    A total of 67 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroid disease were followed, mainly as outpatients, for a period of a few months to over 15 years. The diagnosis was euthyroidism (n = 16, 23.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 20, 29.8%), primary hypothyroidism (n = 28, 41.7%) or hashitoxicosis (n = 3, 4.47%). Patients with goiters fit Hashimoto's original description of "struma lymphomatosa". The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and the usual laboratory hormonal tests. Histological examination was carried out at surgery or by fine needle aspiration in 35 patients (52.2%), and a clinical diagnosis was made in 32 (47.7%). Three patients had juvenile Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Most patients were in the fourth, fifth or sixth decade (64.8%), and of these 12 (18%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, which should be suspected when thyrotropin (TSH) is twice the upper normal limit. In these cases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) testing and evaluation of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and anti-microsomal antigen antibodies (MsAb) are mandatory. Hypothyroidism with few symptoms develops insidiously in young or elderly patients; the most sensitive test is TSH assay in conjunction with tests for TgAb and MsAb. L-thyroxine administration may be harmful in older patients with late diagnosed primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid supplementation is suggested for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism if TSH values are above 10 mU/L; otherwise they should be followed up annually, as should patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies who are still euthyroid. PMID:1804288

  6. Thyroid function during the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, V.L.; Romaldini, J.H.; Rodrigues, H.F.; Tanaka, L.M.; Farah, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    A study of changes in serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg as well as of serum TSH response to TRH was done in ten patients with subacute thyroiditis, from the acute phase up to 56 mo. All patients had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. The mean serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg concentration were significantly higher than in normal subjects. The basal TSH concentrations failed to increase in response to TRH. Mean serum T/sub 3/ and serum Tg levels remained higher than in normal subjects until 4 to 5 mo after the acute phase. Thyroid autoantibodies were absent during the whole period of study. An exaggerated response of TSH to TRH in six out of seven patients was observed from a 2 to 3 mo period until the end of follow-up. All patients with T/sub 3/ to T/sub 4/ ratio above the normal range (7-24 ng/..mu..g) showed also an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. These data suggest that the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis may lead to a low thyroid reserve detectable even 5 yr following the acute phase of the disease.

  7. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Partain, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the numerous modalities currently used in the diagnosis and treatment of both thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Each modality is fully explained and then evaluated in terms of benefits and limitations in the clinical context. Contents: Production and Quality Control of Radiopharmaceutics Used for Diagnosis and Therapy in Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders. Basic Physics. Nuclear Instrumentation. Radioimmunoassay: Thyroid Function Tests. Quality Control. Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Thyroid Function Studies. Scintigraphic Thyroid Imaging. Neonatal and Pediatric Thyroid Imaging. Radioiodine Thyroid Uptake Measurement. Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Disorders. Radiation Dosimetry of Diagnostic Procedures. Radiation Safety Procedures for High-Level I-131 Therapies. X-Ray Fluorescent Scanning. Thyroid Sonography. Computed Tomography in Thyroid Disease. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thyroid Disease. Parathyroid Imaging.

  8. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD. PMID:27241962

  9. Thyroid hormones, learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Rivas, M; Naranjo, J R

    2007-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), T3 and T4, have many physiological actions and are essential for normal behavioral, intellectual and neurological development. THs have a broad spectrum of effects on the developing brain and mediate important effects within the CNS throughout life. Insufficient maternal iodine intake during gestation and TH deficiency during human development are associated to pathological alterations such as cretinism and mental retardation. In adulthood, thyroid dysfunction is related to neurological and behavioral abnormalities, including memory impairment. Analysis of different experimental models suggests that most of the effects on cognition as a result of thyroid dysfunction rely on hippocampal modifications. Insufficiency of THs during development thus alters hippocampal synaptic function and impairs behavioral performance of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that persist in euthyroid adult animals. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge obtained by clinical observations and experimental models that shows the importance of THs in learning and mnemonic processes. PMID:17543038

  10. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  11. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  12. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  13. Management of thyroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also been investigated widely. This short review attempts to give an overview and clarify the current management of common thyroid disorders. PMID:16954449

  14. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  15. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  16. Cervical distribution of iodine 131 following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fratkin, M.J.; Newsome, H.H. Jr.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Tatum, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    The use of postoperative radioiodine thyroid scanning has questioned whether total thyroidectomy is surgically possible. Similar to earlier studies, we have found functioning iodine 131 (/sup 131/I)-avid thyroid tissue in our patients following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Preoperative and postoperative thyroid scans were compared in 24 patients to study the cervical location of postthyroidectomy residual thyroid tissue. Thyroid scanning detected 44 distinct sites of uptake. Thirty-eight of these foci were located either at the extremes of the upper poles of the thyroid gland (24) or along the embryonic thyroid descent tract (14). We conclude that these foci of /sup 131/I uptake represent incomplete resection of normal thyroid tissue, and that surgical attention to these areas should result more frequently in extirpation of the entire thyroid gland.

  17. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  18. Evolution of thyroid /sup 127/I stores measured by X-ray fluorescence in subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Schlumberger, M.; Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the thyroid iodine content by x-ray fluorescence was performed in 13 patients throughout the course of subacute thyroiditis. In the initial hyperthyroid phase of the disease, the iodine stores of the thyroid were not completely depleted. The iodine content (6.5 +/- 3 mg) was about 2.5 times lower than normal values when thyroiditis had developed in a normal thyroid (10 patients); in 3 patients with goiter; it was elevated (29.6 +/- 6.7 mg) but was still within the normal range of euthyroid goitrous patients. After clinical remission, the iodine content of the gland increased only in two patients (+105% and +43% over the initial value, respectively). For the other patients, the iodine content decreased (from -5% to -100% of the initial value). Restoration of iodine stores occurred subsequently and appeared to be a slow and progressive phenomenon; in six patients the iodine content was still below normal values 12 months after clinical remission (6.6 +/- 1.6 mg). These data suggest that the course of subactue thyroiditis might be longer than would appear from the clinical data, the hormonal assays, or the radioactive thyroid uptake data.

  19. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children. PMID:12448332

  20. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  1. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  2. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Subclinical thyroid disease].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, Václav

    2015-10-01

    Importance of subclinical thyroid disease (STh) is now a matter of discussion. Definition of this unit is laboratory: in presence of normal level of thyroxine (T4) TSH value is changed: in lower TSH level the subclinical hyperthyroidism (STx) in increase TSH levels subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is present. Risk of clinical manifestation is two three times highter in comparison with persons with normal TSH level. Clinical importance STh is still not evaluated definitively. SH caused disturbance of lipid metabolism, elasticity of vessels and endothelial function and therefore increases risk of atherosclerosis. STx causes electrical instability of myocardium with increased risk of arythmias, increases risk of osteoporosis and other changes. Most important are effects of STh in cardiology, reproductive medicine and gynecology. Clinical significance of these effects is not definitively evaluated. PMID:26486480

  4. Thyroid iodine content and serum thyroglobulin: cues to the natural history of destruction-induced thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine (/sup 127/I) content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both /sup 127/I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal.

  5. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  6. Integrative metabonomics as potential method for diagnosis of thyroid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Nie, Xiu; Xu, Shan; Li, Yan; Huang, Tao; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules can be classified into benign and malignant tumors. However, distinguishing between these two types of tumors can be challenging in clinics. Since malignant nodules require surgical intervention whereas asymptomatic benign tumors do not, there is an urgent need for new techniques that enable accurate diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. Here, we used 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques to analyze the metabonomes of thyroid tissues and their extracts from thyroid lesion patients (n = 53) and their adjacent healthy thyroid tissues (n = 46). We also measured fatty acid compositions using GC−FID/MS techniques as complementary information. We demonstrate that thyroid lesion tissues can be clearly distinguishable from healthy tissues, and malignant tumors can also be distinguished from the benign tumors based on the metabolic profiles, both with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, we show that thyroid lesions are accompanied with disturbances of multiple metabolic pathways, including alterations in energy metabolism (glycolysis, lipid and TCA cycle), promotions in protein turnover, nucleotide biosynthesis as well as phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. These findings provide essential information on the metabolic features of thyroid lesions and demonstrate that metabonomics technology can be potentially useful in the rapid and accurate preoperative diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:26486570

  7. Thyroid function after thermal trauma.

    PubMed

    Smeds, S; Kågedal, B; Liedén, G; Liljedahl, S O

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function was analyzed for 4-6 weeks in a prospective study of 12 thermally injured patients. The burn size range was 15-90%. Serum concentrations of 3,5,3'-triidothyronine (T3) was suppressed and 3,3',5'-triidothyronine (rT3) was increased. The ratio T3/rT3 was subnormal on the third day after the trauma and normalized after 3 weeks. Thyroxine and the free T4-index were within the normal range. The free T3-index were within the normal range. The TSH concentration was initially low but slowly increasing during the period of study. The concentration of the thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) varied within the normal range. The T3 resin uptake test varied inversely with the TBG concentration. The concentration of thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) was subnormal. A control experiment excluded possible interference on the hormone concentrations of administered donor blood and plasma. It is concluded that the thyroid hormones are not responsible for the posttraumatic hypermetabolism in burn injury. The present findings further indicate a depletion of metabolically active thyroid hormones at the cellular level after burn injury. PMID:6803354

  8. Transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis with T cell clones

    SciTech Connect

    Romball, C.G.; Weigle, W.O.

    1987-02-15

    We have investigated three T lymphocyte clones isolated from CBA/CaJ mice primed with mouse thyroid extract (MTE) in adjuvant. All three clones are L3T4+, Ig-, and Lyt2- and proliferate to MTE, mouse thyroglobulin (MTG) and rat thyroid extract. Clones A7 and B7 transfer thyroiditis to irradiated (475 rad) syngeneic mice, but not to normal recipients. The thyroid lesion induced by the B7 clone is characterized by the infiltration of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. The thyroiditis is transient in that lesions are apparent 7 and 14 days after transfer, but thyroids return to normal by day 21. Clone B7 showed helper activity for trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin-primed B cells in vitro when stimulated with trinitrophenyl-MTG and also stimulated the production of anti-MTG antibody in recipient mice. Clone A7 induced thyroid lesions characterized by infiltration of the thyroid with mononuclear cells, with virtually no polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. This clone has shown no helper activity following stimulation with trinitrophenyl-MTG. The third clone (D2) proliferates to and shows helper activity to MTG, but fails to transfer thyroiditis to syngeneic, irradiated mice. On continuous culture, clone B7 lost its surface Thy. The loss of Thy appears unrelated to the ability to transfer thyroiditis since subclones of B7 with markedly different percentages of Thy+ cells transferred disease equally well.

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160

  10. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  11. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Nsame, D.; Chadli, A.; Hallab, L.; El Aziz, S.; El Ghomari, H.; Farouqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves' hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto's thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24198979

  12. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  13. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of α2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TRα1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit. Biochemical abnormalities include low/low-normal T4 and high/high-normal T3 concentrations, a subnormal T4/T3 ratio, variably reduced reverse T3, raised muscle creatine kinase and mild anaemia. The disorder is mediated by heterozygous, loss-of-function, mutations involving either TRα1 alone or both TRα1 and α2, with no discernible phenotype attributable to defective α2. Whole exome sequencing and diagnostic biomarkers may enable greater ascertainment of RTHα, which is important as thyroxine therapy reverses some metabolic abnormalities and improves growth, constipation, dyspraxia and wellbeing. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of RTHα and its optimal management remain to be elucidated. PMID:26303090

  14. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of α2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TRα1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit. Biochemical abnormalities include low/low-normal T4 and high/high-normal T3 concentrations, a subnormal T4/T3 ratio, variably reduced reverse T3, raised muscle creatine kinase and mild anaemia. The disorder is mediated by heterozygous, loss-of-function, mutations involving either TRα1 alone or both TRα1 and α2, with no discernible phenotype attributable to defective α2. Whole exome sequencing and diagnostic biomarkers may enable greater ascertainment of RTHα, which is important as thyroxine therapy reverses some metabolic abnormalities and improves growth, constipation, dyspraxia and wellbeing. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of RTHα and its optimal management remain to be elucidated. PMID:26303090

  15. Thyroid Autoantibodies Are Rare in Nonhuman Great Apes and Hypothyroidism Cannot Be Attributed to Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L.; Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes. PMID:24092641

  16. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC IODINE SPECIES ANALYTICS: DETERMINING THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT DANIO RERIO AND DEVELOPING XENOPUS LAEVIS USING LC/ICP-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of normal thyroid function by xenobiotic chemicals is an important ecological issue. Theoretically, normal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and action can be disrupted at several sites in the synthetic and elimination pathways. Indeed, xenobiotic chemicals, which are k...

  17. Thyrotropin-dependence of the distribution of peroxidase in rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, S; Mihara, S; Hosoya, T

    1981-04-01

    After male rats were injected daily with propylthiouracil, whale thyrotropin, or thyroxine for several days, the thyroid glands were examined for their ultrastructural localization of peroxidase. The propylthiouracil treatment caused a marked increase in the number of round, peroxidase-positive vesicles in the apical and middle regions of cytoplasm, and brought about a formation of granular reaction products in the colloid lumen adjacent to the elongated microvilli. Such changes became evident after 2 days of the drug treatment and increased with the time of the effect, until the whole colloid lumen was filled with the reaction products and very elongated microvilli. The effect of exogenous thyrotropin was essentially similar, to a lesser degree, to the drug effect mentioned above. The thyroxine treatment diminished the population of the small vesicles, as usually seen in the case of normal rat thyroids. When the thyroids of thyrotropin-stimulated and unstimulated rats were homogenized and fractionated into particulates fractions and a soluble fraction, almost all the peroxidase activity was contained in the former in both cases. Based on these results, the dynamics and the physiological role of the intracellular peroxidase are discussed. PMID:7256734

  18. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  19. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  20. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002933.htm Thyroid gland removal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or ...

  1. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  2. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  3. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  4. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid. Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disorder that occurs when the ... irregularities Depression Dry skin and hair Sluggishness Constipation Hypothyroidism is often caused by Hashimoto's disease, an autoimmune ...

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person takes too much of the medicine: Levothyroxine Liothyronine Liotrix Other thyroid medicine Other thyroid preparations ... found in these medicines with these brand names: Levothyroxine ... Liothyronine (Cytomel) Liotrix (Thyrolar, Euthyroid) Other ...

  6. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  7. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  8. Understanding the Healthy Thyroid State in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Führer, Dagmar; Brix, Klaudia; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are of crucial importance for the physiological function of almost all organs. In cases of abnormal TH signaling, pathophysiological consequences may arise. The routine assessment of a healthy or diseased thyroid function state is currently based on the determination of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the TH T3 and T4. However, the definition of a ‘normal’ TSH range and similarly ‘normal’ T3 and T4 concentrations remains the subject of debate in different countries worldwide and has important implications on patient treatment in clinics. Not surprisingly, a significant number of patients whose thyroid function tests are biochemically determined to be within the normal range complain of impaired well-being. The reasons for this are so far not fully understood, but it has been recognized that thyroid function status needs to be ‘individualized’ and extended beyond simple TSH measurement. Thus, more precise and reliable parameters are required in order to optimally define the healthy thyroid status of an individual, and as a perspective to employ these in clinical routine. With the recent identification of new key players in TH action, a more accurate assessment of a patient's thyroid status may in the future become possible. Recently described distinct TH derivatives and metabolites, TH transporters, nongenomic TH effects (either through membrane-bound or cytosolic signaling), and classical nuclear TH action allow for insights into molecular and cellular preconditions of a healthy thyroid state. This will be a prerequisite to improve management of thyroid dysfunction, and additionally to prevent and target TH-related nonthyroid disease. PMID:26601068

  9. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  10. THYROID STATUS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE SITES ON LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been shown to alter normal thyroid function in various wildlife species, including the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Abnormalities in circulating levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) have been reported in juven...

  11. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine {yields} cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine {yields} arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  12. Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals: Interpreting Upstream Biomarkers of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Deborah C.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence in humans and in experimental animals for a relationship between exposure to specific environmental chemicals and perturbations in levels of critically important thyroid hormones (THs). Identification and proper interpretation of these relationships are required for accurate assessment of risk to public health. Objectives We review the role of TH in nervous system development and specific outcomes in adults, the impact of xenobiotics on thyroid signaling, the relationship between adverse outcomes of thyroid disruption and upstream causal biomarkers, and the societal implications of perturbations in thyroid signaling by xenobiotic chemicals. Data sources We drew on an extensive body of epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies. Data synthesis THs are critical for normal nervous system development, and decreased maternal TH levels are associated with adverse neuropsychological development in children. In adult humans, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with increased blood pressure and poorer blood lipid profiles, both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. These effects of thyroid suppression are observed even within the “normal” range for the population. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid homeostasis by a number of mechanisms, and multiple chemicals have been identified that interfere with thyroid function by each of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions Individuals are potentially vulnerable to adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Any degree of thyroid disruption that affects TH levels on a population basis should be considered a biomarker of adverse outcomes, which may have important societal outcomes. PMID:19654909

  13. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  14. Subacute thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... may release too little hormone, causing symptoms of hypothyroidism , including: Cold intolerance Constipation Fatigue Weight gain Dry ... often returns to normal. But in rare cases, hypothyroidism may be permanent. Exams and Tests Laboratory tests ...

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  16. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  17. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the

  18. Altered expression of mir-222 and mir-25 influences diverse gene expression changes in transformed normal and anaplastic thyroid cells, and impacts on MEK and TRAIL protein expression.

    PubMed

    Aherne, Sinéad T; Smyth, Paul; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Leila; Spillane, Cathy; O'Leary, John; Sheils, Orla

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer-related deaths each year. Our group and others have previously demonstrated dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression in the context of thyroid cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of synthetic manipulation of expression of miR-25 and miR-222 in benign and malignant thyroid cells. miR-25 and miR-222 expression was upregulated in 8505C (an anaplastic thyroid cell line) and Nthy-ori (a SV40-immortalised thyroid cell line) cells, respectively. A transcriptomics-based approach was utilised to identify targets of the two miRNAs and real-time PCR and western blotting were used to validate a subset of the targets. Almost 100 mRNAs of diverse functions were found to be either directly or indirectly targeted by both miR-222 and miR-25 [fold change ≥2, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05]. Gene ontology analysis showed the miR-25 gene target list to be significantly enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Fluidigm real-time PCR technologies were used to validate the downregulation of 23 and 22 genes in response to miR-25 and miR-222 overexpression, respectively. The reduction of the expression of two miR-25 protein targets, TNF-related apoptosis‑inducing ligand (TRAIL) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MEK4), was also validated. Manipulating the expression of both miR-222 and miR-25 influenced diverse gene expression changes in thyroid cells. Increased expression of miR-25 reduced MEK4 and TRAIL protein expression, and cell adhesion and apoptosis are important aspects of miR-25 functioning in thyroid cells. PMID:27353001

  19. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. PMID:26748264

  20. Hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis masked by anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Steinglass, Joanna; Primack, Marshall; Clark-Hamilton, Jill; Bongiovi, Mary

    2015-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is typically associated with altered thyroid function tests, notably a low total and free T3 , and lower, but within normal range, free T4 and TSH. A 16-year-old girl with a four-year history of AN presented with elevated TSH that fluctuated with changes in weight. TSH was within normal limits (1.7-3.64 mIU/L) following periods of weight loss and elevated with weight gain (5.9-21.66 mIU/L). Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were markedly elevated, suggesting chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of note, the elevated TSH that would be expected in Hashimoto's thyroiditis was blunted by weight loss associated with AN. Physicians should be aware that AN may contribute to masking thyroid abnormalities in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:25945456

  1. Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie L; Allender, Matthew C; Bohling, Mark; Ramsay, Edward C; Morandi, Federica; Newkirk, Kimberly M

    2010-03-01

    Two adult, spayed, female raccoons were diagnosed with thyroid neoplasia. One raccoon had a palpable, left-sided, nonfunctional thyroid adenocarcinoma which was treated with a thyroidectomy twice with local recurrence both times. After the second recurrence, pulmonary metastases were identified. A third thyroidectomy was performed, and a vascular access port was placed for administration of intravenous doxorubicin. The raccoon developed pancytopenia and became anorexic after chemotherapy, and the owner elected humane euthanasia. The second raccoon had nonpalpable, bilateral, functional follicular thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia and was treated with a right thyroidectomy and a partial left thyroidectomy, leaving behind the grossly normal portion of the left thyroid. However, the animal was still hyperthyroid after surgery and was then successfully managed with topical methimazole gel. Thyroid pathology has been documented in raccoons in Europe, but is not reported in the United States. Thyroid neoplasia in raccoons can occur as a nonfunctional adenocarcinoma, as is commonly reported in dogs, or as a functional adenoma, as is commonly reported in cats. Raccoons with adenocarcinomas should be evaluated for pulmonary metastasis. Methimazole gel may be a viable treatment option for raccoons with hyperthyroidism. PMID:20722264

  2. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  4. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  5. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  6. Thyroid function after radiotherapy and laryngectomy for carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.V.; Gaggar, N.; Shaw, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total levels of thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 37 patients who had previously had carcinoma of the larynx treated by radiotherapy and total laryngectomy with thyroid lobectomy. Ten percent of the patients had clinical features of hypothyroidism and 30% had total T4 levels below the lower limit of normal. A further 40% had results in the low normal range. Forty-four percent of patients had raised TSH levels, 90% of these having low or low normal T4 levels. The histology of the thyroid gland was normal in all 37 patients. Attention should be given to preserving intact the vasculature of the contralateral thyroid lobe whenever it is necessary to remove the ipsilateral thyroid lobe during a laryngectomy. Proper postoperative assessment of thyroid gland function is desirable in all these patients to identify those at risk of hypothyroidism and to avoid unnecessary morbidity.

  7. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  8. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein; Al Lahloubi, Nasr; Rashad, Noha

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular) has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors) is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team. PMID:27408758

  9. [De Quervain thyroiditis. Corner points of the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Oláh, Roland; Hajós, Péter; Soós, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, Gábor

    2014-04-27

    Inflammatory disorders of the thyroid gland are divided into three groups according to their duration (acute, subacute and chronic). De Quervain's thyroiditis (also termed giant cell or granulomatous thyroiditis) is a subacute inflammation of the thyroid, which accounts for 5% of thyroid disorders. The etiology is unknown, it usually appears two weeks after an upper viral respiratory infection. The clinical feature includes neck pain, which is aggravated during swallowing, and radiates to the ear. On palpation, the thyroid is exquisitely tender. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is markedly elevated, the leukocyte count, C-reactive protein are normal or slightly elevated. The natural history of granulomatous thyroiditis involves four phases: the destructive inflammation results temporarily in hyperthyroidism followed by euthyroidism. After a transient hypothyroidism the disease becomes inactive and the thyroid function is normalised. Ultrasonographic findings are diffuse hypoechogenic structures, but nodules may also occur. The disease often remains unrecognised, or the first phase of the disease is diagnosed and treated as hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of the thyroid autoantibodies, radioiodine uptake and fine needle aspiration cytology. There is no special treatment, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid should be given to relieve the pain. The aim of the authors is to shed light the key points of diagnosis and differential diagnosis by the presentation of four slightly different cases. PMID:24755450

  10. Ultrasonographic and Scintigraphic Findings of Thyroid Hemiagenesis in a Child: Report of a Rare Male Case

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar; Ayaz, Sevin; Döğen, Mehmet Ercüment; Api, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of thyroid gland fails to develop. It is much rarer in males. There is a higher incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis; therefore early and prompt diagnosis is important for children. We present the ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in an eight-year-old-boy. On ultrasonography (US), left lobe of the thyroid gland could not be demonstrated and the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Its echogenicity was normal and no nodule was seen. On thyroid scintigraphy, left lobe of thyroid gland or any ectopic thyroid tissue could not be demonstrated, while the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Without performing any invasive procedure, we enrolled the child in a follow-up program with the guidance of US and scintigraphy, which were effective both in making the final diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis and in evaluating the current status of the present thyroid tissue. In conclusion, if only one thyroid lobe is detected in a pediatric case initially with US or scintigraphy, the diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis should be suggested and, before any unnecessary or invasive attempt, the other complementary method (scintigraphy/US) should be performed. PMID:25785218

  11. Ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in a child: report of a rare male case.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar; Ayaz, Sevin; Döğen, Mehmet Ercüment; Api, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of thyroid gland fails to develop. It is much rarer in males. There is a higher incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis; therefore early and prompt diagnosis is important for children. We present the ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in an eight-year-old-boy. On ultrasonography (US), left lobe of the thyroid gland could not be demonstrated and the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Its echogenicity was normal and no nodule was seen. On thyroid scintigraphy, left lobe of thyroid gland or any ectopic thyroid tissue could not be demonstrated, while the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Without performing any invasive procedure, we enrolled the child in a follow-up program with the guidance of US and scintigraphy, which were effective both in making the final diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis and in evaluating the current status of the present thyroid tissue. In conclusion, if only one thyroid lobe is detected in a pediatric case initially with US or scintigraphy, the diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis should be suggested and, before any unnecessary or invasive attempt, the other complementary method (scintigraphy/US) should be performed. PMID:25785218

  12. Assessment of Diffuse Thyroid Disease by Strain Ratio in Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Haixian; Wang, Kun; Cui, Guanghe; Fu, Fengkui

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the value of strain ratio from real-time elastography in the semi-quantitative assessment of diffuse thyroid disease. Fifty-one patients with primary hyperthyroidism, 70 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 with subacute thyroiditis and 43 with normal healthy thyroids were recruited to measure the strain ratio (SR) of thyroid tissue and sternocleidomastoid muscle (on the same side of the thyroid). SR values of all groups were subjected to statistical analysis. The SRs (mean ± standard deviation) of patients with hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis were 2.30 ± 1.08, 7.04 ± 7.74 and 24.09 ± 13.56, respectively. The SR of the control group was 1.76 ± 0.54. SR values ranked in ascending order were control group < hyperthyroidism group < Hashimoto's thyroiditis group < subacute thyroiditis group. There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in thyroid hardness between groups with different diffuse thyroid diseases. SR values of the hyperthyroidism and control groups did not statistically differ (p > 0.05). It is feasible to assess diffuse thyroid disease with strain ratios obtained with ultrasound elastography. PMID:26306430

  13. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and

  14. Exhaled breath volatile biomarker analysis for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Changsong; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Chaofu; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2015-08-01

    Compared with other types of cancer, thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased rapidly worldwide in the past few decades. In recent years, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers have been studied, but these biomarkers have neither specificity nor good positive predictive value. Exhaled breath analysis is a recently developed convenient and noninvasive method for screening and diagnosing the disease. In this study, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Exhaled breath was collected from 64 patients with histologically confirmed cases of thyroid disease (including 39 individuals with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 individuals with nodular goiters) and 32 healthy volunteers. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were performed to process the final data. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between nodular goiter patients and normal controls, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and normal controls, and papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and nodular goiter patients; 7, 7, and 3 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. Breath analysis may provide a new, noninvasive, and directly qualitative method for the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease. PMID:25666355

  15. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  16. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  17. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  18. Thyroid calcifications: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-05-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography examination. Thyroid calcifications are encountered in benign thyroid nodules and goiters as well as in thyroid malignancy. Depiction and characterization of such calcifications within a thyroid nodule may be a key element in the thyroid nodule diagnosis algorithm. The goal of this paper is to display typical radio-pathological correlations of various thyroid pathologies of benign and malignant conditions in which the calcification type diagnosis can play a key role in the final diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:245-251, 2016. PMID:26891122

  19. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Crea, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental encounters leads to breakdown of tolerance. It is important to recognize thyroid dysfunction at an early stage by maintaining an appropriate index of suspicion. PMID:21209713

  20. What might cause pain in the thyroid gland? Report of a patient with subacute thyroiditis of atypical presentation.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna; Biczysko, Maciej; Majewski, Przemysław; Ruchała, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SAT), also known as de Quervain's thyroiditis or painful subacute thyroiditis, is the commonest thyroid condition responsible for neck tenderness. Other causes of pain in the thyroid gland should be taken into consideration during differential diagnosis, especially when a patient presents with misleading or equivocal signs and symptoms. We report the case of a 39 year-old woman diagnosed as having SAT whose clinical, biochemical and radiological presentation varied significantly from the common SAT manifestation. A tentative diagnosis of SAT was made based on the presented symptoms, ultrasonography and fine-needle biopsy results. However, biochemical analysis suggested neither inflammatory process nor the presence of thyrotoxicosis. Moreover, technetium scan of the thyroid revealed normal uptake of the isotope and there was neither clinical nor ultasonographic response for corticosteroids. The patient's symptoms, despite being prescribed typical treatment, gradually deteriorated and the pain became increasingly debilitating. Eventually, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. As a result, she has become free of symptoms, but the macroscopic picture of thyroid gland, noted during the operation, gave a suspicion of neoplastic process. Nevertheless, histological study of flow samples confirmed the tentative diagnosis of de Quervain's thyroiditis, despite all previous findings that were not suggestive of it. This report confirms the likelihood that SAT can present atypically. Additionally, it indicates that surgical treatment may be considered in patients with severe, debilitating, persistent thyroid gland pain connected with SAT clinical course. PMID:22538753

  1. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  2. Thyroid cancer in children.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the thyroid gland in pediatric patients is rare and if left untreated spreads and become lethal. Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are four times more likely being malignant than adult nodules. The incidence of thyroid cancer in children increases with age, sex, race and nodule size. Exposures to low level of head and neck irradiation at young age, cancer survivors, family history of thyroid cancer and iodine deficiency are specific risk factors to develop thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is subdivided into papillary, follicular and medullary thyroid cancer varying in histological characteristics. Children who present with thyroid nodules should undergo ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy to evaluate malignant potential. If biopsy results are positive for malignancy best option is complete surgical resection of the thyroid gland with central lymph node dissection followed by radioactive iodine treatment. Surgeons need to take certain precaution to avoid postoperative complications like hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. Follow-up is essential in order to evaluate remission or recurrence. An excellent prognosis in pediatric patients is the result of such an aggressive approach that can be supported by the low complications rate and low recurrence rate following surgery. PMID:25470911

  3. Thyroid cancer in children.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the thyroid gland in pediatric patients is rare and if left untreated spreads and become lethal. Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are four times more likely being malignant than adult nodules. The incidence of thyroid cancer in children increases with age, sex, race and nodule size. Exposures to low level of head and neck irradiation at young age, cancer survivors, family history of thyroid cancer and iodine deficiency are specific risk factors to develop thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is subdivided into papillary, follicular and medullary thyroid cancer varying in histological characteristics. Children who present with thyroid nodules should undergo ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy to evaluate malignant potential. If biopsy results are positive for malignancy best option is complete surgical resection of the thyroid gland with central lymph node dissection followed by radioactive iodine treatment. Surgeons need to take certain precaution to avoid postoperative complications like hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. Follow-up is essential in order to evaluate remission or recurrence. An excellent prognosis in pediatric patients is the result of such an aggressive approach that can be supported by the low complications rate and low recurrence rate following surgery. PMID:25508538

  4. A case of acute suppurative thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Sang; Nam, Kil Woo; Kim, Jeong Eun; Park, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Jun Sik; Park, Jung Hwan; Hong, Sang Mo; Lee, Chang Bum; Park, Yong Soo; Choi, Woong Hwan; Ahn, You Hern; Kim, Dong Sun

    2013-03-01

    Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is a rare condition, as the thyroid gland is relatively resistant to infection. Thyroid function tests are usually normal in AST. A few cases of AST associated with thyrotoxicosis have been reported in adults. We report a case of AST that was associated with thyrotoxicosis in a 70-year-old woman. We diagnosed AST with thyroid ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration of pus. The patient improved after surgical intervention and had no anatomical abnormality. Fine needle aspiration is the best method for the difficult task of differentiating malignancy and subacute thyroiditis from AST with thyrotoxicosis. Earlier diagnosis and proper treatment for AST might improve the outcome. PMID:24396651

  5. Transient thyrotoxicosis from thyroiditis induced by sibutramine overdose: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Lee, S M; Yoo, S S; Hahm, J R; Jung, J H; Kim, H S; Kim, S; Chung, S I; Jung, T S

    2013-08-01

    Sibutramine is an antiobesity drug that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenalin in the hypothalamus. A 37-year-old Korean man presented to the emergency room for the oral intake of 280 mg of sibutramine. The patient was in thyrotoxic state. The (99m)Technetium-pertechnetate thyroid scan showed irregular uptake of radioisotope and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody and thyroperoxidase antibody were negative. Thyroid function normalized after that. The patient had transient thyrotoxicosis with thyroiditis. We report a case of thyrotoxicosis accompanied by thyroiditis resulting from the intentional overdose of sibutramine. PMID:23703820

  6. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  7. miR-101 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIN, XIAOJIE; GUAN, HONGYU; LI, HAI; LIU, LIEHUA; LIU, JUAN; WEI, GUOHONG; HUANG, ZHIMIN; LIAO, ZHIHONG; LI, YANBING

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression. However, it remains necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in PTC via targeting of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). The results showed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in PTC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Restoration of miR-101 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation in the K1 PTC cell line. Moreover, algorithm-based and experimental strategies verified Rac1 as a direct target of miR-101 in the K1 cell line. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-101 inhibited PTC growth via the downregulation of Rac1 expression, providing a better understanding of miRNA-modulated signaling networks for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24649082

  8. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  9. Thyroid Growth and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term ‘cancer’ to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID

  10. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  11. [Psychotic episode due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Nazou, M; Parlapani, E; Nazlidou, E-I; Athanasis, P; Bozikas, V P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial in adult brain metabolic activity. As a result, abnormal thyroid gland function and in particular hypofunction, might cause principally depression and neurocognitive dysfunction. Psychosis, presented mainly with thought disorders and perceptual disturbances, is a much rarer manifestation of hypothyreoidism. A correlation between hypothyreoidism and psychosis has been described since 1888, especially in cases of advanced hypothyreoidism. A few years later (1949), Asher first added the terminology "myxedema madness" to the literature. Psychotic symptoms typically appear after the onset of physical symptoms, usually with a delay of months or years. The case of a female patient who presented a psychotic episode as a first manifestation of hypothyroidism will be described. NE, a 48 yearold female patient, was admitted for the first time to an inpatient mental health care unit due to delusions of persecution and reference, as well as auditory hallucinations that appeared a few weeks ago. After the patient admission, routine laboratory examination was conducted. In order to relieve the patient from her sense of discomfort and while awaiting laboratory results, olanzapine, 5 mg/day, was administered. Neurological examination and cranial computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Hormonal laboratory tests though revealed severe low thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid antibody testing certified Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Olanzapine was discontinued and the patient received thyroid hormone substitution, levothyroxine 75 μg/day, instead. The patient was discharged showing a significant improvement of psychotic symptoms after a 12-day hospitalization. A month later the patient was reevaluated. She had fully recovered from the psychotic episode. A year later, the patient continues to remain free from psychiatric symptoms, while thyroid hormone levels have been restored within normal range. The patient continues receiving only thyroid hormone substitution

  12. Faster assessment of patients receiving unnecessary thyroid treatment: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Meier, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    Forty-five consecutive patients on thyroid hormone treatment without obvious indication were evaluated. Twenty-five of these cases were found to have no evidence of thyroid disease. Biochemical testing was not helpful in making the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the majority of thyroid-treated hypothyroid patients. Normal technetium images were obtained in 25 patients, 22 of which had no thyroid disease. In contrast, abnormal technetium images were obtained in 20 patients, 16 of whom were thought to be hypothyroid, and one of whom developed a goiter within 2 mo after discontinuing levothyroxine. The use of technetium imaging seems useful for the rapid (20 min) evaluation of those patients likely to benefit from discontinuing thyroid medication.

  13. Clinical inquiries: How useful are autoantibodies in diagnosing thyroid disorders?

    PubMed

    Downs, Heather; Meyer, Albert A; Flake, Donna; Solbrig, Ron

    2008-09-01

    They're useful in diagnosing Graves' disease and, to a lesser extent, autoimmune thyroid disease; they can also help predict hypothyroidism. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) may be mildly elevated in a variety of thyroid disorders, but a TRAb level >10 U/L increases the probability of Graves' disease by a moderate to large degree (strength of recommendation [SOR]: cross-sectional study). A positive or negative thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) test increases or decreases the probability of autoimmune thyroid disease by only a small to moderate degree (SOR: 3 cross-sectional studies). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >2 mU/L, although still in the normal range, can be followed up with TPOAb testing to determine whether the patient has an increased probability of developing hypothyroidism (SOR: cohort study with a vague hypothyroidism reference standard). PMID:18786338

  14. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  15. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ishrat; Taylor, Peter; Das, Gautam; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2016-01-01

    Summary TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO) is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease. Learning points Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy can present initially with negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies. Patients with suggestive symptoms of ophthalmopathy should be carefully evaluated for GO with imaging studies even when thyroid function and autoantibodies are normal. Patients with EGO can develop thyroid dysfunction within 4 years of follow-up underpinning the need for long-term follow-up and continued

  16. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  17. [Ultrasound of the Thyroid].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active vs. inactive nodes, and in particular benign vs. malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up. According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also showpromising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fineneedle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity. PMID:26859730

  18. Thyroid imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.; Chen, J.J.S.

    1987-06-01

    This is the second in a series of Continuing Education articles related to functional/quantitative imaging techniques. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the clinical applications of thyroid imaging; 2) understand the relationship of related thyroid tests; and 3) recognize the pitfalls and problems associated with this procedure.

  19. Thyroid ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

  20. Reversible renal impairment caused by thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Chakera, Aron; Paul, Hans-Joerg; O'Callaghan, Chris A

    2010-04-01

    Renal impairment is a common finding in clinical practice and is increasingly recognized with the routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rates. Clinical assessment is essential to determine which of the many possible investigations are appropriate. Thyroid hormones regulate many cellular functions, and abnormalities of the active thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), can influence serum creatinine levels. Evaluation of thyroid function is easily overlooked, but important in this context, as hypothyroidism is common and can cause renal impairment, which is typically reversible. Renal dysfunction may also be more frequent in hyperthyroidism than is recognized. This report describe how a dramatic elevation in serum creatinine paralleled the development of hyperthyroidism, with a return of the creatinine to normal following treatment of the hyperthyroid state. PMID:20199343

  1. [Pregnancy and thyroid disorders].

    PubMed

    Bricaire, L; Groussin, L

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid disorders are frequent among women, with a few specificities during pregnancy. Recent guidelines from the Endocrine Society concerning the management of thyroid disorders during pregnancy have been published, one year after the guidelines published by the American Thyroid Association. Iodine deficiency in France can increase the development of thyroid disorders during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy must be correctly substituted to avoid fetal complications. Maternal hyperthyroidism should be explored and monitored following a specific defined modality to discuss the necessity of a treatment and to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In case of thyroid nodes or cancer, the follow-up will not differ from non-pregnant women. However in most of cases, involvement of a multidisciplinay team might be necessary. PMID:25194220

  2. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  3. [Osteoporosis in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Kosiński, Bogusław; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Syrenicz, Małgorzata; Gromniak, Elwira

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play the essential role in the regulation of metabolism and bone remodeling in physiological conditions and in the course of thyroid dysfunction. Introduction of densitometry to the diagnostics of osteoporosis has made possible the evaluation of influence of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and their treatment on bone mineral density. Moreover it became possible to estimate the influence of treatment with exogenous thyroid hormones on the skeletal system. Authors presented mechanisms of the thyroid hormones action on bone tissue and analysed current state of knowledge concerning the influence of the thyroxine treatment with replacement and suppressive doses on the bone mineral density. The influence of thyroid hormones on the skeletal system with respect to premenopausal and postmenopausal period was also discussed. Great discrepancies in literature data and its reasons were underlined. PMID:16335687

  4. Thyroid and Pregnancy in Tehran, Iran: Objectives and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disease in females of reproductive age. There are controversial data on the adverse effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunctions on adverse feto-maternal outcomes. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and to assess the effectiveness of treatment with levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes of females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study encompassed two phases: 1) a population based cross sectional study using a cluster sampling method that screened first trimester pregnant females for thyroid disorders, 2) a double-blind randomized clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of levothyroxine on adverse pregnancy outcomes in females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Pregnant females were assessed at their first prenatal visit for serum TSH, T4, T-uptake, TPOAb and urinary iodine following which they were classified as: 1) normal, 2) subclinical TPOAb negative and 3) subclinical/euthyroid TPOAb positive. Females in groups two and three were randomly divided into two groups: group A was treated with levothyroxine (LT4), and group B did not receive any treatment. There was a follow-up program for participants and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the treated and untreated groups were measured. Results Results of the study provided reliable information regarding the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among females in Tehran using universal thyroid screening, along with identification of the iodine status of their community. The study aimed to determine whether LT4 treatment exerts beneficial effects in females without overt thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27279833

  5. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  6. Defective thyroid ontogenesis in fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Beamer, W.G.; Cresswell, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Thyroid glands of fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice were studied to determine the effects of the mutant gene during embryogenesis. Comparisons of mutant and normal thyroids were made with respect to morphology, iodine-concentrating ability, and glandular thyroxine (T4) content at day 18 of gestation. Fetal hyt/hyt thyroid tissue was properly located, but incompletely differentiated. The mutant thyroid was characterized microscopically by small, poorly developed follicles with colloid diminished in PAS-staining properties. The mutant glands' ability to concentrate iodine was found to be only 5--16% of that exhibited by normal glands. When litters contained both mutant and normal off-spring, the differential iodine-concentrating ability allowed fetuses to be separated into two distinct, nonoverlapping populations. The distribution of fetal mice into high or low iodine-concentrating groups agreed closely with predicted frequencies for normal and mutant phenotypes. Thyroid content of T4 in mutant mice was found to be approximately equal to that found in age-matched normal controls. The poorly developed morphology and deficient iodine-concentrating ability of fetal thyroids from day 18 hyt/hyt mice indicated that the mutant gene acts during the ontogeny of this gland. Although such data are not available on human fetuses affected by thyroid dysgenesis, postnatal hyt/hyt mice display characteristics similar to those of infants born with this form of congenital primary hypothyroidism. Thus, elucidation of the site of mutant gene action in the mouse should contribute to our knowledge of disturbed fetal thyroid development and its implications in the adult mammal.

  7. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy in children with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; McDougall, I.R.; Cox, R.S.; Link, M.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-15

    Thyroid function was measured in 119 children, 16 years of age or less, after radiotherapy (XRT) for Hodgkin's disease. Thyroid abnormalities developed in 4 of 24 children (17%) who received 2600 rad or less, and in 74 of 95 children (78%) who received greater than 2600 rad to the cervical area, including the thyroid. The abnormality in all but three (one with hyperthyroidism and two with thyroid nodules) included the development of elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Age, sex, and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. All children had lymphangiograms (LAG) and no time relationship was noted between thyroid dysfunction and LAG-XRT interval. The mean interval from radiotherapy to documented thyroid dysfunction was 18 months in the low-dose group and 31 months in the high-dose group, with most patients becoming abnormal within 3 to 5 years. Of interest was a spontaneous return of TSH to within normal limits in 20 children and substantial improvement in another 7. This study confirms the occurrence of dose-related occult hypothyroidism in children following external irradiation of the neck.

  8. IRF5 promotes the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in the response to viral infection and in the stimulation of the immune system. Moreover, multiple studies have demonstrated that it negatively regulates cell growth and oncogenesis, favoring cell differentiation and apoptosis. Thyroid carcinoma represents 98% of all thyroid malignancies and has shown a steady increase in incidence in both the USA and western European countries. Findings We investigated the expression, localization and function of IRF5 in thyroid cancer cells and found that it is highly expressed in both primary and immortalized thyroid carcinomas but not in normal thyrocytes. IRF5 levels were variably modulated by Interferon alpha but IRF5 only localized in the cytoplasmic compartment, thus failing to induce p21 expression as previously reported in different cell models. Furthermore, ectopic IRF5 increased both the proliferation rate and the clonogenic potential of malignant thyroid cells, protecting them from the cytotoxic effects of DNA-damaging agents. These results were directly attributable to IRF5, as demonstrated by the reduction in colony-forming ability of thyroid cancer cells after IRF5 silencing. An IRF5-dependent induction of endogenous B-Raf observed in all thyroid cancer cells might contribute to these unexpected effects. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in thyroid malignancies, IRF5 displays tumor-promoting rather than tumor-suppressor activities. PMID:22507190

  9. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  10. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stichel, H; l'Allemand, D; Grüters, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction as assessed by TSH, T3 and T4 in a large cohort of 290 obese and 280 healthy children. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were measured in random subgroups of 123 obese and 80 control children, iodine excretion in 50 and thyroid volume in 23 of the obese children. Elevated TSH levels (>4 U/l) were found in 22 obese children (7.5%), but only in one control (0.3%). The medians of TSH and T3 concentrations were normal, but significantly higher in the obese group than in the controls, while T4 levels did not differ. The prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies was increased in the obese children, for the most part in those with elevated TSH. There was no evidence for iodine deficiency as a cause of the average increase of TSH. We conclude that in childhood obesity TSH and T3 levels are significantly increased; in most cases, however, these increases are not accounted for by thyroid autoimmunity or iodine deficiency. As a consequence, TSH elevations with normal thyroid hormone levels in obese children don't need any thyroxine treatment, if thyroid disorders were definitely excluded beforehand. PMID:11182630

  11. Impact of Fibrotic Tissue on Shear Wave Velocity in Thyroid: An Ex Vivo Study with Fresh Thyroid Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Endo, Yukari; Donishi, Ryohei; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV) and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm2 regions of interest (ROIs) of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49 ± 0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13 ± 0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68 ± 0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid. PMID:26881199

  12. Acoustic Structure Quantification Analysis of the Thyroid in Patients with Diffuse Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg; Knoll, Peter; Seyeddain, Orang; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma in patients with diffuse autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). We evaluated 83 subjects (72 [87%] women and 11 [13%] men) aged 19 to 94 years with a mean age of 53 years. We performed a prospective study (from March 2011 to November 2014) that included 43 (52%) patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT), 22 (26%) patients with Graves' disease (GD), and 18 (22%) healthy volunteers. The ASQ values were significantly lower in normal subjects than in subjects with CAT and GD (p < 0.001). In contrast, the differences between the GD and the CAT patients (p = 0.23) were not statistically significant. The optimal cutoff ASQ value for which the sum of sensitivity and specificity was the highest for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 103 (95% confidence interval = [0.79, 0.95]). At this cutoff value, the sensitivity was 83% and the specificity was 89%. Our findings suggest that ASQ is a useful method for the assessment of the thyroid in patients with AITD. PMID:25855160

  13. Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kurmann, Anita A; Serra, Maria; Hawkins, Finn; Rankin, Scott A; Mori, Munemasa; Astapova, Inna; Ullas, Soumya; Lin, Sui; Bilodeau, Melanie; Rossant, Janet; Jean, Jyh C; Ikonomou, Laertis; Deterding, Robin R; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Kotton, Darrell N

    2015-11-01

    Differentiation of functional thyroid epithelia from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) holds the potential for application in regenerative medicine. However, progress toward this goal is hampered by incomplete understanding of the signaling pathways needed for directed differentiation without forced overexpression of exogenous transgenes. Here we use mouse PSCs to identify key conserved roles for BMP and FGF signaling in regulating thyroid lineage specification from foregut endoderm in mouse and Xenopus. Thyroid progenitors derived from mouse PSCs can be matured into thyroid follicular organoids that provide functional secretion of thyroid hormones in vivo and rescue hypothyroid mice after transplantation. Moreover, by stimulating the same pathways, we were also able to derive human thyroid progenitors from normal and disease-specific iPSCs generated from patients with hypothyroidism resulting from NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. Our studies have therefore uncovered the regulatory mechanisms that underlie early thyroid organogenesis and provide a significant step toward cell-based regenerative therapy for hypothyroidism. PMID:26593959

  14. Thyroid CT number and its relationship to iodine concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Konishi, J.; Harioka, T.; Misaki, T.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1983-06-01

    Sixty-seven patients with thyroid disease and 24 normal controls were examined with computed tomography (CT). The mean CT number (Hounsfield units +/- SD) in the normal controls (118.1 +/- 12.2) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the mean CT number in patients with diseased thyroids, except for 2 cases of simple goiter (CT numbers 113, 132). The Graves disease (69.5 +/- 17.6) amd Hishimoto thyroiditis (61.4 +/- 9.1) were significaantly higher than those in patients with adenoma (41.7 +/- 10.6, p < 0.001), cyst (33.1 +/- 14.8, p < 0.001), or cancer (48.7 +/- 13, p < 0.01). In 14 patients studied, a significant correlation was observed between thyroid CT numbers and the iodine concentration of the tissue (r = 0.889; p < 0.001).

  15. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  16. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  17. Autoimmune thyroid disease in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, D; Isenberg, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To report the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid antibodies in 300 patients with SLE, followed up at our centre between 1978 and 2000, by a retrospective analysis of case notes. Results: The prevalence (5.7%) of hypothyroidism in our cohort was higher than in the normal population (1%), while that of hyperthyroidism (1.7%) was not significantly different. Overall 42/300 (14%) of our cohort had thyroid antibodies, rising to 15/22 (68%) in the subgroup who also had thyroid disease (p<0.001). Both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies were detected. The antibodies were found in equally high frequency in the hyperthyroid subgroup (80% patients), whereas in the hypothyroid subgroup antimicrosomal antibodies were more frequent than antithyroglobulin antibodies (64% v 41%). There was no significant difference in the frequency with which antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin antibodies were detected between the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subgroups (p>0.2). Conclusion: Our patients with SLE had a prevalence of hypothyroidism, but not hyperthyroidism, greater than that of the normal population. The presence of either condition was associated with a higher frequency of both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies. PMID:11779764

  18. Dynamical model for thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Lamooki, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Amir H.; Mani, Ali R.

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid's main chemical reactions are employed to develop a mathematical model. The presented model is based on differential equations where their dynamics reflects many aspects of thyroid's behavior. Our main focus here is the well known, but not well understood, phenomenon so called as Wolff-Chaikoff effect. It is shown that the inhibitory effect of intake iodide on the rate of one single enzyme causes a similar effect as Wolff-Chaikoff. Besides this issue, the presented model is capable of revealing other complex phenomena of thyroid hormones homeostasis.

  19. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  20. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  1. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and

  2. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of a thyroid disorder , including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism . TSH is produced by the pituitary gland , a ... thyroid Monitor thyroid replacement therapy in people with hypothyroidism Monitor anti-thyroid treatment in people with hyperthyroidism ...

  3. DUSP4/MKP2 overexpression is associated with BRAFV600E mutation and aggressive behavior of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ben; Shi, Rongliang; Yang, Shuwen; Zhou, Li; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yulong; Ji, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to retrospectively analyze the correlation of dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) expression with clinicopathological variables and BRAFV600E mutation to better characterize the potential role of DUSP4 as a biomarker in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients (n=120) who underwent surgery for PTC at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) were enrolled in this study, and a validation cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was identified to confirm the preliminary findings in our study. We investigated DUSP4 expression at the mRNA level in PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). BRAFV600E mutation analysis was also performed in PTC tissues using Sanger sequencing. Initially, we compared PTC tissues with paired normal tissues in DUSP4 expression using Student’s t-test, and then analyzed the correlation of DUSP4 with clinicopathological variables and BRAFV600E mutation in PTC using Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests. Human-derived thyroid cell lines were also used to verify our findings. DUSP4 was significantly overexpressed in PTC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). High DUSP4 expression showed a significant association with lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension in both FUSCC and TCGA cohorts, and DUSP4 overexpression was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in multivariate analysis. Additionally, DUSP4 expression was associated with BRAFV600E mutation in both the cohorts (FUSCC: P=0.002, TCGA: P<0.001) and PTC cell lines (P=0.023). In conclusion, DUSP4 was identified as a potential biomarker for aggressive behavior in PTC, and its overexpression was BRAFV600E mutation-related. PMID:27143921

  4. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  5. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  6. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  7. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  8. Idiopathic thyroid abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Hassranah, Dale; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Thyroid abscesses are uncommon because the gland is relatively resistant to developing infection due to its rich blood supply, well-developed capsule and high iodine content. However, clinicians must be aware of this differential to make an early diagnosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a patient who required urgent operative resection as definitive treatment for a thyroid abscess secondary to infection with Staphylococcus aureus. DISCUSSION Although this is rare, a thyroid abscess left untreated can lead to serious morbidity. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the presenting features and therapeutic options. CONCLUSION Thyroid abscess is an uncommon diagnosis but can lead to significant morbidity. Therefore clinicians must be aware of the diagnosis in order to institute early aggressive management. PMID:24981167

  9. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and education. learn more Publications Thyroid, Clinical Thyroidology and VideoEndocrinology. ... learn more DEDICATED TO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, CLINICAL EXCELLENCE, EDUCATION AND COLLABORATION August 23, 2016 10 Clinical Thyroidology ...

  10. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... isthmus). The thyroid secretes three main hormones: 1) Thyroxine, that contains iodine, needed for growth and metabolism; ... also contains iodine and similar in function to Thyroxine; and 3) Calcitonin, which decreases the concentration of ...

  11. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-cancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  12. Specific ablation of thyroid follicle cells in adult transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wallace, H; Ledent, C; Vassart, G; Bishop, J O; al-Shawi, R

    1991-12-01

    The coding region of the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase gene was coupled to the promoter of the bovine thyroglobulin gene and introduced into the genome of mice. The viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) was expressed mainly in the thyroid glands and testis. Upon treatment of transgenic females with the antiherpetic agent Ganciclovir the thyroid regressed, while the parathyroid gland was unaffected. The number of thyroid follicle cells was greatly reduced after 3 days, and they were completely absent after 7 days of treatment. After 14 days, the levels of circulating T4 and T3 were below the limits of detection, total soluble protein recovered from the thyroid and parathyroid glands together was 10% of the control value, and the level of thyroid HSV1-TK was more than 100-fold lower than that in transgenic controls. Levels of circulating PTH and calcitonin remained normal. At the time of treatment the mice were adults. Thus, the thyroid follicle cells were selectively ablated after normal development with a functional thyroid gland. When treatment with Ganciclovir was terminated after 14 days, no circulating T4 or T3 or other indications of thyroid regeneration were detected for a subsequent period of 90 days. During this time the mice gained weight more slowly than controls, at a rate consistent with the suppression of GH synthesis by thyroid deficiency. The production of mouse major urinary protein (MUP) ceased in the treated mice and was completely restored by the administration of T4. MUP production was not restored by GH, demonstrating that the expression of the Mup genes requires T4 in addition to GH. PMID:1659524

  13. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  14. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment. PMID:20305330

  15. Thyroid function and postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A E

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with age - particularly in postmenopausal women - which are higher than in men. The incidence of thyroid disease in a population of postmenopausal women is as follows: clinical thyroid disease, about 2.4%; subclinical thyroid disease, about 23.2%. Among the group with subclinical thyroid disease, 73.8% are hypothyroid and 26.2% are hyperthyroid. The rate of thyroid cancer increases with age. The symptoms of thyroid disease can be similar to postmenopausal complaints and are clinically difficult to differentiate. There can also be an absence of clinical symptoms. It is of importance that even mild thyroid failure can have a number of clinical effects such as depression, memory loss, cognitive impairment and a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Myocardial function has been found to be subtly impaired. There is also an increased cardiovascular risk, caused by increased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein. These adverse effects can be improved or corrected by L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Such treatment has been found to be cost-effective. With time, overt hypothyroidism can develop. Therefore, routine screening of thyroid function in the climacteric period to determine subclinical thyroid disease is recommended. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxine causes changes in free thyroxine and TSH. Increased binding of thyroxine to elevated thyroxine-binding globulin causes an elevation of TSH by feedback. Since adaptation is insufficient, there is an increased need for thyroxine in these women taking HRT. TSH levels should be controlled at 12 weeks after the beginning of therapy. At higher age the need for iodine and thyroxine is decreased. Therefore, therapy has to be controlled. For bone metabolism thyroid hormones play a dominant role. While there are

  16. The Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Larrain, Carolina; Buehler, Darya; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer progression may provide targets for more effective treatment of aggressive thyroid cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major pathologic mechanism in tumor progression and is linked to the acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells. We examined expression of ZEB1 which activates EMT by binding to the E-box elements in the E-cadherin promoter, and expression of E-cadherin in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) which included 127 neoplasms and 10 normal thyroid specimens. Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA, n=32), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC, n=28), and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, n=57) all expressed E-cadherin and were mostly negative for ZEB1 while most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC, n=10) were negative for E-cadherin, but positive for ZEB1. A validation set of 10 whole sections of ATCs showed 90% of cases positive for ZEB1 and all cases were negative for E-cadherin. Analysis of three cell lines (normal thyroid, NTHY-OR13-1; PTC, TPC-1 and ATC, THJ-21T) showed that the ATC cell line expressed the highest levels of ZEB1 while the normal thyroid cell line expressed the highest levels of E-Cadherin. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that Smad7 mRNA was significantly higher in ATC than in any other group (p<0.05). These results indicate that ATCs show evidence of EMT including decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of ZEB1 compared to well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that increased expression of Smad7 may be associated with thyroid tumor progression. PMID:24126800

  17. Clinical and laboratory assessment of thyroid abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    Clinical assessment of the patient with suspected thyroid disease remains an important part of the workup. Available laboratory tests of thyroid function include measurements of serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone, titers of autoantibodies involved with Graves' disease and thyroiditis, and thyroid imaging and uptake techniques. The usefulness and limitations of each of these tests are reviewed.

  18. [Thyroid Adenomas in Children].

    PubMed

    Morozov, D A; Pimenova, E S; Mirokova, E D

    2015-01-01

    According to the papers thyroid nodules are quite rare in the first two decades of life. However, there are some exceptions, relating to areas with an iodine deficiency or affected by radioactive fallout, where the risk of nodules and carcinomas is increased. Therefore, it is a great challenge for the physician to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions preoperatively, and not only in these areas of greater risk. The authors analyzed current works, which are devoted to diagnostics and treatment of adenomas of thyroid gland in children. This literature review is based on works dedicated to epidemiology, histotypes study, and methods of diagnostics, surgical treatment, prognosis and complications of this pathology. The current tendencies in surgical approaches, intraoperative monitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve are also discussed. The actuality of this problem is connected with last decade increase of adenomas in structure of thyroid gland nodules, increase of number of patients with multiple adenomas and with polypathias: adenomas with nodular goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis and cancer in children. The difficulties of diagnostic of adenomas are related to the similar clinical symptoms, cytogenetic characteristics of growth of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid gland. Additionally there is no systematic review about thyroid adenomas in children recent years. PMID:26846075

  19. Postpartum thyroiditis: an autoimmune thyroid disorder which predicts future thyroid health

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Erin Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis is a potentially destructive lymphocytic thyroiditis occurring in approximately 8% of the pregnant population, making it the most common endocrine disorder associated with pregnancy. This autoimmune thyroid disorder is precipitated by the postpartum immunological rebound that follows the partial immunosuppression of pregnancy, in individuals already at risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. The manifestations of postpartum thyroiditis are usually not present at the six-week postpartum visit and thus it is important that all physicians be aware of the risks, presentation and intervention required for this common disorder. Postpartum thyroiditis is a strong predictor of future thyroid health and it is essential that women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis be screened regularly, especially prior to a future pregnancy. Selenium supplementation has recently been identified as a potential means to prevent postpartum thyroiditis in women at risk but further studies are required before recommendations for its use can be made.

  20. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy and Thyroid Function of Her Child in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Päkkilä, Fanni; Männistö, Tuija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo; Bloigu, Aini; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. No knowledge exists on how maternal thyroid function and thyroid antibodies during early pregnancy affect thyroid function of the offspring. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and adolescent thyroid function parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 3673 mother-child pairs from the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 participated in the study. Maternal serum samples were drawn in early pregnancy (<20th gestational week), and children's samples were drawn at the age of 16 years and analyzed for TSH, free T4 (fT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs). Main Outcome Measures: TSH, fT4, and TPO-Ab concentrations were measured at the age of 16 years. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroxinemia) or TPO-Ab positivity were compared to those of euthyroid or TPO-Ab-negative mothers. The distributions are expressed as medians with 5th to 95th percentiles. Results: Boys of hypothyroid mothers had higher TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 2.0 (0.9–4.0) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L; P = .001. Children of hyperthyroid mothers had lower TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 1.3 (0.6–4.2) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L, P = .013, for boys; and 1.3 (0.5–3.5) vs 1.6 (0.7–3.4) mU/L, P = .034, for girls. There were no differences in TSH or fT4 concentrations between children of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid mothers. TPO-Ab-positive mothers more often had TPO-Ab-positive children (prevalence, 9.0 vs 3.7% among boys, and 22.7 vs 7.5% among girls). Conclusions: Maternal thyroid dysfunction and TPO-Ab positivity during pregnancy seem to modify thyroid function parameters of offspring even in adolescence. Whether this increases the thyroid disease risk of the children is still unknown. PMID:23408571

  1. In vivo activated cytotoxic T cells in the thyroid infiltrate of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, G F; Vercelli, D; Tiri, A; Maggi, E; Mariotti, S; Pinchera, A; Ricci, M; Romagnani, S

    1986-01-01

    High proportions of T8+ cells with inverted T4/T8 ratio were found in freshly isolated thyroid lymphocytes from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In addition, about one third of thyroid infiltrating cells expressed the TAC antigen, whereas in patient peripheral blood (PB) or normal lymphocytes from PB or lymphoid organs the percentage of TAC-positive cells was consistently lower than 10%. Following negative selection with OKT4 or OKT8 monoclonal antibodies and complement, TAC+ T cells were enriched in the T8+ cell population. Thyroid infiltrating T cells from two patients underwent two different cloning procedures. In the first, single T cells were initially activated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin 2 (IL-2), in the other with recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) alone. The majority of T cell clones obtained by initial PHA-stimulation (55-65%) had the T8+ phenotype, but the frequency of T8+ clones obtained by stimulating T cells with rIL-2 alone was even higher (78 & 71%, respectively). The majority of T8+ clones elicited by PHA (35/37 & 36/38) and all the T8+ clones (36/36 & 22/22) obtained from thyroid infiltrates with initial stimulation by rIL-2 displayed cytolytic activity. Most of cytolytic T8+ clones obtained from thyroid infiltrates with both cloning procedures, displayed NK activity against human K562 and MOLT-4 target cells, but not against a NK-resistant target, such as Raji cells. These data suggest that in Hashimoto's disease a considerable proportion of thyroid infiltrating T cells are in vivo activated T8+ cytolytic T cells with NK activity, which may be of importance in determining or maintaining the tissue damage of the target gland. PMID:3024884

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in normal anterior-posterior axis formation.) We have previously shown that thyroid hormone receptor RNA (alpha isotype) is expressed and polysome-associated during Xenopus embryogenesis preceding thyroid gland maturation and endogenous thyroid hormone production (D. E. Banker, J. Bigler, and R. N. Eisenman, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5079-5089, 1991). To determine whether thyroid hormone receptor might influence the effects of retinoic acid in early frog development, we have examined the results of ectopic thyroid hormone receptor expression on retinoic acid teratogenesis. We demonstrate that microinjections of full-length thyroid hormone receptor RNA protect injected embryos from retinoic acid teratogenesis. DNA binding is apparently essential to this protective function, as truncated thyroid hormone receptors, lacking DNA-binding domains but including hormone-binding and dimerization domains, do not protect from retinoic acid. We have shown that microinjections of these dominant-interfering thyroid hormone receptors, as well as anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibodies, increase retinoic acid teratogenesis in injected embryos, presumably by inactivating endogenous thyroid hormone receptor. This finding suggests that endogenous thyroid hormone receptors may act to limit retinoic acid sensitivity. On the other hand, after thyroid hormone treatment, ectopic thyroid hormone receptor mediates teratogenesis that is indistinguishable from the dorsoanterior deficiencies produced in retinoic acid

  7. Overlapping nongenomic and genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Stephen R.; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids depend upon primary interactions of the hormones with their specific nuclear receptor proteins. Formation of nuclear co-activator or co-repressor complexes involving the liganded receptors subsequently result in transcriptional events—either activation or suppression—at genes that are specific targets of thyroid hormone or steroids. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids are in contrast initiated at binding sites on the plasma membrane or in cytoplasm or organelles and do not primarily require formation of intranuclear receptor protein-hormone complexes. Importantly, hormonal actions that begin nongenomically outside the nucleus often culminate in changes in nuclear transcriptional events that are regulated by both traditional intranuclear receptors as well as other nuclear transcription factors. In the case of thyroid hormone, the extranuclear receptor can be the classical “nuclear” thyroid receptor (TR), a TR isoform, or integrin αvβ3. In the case of steroid hormones, the membrane receptor is usually, but not always, the classical “nuclear” steroid receptor. This concept defines the paradigm of overlapping nongenomic and genomic hormone mechanisms of action. Here we review some examples of how extranuclear signaling by thyroid hormone and by estrogens and androgens modulates intranuclear hormone signaling to regulate a number of vital biological processes both in normal physiology and in cancer progression. We also point out that nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone may mimic effects of estrogen in certain tumors. PMID:26303085

  8. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyuan; Zhao, Pengxin; Zang, Leilei; Zhang, Kaili; Liao, Haiying; Hu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1. Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues compared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, which may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer. PMID:27581931

  9. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Okani, Chukwudi Onyeaghana; Otene, Benjamin; Nyaga, Terhemba; Ngbea, Joseph; Eke, Agaba; Edegbe, Felix; Anyiam, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT. PMID:26903704

  10. Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase in patients with chronic thyroiditis: effect of antibody binding on enzyme activities.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Y; Hiyama, Y; Shimojo, N; Niimi, H; Nakajima, H; Hosoya, T

    1986-01-01

    Using thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which was purified from the thyroid of patients with Graves' disease, we attempted to determine whether sera from patients with chronic thyroiditis contained antibodies to the enzyme. When the binding was tested by ELISA, sera from patients with chronic thyroiditis revealed high binding activities to TPO. When TPO was incubated with IgG from sera followed by treatment with protein A-Sepharose and centrifugation, the remaining TPO activities in the supernatant fraction were lower in most of the patients, as compared to normal controls. Moreover, IgG purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography from sera in patients interfered with the TPO activities. Titres of anti-TPO antibodies correlated well with those of anti-microsome antibodies. These results indicate the presence of autoantibodies to TPO in sera of most patients with chronic thyroiditis and that TPO may be one component of microsome antigen complexes recognized by the autoantibodies. Studies on the inhibition of TPO by IgG isolated from sera of patients using guaiacol and iodide assays revealed that at least three epitopes of TPO molecule were recognized by autoantibodies and that the antigenic determinants on TPO molecule recognized by autoantibodies could be heterogeneous in patients. PMID:2430744

  11. Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Asai, Rieko; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kurihara, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid development and formation vary among species, but in most species the thyroid morphogenesis consists of five stages: specification, budding, descent, bilobation and folliculogenesis. The detailed mechanisms of these stages have not been fully clarified. During early development, the cranial neural crest (CNC) contributes to the thyroid gland. The removal of the postotic CNC (corresponding to rhombomeres 6, 7 and 8, also known as the cardiac neural crest) results in abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, thymus, parathyroid glands, and thyroid gland. To investigate the influence of the CNC on thyroid bilobation process, we divided the CNC into two regions, the postotic CNC and the preotic CNC (from the mesencephalon to rhombomere 5) regions and examined. We found that preotic CNC-ablated embryos had a unilateral thyroid lobe, and confirmed the presence of a single lobe or the absence of lobes in postotic CNC-ablated chick embryos. The thyroid anlage in each region-ablated embryos was of a normal size at the descent stage, but at a later stage, the thyroid in preotic CNC-ablated embryos was of a normal size, conflicting with a previous report in which the thyroid was reduced in size in the postotic CNC-ablated embryos. The postotic CNC cells differentiated into connective tissues of the thyroid in quail-to-chick chimeras. In contrast, the preotic CNC cells did not differentiate into connective tissues of the thyroid. We found that preotic CNC cells encompassed the thyroid anlage from the specification stage to the descent stage. Finally, we found that endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor-knockout mice and bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)-treated chick embryos showed bilobation anomalies that included single-lobe formation. Therefore, not only the postotic CNC, but also the preotic CNC plays an important role in thyroid morphogenesis. PMID:26506449

  12. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  13. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  14. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) ...

  15. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thyroid Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of thyroid underactivity (hypothyroidism) in the United States. Related Information What information ... However, some people with thyroid antibodies never develop hypothyroidism or experience any related signs or symptoms. People ...

  17. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  18. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  19. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  20. Infrared spectroscopic diagnosis of thyroid tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. Z.; Schultz, C. P.; Salamon, E. A.; Man, A.; Mantsch, H. H.

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of infrared spectroscopy as an alternative means of screening for the diagnosis of thyroid tumors. A total of 89 fine-needle aspirates were obtained from patients with various thyroid disorders. Infrared spectra were recorded from original aspirates as well as from cell pellets obtained after centrifugation. The spectra were analyzed by two different multivariate statistical methods using the clinical data as reference. An unsupervised cluster analysis of cell pellet spectra revealed a good separation of normal cells from tumor cells with an accuracy of 94.7%. When using spectra of the original aspirates, the separation of normal and tumor was only 65.3%. However, by using a supervised methodology, such as the linear discriminant analysis, the partition of the original aspirates into normal and tumor groups was highly successful; the accuracy for the training set was 96.6%, while that for the validation set was as high as 90.2%. These results suggest that this new methodology, after appropriate refinement, has the potential of screening for thyroid tumors from fine-needle aspirate samples.

  1. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  2. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  3. Hodgkin's disease: thyroid dysfunction following external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid gland is commonly included in the field of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma and with head and neck tumors. The radiation dose for malignant diseases varies considerably depending on the purpose of treatment and the institutional policies. A substantial number of these patients are developing subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. The risk of developing hypothyroidism after a moderate radiation dose of 2000 to 4500 rads has been reported to be 10 to 20 percent. In addition, subclinical hypothyroidism is induced further in one third of the patients. There are also suggestions that external irradiation of the thyroid gland in patients with malignant lymphomas, as well as internal irradiation with radioiodine of the normal and hyperthyroid human thyroid glands, would induce elevations of serum antithyroid autoantibody titers. However, only a few cases of Graves disease following irradiation to the thyroid gland have been reported. We encountered a young woman who received radiation therapy to the mantle field for her Hodgkin's disease and developed hypothyroxinemia without overt signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, followed by appearance of nodular goiter and then full-blown Graves disease.

  4. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  5. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Data From A University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6–15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were

  6. Myxedema madness complicating postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosán Allo, Yanina J; Rosmarin, Melanie; Urrutia, Agustina; Faingold, Maria Cristina; Musso, Carla; Brenta, Gabriela

    2015-08-01

    Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer. PMID:26331326

  7. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  8. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åase Krogh; Main, Katharina; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals—endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—has been shown to cause almost constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use of these chemicals. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the issue, since human studies are scarce. PMID:21918727

  9. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  10. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening

    PubMed Central

    Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco A.; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3–1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  11. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening.

    PubMed

    Anania, Maria; Gasparri, Fabio; Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-10-27

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3-1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  12. Evaluation of the thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Evaluation of thyroid nodules challenges the most astute clinician. The history and the physical examination often identify those patients who require immediate surgical management. In other patients, time-honored thyroid function studies and thyroid scanning are helpful. Fine needle aspiration and computed tomography are also valuable in the diagnostic work-up.

  13. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  14. Corticosteroid therapy in Riedel's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, B; Harris, P E; Barrett, P; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-12-01

    We report a case of Riedel's thyroiditis presenting with a systemic illness, life-threatening stridor and a stony hard goitre. Diagnosis was confirmed by open thyroid biopsy. Treatment with corticosteroid resulted in a dramatic improvement. A possible autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of Riedel's thyroiditis is discussed. PMID:9497955

  15. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. PMID:25433782

  16. [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].

    PubMed

    Límanová, Zdeňka

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. The prevalence of undiagnosed lower thyroid function in pregnancy is present in about 4-8 % of pregnant women, and euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity (6-8 %) are further candidates for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50 % more thyroxine in pregnancy to maintain an euthyroid state to keep TSH ideally 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester of pregnancy and TSH 3.0 mIU/l in the second and third trimester. Consequently, there is a need to start the substitution therapy as soon as diagnosis of subclinical and /or overt hypotyroidism is established, and in majority of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease there is a need to start therapy as well. Most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant. As maternal thyroid disease is a quite prevalent condition and often asymptomatic, but easily diagnosed and for which an effective, safe and cheap treatment is available, endocrinological societies including ČES ČLS JEP worldwide are suggesting the need of thyroid dysfunction screening as a simple prevention attitude. Hormone determination of TSH and TPOab antibodies should be performed early during the first trimester, using trimester-specific reference values. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive. PMID:26486478

  17. Recognition of oxidized albumin and thyroid antigens by psoriasis autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Rasheed, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) induced epitopes on human-serum-albumin (HSA) and thyroid antigens in psoriasis autoimmunity. Methods: This study was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia between May 2014 and February 2015. The study was designed to explore the role of ROS-induced epitopes in psoriasis autoimmunity. Singlet-oxygen (or ROS)-induced epitopes on protein (ROS-epitopes-albumin) was characterized by in-vitro and in-vivo. Thyroid antigens were prepared from rabbit thyroid, and thyroglobulin was isolated from thyroid extract. Immunocross-reactions of protein-A purified anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-immunoglobulin G (IgGs) with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin, and their oxidized forms were determined. Binding characteristics of autoantibodies in chronic plaque psoriasis patients (n=26) against ROS-epitopes-HSA and also with native and oxidized thyroid antigens were screened, and the results were compared with age-matched controls (n=22). Results: The anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-IgGs showed cross-reactions with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin and with their oxidized forms. High degree of specific binding by psoriasis IgGs to ROS-epitopes-HSA, ROS-thyroid antigen and ROS-thyroglobulin was observed. Immunoglobulin G from normal-human-controls showed negligible binding with all tested antigens. Moreover, sera from psoriasis patients had higher levels of carbonyl contents compared with control sera. Conclusion: Structural alterations in albumin, thyroid antigens by ROS, generate unique neo-epitopes that might be one of the factors for the induction of autoantibodies in psoriasis. PMID:26620982

  18. [Clinical procedure in amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Różycka-Kosmalska, Monika; Michalak, Renata; Kosmalski, Marcin; Ptaszyński, Paweł; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Zieleniewski, Wojciech; Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug frequently used in everyday clinical practice. Its mechanism of action involves the interaction with many receptors, including those in the cardiac conduction system. Amiodarone usefulness is protect in the treatment of a variety of tachyarrhythmias, both benign and life-threatening. In contrast to other antiarrhythmic drugs, amiodarone is characterized by high therapeutic efficacy, both in patients with normal and impaired left ventricular systolic function. A significant limitation of its is associated with side effects including thyroid gland dysfunction. Disturbances of this organ associated with amiodarone are an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. They may contribute to the occurrence of both Amiodarone- Induced Thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and Amiodarone-Induced Hypothyroidism (AIH). The risk of such complications should be considered for each patient individually, taking into account thyroid function at the beginning of pharmacotherapy. Appropriate procedure, both before and after treatment allows a rapid diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disturbances. It seems that the best parameter used to assess the hormonal imbalance during amiodarone therapy is the concentration of the free triiodothyronine (fT3). The evaluation of thyroid function should be performed before starting pharmacotherapy, and then repeated every six months. In the case of a thyroid dysfunction, assessment must be performed immediately according to standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. Despite abnormal thyroid function, high efficiency of amiodarone and relatively small risk of thyroid damage allows continuation therapy. Amiodarone therapy requires a care from both cardiologist and endocrinologist. The aim of this paper is to present the state of art of evaluation of the thyroid function and procedures implemented in care of thyroid dysfunction before and during treatment with amiodarone. PMID:26891437

  19. Morphological ultrasound microimaging of thyroid in living mice.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Vergara, Emilia; Salvatore, Giuliana; Greco, Adelaide; Troncone, Giancarlo; Affuso, Andrea; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Salerno, Paolo; Scotto di Santolo, Maria; Santoro, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Salvatore, Marco

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study was to explore high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) for noninvasive microimaging of thyroid in living mice. Thyroid examination was performed by HFUS in 10 normal C57BL/6 mice, eight mice treated by propylthiouracil, and 22 Tg-TRK-T1 transgenic mice. The dimension of the gland and the presence of nodules were evaluated. Nodules were classified as malignant (hypoechogenicity, poorly defined margins, internal microcalcification, irregular shapes, and extra glandular extension) or not, and the findings were compared with histological data. Thyroid images were successfully obtained in all the animals analyzed. Normal thyroid reached a volume of 4.92 microl (range 2.11-4.92 microl). Mice with propylthiouracil-induced goiter showed diffuse thyroid enlargement (median volume 6.67 microl, range 4.09-8.82 microl). In 19 of 22 Tg-TRK-T1 mice (86%), HFUS identified a nodular process (the smallest detected nodule had a diameter of 0.46 mm). Eleven nodules were classified as malignant and eight as benign. Compared with histological analysis, HFUS showed a sensitivity of 100% in the detection of thyroid nodules and a specificity of 60% (two of the nodules identified by HFUS were not confirmed at the histology). The specificity and sensitivity of HFUS in predicting the malignancy of the thyroid nodules were 83 and 91%, respectively. Thus, HFUS is an accurate imaging modality that can potentially replace more invasive techniques, and, therefore, it represents a significant advancement in phenotypic assessment of mouse models of thyroid cancer. PMID:19589864

  20. Solitary thyroid nodule. 1. Clinical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzaferri, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    The approach to management of an isolated thyroid nodule requires some understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer and other forms of nodular thyroid disease. The histologic classification of thyroid cancer is an important determinant of survival, as are the size of the primary tumor, presence of thyroid capsule invasion, and presence of distant metastases. Therapeutic radiation and radioactive fallout increase the risk that a thyroid nodule is malignant. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules are usually benign follicular adenomas and may cause thyrotoxicosis.

  1. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  2. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  3. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  4. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  5. The role of thyroid dysfunction in the critically ill: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Ceaichisciuc, I; Silva, S; Antonelli, M

    2010-11-01

    During critical illness, patients with no known history of thyroid disorders may experience multiple alterations in their serum thyroid hormone levels. Such alterations have been termed sick euthyroid syndrome or, more recently, non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), normal or low serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The magnitude of the alteration in thyroid function correlates with the severity of the illness and its outcomes in critically ill patients with NTIS. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in NTIS include a decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in extrathyroidal tissues and alterations in thyroid hormones' binding to serum proteins. In cases of protracted critical illness, a decrease in the pulsatile frequency of TSH secretion, resulting from reduced thyrotropin-re leasing hormone (TRH) release by the hypothalamus, may also occur. Several medications or clinical conditions that are commonly present in critically ill patients may be responsible for lowering serum concentrations of thyroid hormone. Among those who study the condition, the question of whether NTIS is a protective adaptation of the organism to illness or a maladaptive response to a stressful insult remains unanswered. In either case, thyroid hormone abnormalities are likely to play a role in the critically ill patient.However, there is currently no convincing evidence to suggest that restoring physiological thyroid hormone concentrations in unselected patients with NTIS would be beneficial. PMID:20935602

  6. Thyroid Disease and the Heart.

    PubMed

    Klein, Irwin; Danzi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have an intimate relationship with cardiac function. Some of the most significant clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are the cardiac manifestations. In both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, the characteristic physiological effects of thyroid hormone can be understood from the actions at the molecular and cellular level. Here we explore topics from the metabolism and cellular effects of thyroid hormone to special considerations related to statin and amiodarone therapy for the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany heart disease. PMID:26792255

  7. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  8. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  9. Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β (TRβ) Mediates Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Expression in Thyroid Cancer Cells: A Novel Signaling Pathway in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Carr, Frances E; Tai, Phillip W L; Barnum, Michael S; Gillis, Noelle E; Evans, Katherine G; Taber, Thomas H; White, Jeffrey H; Tomczak, Jennifer A; Jaworski, Diane M; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)β is common in human cancers. Restoration of functional TRβ delays tumor progression in models of thyroid and breast cancers implicating TRβ as a tumor suppressor. Conversely, aberrant expression of the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is established in the progression and metastasis of thyroid, breast, and other cancers. Silencing of Runx2 diminishes tumor invasive characteristics. With TRβ as a tumor suppressor and Runx2 as a tumor promoter, a compelling question is whether there is a functional relationship between these regulatory factors in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that these proteins are reciprocally expressed in normal and malignant thyroid cells; TRβ is high in normal cells, and Runx2 is high in malignant cells. T3 induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Runx2 expression. Silencing of TRβ by small interfering RNA knockdown resulted in a corresponding increase in Runx2 and Runx2-regulated genes, indicating that TRβ levels directly impact Runx2 expression and associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition molecules. TRβ specifically bound to 3 putative thyroid hormone-response element motifs within the Runx2-P1 promoter ((-)105/(+)133) as detected by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation. TRβ suppressed Runx2 transcriptional activities, thus confirming TRβ regulation of Runx2 at functional thyroid hormone-response elements. Significantly, these findings indicate that a ratio of the tumor-suppressor TRβ and tumor-promoting Runx2 may reflect tumor aggression and serve as biomarkers in biopsy tissues. The discovery of this TRβ-Runx2 signaling supports the emerging role of TRβ as a tumor suppressor and reveals a novel pathway for intervention. PMID:27253998

  10. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  11. Atrophic thyroid follicles and inner ear defects reminiscent of cochlear hypothyroidism in Slc26a4-related deafness.

    PubMed

    Dror, Amiel A; Lenz, Danielle R; Shivatzki, Shaked; Cohen, Keren; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for inner ear development and is required for auditory system maturation. Human mutations in SLC26A4 lead to a syndromic form of deafness with enlargement of the thyroid gland (Pendred syndrome) and non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). We describe mice with an Slc26a4 mutation, Slc26a4 (loop/loop) , which are profoundly deaf but show a normal sized thyroid gland, mimicking non-syndromic clinical signs. Histological analysis of the thyroid gland revealed defective morphology, with a majority of atrophic microfollicles, while measurable thyroid hormone in blood serum was within the normal range. Characterization of the inner ear showed a spectrum of morphological and molecular defects consistent with inner ear pathology, as seen in hypothyroidism or disrupted thyroid hormone action. The pathological inner ear hallmarks included thicker tectorial membrane with reduced β-tectorin protein expression, the absence of BK channel expression of inner hair cells, and reduced inner ear bone calcification. Our study demonstrates that deafness in Slc26a4 (loop/loop) mice correlates with thyroid pathology, postulating that sub-clinical thyroid morphological defects may be present in some DFNB4 individuals with a normal sized thyroid gland. We propose that insufficient availability of thyroid hormone during inner ear development plays an important role in the mechanism underlying deafness as a result of SLC26A4 mutations. PMID:24760582

  12. Maternal-fetal thyroid hormone relationships and the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregon, M J; Escobar del Rey, F

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transferred from the mother to the fetus. Thus, despite the deiodinating enzymes of the placenta (26), some T4 and T3 is transferred, both before and after onset of fetal thyroid function, at least in those cases where fetal thyroid function is impaired. It is also possible that transfer occurs under normal conditions. Maternal to fetal transfer of T3 and T4 is partially limited. But it might be enough to mitigate severe fetal T4 and T3 deficiencies. However, the mitigating effects of both hormones are not equivalent for all fetal tissues. 1) Maternal T4 mitigates T4 and T3 deficiency of most fetal tissues, the brain included. 2) Maternal T3 mitigates T3 deficiency only in some fetal tissues, the brain being excluded. It does not mitigate cerebral T3 deficiency even at doses which are toxic for the mother, and it does not depress fetal plasma TSH. 3) Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. Maternal hypothyroxinemia is damaging to the developing fetal brain early in gestation. It might also later have adverse effects in gestation, if the fetal thyroid is impaired. Normal maternal T3 levels might avoid overt hypothyroidism of some fetal tissues, but is of no benefit to the brain. PMID:3176827

  13. Influence of thyroid hormones on maturation of rat cerebellar astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Jimena; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2007-05-01

    Thyroid hormone influences brain maturation through interaction with nuclear receptors and regulation of gene expression. Their role on astrocyte maturation remains unclear. We have analyzed the role of thyroid hormone in rat cerebellar astrocyte maturation by comparing the sequential patterns of intermediate filament expression in normal and hypothyroid animals. During normal development astroglial cells sequentially express nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Differentiated astrocytes appeared in the superior medullary vellum by postnatal day 2 and reached the white mater and internal granular layer by postnatal day 4. Intermediate filament marker expression was transiently lost from postnatal days 6 to 8 in anterior lobes, without an increased apoptosis. Vimentin expression was replaced by glial fibrillary acidic protein between postnatal days 10 and 32. The differentiated astrocytes were evenly distributed throughout the cerebellar slices, including the internal granular layer. Differences between normal and hypothyroid rats were observed starting from postnatal day 4, with lack of differentiated astrocytes in the internal granular layer. The transient decrease of astrocyte markers immunoreactivity in the anterior lobe did not take place in hypothyroid rats. The vimentin-glial fibrillary acidic protein transition was delayed and most differentiated astrocytes remained confined to the white matter. The results indicate that thyroid hormone deficiency induces a delay and a partial arrest of astrocyte differentiation. Astrocytes express thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta subtypes suggesting that astrocytes are direct target cells of thyroid hormones. PMID:17408906

  14. NM23 protein in neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Bertheau, P.; De La Rosa, A.; Steeg, P. S.; Merino, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nm23 gene products has been associated with a lower metastatic potential and better outcome in malignant tumors. We have used immunohistochemistry to study the expression of nm23 protein in thyroid tissues from 101 patients consisting of 78 malignant neoplasms, 13 adenomas, and 10 other benign conditions. Cytoplasmic staining for nm23 protein was identified in normal tissues and in most benign and malignant lesions and did not correlate with either histological type of clinical outcome. Nuclear staining was seen in 93% of normal tissues and in 29% of primary carcinomas of the thyroid and was associated with a longer disease-free survival (P = 0.03). Membranous staining was present in some tumors but absent in normal thyroid. In conclusion, nm23 protein has a combined pattern of distribution among subcellular compartments in thyroid tissues. Although there was no significant association between cytoplasmic or membranous expression and histological type of tumor or survival nm23 nuclear expression may be a useful marker in assessing the evolution of thyroid tumors. Images Figure 1 PMID:8030752

  15. An episode of silent thyroiditis in a patient with chronic thyroiditis and papillary adenocarcinoma following alpha interferon treatment for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Katabami, S; Kamijo, K; Kodama, T; Fujisawa, Y; Katanuma, A; Yachi, A

    1993-06-01

    In the present paper we described the first case report of silent thyroiditis following alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) treatment for chronic type C hepatitis in Japan. A 51-year-old woman with chronic type C hepatitis was treated with 6 million units of IFN-alpha three times a week for 24 weeks. Thyroid function was within normal limits and thyroid autoantibodies were negative before IFN therapy. Sixteen weeks after initiation of the treatment, she complained of increasing fatigue, palpitation and losing 7 kg in weight. Thyroid function tests at that time revealed an increase in serum T3, T4, free T3 and free T4 and a markedly suppressed TSH concentration. Both antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and antimicrosomal antibody (McAb) were positive in a dilution of 1: 400. The computed tomographic (CT) scan of the thyroid showed a decrease in the CT number (Hounsfield unit; H.U.) to 58 H.U. (normal, 95-167 H.U.). The 24-h thyroid uptake of 123I was 0.75%. Aspiration biopsy specimens from a nodule in the right lobe and the remaining struma disclosed papillary adenocarcinoma and Hashimoto thyroiditis, respectively. Thyroid function spontaneously returned to normal two months after the onset of thyrotoxicosis through the subclinical hypothyroid stage. After recovery of thyroid function, patient had an operation of papillary cancer without any complications. These clinical features and laboratory findings led to the diagnosis of silent thyroiditis developing in the course of the long-term IFN therapy, which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before in Japan. PMID:7920883

  16. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  17. UbcH10 overexpression may represent a marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, P; Berlingieri, M T; Troncone, G; Kruhoffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Viglietto, G; Caleo, A; Migliaccio, I; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Santoro, M; Palombini, L; Fusco, A

    2005-01-01

    The hybridisation of an Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 oligonucleotide array with RNAs extracted from six human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a normal human thyroid primary cell culture led us to the identification of the UbcH10 gene that was upregulated by 150-fold in all of the carcinoma cell lines in comparison to the primary culture cells of human normal thyroid origin. Immunohistochemical studies performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed abundant UbcH10 levels in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma samples, whereas no detectable UbcH10 expression was observed in normal thyroid tissues, in adenomas and goiters. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were only weakly positive. These results were further confirmed by RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. The block of UbcH10 protein synthesis induced by RNA interference significantly reduced the growth rate of thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, these results would indicate that UbcH10 overexpression is involved in thyroid cell proliferation, and may represent a marker of thyroid anaplastic carcinomas. PMID:16106252

  18. Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Preliminary In vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D.; Fazzio, Robert T.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, an overwhelming majority of biopsied thyroid nodules are benign. Therefore, there is a need for a complementary and noninvasive imaging tool to provide clinically relevant diagnostic information about thyroid nodules to reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) to measure the mechanical properties (i.e., stiffness) of thyroid nodules and use this information to help classify nodules as benign or malignant. CUSE is a fast and robust 2D shear elastography technique in which multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force beams are utilized simultaneously to produce shear waves. Unlike other shear elasticity imaging modalities, CUSE does not suffer from limited field of view (FOV) due to shear wave attenuation and can provide a large FOV at high frame rates. To evaluate the utility of CUSE in thyroid imaging, a preliminary study was performed on a group of 5 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with ultrasound (US)-detected thyroid nodules prior to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The measured shear wave speeds in normal thyroid tissue and thyroid nodules were converted to Young's modulus (E), indicating a measure of tissue stiffness. Our results indicate an increase in E for thyroid nodules compared to normal thyroid tissue. This increase was significantly higher in malignant nodules compared to benign. The Young's modulus in normal thyroid tissue, benign and malignant nodules were found to be 23.2±8.29 kPa, 91.2±34.8 kPa, and 173.0±17.1 kPa, respectively. Results of this study suggest the utility of CUSE in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:25122532

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuanfang; Li, Chao; Lin, Duo; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Yu, Yun; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level.

  20. Effect of thyroid stimulating hormone on adaptive behaviour in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, S; Collacott, R A; Garrick, P; Mitchell, C

    1991-12-01

    Patients with Down's syndrome are particularly vulnerable to the development of both hypothyroidism and Alzheimer's disease. Both hypothyroidism and Alzheimer's disease may be associated with elevated serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone. In a group of institutionalized Down's syndrome patients with normal thyroid function, global scores of ability were higher than in a group of patients with elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels in the presence of normal T3 and T4. The actual concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone were shown to be significantly and inversely correlated with scores of global abilities. If these findings are reproducible, the authors believe that thyroid stimulating hormone estimation may provide confirmatory evidence of clinical dementia in this group of mentally handicapped individuals. PMID:1839315

  1. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  2. Cancer of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 64,300 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,980 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 637,115 people living with thyroid cancer in ...

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  4. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  5. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for a mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the baby gets iodine from the mother’s diet. Women need more iodine when they are pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day. In the United States, about 7 percent of pregnant women may not ...

  6. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  7. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  8. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  9. Fuzzy and hard clustering analysis for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ahmad Taher; El-Said, Shaimaa Ahmed; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland help regulation of the body's metabolism. A variety of methods have been proposed in the literature for thyroid disease classification. As far as we know, clustering techniques have not been used in thyroid diseases data set so far. This paper proposes a comparison between hard and fuzzy clustering algorithms for thyroid diseases data set in order to find the optimal number of clusters. Different scalar validity measures are used in comparing the performances of the proposed clustering systems. To demonstrate the performance of each algorithm, the feature values that represent thyroid disease are used as input for the system. Several runs are carried out and recorded with a different number of clusters being specified for each run (between 2 and 11), so as to establish the optimum number of clusters. To find the optimal number of clusters, the so-called elbow criterion is applied. The experimental results revealed that for all algorithms, the elbow was located at c=3. The clustering results for all algorithms are then visualized by the Sammon mapping method to find a low-dimensional (normally 2D or 3D) representation of a set of points distributed in a high dimensional pattern space. At the end of this study, some recommendations are formulated to improve determining the actual number of clusters present in the data set. PMID:23357404

  10. Correlation of Thyroid Functions with Severity and Outcome of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, S; Sardana, D; Nanda, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: During normal pregnancy, changes in thyroid function are well documented; however, information regarding thyroid function in preeclampsia is scanty. Aim: The present study was planned to study thyroid hormones in mild and severe preeclamptic women and normotensive women and correlate them with outcome of pregnancy. Subject and Methods: Thyroid hormones were analyzed in mild (n = 50) and severe (n = 50) cases of preeclamptic women and normotensive women (n = 100). Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TT4 levels were higher in mild preeclampsia as compared with severe preeclampsia (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). TT3 levels were lower in preeclampsia (more so in severe preeclamptics as compared with normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women). Preeclamptic with raised TSH levels had significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and low birth weight (BW). A negative correlation was observed between BW and TSH levels (r = 0.296, P < 0.001) and BW and TT4 levels. A positive correlation was observed between BW and TT3 levels. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there is a state of biochemical hypothyroidism that correlates with severity of preeclampsia and influences obstetric outcome in these women. Identification of thyroid hormone in pregnancy might be of help in predicting occurrence of preeclampsia. PMID:23634328

  11. Computational Modeling of Thyroid Hormone Regulated Neurodevelopment for Chemical Prioritization (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal brain development. Environmental chemicals may disrupt TH homeostasis through a variety of physiological systems including membrane transporters, serum transporters, synthesis and catabolic enzymes, and nuclear receptors. Current comp...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  16. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  17. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  18. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  19. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K.; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (<83 nmol/L) with high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (>22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations. PMID:27042409

  20. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  1. Uptake of I-131 MIBG by medullary thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Kasagi, K.; Konishi, J.; Miyauchi, A.; Kuma, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-05-01

    I-131 MIBG scans are useful for the localization of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with high catecholamine levels. Recently the authors have found that medullary thyroid cancer also showed an uptake of I-131 MIBG in both primary neck tumors and metastatic sites. Up to now scintigraphic studies were performed in 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy was done at 24 and 48 hours after the administration of 0.5 mCi of I-131 MIBG, thyroid uptake of dissociated I-131 being prevented by Lugol's solution. Four out of 5 cases were familial type and uptake of I-131 MIBG was similarly observed in medullary thyroid cancer as well as in pheochromocytoma. Bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer was also detected with I-131 MIBG. However, one case of sporadic form was negative with I-131 MIBG, whereas there was a high uptake of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: a newly developed radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid cancer, visualizing a different uptake mechanism of both reagents (J Nucl Med 25: 323-325, 1984). After adrenalectomy high uptake of I-131 MIBG was still observed in medullary thyroid cancer, in spite of normal catecholamine levels. The tumor to blood ratio was estimated in vivo to be about several hundreds at 24 hours after the administration. These cells are of neural crest origin and the mechanism of uptake of I-131 MIBG may not be related to the catechamine uptake mechanism. This paper concludes that I-131 MIBG is useful not only for the localization but also for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, as preliminary performed in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.

  2. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  3. The Effect of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone on Tumor Size in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, I A; Gurbuz, B; Bayraktar, B; Aslan, S; Başkent, A; Yalman, H; Yigitbasi, R; Alimoglu, O

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and tumor size and other invasiveness parameters of tumor in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Several clinical studies have reported that TSH may also have a role as a regulator of the development and function of the thyroid gland. It is currently not clear whether TSH is involved in the existence of thyroid cancer or progression of thyroid cancer or both. Patients with DTC who underwent thyroid surgery between 2003 and 2008 were included this study. Preoperative serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were compared with the size and invasiveness of cancer, retrospectively. DTC was observed in 110 patients over the 5-year period. Seventy-seven (70 %) of them were euthyroid and classified as the "normal-TSH group" (NTG), and 33 (30 %) have an overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism, classified as the "low-TSH group" (LTG). The mean tumor diameter in the LTG was found to be 8.91 ± 8.03 mm; however, it was found to be 18.19 ± 16.24 mm in the NTG. There were significantly differences among the groups related to the diameter of tumor (p = 0.001). Microcarcinoma was determined in 36 patients (46.8 %) in the NTG and 23 patients (69.7 %) in the LTG (p = 0.027). Although there were no significant differences, tumor capsule invasion (33.8 vs. 18.2 %, p = 0.099) and lymphovascular invasion (16.9 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.130) rates were higher in the NTG. These findings suggest that TSH has effects on growing and proliferation of not only normal thyroid cells but also cancer cells in DTC. This study revealed that serum TSH level can be explored as an important factor that affects the size and invasiveness of tumor in DTC. PMID:27011492

  4. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  6. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... under your shoulders and your neck extended. The biopsy site is cleaned. A thin needle is inserted ...

  7. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  8. The effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity in non-lactating women with postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Kowalcze, K; Okopien, B

    2016-05-01

    The study included 38 non-lactating l-thyroxine-treated women with postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) and 21 matched healthy postpartum women. Women with vitamin D deficiency were treated with oral vitamin D (4000 IU daily), whereas women with vitamin D insufficiency and women with normal 25-hydroxy vitamin levels were either treated with vitamin D (2000 IU daily) or left untreated. Serum hormone levels and thyroid antibody titers were measured at the beginning of the study and 3 months later. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in women with PPT than in healthy women. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody titers inversely correlated with vitamin D status. Apart from increasing serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and decreasing serum levels of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D reduced titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and this effect was stronger in women with vitamin D deficiency. The study's results suggest that vitamin D supplementation may bring benefits to l-thyroxine-treated women with PPT. PMID:26757834

  9. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  10. Iodotyrosine deiodinase, a novel target of environmental halogenated chemicals for disruption of the thyroid hormone system in mammals.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals have been identified as environmental contaminants with activity to disrupt normal function of the thyroid hormone system. Thyroid hormones play important roles in growth, development, differentiation, and basal metabolic homeostasis, as well as in brain development in human fetus and children, and thyroid dysfunction can have very serious consequences, including mental retardation. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid hormone action in multiple ways, including reduced thyroid hormone synthesis owing to direct toxicity at the thyroid gland, interaction with thyroid hormone receptors and transporters such as transthyretin, and disturbance of thyroid hormone metabolism (e.g., glucuronidation, sulfation and deiodination). In addition, iodotyrosine deiodinase, which is involved in iodide salvage by catalyzing deiodination of iodinated by-products of thyroid hormone production, was recently identified as a possible new target for disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis by environmental halogenated chemicals. This topic, after briefly summarizing findings on the thyroid hormone-disrupting action of environmental chemicals in mammals, focuses on the effects of environmental halogenated chemicals on iodotyrosine deiodinase activity. PMID:25177024

  11. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  12. Expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and its phosphorylated form is significantly upregulated in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, LI; LI, LI; LI, QINGHUAI; DI, WANG; SHEN, WEI; ZHANG, LINLEI; GUO, HAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in tissues of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in comparison with the expression in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of STAT3, pSTAT3, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) was examined in tissues of 42 cases of PTC and the adjacent normal tissues of 20 of the 42 PTC cases using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The association between the expression levels and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. The expression of STAT3, pSTAT3, FGF2 and VEGF-C in the PTC tissues (76.2, 42.9, 81.0 and 73.8%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the normal tissues (P<0.05). In the PTC tissues, the expression of STAT3 was linearly correlated with the levels of pSTAT3 and VEGF-C (P<0.05). In conclusion, STAT3 and pSTAT3 are significantly upregulated in PTC tissues, and may potentially be used as markers to screen for PTC with lymph node metastasis. PMID:26136959

  13. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  14. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  15. Circulating activated T cell subsets in autoimmune thyroid diseases: differences between untreated and treated patients.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, H; Okugawa, T; Itoh, M

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the relationships between lymphocyte subsets and thyroid function, peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed with cell surface antigens of activated (HLA-DR+) T, helper T (CD4+ 2H4-, CD4+ 4B4+) and suppressor-inducer T (CD4+ 2H4+, CD4+ 4B4-) cells subsets in 56 patients with Graves' disease, 16 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 7 patients with typical subacute thyroiditis and 2 patients with the thyrotoxic phase of autoimmune thyroiditis. Both patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis had increased percentages of HLA-DR+ T (Ia+ CD3+) cells as well as HLA-DR+ helper-inducer T (Ia+ CD4+) cells, which seemed to be independent of treatments. The percentage of HLA-DR+ suppressor-cytotoxic T (Ia+ CD8+) cells was increased in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients with Graves' disease following treatment, but was normal in hyperthyroid patients. The percentages of Ia+ CD4+ cells and Ia+ CD8+ were also increased in patients with thyroiditis, whereas these abnormal values normalized in the remission phase. These findings suggest that an increase in Ia+ CD4+ cells characteristically occurs during immune system activation in patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis, whereas the activated CD8+ cells in Graves' disease are induced by antithyroidal therapy. PMID:1684685

  16. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  17. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  18. Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimifar, Mozhgan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Amini, Masoud; Mirfendereski, Taghi; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat; Norozi, Atsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR). IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43) and placebo (n = 46) treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study. Results: Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml) and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml) ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01). Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03). In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed) nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01). Conclusion: In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume. PMID:25657744

  19. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  20. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon's natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvantages are longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy, as well as potential injuries to the brachial plexus, skin flap, esophagus, and trachea. Large-scale studies, mainly from South-Korea, have proved that in skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications. PMID:26425452

  1. Robotic facelift thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bomeli, Steven R.; Duke, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for thyroid surgery have advanced dramatically over the past two decades, driven by a better understanding of thyroid physiology, anatomy, and perioperative management strategies. Improvements in surgical technology have permitted surgeons to perform minimally invasive surgery associated with less dissection, decreased pain, smaller anterior cervical incisions, and most importantly a faster recovery. The advent of robotic surgical technology has allowed the development of remote access thyroidectomy for select patients who wish to avoid a visible cervical incision completely. The robotic facelift thyroidectomy (RFT) approach also offers the advantage of outpatient surgery without the need for postoperative drainage. A growing body of evidence supports the safety and efficacy of the approach, and as a result the technique is now being performed at several centers around the world. PMID:26425453

  2. Thyroid Cancer in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Machac, Josef

    2016-06-01

    Well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in children is characterized by a high rate of response to treatment and low disease-specific mortality. Treatment of children with DTC has evolved toward a greater reliance on evaluation and monitoring with serial serum thyroglobulin measurements and ultrasound examinations. Radioiodine therapy is recommended for thyroid remnant ablation in high-risk patients, treatment of demonstrated radioiodine-avid local-regional disease not amenable to surgical resection, or distant radioiodine-avid metastatic disease. Sufficient time should be given for benefits of radioiodine therapy to be realized, with follow-up monitoring. Re-treatment with radioiodine can be deferred until progression of significant disease manifests. PMID:27241970

  3. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26907966

  4. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine. PMID:23209797

  5. Incidental thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: considerations before determining management.

    PubMed

    Tufano, Ralph P; Noureldine, Salem I; Angelos, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The worldwide incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing substantially, almost exclusively attributable to small papillary thyroid cancers. Increased use of diagnostic imaging is considered the most likely explanation for this reported rise, but other factors may also be contributing. The increase in health care expenditures related to managing these presumably low-risk cancers, without a clear patient benefit, has resulted in a backlash against the early detection of thyroid cancer. Currently, there is no way to confidently predict which incidentally detected thyroid nodule may be the precursor to a more aggressive process. Predictions such as these would require more accurate characterization of the biology of individual thyroid cancers than is currently possible. With time, we might prove our ability to confidently differentiate low-risk from high-risk thyroid cancers, but until that happens, routine screening for thyroid cancer by imaging billed as a "health checkup" should not be performed. However, incidentally detected thyroid nodules should be reported, and a clear medical team management plan should be developed. Our ethical responsibility is to provide patients with objective, evidence-based information about their disease status, not to assume that we know what is best for them by selectively withholding information. In addition, providing patients with psychosocial assistance will help them process the information necessary to make informed decisions that will provide them with the most value when a small thyroid nodule or cancer is incidentally identified. Herein, we summarize the epidemiological data for disease incidence, discuss some controversies in disease management, and outline the key elements and ethical considerations of informed decision making as they apply to managing incidentally detected thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. PMID:25928353

  6. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  7. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  8. Thyroid hormones and postembryonic development in amniotes.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Guillaume; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In chordates, metamorphosis is a developmental event well described in amphibians in which thyroid hormone triggers this event. Interestingly, among amphibians, several variations upon the eggs/tadpole/frog developmental sequence are observed such as direct development or neoteny. The fact that TH-regulated metamorphosis is conserved in invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus implies that this event is an ancient feature of all vertebrates. This allows us to propose that TH may play an important role in coordinating the postembryonic development of apparently nonmetamorphosing vertebrates such as mammals or sauropsids. Indeed, the observations of thyroid hormone levels in mammals and sauropsids draw interesting parallels with what is observed during amphibian metamorphosis. At the physiological level, the increase of thyroid hormone signaling is required for the normal development particularly for the intestine and the brain. At the behavioral level, a peak of TH often precedes the autonomy of the young from parental care. At the ecological level, offspring with a TH peak close to birth/hatching tends to be precocial young whereas offspring with a TH peak long after birth/hatching tends to be altricial young. Taken together, these observations in amniotes, which are not considered as undergoing metamorphosis during their development, are consistent with the idea of a late developmental step controlled by TH and allowing the accession to the adult ecological niche. Thus, according to this view, at the molecular level all vertebrates undergo a period of remodeling controlled by TH that is reminiscent of metamorphosis. PMID:23347527

  9. THE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORTER, MCT8, SELECTIVELY RESPONDS TO THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY IN THE DEVELOPMENT RAT BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is not surprising that a variety of adaptive mechanisms are activated in response to TH insufficiency. However, not all brain regions respond in the same fashion to TH insufficiency. This observation...

  10. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment. PMID:23814203

  11. Thyroid associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Rajat; Weis, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves' orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22446901

  12. Selenium and its relationship with selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Chahardoli, Behnam; Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Nourbakhsh, Mona; Hosseini-Fard, Seyed Reza; Doustimotlagh, Amirhossein; Golestani, Abolfazl; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine and are responsible for biological functions of selenium. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the major selenoproteins which protects the thyroid cells from oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P (SePP) is considered as the plasma selenium transporter to tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se and SePP levels, and GPx activity in erythrocytes of children and adolescents with treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from 32 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 with hypothyroidism, and 25 matched normal subjects. All the patients were under treatment with levothyroxine and at the time of analysis all of the thyroid function tests were normal. GPx enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at 340 nm. Serum selenium levels were measured by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption. SePP, TPOAb (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody), and TgAb (anti-thyroglobulin antibody) were determined by ELISA kits. T4, T3, T3 uptake and TSH were also measured. Neither GPx activity nor SePP levels were significantly different in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism compared to normal subjects. Although GPx and SePP were both lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal subjects but the difference was not significant. Serum Se levels also did not differ significantly in patients and normal subjects. We did not find any correlation between GPx or SePP with TPOAb or TgAb but SePP was significantly correlated with Se. Results show that in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism who have been under treatment with levothyroxine and have normal thyroid function tests, the GPx, SePP and Se levels are not significantly different. PMID:26854239

  13. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Imaging.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Stefan; Raue, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in early detection and staging of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as well as in follow-up to localize early recurrence. MTC is a rare, calcitonin-secreting thyroid malignancy often diagnosed by ultrasound and calcitonin screening as part of the routine workup for any thyroid nodule. If calcitonin is elevated, imaging studies are needed for preoperative staging, which dictates surgical management. This can be done by ultrasound of the neck and abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies for more distant disease are done preoperatively if calcitonin levels are higher than 500 pg/ml. Neither FDG-PET/CT nor F-DOPA-PET/CT are used routinely for preoperative staging but may contribute in doubtful individual cases. Postoperative elevated calcitonin is related to persistence or recurrence of MTC. Imaging studies to localize tumor tissue during postoperative follow-up include ultrasound, CT, MRI as well as PET studies. They should be used wisely, however, since treatment consequences are often limited, and even patients with persistent disease may survive long enough to accumulate significant radiation doses. Imaging studies are also useful for diagnosis of associated components of the hereditary MTC such as pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). PMID:26494385

  14. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective. PMID:27014708

  15. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-12-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases.

  16. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  17. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  18. Subacute thyroiditis presenting as acute psychosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Ae; Park, Kyung Taek; Yu, Hea Min; Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2013-03-01

    We describe herein an unusual case of subacute thyroiditis presenting as acute psychosis. An 18-year-old male presented at the emergency department due to abnormal behavior, psychomotor agitation, sexual hyperactivity, and a paranoid mental state. Laboratory findings included an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 36 mm/hr (normal range, 0 to 9), free T4 of 100.0 pmol/L (normal range, 11.5 to 22.7), and thyroid stimulating hormone of 0.018 mU/L (normal range, 0.35 to 5.5). A technetium-99m pertechnetate scan revealed homogeneously reduced activity in the thyroid gland. These results were compatible with subacute thyroiditis, and symptomatic conservative management was initiated. The patient's behavioral abnormalities and painful neck swelling gradually resolved and his thyroid function steadily recovered. Although a primary psychotic disorder should be strongly considered in the differential diagnosis, patients with an abrupt and unusual onset of psychotic symptoms should be screened for thyroid abnormalities. Furthermore, transient thyroiditis should be considered a possible underlying etiology, along with primary hyperthyroidism. PMID:23526704

  19. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with <4 μm axial resolution (OCT and OCM), and 14 μm (OCT) and <2 μm (OCM) transverse resolution. The system allows seamless switching between low and high magnifications in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence is observed between optical images and histological sections. Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  20. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Malignant Tumor with Increased Antioxidant Defense Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rovcanin, Branislav R; Gopcevic, Kristina R; Kekic, Dusan Lj; Zivaljevic, Vladan R; Diklic, Aleksandar Dj; Paunovic, Ivan R

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy worldwide for which the radiation exposure is the most influential risk factor. The levels of oxidative stress in PTC are not well characterized on the tissue level. The objective of this study was to evaluate total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in PTC and benign goiter (BG) tissues and to examine their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Tumor and normal thyroid tissue samples were collected from 59 PTC patients, and goiter tissues were collected from 50 BG patients. TOS and TAS were quantified in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometric assays. TOS values in tumor tissues did not differ significantly from normal and goiter tissues; however, PTC tissues have significantly higher TAS values than normal and goiter tissues. TOS values correlated with retrosternal growth in BG patients. The significant correlations were found between TOS and TAS values and thyroid function parameters. In 17 PTC patients with multiple tumor foci (multicentric phenotype), TAS values were significantly lower, compared to 42 patients with unicentric PTC. TAS and TOS are the most useful predictors of thyroid capsular invasion by PTC. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking, familial history of thyroid disease and nodule size did not influence TOS and TAS in PTC or BG patients. In conclusion, we show the profiles of TOS and TAS in PTC and BG tissues. Importantly, PTC tissues possess increased antioxidant capacity. The redox status influences the parameters of the thyroid function and tumor's biological behavior. PMID:27615359

  1. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Ferlito, Marcella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Iwama, Shintaro; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Ladenson, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of low, moderate, or high severity, in 88 CBA/J female mice: 43 drank anatabine supplemented water and 45 regular water. Mice were bled after immunization and killed to assess thyroid histopathology, thyroglobulin antibodies, T(4), and thyroid RNA expression of 84 inflammatory genes. We also stimulated in vitro a macrophage cell line with interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide plus or minus anatabine to quantitate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Anatabine reduced the incidence and severity of thyroiditis in the moderate disease category: only 13 of 21 mice (62%) developed thyroid infiltrates when drinking anatabine as compared with 22 of 23 (96%) controls (relative risk 0.59, P = 0.0174). The median thyroiditis severity was 0.5 and 2.0 in anatabine and controls, respectively (P = 0.0007 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Anatabine also reduced the antibody response to thyroglobulin on d 14 (P = 0.029) and d 21 (P = 0.045) after immunization and improved the recovery of thyroid function on d 21 (P = 0.049). In the thyroid transcriptome, anatabine restored expression of IL-18 and IL-1 receptor type 2 to preimmunization levels. Finally, anatabine suppressed in a dose-dependent manner macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Anatabine ameliorates disease in a model of autoimmune thyroiditis, making the delineation of its mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility worthwhile. PMID:22807490

  2. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONG YAN; LIU, WEI YAN; ZHU, HUI; JIANG, DAO WEN; WANG, DONG HUA; CHEN, YONGQI; LI, WEIHUA; PAN, GAOFENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the value and characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). By analyzing CEUS information of 130 nodules obtained from 106 patients with PTMC, who had been diagnosed by surgery and pathological analysis, CEUS characteristics of PTMC nodules were concluded. Based on the results, the PTMC nodules were divided into three groups as follows: 32 nodules (24.62%) were found to be enhanced earlier than the surrounding normal thyroid tissue, 95 nodules (73.08%) were enhanced at the same time as the normal thyroid tissue and 3 nodules (2.30%) were enhanced later than the normal thyroid tissue. The results also demonstrated that the peak enhancement intensity of the 130 nodules was lower compared with the irregular intensity of the normal parenchyma in corresponding thyroids, and that PTMC enhancement washed out faster than in normal thyroid parenchyma. In conclusion, the PTMC characteristics that CEUS can detect may improve the diagnostic accuracy and provide valuable information for the treatment of the disease. PMID:27168773

  3. Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Victoria Sy; Fang, Victor S.; Katz, Adrian I.; Refetoff, Samuel

    1977-01-01

    Thyroid function was evaluated in 46 patients with end-stage kidney disease and 42 normal subjects. Patients were studied before and after the institution of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and after renal transplantation (RT). Serum total triiodothyronine concentrations (TT3, ng/100 ml, mean±SD) were 63±17 and 83±22 in the non-HD and HD groups, respectively. Values from normal subjects were 128±25 and from RT patients 134±20. The TT3 was in the hypothyroid range (<78 ng/100 ml; 2 SD below normal mean) in 80% of non-HD and 43% of HD patients. Mean serum total thyroxine concentration (TT4), although within the normal range, was lower than the control value. T4-binding globulin capacity was also slightly lower but the difference was not statistically significant. Among patients whose TT4 was 1 SD below the normal mean, the free T4 index was equally depressed, suggesting that factors other than decreased binding capacity might be responsible for the low TT4. In addition, there was a 37% incidence of goiter. Mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was not elevated and the TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was distinctly blunted, suggesting the possibility of pituitary dysfunction as well. In vivo 125I-l-T4 and 131I-l-T3 kinetics during 0.2 mg/day of l-T4 replacement showed marked reduction in T3 turnover rate in the uremic patients, both before and during HD; the values (μg T3/day, mean±SD) for the different groups were as follows: normal, 33.8±6.1; non-HD, 13.5±2.6; HD, 12.9±3.1; and RT, 30.3±7.1. The low T3 turnover rate was due to impaired extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. The mean percent±SD of metabolized T4 converted to T3 was 37.2±5.8 in normal subjects, 15.7±3.1 in non-HD, 12.8±1.7 in HD, and 34.0±14.7 in RT patients. In contrast, thyroidal T3 secretion rate was not different between the control and the three patient groups. Thus, it appears that uremia affects thyroid function at several levels: (a) subnormal pituitary

  4. A Case of Painful Hashimoto Thyroiditis that Mimicked Subacute Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hye Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Jaeseok; Kim, Jo-Heon; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Dae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that usually presents as a diffuse, nontender goiter, whereas subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by tender thyroid enlargement, transient thyrotoxicosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Very rarely, patients with HT can present with painful, tender goiter or fever, a mimic of SAT. We report a case of painful HT in a 68-year-old woman who presented with pain and tenderness in a chronic goiter. Her ESR was definitely elevated and her thyroid laboratory tests suggested subclinical hypothyroidism of autoimmune origin. (99m)Tc pertechnetate uptake was markedly decreased. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed reactive and polymorphous lymphoid cells and occasional epithelial cells with Hürthle cell changes. Her clinical symptoms showed a dramatic response to glucocorticoid treatment. She became hypothyroid finally and is now on levothyroxine therapy. PMID:22570820

  5. Differential Expression of Aquaporins and Its Diagnostic Utility in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dongfeng; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kato, Yohichiro; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporin3 (AQP3) and Aquaporin4 (AQP4) play a major role in transcellular and transepithelial water movement as water channel membrane proteins. Little is known of their expression and significance in human thyroid tissues. Thus, we examined the expression of AQP3 and AQP4 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroid tissues in conjunction with human thyroid cancer cell lines. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated AQP3 in the cytoplasmic membrane of normal C cells, but not in follicular cells. In contrast, AQP4 was not found in C cells but was identified in normal follicular cells. AQP4 was positive in 92% of Graves’ disease thyroids and 97% of multinodular goiters, and we failed to demonstrate AQP3 in these hyperplastic tissues. In neoplastic thyroid lesions, we observed AQP3 in 91% of medullary thyroid carcinomas but in no other follicular cell tumors. AQP4 was demonstrated in 100% of follicular adenomas, 90% of follicular carcinomas, and 85% of papillary carcinomas, while it was negative in all medullary carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed AQP3 mRNA expression only in medullary carcinomas and AQP4 mRNA expression in follicular cell-derived tumors except for undifferentiated carcinomas. In thyroid cancer cell lines, using RT-PCR and western blotting, AQP3 mRNA and protein were only identified in the TT cell line (human medullary carcinoma cell line) and AQP4 in the other cell lines. In addition, AQP3 mRNA expression was up-regulated by FBS and calcium administration in both a dose and time dependent manner in TT cells. Conclusion The differential expressions of AQP3 and AQP4 may reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and additionally may have value in determining differential diagnoses of thyroid tumors. PMID:22808259

  6. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  7. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

  8. Parathyroid Adenoma Completely Impacted within the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mirhosaini, Sayed Mahmoud; Amani, Soroush; Fereidani, Rana

    2016-06-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenoma can be seen in various locations. Sometimes ultrasound and even fine needle aspiration studies cannot distinguish this lesion from thyroid lesions. A 29-year-old woman with a prominent nodule of left thyroid lobe was referred to surgical department. Thyroid function test were normal. She had no family history of parathyroid disease, other endocrine disease, and any other malignancies and had received no radiation. Ultrasonography revealed a solid and hypoechoic mass, 25x20 mm in size, with a regular shape and contour without calcification in the inferior of left lobe of the thyroid gland. For definite diagnosis, immunohistochemistry study of the lesion with three markers was done. Finally, PTH marker was positive in cytoplasms of cells so parathyroid adenoma was confirmed. Fine needle aspiration of the nodule was suspicious for follicular neoplasm; however, postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a parathyroid adenoma. Ultrasonography may be helpful to identify localized thyroid lesions especially in parathyroid adenoma. PMID:27504318

  9. Parathyroid Adenoma Completely Impacted within the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosaini, Sayed Mahmoud; Fereidani, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenoma can be seen in various locations. Sometimes ultrasound and even fine needle aspiration studies cannot distinguish this lesion from thyroid lesions. A 29-year-old woman with a prominent nodule of left thyroid lobe was referred to surgical department. Thyroid function test were normal. She had no family history of parathyroid disease, other endocrine disease, and any other malignancies and had received no radiation. Ultrasonography revealed a solid and hypoechoic mass, 25x20 mm in size, with a regular shape and contour without calcification in the inferior of left lobe of the thyroid gland. For definite diagnosis, immunohistochemistry study of the lesion with three markers was done. Finally, PTH marker was positive in cytoplasms of cells so parathyroid adenoma was confirmed. Fine needle aspiration of the nodule was suspicious for follicular neoplasm; however, postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a parathyroid adenoma. Ultrasonography may be helpful to identify localized thyroid lesions especially in parathyroid adenoma. PMID:27504318

  10. The immune system as a regulator of thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed

    Klein, John R

    2006-03-01

    It has been known for decades that the neuroendocrine system can both directly and indirectly influence the developmental and functional activity of the immune system. In contrast, far less is known about the extent to which the immune system collaborates in the regulation of endocrine activity. This is particularly true for immune-endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Although thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) can be produced by many types of extra-pituitary cells--including T cells, B cells, splenic dendritic cells, bone marrow hematopoietic cells, intestinal epithelial cells, and lymphocytes--the functional significance of those TSH pathways remains elusive and historically has been largely ignored from a research perspective. There is now, however, evidence linking cells of the immune system to the regulation of thyroid hormone activity in normal physiological conditions as well as during times of immunological stress. Although the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood, they appear to reflect a process of local intrathyroidal synthesis of TSH mediated by a population of bone marrow cells that traffic to the thyroid. This hitherto undescribed cell population has the potential to microregulate thyroid hormone secretion leading to critical alterations in metabolic activity independent of pituitary TSH output, and it has expansive implications for understanding mechanisms by which the immune system may act to modulate neuroendocrine function during times of host stress. In this article, the basic underpinnings of the hematopoietic-thyroid connection are described, and a model is presented in which the immune system participates in the regulation of thyroid hormone activity during acute infection. PMID:16514168

  11. Endocrinopathies. Thyroid and adrenal disorders.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1997-11-01

    This article focuses on common adrenal and thyroid diseases in the geriatric patient consisting of hypothyroidism in the dog, hyperthyroidism in the cat, and hyperadrenocorticism in the dog to include clinical signs, diagnosis, and management. A brief section on hyperadrenocorticism in the cat, thyroid tumors in the dog, and pheochromocytoma in the dog and cat are also included. PMID:9348631

  12. SUPPORT FOR NCRP THYROID STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) conducted an assessment of risks from radiation exposure of the thyroid. NCRP published the report “Risk to the Thyroid from Ionizing Radiation”, 159, in 2008. It is anticipated that results from this report ...

  13. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  14. Visualisation of thyroid hormone synthesis by ion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audinot, J. N.; Senou, M.; Migeon, H.-N.; Many, M.-C.

    2008-12-01

    The main function of the thyroid gland is to make hormones, T4 and T3, which are essential for the regulation of metabolic processes throughout the body. Caveolae harbour is the key enzymes involved in this iodide organification. The analyses of thyroids from normal mice and caveolin-1 Knockout mice (mice deficient in caveolin) have been performed using the SIMS imaging. In the thyroid of control mice, the epithelium is homogeneous and iodine ( 127I) is observed in the follicle lumen. In Knockout mice, we observe an accumulation of intracellular vesicles and apoptotic nuclei resulting from oxidative stress due to H 2O 2 overproduction also inducing apical lesions of the thyrocytes, at the site of iodine organification and H 2O 2 generation. We also observe in the Knockout mice an accumulation of 127I in the cellular cytoplasm and an absence of the iodine in some follicular lumina, indicating a problem at the level of iodine organification.

  15. Neonatal detection of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Balzano, S.; Scherberg, N.H.; Refetoff, S. )

    1990-11-07

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is an inherited disease that is usually suspected when elevated serum thyroid hormone levels are associated with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. Often these test results are obtained because of short stature, decreased intelligence, and/or hyperactivity with learning disability noted in childhood and adolescence, or because of goiter in adulthood. The authors detected GRTH at birth by analysis of blood obtained during routine neonatal screening. The proposita, born to a mother with GRTH, had a thyrotropin level of 26 mU/L and a corresponding thyroxine concentration of 656 nmol/L. Administration of thyroid hormone in doses eightfold to 10-fold above replacement levels were required to reduce serum thyrotropin to normal levels without induction of hypermetabolism. This case, and the retrospective finding of high thyroxine levels in five newborns subsequently diagnosed as having GRTH, suggest that measurement of thyroxine at birth, in conjunction with thyrotropin, could allow the early detection of GRTH.

  16. Genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Manju A; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Normal thyroid metabolism is essential for human development, including the formation and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Disorders of thyroid metabolism are increasingly recognized within the spectrum of paediatric neurological disorders. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid disease states (resulting from genetic and acquired aetiologies) can lead to characteristic neurological syndromes, with cognitive delay, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and neuromuscular manifestations. In this review, the neurological manifestations of genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism are outlined, with particular focus on Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and benign hereditary chorea. We report in detail the clinical features, major neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations, molecular genetic findings, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies for these emerging genetic ‘brain-thyroid’ disorders. PMID:24665922

  17. Clinical Significance of Thyrotrophin Binding Inhibitor Immunoglobulins in Patients with Graves’ Disease and Various Types of Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong Suk; Kim, Doo Man; Kim, Chong Soon; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that thyrotrophin receptor antibodies are present in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. There is now compelling evidence that the hyperthyroidism of Graves’ disease is due to antibodies to the thyrotrophin (TSH) receptor. The measurement of these antibodies is valuable in the diagnosis and monitoring of Graves’ disease and in predicting the outcome of treatment. In the present study, thyrotrophin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) activites were measured by radioreceptor assay, according to the method of Shewring and Smith1), in 30 patients with Graves’ disease, 13 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 20 patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis with spontaneously resolving hyperthyroidism (LT-SRH), 5 patients with postpartum thyroiditis, and 7 patients with subacute thyroiditis. The TBII activity results a mean of 3.0±3.0% in normal controls, 44.8±8.7% in Graves’ disease, 8.69±8.06% in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 7.63±2.32% in LT-SRH, 3.33±1.16% in postpartum thyroiditis, and 2.67±2.33% in subacute thyroiditis respectively. These clinical and laboratory findings show that TBII also plays a role in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease. The levels of the TBII activties in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and LT-SRH, suggest a pathognomic role similar to that of Graves’ disease in above mentioned two disease, but that TBII activity is not significant in postpartum or subacute thyroiditis. PMID:2908728

  18. False-positive uptake on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy: physiologic and pathologic variants unrelated to thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jong-Ryool; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), which takes advantage of the high avidity of radioiodine in the functioning thyroid tissues, has been used for detection of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine is a sensitive marker for detection of thyroid cancer; however, radioiodine uptake is not specific for thyroid tissue. It can also be seen in healthy tissue, including thymus, breast, liver, and gastrointestinal tract, or in benign diseases, such as cysts and inflammation, or in a variety of benign and malignant non-thyroidal tumors, which could be mistaken for thyroid cancer. In order to accurately interpret radioiodine scintigraphy results, one must be familiar with the normal physiologic distribution of the tracer and frequently encountered physiologic and pathologic variants of radioiodine uptake. This article will provide a systematic overview of potential false-positive uptake of radioiodine in the whole body and illustrate how such unexpected findings can be appropriately evaluated. PMID:23133823

  19. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  20. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-10-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol.

  1. Screening for thyroid dysfunction during the second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Lijun; Han, Mi; Khor, Shuzin; Tao, Jun; Song, Mengfan; Fan, Jianxia

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore the influence of different screening strategies on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and the missed diagnosis during pregnancy. A total of 1889 pregnant women (13-27 weeks) were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups according to the backgrounds of them collected by questionnaire. We detected the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in high-risk groups and low-risk pregnant women by normal reference range during the second trimester in our research. High-risk groups accounted for 10.69% of all the pregnant women in this study. Using targeted high-risk case screening strategy, misdiagnosis rate of pregnancy with hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, pregnancy with hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, low T4 syndrome and positive TPOAb were 87.5% (14 cases), 87.08% (155 cases), 87.08% (155 cases), 83.93% (47 cases), 89.47% (17 cases) and 88.35% (91 cases), respectively. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between high-risk group and low-risk group in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, we believe that universal screening to pregnant women can effectively reduce misdiagnosis rate of thyroid dysfunction. Further, we recommend universal screening for thyroid function in second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24020892

  2. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  3. The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) controls thyroid hormone sensitivity and the set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.

    PubMed

    Astapova, Inna; Vella, Kristen R; Ramadoss, Preeti; Holtz, Kaila A; Rodwin, Benjamin A; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Weiss, Roy E; Rosenberg, Michael A; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Hollenberg, Anthony N

    2011-02-01

    The role of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) in thyroid hormone (TH) action has been difficult to discern because global deletion of NCoR is embryonic lethal. To circumvent this, we developed mice that globally express a modified NCoR protein (NCoRΔID) that cannot be recruited to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). These mice present with low serum T(4) and T(3) concentrations accompanied by normal TSH levels, suggesting central hypothyroidism. However, they grow normally and have increased energy expenditure and normal or elevated TR-target gene expression across multiple tissues, which is not consistent with hypothyroidism. Although these findings imply an increased peripheral sensitivity to TH, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is not more sensitive to acute changes in TH concentrations but appears to be reset to recognize the reduced TH levels as normal. Furthermore, the thyroid gland itself, although normal in size, has reduced levels of nonthyroglobulin-bound T(4) and T(3) and demonstrates decreased responsiveness to TSH. Thus, the TR-NCoR interaction controls systemic TH sensitivity as well as the set point at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. These findings suggest that NCoR levels could alter cell-specific TH action that would not be reflected by the serum TSH. PMID:21239618

  4. Failure of low doses of /sup 131/I to ablate residual thyroid tissue following surgery for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; Klingensmith, W.C. III

    1980-12-01

    Thirteen patients received an initial dose of 25-29.9 mCi (925-1106 MBq) of /sup 131/I following partial thyroidectomy for papillary, follicular, or mixed carcinoma. Administration of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) or triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) was stopped 3-12 weeks and 1-6 weeks, respectively, before therapy or imaging. Patients remained on normal diets and did not receive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or diuretics. Follow-up 3 months to 2 years after therapy demonstrated that ablation of thyroid bed activity was successful in only one patient, who still had metastases. This suggests that administration of 25-29.9 mCi of /sup 131/I following surgery is unreliable for ablation of residual thyroid bed activity.

  5. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  6. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guihua; Zou, Dazhong; Cai, Haiyun; Liu, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease with an increasing prevalence in past decades. Its diagnosisis mostly based on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is a useful and essential tool to make this diagnosis based on the characteristics of the disease. In the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is an effective method to distinguish Hashimoto's thyroiditis from other thyroid disorders. One exciting and recent advance is that non-invasive ultrasound-based methods have supplemented fine-needle aspiration to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis under more complex conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent advantages of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27100487

  7. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  8. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1: its clinical significance and functional role in human thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gang; Wu, Shihe; Jiang, Futing; Xie, Jiangping; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), as one of the key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been reported to be regulated by microRNA-144 and Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3, which both promote thyroid cancer cell invasion. However, the involvement of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and clinical implication of ZEB1 in this disease. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the subcellular localization and the expression level of ZEB1 protein in 82 self-pairs of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent noncancerous tissues obtained from patients with thyroid cancer. The roles of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were also detected by transwell and MTT analyses, respectively. Results Immunohistochemistry showed that ZEB1 was predominantly localized in the nucleus of thyroid cancer cells. Its immunoreactive score in thyroid cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P=0.01). In addition, ZEB1 overexpression was significantly associated with the advanced tumor node metastasis staging (P=0.008), the positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) and distant metastasis (P=0.02). Furthermore, ZEB1 knockdown by siRNA could efficiently inhibit the migration, invasion, and proliferation abilities of thyroid cancer cells in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ZEB1 might function as an oncogene, the overexpression of which was associated with the aggressive tumor progression of human thyroid cancer. Interestingly, ZEB1 also could promote thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that the inhibition of this protein might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27099512

  9. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  10. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  11. Upregulation of long noncoding RNA LOC100507661 promotes tumor aggressiveness in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daham; Lee, Woo Kyung; Jeong, Seonhyang; Seol, Mi-Youn; Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Jandee; Jo, Young Suk

    2016-08-15

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have revealed a variety of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, studies of lncRNAs are at a very early stage, our knowledge of the biological functions and clinical implications remains limited. To investigate the roles of lncRNAs in thyroid cancers, we verified 56 lncRNAs identified as potential cancer-promoting genes in a previous study that analyzed 2394 tumor SNP arrays from 12 types of cancer. Based on verified sequence information in NCBI and Ensembl, we ultimately selected three candidate lncRNAs for detailed analysis. One of the candidates, LOC100507661, was strongly upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues relative to paired contralateral normal tissue. LOC100507661 was easily detectable in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines such as TPC1, BCPAP, C643, and 8505C, but not in the follicular thyroid cancer cell line FTC133. Stable overexpression of LOC100507661 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells. Lymph node metastasis and BRAF V600E mutations were more frequent in papillary thyroid cancers with high LOC100507661 expression. Our data demonstrate that LOC100507661 expression is elevated in human thyroid cancer and may play a critical role in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:27151833

  12. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  13. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  14. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-05-10

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  15. Thyroid follicle development requires Smad1/5- and endothelial cell-dependent basement membrane assembly.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, Mylah; Delmarcelle, Anne-Sophie; Lernoux, Manon; Bouquet, Mahé; Lemoine, Pascale; Bolsée, Jennifer; Umans, Lieve; de Sousa Lopes, Susana Chuva; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Sasaki, Takako; Bommer, Guido; Henriet, Patrick; Refetoff, Samuel; Lemaigre, Frédéric P; Zwijsen, An; Courtoy, Pierre J; Pierreux, Christophe E

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid follicles, the functional units of the thyroid gland, are delineated by a monolayer of thyrocytes resting on a continuous basement membrane. The developmental mechanisms of folliculogenesis, whereby follicles are formed by the reorganization of a non-structured mass of non-polarized epithelial cells, are largely unknown. Here we show that assembly of the epithelial basement membrane is crucial for folliculogenesis and is controlled by endothelial cell invasion and by BMP-Smad signaling in thyrocytes. Thyroid-specific Smad1 and Smad5 double-knockout (Smad1/5(dKO)) mice displayed growth retardation, hypothyroidism and defective follicular architecture. In Smad1/5(dKO) embryonic thyroids, epithelial cells remained associated in large clusters and formed small follicles. Although similar follicular defects are found in Vegfa knockout (Vegfa(KO)) thyroids, Smad1/5(dKO) thyroids had normal endothelial cell density yet impaired endothelial differentiation. Interestingly, both Vegfa(KO) and Smad1/5(dKO) thyroids displayed impaired basement membrane assembly. Furthermore, conditioned medium (CM) from embryonic endothelial progenitor cells (eEPCs) rescued the folliculogenesis defects of both Smad1/5(dKO) and Vegfa(KO) thyroids. Laminin α1, β1 and γ1, abundantly released by eEPCs into CM, were crucial for folliculogenesis. Thus, epithelial Smad signaling and endothelial cell invasion promote folliculogenesis via assembly of the basement membrane. PMID:27068110

  16. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves’ disease. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves’ disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves’ disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves’ disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves’ disease. PMID:24790388

  17. Dissecting Molecular Events in Thyroid Neoplasia Provides Evidence for Distinct Evolution of Follicular Thyroid Adenoma and Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W.; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogenes, ii) the activation of DNA damage response checkpoints, and iii) the differential proteomic pattern between FA and FTC. Both FTC and FA, which did not harbor RAS, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, or PAX/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ mutations, express various proteins in common and others that are more distinctly expressed in FTC rather than in FA or normal thyroid tissue. This finding is in line with the finding of constitutive DNA damage checkpoint activation (p-Chk2, γ-H2AX) and evidence for replicative stress causing genomic instability (increased cyclin E, retinoblastoma, or E2F1 mRNA expression) in FTC but not FA. We discuss the findings of the increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein, phosphatase 2A inhibitor, and DJ-1 in FTC compared with FA identified by proteomics and their potential implication in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Our present findings argue for the definition of FA as a truly benign entity and against progressive development of FA to FTC. PMID:21983636

  18. Modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery for thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    YU, HUI; GE, XIN; PAN, WEIKANG; WANG, HUAIJIE; HUANG, QIANG; DONG, YU; GAO, YA; YU, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), originally described by Miccoli, is considered to be the most widely practiced and easily reproducible procedure for selected patients with benign and/or malignant thyroid nodules. Modified techniques based on MIVAT, namely modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery (MMTS), were developed based on MIVAT. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results of MMTS compared with those of MIVAT. The enrolling criteria included a benign nodule <3.5 cm in diameter, a malignant tumor <2 cm, no previous neck surgery and no evidence of any suspected lymph node metastasis or local invasion. Unilateral lobectomy was considered for benign lesions and the additional dissection of central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes was applied for malignant disease. The modified techniques included carefully selecting the operative incision, expanding the operative space, embedding a drainage tube in situ and delicately suturing every layer inwards and crosswise, as well as measuring cervical motion. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between MMTS and MIVAT, other surgical parameters, including operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, cosmetic satisfaction, peak angle of cervical rotation, length of hospitalization and complications, were retrospectively analyzed. A consecutive series of 70 patients, including 54 cases of benign and 16 cases of malignant disease, initially underwent MIVAT between April, 2008 and May, 2012, while 127 patients, including 98 benign and 29 malignant cases, subsequently underwent MMTS between September, 2011 and October, 2014. Patients who received MMTS exhibited significantly less blood loss (20.3±11.3 vs. 32.3±12.6 ml, P<0.01), lower volume of postoperative drainage (42.77±15.2 vs. 50.48±23.2 ml, P<0.01) and higher cosmetic satisfaction (94.6±3.5 vs. 88.9±2.7%, P<0.01), but a longer operative time (102±36 vs. 50.48±23.2 min, P<0.01) when compared with MIVAT. In addition, a

  19. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed.

  20. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R N; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D V

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1) chemically induced rodent thyroid tumors are presumed to be relevant to humans; 2) when interspecies information is lacking, the default is to assume comparable carcinogenic sensitivity in rodents and humans; 3) adverse rodent noncancer thyroid effects due to chemically induced thyroid-pituitary disruption are presumed to be relevant to humans; 4) linear dose-response considerations are applied to thyroid cancer induced by chemical substances that either do not disrupt thyroid functioning or lack mode of action information; 5) nonlinear thyroid cancer dose-response considerations are applied to chemicals that reduce thyroid hormone levels, increase TSH and thyroid cell division, and are judged to lack mutagenic activity; and 6) nonlinear considerations may be applied in thyroid cancer dose-response assessments on a case-by-case basis for chemicals that disrupt thyroid-pituitary functioning and demonstrate some mutagenic activity. Required data for risk assessment purposes is mode of action information on mutagenicity, increases in follicular cell growth (cell size and number) and thyroid gland weight, thyroid-pituitary hormones, site of action, correlations between doses producing thyroid effects and cancer, and reversibility of effects when dosing ceases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681971

  1. Radioiodine and thyroid disease: the beginning.

    PubMed

    Becker, D V; Sawin, C T

    1996-07-01

    In 1936, Karl Compton, then president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the thyroid group of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), undertook a joint study that led to the production of small amounts of short-lived radioiodine (iodine 128, half-life, 25 min). The original intent was to use it for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, but in order to explore the underlying physiology, their first work was performed in rabbits and published in 1938. It clearly showed that the radioiodine was selectively and avidly taken up by the thyroid gland. It was immediately apparent to the MGH-MIT group and another team working at the Berkeley, CA cyclotron that longer-lasting iodine isotopes were needed, and soon both developed procedures for cyclotron-produced 130 (half-life, 12.5 hr) and 131I (half-life, 8 d). In 1939, the Berkeley group, using 131I, was the first to show that the normal human thyroid gland accumulated radioiodine. By 1941, the MGH-MIT team, using mainly 130I, was able to successfully treat a few patients with hyperthyroidism, and so achieved their original goal. The Berkeley group did the same a few months later, using mainly 131I. Both presented results at the same meeting of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in Atlantic City, NJ in the spring of 1942. This was in the midst of World War II and it was not easy to get much 130I or 131I, so experience was limited. Although effective, radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism had not been widely adopted by the end of the war in 1945, partly because radioiodine remained in short supply and partly because another medical therapy for hyperthyroidism, antithyroid drugs, had been invented. However, by 1946, fission-derived radioiodine became readily available as a by-product of the Manhattan project in Oak Ridge, TN; hundreds of patients were treated within a few years, both for hyperthyroidism and for thyroid cancer. A new treatment, based on the physiological application

  2. miR-195 is a key regulator of Raf1 in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangzheng; Jiang, Chuner; Sun, Quanquan; Yan, Fenqin; Wang, Lei; Fu, Zhenfu; Liu, Tongxin; Hu, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Proto-oncogene Raf1 serves as a part of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway and regulates cell migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. Although a large number of studies have shown that Raf1 is overexpressed in various kinds of cancer, little is known about the association between Raf1 and miRNAs in thyroid carcinoma. This study proves that Raf1 is overexpressed in thyroid cancer, which has been confirmed by many other studies. Besides, we identify that Raf1 is a direct target of miR-15a/b, miR-16, and miR-195 by dual luciferase reporter assay. We also find that the expression of miR-195 is downregulated in 50 pairs of thyroid tumor tissues compared to the adjacent nontumor tissues, while there is no difference in the expression of miR-15a/b and miR-16 between the groups. Furthermore, exogenous overexpression of miR-195 significantly inhibits the protein expression of Raf1 and blocks the thyroid cancer cell proliferation. Our findings delineate a novel mechanism for the regulation of Raf1 in thyroid cancer, which may help to provide a new direction for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26527888

  3. Susceptibility to thyroid autoimmune disease: molecular analysis of HLA-D region genes identifies new markers for goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Badenhoop, K; Schwarz, G; Walfish, P G; Drummond, V; Usadel, K H; Bottazzo, G F

    1990-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been shown to be associated with the HLA-specificities DR4 and DR5. Since former association studies yielded variable results, we used novel molecular typing methods to assess predisposing immunogenetic factors. Gene analysis of the HLA-DR-DQ and tumor necrosis factor region was performed in a group of Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and randomly chosen controls using standards and nomenclature of the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop. Genomic DNA of patients and controls was analyzed using a cDNA probe of the DQB1 gene. The resulting restriction fragment patterns allowed the determination of newly defined DQw-types 1-9. We find the strongest relative risk conferred by DQw7 (RR = 4.7), that is observed in 36 of 64 patients (56%) and only 21 of 98 controls (21%) (P corr less than 0.002). Comparison of DNA sequence variation in the DQB1 gene, that is found predominantly in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, indicates that codons 45 and 57 are critical features in DQw7 which distinguish it from other DQw specificities. The adjacent DQA1 genes also display a significant association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (DQA1*0201/*0301 heterozygotes were found in 37% of patients and 15% controls, P less than 0.03). No significant association could be found with polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor gene. These results provide a new basis for the concept of genetic susceptibility in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and will help to elucidate the underlying autoimmune mechanisms that lead to disease at the functional level. PMID:1977755

  4. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:23092196

  5. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  6. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  7. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  8. [Drug-induced thyroid dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    latrogenic disorders are an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and admission to hospital in developed countries. Similarly to many other organs, the thyroid gland may be affected by various drugs, often used for the treatment of non-thyroid disorders. Drugs may affect thyroid function via different mechanisms, including thyroid hormone production, storage, secretion and metabolism offering numerous targets for drug interventions. Usually, the effect of pharmacotherapy is observed more frequently and is stronger in case of the presence of the concomitant disorder of this gland. An understanding of the proposed mechanisms of these drug interactions and their evaluation and differential diagnosis is helpful in the interpretation of the findings associated thyroid disorders and in establishing the correct treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the present state of knowledge on the influence of various drugs on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We discuss pros and cons of the use of these agents in patients with concomitant thyroid disease and provide the reader with recommendations concerning the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic thyroid disorders. PMID:26030960

  9. Thyroid and Aging or the Aging Thyroid? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone production, metabolism, and action change with aging. The reference ranges for serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormones are derived mainly from younger populations. Thus, the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is increased greatly in the elderly. However, it is unclear whether mild thyroid dysfunction in the elderly is associated with adverse outcomes. In this review, we discuss current evidence-based literature on thyroid function in the elderly and whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly should be treated. PMID:24106641

  10. Changes in haemostasis and thrombosis associated with thyroid disease: Presentation of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Rodilla Fiz, A M; Garví López, M; Gómez Garrido, M; Girón la Casa, M

    2016-01-01

    There is a relationship between thyroid diseases and primary and secondary changes in haemostasis. The most frequent association between them are hypocoagulability states with clinical hypothyroidism and vascular thrombophilia (hypercoagulability and/or hypofibrinolysis) with hyperparathyroidism. However, there are recent studies that have detected changes in haemostasis -primary and secondary- associated with thyroid diseases with normal hormone levels, suggesting other pathogenic mechanisms not yet known. The cases are presented of 2 patients with thyroid disease that required surgery: one multinodular goitre and one papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, both with normal hormone levels. They were shown to have haemostasis disorders during the preoperative work up. These showed a Factor VII deficiency and a Factor XI deficiency along with a thrombotic disease of unknown origin, respectively. PMID:26626435

  11. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Philip I

    2002-08-01

    Follicular carcinomas are rare thyroid malignancies that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration is an excellent diagnostic tool and should be the initial step in managing the solitary thyroid nodule. Follicular carcinoma cannot be diagnosed with certainty by cytologic features alone; the diagnosis rests on the histologic findings of blood vessel or tumor capsule invasion. Surgical resection is the primary option for treatment. The extent of thyroidectomy for optimal survival outcome has not been determined scientifically. The outcome is excellent in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma with lobectomy and isthmusectomy; it is difficult to argue that total thyroidectomy is necessary. In a low risk prognostic group, for tumors other than minimally invasive carcinoma, lobectomy and isthmusectomy or total thyroidectomy can be justified. However, if total thyroidectomy can be done safely with a minimum of complications, then it has definite advantages for staging, postoperative surveillance, treatment, and possibly a lower recurrence rate and better survival rate. For all patients at high risk of recurrence, total thyroidectomy is preferred. PMID:12074771

  13. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used PMID:22768711

  14. Advances in the management of patients with thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, H J; Meier, D A; Kaplan, M

    1995-07-01

    Discoveries related to thyroid immunology, especially concerning the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, may facilitate new immunologic approaches to the therapy of Graves' disease and the thyroiditis syndromes. Advances in genetics are being applied to the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes and papillary and medullary carcinomas. The development of ever more sensitive TSH assays has led to the detection of subclinical thyroid disease, which has special implications for the sick and elderly patients. Sensitive TSH assays also allow more precise titration of levothyroxine (T4) dosages, especially for patients with a past history of thyroid cancer. Evidence continues to accumulate suggesting that postmenopausal women on T4 doses that suppress the TSH level below 0.1 ulU/mL have lower bone mineral density than matched patients with healthy TSH levels. Also, pregnant hypothyroid women need higher T4 doses to normalize the TSH levels. In the evaluation of thyroid nodules, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the single most definitive modality in selecting the patients for surgery. Scintigraphy provides a complimentary role, especially in defining autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas (AFTA), because these should not be treated with T4 suppression. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is occasionally helpful with nodules that are difficult to palpate. Concern for possible tracheal compression after treatment of toxic multinodular goiter with large doses of radioactive iodine (I-131) in the range of 50 to 150 mCi (1.85 to 5.5 GBq) does not seem warranted. Work, primarily out of Italy, suggests AFTA can be ablated with repeat ethanol injections. Residual tissues after thyroidectomy for differentiated carcinoma can be "stunned" by tracer doses of 131I greater than 3.0 mCi (111 MBq), which diminishes the uptake and effectiveness of a subsequent therapy dose. Positron emission tomograph, imaging with thallium-201, and Technetium 99m Sestamibi can identify a small number

  15. Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of

  16. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  17. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism. PMID:27522996

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  19. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  20. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  1. Thyroid Hormone Replacement in Patients Following Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, Zeina C.; Weiss, Roy E.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients following thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, although a potentially straightforward clinical problem, can present the clinician and patient with a variety of challenges. Most often the problems are related to the dose and preparation of thyroid hormone (TH) to use. Some patients feel less well following thyroidectomy and/or radioiodine ablation than they did before their diagnosis. We present evidence that levothyroxine (L-T4) is the preparation of choice, and keeping the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between detectable and 0.1 mU/L should be the standard of care in most cases. In unusual circumstances, when the patient remains clinically hypothyroid despite a suppressed TSH, we acknowledge there may be as yet unidentified factors influencing the body’s response to TH, and individualized therapy may be necessary in such patients. PMID:26886951

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: thyroid hormone promotes tumorigenicity through inducing cancer stem-like cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Lei; Ma, Sicong; Qi, Xingxing; Li, Qigen; Xia, Yun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Wang, Zhi; Chi, Jiachang; Li, Ping; Feng, Yu-xiong; Xia, Qiang; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play a key role in maintaining the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the cell-biological regulation of CSCs is unclear. In the study, we report that thyroid hormone (TH) promotes cell self-renewal in HCC cells. TH also increases the percentage of CD90 + HCC cells and promotes drug resistance of HCC cells. By analyzing primary human HCC samples, we found that TRα transcript level is significantly elevated in primary liver cancer and portal vein metastatic tumor, compared to that of adjacent normal liver tissue. Knocking down TRα not only inhibits HCC self-renewal in vitro but also suppresses HCC tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, treatment of TH leads to activation of NF-κB, which is required for the function of TH on inducing HCC cell self-renewal. We also found TRα and p65 cooperatively drive the expression of BMI1 by co-binding to the promoter region of BMI1 gene. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of TH signaling in regulating the CSCs of HCC, and these findings might be useful for developing novel therapies by targeting TH function in HCC cells. PMID:27174710

  3. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  5. Zinc sulphate following the administration of iodine-131 on the regulation of thyroid function, in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Davinder; Singh Baweja, Mandeep; Dani, Vijayta

    2007-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in men is often treated with high doses of iodine-131 ((131)I), which may induce radiation side effects to patients and their environment. These therapeutic doses of (131)I could be decreased, if the (131)I uptake of the thyroid gland of the patients could be increased. Zinc sulphate has been considered to exercise a protective role by maintaining the cellular integrity of the thyroid under various pathological states. The aim of our study was to study in Wistar rats whether zinc sulphate can after treatment of the thyroid gland with (131)I: a) increase the uptake of (131)I in the thyroid and b) stabilize the function of the follicular cells. If such a stabilization finally exists in men we could have favorable results like fewer cases of hypothyroidism after (131)I treatment of hyperthyroidism. To carry out these investigations, rats were divided into four groups comprising of eight animals each. Group I animals served as normal controls. Group II animals received a dose of 3.7 MBq of (131)I. Group III animals were supplemented with zinc (227 mg/L of drinking water) and animals in Group IV were given (131)I together with zinc sulphate as above. Our results showed that in Group II, serum levels of tetra-iodo-thyronine (T(4)) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T(3)) decreased significantly as a function of time following (131)I treatment. An increase in the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was noticed one week after (131)I treatment, becoming less pronounced with time. In Group II, thyroid uptake at 2h and at 24h was significantly decreased. In the same Group biological half life (T(biol)) of (131)I in the thyroid gland, was significantly elevated four weeks after the administration of (131)I and decreased eight weeks after. In Group IV animals, zinc sulfate after four weeks, induced normalization of elevated serum TSH levels and a further increase in the T(biol) of (131)I. After eight weeks in these animals, serum T(3) became normal and TSH

  6. Thyroid circadian timing: roles in physiology and thyroid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2015-04-01

    The circadian clock represents an anticipatory mechanism, well preserved in evolution. It has a critical impact on most aspects of the physiology of light-sensitive organisms. These rhythmic processes are governed by environmental cues (fluctuations in light intensity and temperature), an internal circadian timing system, and interactions between this timekeeping system and environmental signals. Endocrine body rhythms, including hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis rhythms, are tightly regulated by the circadian system. Although the circadian profiles of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in blood have been well described, relatively few studies have analyzed molecular mechanisms governing the circadian regulation of HPT axis function. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in the area of complex regulation of thyroid gland function by the circadian oscillator. We will also highlight the molecular makeup of the human thyroid oscillator as well as the potential link between thyroid malignant transformation and alterations in the clockwork. PMID:25411240

  7. Feasibility Study of Ultrasonographic Criteria for Microscopic and Macroscopic Extra-Thyroidal Extension Based on Thyroid Capsular Continuity and Tumor Contour in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rim, Jee Hyun; Chong, Semin; Ryu, Han Suk; Chung, Bo Mi; Ahn, Hye Shin

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonographic criteria of thyroid capsular continuity and tumor contour to differentiate macroscopic extra-thyroidal extension (ETE) from microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE from ETE. On ultrasonography, we evaluated thyroid capsular continuity (C0 = continuous, C1 = discontinuous, C2 = invisible), and thyroid tumor contour (P0 = in normal parenchyma, P1 = abutting, P2 = bulging), which were grouped into type 1-9 classifications. Either C1-2 or P1-2 was more prevalent in ETE than non-ETE. C1 and P2 tended to be associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas C0 and P1 were significantly associated with microscopic ETE. Types 6, 8 and 9 were more likely to have ETE than non-ETE; type 6 (C1 P2) and type 9 (C2 P2) were significantly associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas type 8 (C2 P1) was associated more with microscopic ETE. Macroscopic and microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE and ETE, can be differentiated using these pre-operative ultrasonographic criteria. PMID:27471119

  8. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with large cell transformation on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review literature.

    PubMed

    Hengjeerajarus, Natavuth; Klaisuwan, Teerada; Norasetthada, Lalita; Kosachunhanun, Natapong

    2015-05-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of malignancy that occurs in 0.5% of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We described the case of a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma in the background of autoimmune thyroiditis with focal area of DLBCL transformation. The patient was a 70-year-old man with rapidly growing mass of the thyroid gland with compressive symptom over two months. The laboratory data revealed primary hypothyroidism with positively anti-thyroid antibodies. The computerized tomography scan showed right thyroid mass extended to anterior mediastinum and compressed adjacent airway with multiple cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The pathology from incisional biopsy showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT lymphoma with large cell transformation. The patient received four courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with involved field radiation therapy. The mass was dramatically decreased in size after treatment, leading to a complete resolution of compressive symptoms. Thyroid lymphoma is quite rare; however the incidence may be higher in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A rapidly growing thyroid gland should be considered as PTL. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:26058282

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  10. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  11. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  12. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. This leads to low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) and causes the pituitary gland to release more ... is that it can cause the symptoms of hypothyroidism, including tiredness, depression, weight gain, sleepiness, constipation, muscle ...

  13. Robotic surgery for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, C R; Chung, W Y

    2015-10-01

    While conventional open thyroidectomy techniques are the most widely performed thyroid operation, they produce an anterior neck scar that may be difficult to conceal. The endoscopic thyroidectomy was developed to decrease the cosmetic impact on the patient and has the advantage of reducing the incidence of anterior neck hypoesthesia and paresthesia. However, this procedure has some drawbacks, which motivated surgeons to develop a new operation method. Robotic thyroidectomy is a relatively new approach for treating differentiated thyroid cancer. Over the last few years, robotic thyroidectomies have become more common. Robotic thyroidectomies are a feasible, safe alternative for managing thyroid disease that has remarkable functional benefits beyond those of conventional open methods. The applications for robotic thyroidectomy have expanded to include increasingly advanced cases, which will consequently change the thyroid surgery paradigm in the future. PMID:26149523

  14. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole body to slow down. This is called hypothyroidism. If your thyroid begins to over-produce hormones ... and Grave’s Disease are two common causes of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (respectively). Both are autoimmune diseases: autoimmune ...

  15. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  16. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  17. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  18. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  19. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-12-31

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  20. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, P P; Figueiredo, N B; Padovani, C R; Brentani, M M; Nogueira, C R

    2005-05-01

    Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ss (ERss) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05). Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%); hypothyroidism (8%) and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19%) were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18%) found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERss tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erss-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05), suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance. PMID:15917958

  1. Multiple genetic factors in the heterogeneity of thyroid hormone resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Refetoff, S. ); Marcocci, C.; Bruno-Bossio, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH), a syndrome of inherited tissue hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone, is linked to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mutations. A typical feature of GRTH is variable severity of organ involvement among families that, surprisingly, does not correlate with the degree of T[sub 3]-binding impairment of the corresponding in vitro synthesized mutant TRs. Furthermore, variations in the clinical severity among family members harboring identical TR[beta] mutations have been reported. The authors compared serum levels of thyroid hormones that maintained a normal TSH in members of a large family with GRTH divided in three groups: Group A, 8 affected subjects with a mutation replacing arginine-320 with a histidine in the T[sub 3]-binding domain of TR[beta]; Group B, 11 first degree relatives (sibs and children of affected subjects) with no TR[beta] mutation; Group C, 16 controls related by marriage. TSH values were not different among the three groups. As expected, total and free T[sub 4] and T[sub 3], and rT[sub 3] levels were significantly higher in Group A vs Groups B and C. However, with the exception of T[sub 3], the same tests were also significantly higher in Group B vs Group C. The latter differences are not due to thyroid hormone transport in serum since TBG concentrations were not different. It is postulated that genetic variability of factors that contribute to the action of thyroid hormone modulate the phenotype of GRTH associated with TR[beta] mutations. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus. PMID:26421671

  3. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  4. Thermogenesis and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Freake, H C; Oppenheimer, J H

    1995-01-01

    The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in the definition of the nuclear mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Although the way in which these nuclear mechanisms underlie the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-dependent stimulation of metabolic rate remains to be clarified, evidence favoring non-nuclear pathways is limited. Clearly, T3 stimulates both the production and consumption of energy within cells. It also exerts a number of parallel effects that result in increased oxygen consumption, e.g. on mitochondrial structure and composition; on the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, and on cardiac function. Additionally, T3 may increase the proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which implies that it may decrease the efficiency of energy production. These metabolic effects of T3 appear to be restricted to homeothermic-animals, representing a coordinated response to the challenge of maintaining body temperature. PMID:8527221

  5. Management and follow-up results of an incidental thyroid carcinoma in a young woman with ovarian teratoma.

    PubMed

    Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Iyibozkurt, Cem; Canbaz, Bulent; Ciftci, Sema Dogansen; Aksakal, Nihat; Kapran, Yersu; Aral, Ferihan; Ozbey, Nese Colak

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid cancer in ovarian teratoma is reported to be rare and experiences are limited. A 26-year-old woman had undergone bilateral cystectomy and omentectomy for bilateral cystic adnexial masses. Pathological examination showed 1.5 cm follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma on the basis of unilateral mature cystic teratoma. Increased CA-125 and CA19-9 levels decreased to normal reference ranges after surgery, but postoperative magnetic resonance imaging indicated multiple abdominal cystic loci. After total thyroidectomy, high dose I-131 was administered to ablate thyroid tissue. Thereafter, levothyroxine was started to achieve subclinical hyperthyroidism. No iodine uptake was detected in post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBS) other than thyroid bed. This finding supported that tumor did not show dissemination to abdomen. No uptake on the first-year evaluation with low-dose I-131 WBS suggested the complete ablation of the thyroid gland. It is recommended that thyroid carcinoma arising from ectopic thyroid tissue in a teratoma should be managed as thyroid carcinoma in thyroid. However, direct dissemination to contiguous regions in abdomen and hematogenous dissemination to distant organs should be in mind. Radical surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oopherectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymph node excision and thyroidectomy is recommended. Fertility preserving surgery may be the surgical procedure as in the present case. PMID:23772787

  6. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  7. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  8. BRAF-activated long non-coding RNA contributes to cell proliferation and activates autophagy in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YONG; GUO, QINHAO; ZHAO, YAN; CHEN, JIEJING; WANG, SHUWEI; HU, JUN; SUN, YUEMING

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel regulators in cancer biology. BRAF-activated lncRNA (BANCR) is overexpressed in melanoma and has a potential functional role in melanoma cell migration. However, little is known about the role of BANCR in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In the present study, BANCR expression was examined in six pairs of PTC and matched adjacent normal tissues. The results revealed that BANCR levels were significantly higher in the PTC tissues and PTC IHH-4 cells compared with the normal controls. Knockdown of BANCR in the IHH-4 cells inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells in vitro. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that BANCR markedly activated autophagy. Overexpression of BANCR inhibited apoptosis in the IHH-4 cells, whereas inhibition of autophagy stimulated apoptosis in the BANCR-overexpressed cells. BANCR overexpression also increased cell proliferation and the inhibition of autophagy abrogated BANCR overexpression-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the overexpression of BANCR resulted in an increase in the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker for autophagy, while the knockdown of BANCR decreased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I. These results revealed that BANCR expression levels are upregulated in PTC. Additionally, BANCR increases PTC cell proliferation, which could activate autophagy. PMID:25289082

  9. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  10. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  11. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  13. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  14. Thyroid diseases during pregnancy: a number of important issues.

    PubMed

    Krassas, Gerasimos; Karras, Spyridon N; Pontikides, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The most common thyroid diseases during pregnancy are hyper- and hypothyroidism and their variants including isolated hypothyroxinemia (hypo-T4), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and different types of goiter. AITD represents the main cause of hypothyroidism during pregnancy ranging in prevalence between 5 and 20% with an average of 7.8%. The incidence of isolated hypo-T4 is about 150 times higher compared to congenital hypothyroidism. Prevalence of Graves' disease (GD) ranges between 0.1% and 1% and the Transient Gestational Hyperthyroidism Syndrome between 1 and 3%. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a sensitive marker of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Normal values have been modified recently with a downward shift. Thus, the upper normal range is now considered to be 2.5 mUI/mL in the first trimester and 3.0 mUI/mL for the remainder of pregnancy. Most studies have shown that children born to women with hypothyroidism during gestation had significantly lower scores in neuropsychological tests related to intelligence, attention, language, reading ability, school performance and visual motor performance. However, some studies have not confirmed these findings. On the other hand, multiple retrospective studies have shown that the risks of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications are directly related to the duration and inadequate control of maternal thyrotoxicosis. The latter is associated with a risk of spontaneous abortion, congestive heart failure, thyrotoxic storm, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth. Despite the lack of consensus among professional organizations, recent studies, which are based on sophisticated analyses, support universal screening in all pregnant women in the first trimester for thyroid diseases. PMID:25885104

  15. [Studies on the iodide metabolism and the expression of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase mRNA in the thyroid of BB/W rats].

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, N

    1991-10-20

    BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rats develop insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) spontaneously. Our previous studies have shown that BB/W (Saitama-Tokyo colony) rats develop LT at about 10 weeks of age. Their serum TSH values increase as LT extends, although their serum thyroid hormone levels remain normal. This indicates that BB/W rats suffer from subclinical hypothyroidism. To investigate whether BB/W rats have a defect in iodide metabolism, the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) in BB/W rats was examined. Thyroidal RAIU at 3hr in both 8 and 16 week-old BB/W rats was significantly higher than that in age-matched normal Wistar rats. On the other hand, BB/W rats had significantly lower 48hr thyroidal RAIU than normal Wistar rats. This suggests that BB/W rats appear to have some defects in iodide metabolism, especially in iodide organification even before the development of LT. The expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) mRNA in BB/W and Wistar rats was then examined using the Northern blot analysis. The expression of both TPO and Tg mRNA was greatly decreased in BB/W rats compared with that in Wistar rats despite the high serum TSH levels in BB/W rats. This indicates that BB/W rats may have pretranslational defects in TPO and Tg synthesis, resulting in the impaired thyroid hormone synthesis. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that BB/W rats appear to have a defect(s) in iodide metabolism possibly due to some abnormalities in TPO and Tg synthesis. PMID:1752338

  16. Imaging of thyroid tumor angiogenesis with microbubbles targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether Contrast Enhanced Ultrasund (CEUS) with microbubbles (MBs) targeted to VEGFR-2 is able to characterize in vivo the VEGFR-2 expression in the tumor vasculature of a mouse model of thyroid cancer (Tg-TRK-T1). Methods Animal protocol was approved by Institutional committee on Laboratory Animal Care. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with MBs targeted with an anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody (UCAVEGFR-2) and isotype control antibody (UCAIgG) was performed in 7 mice with thyroid carcinoma, 5 mice with hyperplasia or benign thyroid nodules and 4 mice with normal thyroid. After ultrasonography, the tumor samples were harvested for histological examination and VEGFR-2 expression was tested by immunohistochemistry. Data were reported as median and range. Paired non parametric Wilcoxon’s test and ANOVA of Kruskal-Wallis were used. The correlation between the contrast signal and the VEGFR-2 expression was assessed by the Spearman coefficient. Results The Video intensity difference (VID) caused by backscatter of the retained UCAVEGFR-2 was significantly higher in mice harboring thyroid tumors compared to mice with normal thyroids (P < 0.01) and to mice harboring benign nodules (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences of VID were observed in the group of mice carrying benign nodules compared to mice with normal thyroids. Moreover in thyroid tumors VID of retained VEGFR-2-targeted UCA was significantly higher than that of control UCAIgG (P <0.05). Results of immunohistochemical analysis confirmed VEGFR-2 overexpression. The magnitude of the molecular ultrasonographic signal from a VEGFR-2-targeted UCA retained by tissue correlates with VEGFR-2 expression determined by immunohistochemistry (rho 0.793, P=0.0003). Conclusions We demonstrated that CEUS with UCAVEGFR-2 might be used for in vivo non invasive detection and quantification of VEGFR-2 expression in thyroid cancer in mice, and to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid

  17. Duration of valproic acid monotherapy correlates with subclinical thyroid dysfunction in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Violeta; Bogićević, Dragana; Miljković, Branislava; Ješić, Maja; Kovačević, Marijana; Prostran, Milica; Kovačević, Sandra Vezmar

    2016-06-01

    To identify potential risk factors for the development of subclinical hypothyroidism following long-term valproic acid monotherapy in children with epilepsy. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyreoglobulin antibodies, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were determined in 41 patients and in 41 sex- and age-matched healthy children. Mean valproic acid treatment duration was 2.80±1.96 years. The valproic acid group had higher serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (p<0.001) and free triiodothyronine (p<0.05) levels compared to the control group. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free triiodothyronine were above the upper limit for healthy controls in 34% and 32% of patients, respectively, and no clinical features of thyroid dysfunction were observed. Duration of valproic acid monotherapy for less than four years was a risk factor for elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. One third of children with normal range serum valproic acid levels may have elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free triiodothyronine levels, especially in the first four years of treatment. PMID:27099936

  18. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Coincidence or Possible Link

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and often coexists with other autoimmune diseases, but Hashimoto's thyroiditis associated with an autosomal dominant neurofibromatosis type 1 is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 30-year-old Bengali woman presented to the OPD with complaints of aching pain and tingling sensation in her hands and feet. Physical examination revealed dysmorphic facies, nodular swelling in the neck, cafe-au-lait spots, and neurofibromas covering the entire surface of her body. Her thyroid hormones were within normal limits. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a cystic area in the left lobe of the gland, and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology revealed lymphocytic infiltration of the gland, suggesting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. High levels of autoimmune antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. When encountered with a patient of Neurofibromatosis type 1, a physician should be careful about the possibility of a concomitant autoimmune disease. Clinical presentation of neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome often overlaps and recent studies have implicated a mutation in NF1 gene in the etiology of NFNS. More extensive reports and further investigations of such patients having combination of neurofibromatosis type 1 and autoimmune thyroiditis will certainly provide better understanding of this link in the near future. PMID:23691379

  19. MRI findings of lumbosacral metastasis from occult follicular thyroid cancer: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Gökçen; Yildirim, Erkan; Gemici, Kazim; Erinanç, Hilal

    2014-03-01

    A 63-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 13 × 12 × 12 cm mass invading the posterior regions of the L4, L5, S1 and S2 vertebrae with broad paravertebral soft tissue invasion. A Tru-cut biopsy of the mass was performed. The histopathological examination revealed metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid functional tests were within the normal limits. Thyroid sonography revealed a heterogeneous, ill-defined, 14 × 9 mm hypoechoic solid nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. On thyroid scintigraphy, an area of focal hyperactivity was detected in the right lobe at the nodule localization. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the primary tumor pathology was determined to be follicular thyroid cancer. To our knowledge, only a few cases of lumbosacral cord compression as the initial manifestation of follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature. We aimed to discuss the MRI findings of tumors in this age group with lumbosacral localization. PMID:23129029

  20. Inhibition of HMGI-C protein synthesis suppresses retrovirally induced neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Berlingieri, M T; Manfioletti, G; Santoro, M; Bandiera, A; Visconti, R; Giancotti, V; Fusco, A

    1995-01-01

    Elevated expression of the three high-mobility group I (HMGI) proteins (HMGI, HMGY, and HMGI-C) has previously been correlated with the presence of a highly malignant phenotype in epithelial and fibroblastic rat thyroid cells and in experimental thyroid, lung, mammary, and skin carcinomas. Northern (RNA) blot and run-on analyses demonstrated that the induction of HMGI genes in transformed thyroid cells occurs at the transcriptional level. An antisense methodology to block HMGI-C protein synthesis was then used to analyze the role of this protein in the process of thyroid cell transformation. Transfection of an antisense construct for the HMGI-C cDNA into normal thyroid cells, followed by infection with transforming myeloproliferative sarcoma virus or Kirsten murine sarcoma virus, generated cell lines that expressed significant levels of the retroviral transforming oncogenes v-mos or v-ras-Ki and removed the dependency on thyroid-stimulating hormones. However, in contrast with untransfected cells or cells transfected with the sense construct, those containing the antisense construct did not demonstrate the appearance of any malignant phenotypic markers (growth in soft agar and tumorigenicity in athymic mice). A great reduction of the HMGI-C protein levels and the absence of the HMGI(Y) proteins was observed in the HMGI-C antisense-transfected, virally infected cells. Therefore, the HMGI-C protein seems to play a key role in the transformation of these thyroid cells. PMID:7862147