Science.gov

Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  2. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles. PMID:23856160

  3. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  4. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  5. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  6. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  7. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  8. Properties of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas

    2004-09-01

    This article provides an investigation of cluster validation indices that relates 4 of the indices to the L. Hubert and P. Arabie (1985) adjusted Rand index--the cluster validation measure of choice (G. W. Milligan & M. C. Cooper, 1986). It is shown how these other indices can be "roughly" transformed into the same scale as the adjusted Rand index. Furthermore, in-depth explanations are given of why classification rates should not be used in cluster validation research. The article concludes by summarizing several properties of the adjusted Rand index across many conditions and provides a method for testing the significance of observed adjusted Rand indices. PMID:15355155

  9. Psychometric properties of the index of relocation adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-06-01

    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p < .01) and relocation controllability (r = -.62, p < .01), suggesting construct validity. Results indicated a single factor reflecting relocation adjustment with loadings for all items ranging from .62 to .83. The IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults. PMID:24781965

  10. Effects of Maternal Depression on Youth Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer

    Depressive disorders are chronic illnesses affecting women and their families for extended periods of time. This paper summarizes research related to the effects of maternal depression on children's short and long term adjustment. Children of depressed mothers are at risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetics account for a small…

  11. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  12. Ethnic Differences and the Effects of Racism on College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSure, G. Evelyn

    This study investigated ethnic differences and the effects of racism on the college adjustment of African-American, Asian, and Latino students who attended five undergraduate predominantly Anglo-American colleges. Results indicated that social adjustment was better for Anglos than it was for Asians and Latinos. African-Americans reported the most…

  13. The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Schilling, Nadja; Goller, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Vocal production in songbirds requires the control of the respiratory system, the syrinx as sound source and the vocal tract as acoustic filter. Vocal tract movements consist of beak, tongue and hyoid movements which change the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), glottal movements and tracheal length changes. The respective contributions of each movement to filter properties are not completely understood, but the effects of this filtering are thought to be very important for acoustic communication in birds. One of the most striking movements of the upper vocal tract during vocal behavior in songbirds involves the OEC. This study measured the acoustic effect of OEC adjustments in zebra finches by comparing resonance acoustics between an utterance with OEC expansion (calls) and a similar utterance without OEC expansion (respiratory sounds induced by a bilateral syringeal denervation). X-ray cineradiography confirmed the presence of an OEC motor pattern during song and call production, and a custom-built Hall-effect collar system confirmed that OEC expansion movements were not present during respiratory sounds. The spectral emphasis during zebra finch call production ranging between 2.5 and 5 kHz was not present during respiratory sounds, indicating strongly that it can be attributed to the OEC expansion. PMID:23085986

  14. The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Schilling, Nadja; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Vocal production in songbirds requires the control of the respiratory system, the syrinx as sound source and the vocal tract as acoustic filter. Vocal tract movements consist of beak, tongue and hyoid movements, which change the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), glottal movements and tracheal length changes. The respective contributions of each movement to filter properties are not completely understood, but the effects of this filtering are thought to be very important for acoustic communication in birds. One of the most striking movements of the upper vocal tract during vocal behavior in songbirds involves the OEC. This study measured the acoustic effect of OEC adjustments in zebra finches by comparing resonance acoustics between an utterance with OEC expansion (calls) and a similar utterance without OEC expansion (respiratory sounds induced by a bilateral syringeal denervation). X-ray cineradiography confirmed the presence of an OEC motor pattern during song and call production, and a custom-built Hall-effect collar system confirmed that OEC expansion movements were not present during respiratory sounds. The spectral emphasis during zebra finch call production ranging between 2.5 and 5 kHz was not present during respiratory sounds, indicating strongly that it can be attributed to the OEC expansion. PMID:23085986

  15. Covariate-Adjusted Linear Mixed Effects Model with an Application to Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Linear mixed effects (LME) models are useful for longitudinal data/repeated measurements. We propose a new class of covariate-adjusted LME models for longitudinal data that nonparametrically adjusts for a normalizing covariate. The proposed approach involves fitting a parametric LME model to the data after adjusting for the nonparametric effects of a baseline confounding covariate. In particular, the effect of the observable covariate on the response and predictors of the LME model is modeled nonparametrically via smooth unknown functions. In addition to covariate-adjusted estimation of fixed/population parameters and random effects, an estimation procedure for the variance components is also developed. Numerical properties of the proposed estimators are investigated with simulation studies. The consistency and convergence rates of the proposed estimators are also established. An application to a longitudinal data set on calcium absorption, accounting for baseline distortion from body mass index, illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:19266053

  16. Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells by adjusting fullerene size to control intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, N.C.

    2010-02-24

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells.

  17. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property. 1.743-1 Section 1.743-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Transfers of Interests in A Partnership § 1.743-1 Optional adjustment to basis...

  18. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property. 1.743-1 Section 1.743-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Transfers of Interests in A Partnership § 1.743-1 Optional adjustment to basis...

  19. The Differential Effects of Family Violence on Adolescent Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maura

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of different types of domestic violence on adolescent adjustment. High school students (n=935) participated in this study. Results revealed the amounts of parent-child violence and interparental violence witnessed were significant predictors of both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Significant effects were…

  20. The Bivalency Effect: Evidence for Flexible Adjustment of Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2012-01-01

    When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two different tasks) appear occasionally, performance is slower on subsequent univalent stimuli. This "bivalency effect" reflects an adjustment of cognitive control arising from the more demanding context created by bivalent stimuli. So far, it has been investigated only on task switch trials,…

  1. Adjustment of Sensor Locations During Thermal Property Parameter Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependent thermal properties of a material may be evaluated from transient temperature histories using nonlinear parameter estimation techniques. The usual approach is to minimize the sum of the squared errors between measured and calculated temperatures at specific locations in the body. Temperature measurements are usually made with thermocouples and it is customary to take thermocouple locations as known and fixed during parameter estimation computations. In fact, thermocouple locations are never known exactly. Location errors on the order of the thermocouple wire diameter are intrinsic to most common instrumentation procedures (e.g., inserting a thermocouple into a drilled hole) and additional errors can be expected for delicate materials, difficult installations, large thermocouple beads, etc.. Thermocouple location errors are especially significant when estimating thermal properties of low diffusively materials which can sustain large temperature gradients during testing. In the present work, a parameter estimation formulation is presented which allows for the direct inclusion of thermocouple positions into the primary parameter estimation procedure. It is straightforward to set bounds on thermocouple locations which exclude non-physical locations and are consistent with installation tolerances. Furthermore, bounds may be tightened to an extent consistent with any independent verification of thermocouple location, such as x-raying, and so the procedure is entirely consonant with experimental information. A mathematical outline of the procedure is given and its implementation is illustrated through numerical examples characteristic of light-weight, high-temperature ceramic insulation during transient heating. The efficacy and the errors associated with the procedure are discussed.

  2. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Asset 2. (5) Depletion. Where an adjustment is made under section 743(b) to the basis of partnership property subject to depletion, any depletion allowance is determined separately for each partner, including... partnerships that hold oil and gas properties that are depleted at the partner level under section...

  3. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Asset 2. (5) Depletion. Where an adjustment is made under section 743(b) to the basis of partnership property subject to depletion, any depletion allowance is determined separately for each partner, including... partnerships that hold oil and gas properties that are depleted at the partner level under section...

  4. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Asset 2. (5) Depletion. Where an adjustment is made under section 743(b) to the basis of partnership property subject to depletion, any depletion allowance is determined separately for each partner, including... partnerships that hold oil and gas properties that are depleted at the partner level under section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... partnership property. 1.734-1 Section 1.734-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property. (a) General rule....

  6. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  7. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  8. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  9. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  10. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  11. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments.

    PubMed

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Yu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman-Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  12. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  13. Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Han Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Kim, Kyung Chan; Hwang, Byoung Har; Kim, Jong Tae; Baik, Hong Koo; Park, Jin Seol; Kang, Daeseung

    2007-06-18

    The authors demonstrate the production of amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) thin film with adjustable wetting properties, inducing variable liquid crystal (LC) pretilt angles. To control the surface wetting properties, they apply a dual radio frequency magnetron system with a controlled power ratio of targets. In this manner we obtain various compositional surfaces with fluorine and carbon components and adjust the surface energy with regard to the various compositions. Whereas the fluorine-rich a-C:F layer shows a preference for homeotropic (vertical) LC alignment, the carbon-rich a-C:F layer shows a planar LC alignment. To achieve uniform LC alignment with a proper pretilt angle, an accelerated Ar{sup +} ion beam irradiates the films after the deposition process. The ion beam selectively destroys the surface bonding of the a-C:F films, yielding an intermediate pretilt angle.

  14. Tuning the properties of ZnO, hematite, and Ag nanoparticles by adjusting the surface charge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Dong, Guanjun; Thurber, Aaron; Hou, Yayi; Gu, Min; Tenne, Dmitri A; Hanna, C B; Punnoose, Alex

    2012-03-01

    A poly (acryl acid) (PAA) post-treatment method is performed to modify the surface charge of ZnO nanospheres, hematite nanocubes, and Ag nanoprisms from highly positive to very negative by adjusting the PAA concentration, to and greatly modify their photoluminescence, cytotoxicity, magnetism, and surface plasmon resonance. This method provides a general way to tune the nanoparticle properties for broad physicochemical and biological applications. PMID:22298490

  15. The Effect of Articulatory Adjustment on Reducing Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Panying; Kuehn, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the goal of using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality, this study utilized an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to simulate the adjustment of articulatory configurations with an open velopharynx to achieve the same acoustic goal as normal speech simulated with a closed velopharynx. Method: To examine the…

  16. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  17. Effects of Divorce Counseling Groups on Adjustment and Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salts, Connie J.; Zongker, Calvin E.

    1983-01-01

    Tested whether self-concept and adjustment of separated or divorced individuals (N=64) could be enhanced by group counseling. Data showed individuals in either a structured or unstructured group had greater improvement in adjustment than individuals who dropped out. No significant differences in improvement in self-concept were noted. (JAC)

  18. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  19. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of... and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to adjust the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... basis of partnership property. (a) In general. A partnership may adjust the basis of partnership... the basis of partnership property under sections 734(b) and 743(b), with respect to a distribution...

  1. Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

  2. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Adjustment in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawud, Samia; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between children's experiences of domestic violence and their adjustment at school. Sixty-three children (28 girls), in Israel, their classmates and teachers took part in the study. Children were divided into four groups: (1) those who were victims of physical abuse; (2) those who witnessed abuse; (3) those who…

  3. Mediating Effects of Relationships with Mentors on College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student adjustment to college and relational health with peers, mentors, and the community. Data were collected from 80 undergraduate students completing their first semester of course work at a large university in the mid-South. A series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that…

  4. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  5. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  6. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  7. Tuning of Ranvier node and internode properties in myelinated axons to adjust action potential timing

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marc C.; Alexandrova, Olga; Cossell, Lee; Stange-Marten, Annette; Sinclair, James; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny; Pecka, Michael; Attwell, David; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing; however, its determinants are not fully understood. Here we report unexpected structural specializations in the Ranvier nodes and internodes of auditory brainstem axons involved in sound localization. Myelination properties deviated significantly from the traditionally assumed structure. Axons responding best to low-frequency sounds had a larger diameter than high-frequency axons but, surprisingly, shorter internodes. Simulations predicted that this geometry helps to adjust the conduction velocity and timing of action potentials within the circuit. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo confirmed higher conduction velocities in low-frequency axons. Moreover, internode length decreased and Ranvier node diameter increased progressively along the distal axon segments, which simulations show was essential to ensure precisely timed depolarization of the giant calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. Thus, individual anatomical parameters of myelinated axons can be tuned to optimize pathways involved in temporal processing. PMID:26305015

  8. Tuning of Ranvier node and internode properties in myelinated axons to adjust action potential timing.

    PubMed

    Ford, Marc C; Alexandrova, Olga; Cossell, Lee; Stange-Marten, Annette; Sinclair, James; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny; Pecka, Michael; Attwell, David; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing; however, its determinants are not fully understood. Here we report unexpected structural specializations in the Ranvier nodes and internodes of auditory brainstem axons involved in sound localization. Myelination properties deviated significantly from the traditionally assumed structure. Axons responding best to low-frequency sounds had a larger diameter than high-frequency axons but, surprisingly, shorter internodes. Simulations predicted that this geometry helps to adjust the conduction velocity and timing of action potentials within the circuit. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo confirmed higher conduction velocities in low-frequency axons. Moreover, internode length decreased and Ranvier node diameter increased progressively along the distal axon segments, which simulations show was essential to ensure precisely timed depolarization of the giant calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. Thus, individual anatomical parameters of myelinated axons can be tuned to optimize pathways involved in temporal processing. PMID:26305015

  9. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  10. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  11. Thermo-adjustable mechanical properties of polymer, lipid-based complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Millicent; Lee, Sungwon

    2012-02-01

    Combined rheology (oscillatory and steady shear) and SAXS studies reveal details on the temperature-dependent, reversible mechanical properties of nonionic polymer, lipid-based complex fluids. Compositions prepared by introduction of the polymer as either a lipid conjugate or a triblock copolymer form an elastic gel as the temperature is increased to 18 C. The network is produced from PEO chain entanglement and physical crosslinks confined within the intervening aqueous layers of a multilamellar structured lyotropic mesophase. Although the complex fluids are weak gels, tuning of the gel strength can be achieved by temperature adjustment. The sol state formed at reduced temperature arises as a consequence of the well-solvated PEO chains adopting a non-interacting, conformational state. Complex fluids prepared with the triblock copolymers exhibit greater tunability in viscoelasticity than those containing the PEGylated-lipid conjugate because of the temperature-dependent water solubility of the central PPO block. The water solubility of PPO at reduced temperatures results in the polymer being expelled from the self-assembled amphiphilic bilayer, causing collapse of the swollen lamellar structure and loss of the PEO network. At elevated temperatures, the triblock reinserts into the bilayer producing an elastic gel. These studies identify macromolecular architectures for the facile preparation of dynamic soft materials possessing a range of mechanical properties that can be tuned by modest temperature control.

  12. The Impact of Statistically Adjusting for Rater Effects on Conditional Standard Errors of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…

  13. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  14. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  15. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... partnership property) is in effect. (b) Method of adjustment—(1) Increase in basis. Where an election under... a long-term contract accounted for under a long-term contract method of accounting. The provisions... of $10,000 for his one-third interest in partnership ABC. The partnership has no liabilities and...

  16. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... partnership property) is in effect. (b) Method of adjustment—(1) Increase in basis. Where an election under... a long-term contract accounted for under a long-term contract method of accounting. The provisions... of $10,000 for his one-third interest in partnership ABC. The partnership has no liabilities and...

  17. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... partnership property) is in effect. (b) Method of adjustment—(1) Increase in basis. Where an election under... a long-term contract accounted for under a long-term contract method of accounting. The provisions... of $10,000 for his one-third interest in partnership ABC. The partnership has no liabilities and...

  18. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  19. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes. PMID:26497989

  20. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  3. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  4. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  5. Assessing Longitudinal Change: Adjustment for Regression to the Mean Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Pascarella (J Coll Stud Dev 47:508-520, 2006) has called for an increase in use of longitudinal data with pretest-posttest design when studying effects on college students. However, such designs that use multiple measures to document change are vulnerable to an important threat to internal validity, regression to the mean. Herein, we discuss a…

  6. The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was…

  7. Regulatory properties of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase are required for adjustment of leaf starch synthesis in different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated. PMID:25293961

  8. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  9. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  10. Fabrication of drug-loaded anti-infective guided tissue regeneration membrane with adjustable biodegradation property.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiajia; Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Coates, Phil; Crawford, Aileen; Chen, Dafu; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2015-11-01

    For guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, synchronization of the membrane biodegradation rate and tissue regeneration rate is important. Besides, the major reason for GTR membrane failure in clinical application is infection which can be prevented by loading anti-bacterial drug. To realize the consistency in membrane degradation rate and tissue regeneration rate of the anti-infective membrane, we developed metronidazole-loaded electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-gelatin nanofiber membranes with different poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios (95:5, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). Homogeneous nanofibers were successfully fabricated. The mechanical strength of the membranes increased with the poly(ɛ-caprolactone) content, while the hydrophilicity decreased. The controlled and sustained release of metronidazole from all the membranes prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. At all poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios, all the membranes presented good biocompatibility while the increase of gelatin content resulted in enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that all the membranes showed good biocompatibility without infection. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the biodegradation rate of the membranes was accelerated with the increase of gelatin content. The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of the membranes can be adjusted by changing the PCL/gelatin ratio. The optimal membrane can be chosen based on the patient and tissue type to realize the synchronization of membrane degradation with tissue regeneration for the best treatment effect. PMID:25847456

  11. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  12. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  13. Adjustment of the Chiral Nematic Phase Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals by Polymer Grafting.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Firas; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The self-organization properties of sulfated cellulose nanocrystals, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and polymer-decorated cellulose nanocrystals suspensions in water were investigated and compared. Polarized light optical microscopy observations showed that these three systems phase separated to form a lower anisotropic chiral-nematic phase and an upper isotropic phase following a nucleation and growth mechanism, proving that surface-grafted polymer chains did not inhibit the self-organization properties of CNCs. The phase diagrams and pitch of the suspensions were shown to strongly depend on the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles and the nature of the interacting forces. Especially, the entropic repulsion contribution of the polymer chains to the overall interactions forces resulted in a decrease of the critical volume fractions due to an increase of the effective diameter of the rods. Additionally, above a cellulose volume fraction of 3.5% v/v, the pitch was significantly smaller for polymer-decorated CNC suspensions than for sulfated as-prepared CNC ones, revealing stronger chiral interactions with the surface-grafted chains. In all cases, the addition of small quantities of monovalent salt induced an increase of the critical concentrations, but values for polymer-decorated CNCs were always the smallest ones due to entropic repulsion forces. Overall, results show that polymer grafting provides more tunability to the chiral-nematic phase properties of CNCs, including an enhanced expression of the chirality. PMID:27054465

  14. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  15. Tailoring Feedback: Effective Feedback Should Be Adjusted Depending on the Needs of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    All students deserve effective feedback. General principles for effective feedback should be adjusted depending on the learner's needs. Feedback to struggling students should include focusing on the process, selecting only one or just a few points, giving self-referenced feedback to describe progress or capability, being very clear, and checking…

  16. Does exposure prediction bias health effect estimation? The relationship between confounding adjustment and exposure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, we are often faced with two challenges. First, an exposure prediction model is needed to estimate the exposure to an agent of interest, ideally at the individual level. Second, when estimating the health-effect associated with the exposure, confounding adjustment is needed in the health-effects regression model. The current literature addresses these two challenges separately. That is, methods that account for measurement error in the predicted exposure often fail to acknowledge the possibility of confounding, while methods designed to control confounding often fail to acknowledge that the exposure has been predicted. In this paper, we consider exposure prediction and confounding adjustment in a health-effects regression model simultaneously. By using theoretical arguments and simulation studies, we show that the bias of a health-effect estimate is influenced by the exposure prediction model, the type of confounding adjustment used in the health-effects regression model, and the relationship between these two. Moreover, we argue that even with a health-effects regression model that properly adjusts for confounding, the use of a predicted exposure can bias the health-effect estimate unless all confounders included in the health-effects regression model are also included in the exposure prediction model. While these results of this paper were motivated by studies of environmental contaminants, they apply more broadly to any context where an exposure needs to be predicted. PMID:24815302

  17. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  18. Comparison of the Properties of Regression and Categorical Risk-Adjustment Models

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Richard F.; Muldoon, John H.; Hughes, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk-adjustment, the ability to standardize the comparison of individuals with different health needs, is based upon 2 main alternative approaches: regression models and clinical categorical models. In this article, we examine the impact of the differences in the way these models are constructed on end user applications. PMID:26945302

  19. Effect of chain stiffness on polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamic properties of polymers are affected by the stiffness of the chains. In this work, we investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of a lattice model for semiflexible polymer chains. The model is an extension of Shaffer's bond- fluctuation model and includes attractive interactions between monomers and an adjustable bending penalty that determines the Kuhn segment length. For isolated chains, a competition between monomer-monomer interactions and bending penalties determines the chain conformations at low temperatures. For dense melts, packing effects play an important role in the structure and thermodynamics of the polymeric liquid. In order to investigate static properties as a function of temperature and chain stiffness, we perform Wang-Landau type simulations and construct densities of states over the two-dimensional state space of monomer-monomer and bending contributions to the internal energy.

  20. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. METHODS: This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS10 and independent and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools. PMID:22049280

  1. Effect of Intervention to Change Life Style to Increase Marital Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Etemadi, Ahmad; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Shokooh, Navabi-Nejad

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of life style changes on marital adjustment. Eighty couples who had the most determined maladjustment were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. Then an intervention method for life style change was administered to the experimental group. The Enrich was questionnaire for pre and post test. The results show that, the method of life style changing was reducing marital maladjustment. The marital adjustment change score between two groups (Experimental and Control) was significantly different (p< 0.001). This effect was for dimensions of marital adjustment such as; personality issues, financial management, conflict resolution and sexual relationships. It was recommended that counselors and psychotherapists select their intervention method according to the maladjustment dimensions to help afflicted couples with maladjustment.

  2. Freely adjusted properties in Ge-S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Minming; Wang, Xunsi; Jiang, Chen; Xu, Huijuan; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiquan; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Xu, Tiefeng; Tao, Guangming; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we examined the function of halogen iodine acting as a glass network modifier in green chalcogenide glasses based on the Ge-S system. We obtained a series of Ge-S-I glasses and determined their glass-forming region. We then recorded the physical, thermal, and optical properties and studied the effect of halogen iodine on Ge-S-I glasses. Results show that these glasses have relatively wide optical transmission window for infrared (IR) applications. The softening temperature of Ge-S-I glasses varies from 210.54 °C to 321.63 °C, this temperature fits well with some kinds of high-temperature polymers, such as PES and PEI, the polymers serve as protective layers with high strength and flexibility, thus simplifying the fabrication processes of IR chalcogenide glass fiber. Finally, we performed a purification process to eliminate impurities and to improve optical spectra.

  3. The effect of adjustable suture (Khaw) trabeculectomy on intraocular pressure: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ahmet; Kocatürk, Tolga; Dayanır, Volkan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) outcome as well as complications associated with adjustable suture trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients who were uncontrolled under maximum medical therapy. In this retrospective case series, 35 eyes of 30 patients are included in the study. Adjustable suture trabeculectomy with 0.2 mg/cc mitomycin-C for 3 min was performed by the same surgeon. Subconjunctival 5-fluorouracil injection, transconjunctival suture adjustment, digital massage, and/or argon suturolysis were utilized postoperatively as needed. Complete success, qualified success, and failure were defined as IOP ≤ 18 mmHg without medication, IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with one or more medications, and IOP >18 mmHg with medication or need for additional glaucoma surgery, respectively. Of the 35 eyes, 13 had primary open angle, 18 had psuedoexfoliative, 1 had juvenile, 1 had pigmentary, 1 had uveitic, and 1 had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Mean preoperative IOP of 30.1 ± 10.5 mmHg dropped to 10.8 ± 4.7 mmHg (p < 0.001) after a mean follow-up of 595 ± 435 days. Nine eyes had the desired IOP on first postoperative day where no transconjunctival suture adjustment was performed. Remaining 26 eyes required a mean of two adjustments (range 1-7) during the first postoperative 24 days in order to achieve a desirable IOP. Complete success, qualified success, and failure were observed in 28 (80 %), 5 (14 %), and 2 (6 %) eyes, respectively. There were no serious complications related to adjustable suture trabeculectomy. We believe adjustable suture trabeculectomy to be a safe and effective alternative to standard trabeculectomy where a desirable low IOP can be achieved. PMID:26002838

  4. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  5. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  6. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  7. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  8. Are Effective Teachers Like Good Parents? Teaching Styles and Student Adjustment in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding effects of middle school teachers on student adjustment. Found that five teaching dimensions (modeling of motivation, and parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance) predicted student motivation, social behavior, and achievement.…

  9. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  10. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509

  11. Evaluating hospital readmission rates in dialysis facilities; adjusting for hospital effects.

    PubMed

    He, Kevin; Kalbfleisch, Jack D; Li, Yijiang; Li, Yi

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by the national evaluation of readmission rates among kidney dialysis facilities in the United States, we evaluate the impact of including discharging hospitals on the estimation of facility-level standardized readmission ratios (SRRs). The estimation of SRRs consists of two steps. First, we model the dependence of readmission events on facilities and patient-level characteristics, with or without an adjustment for discharging hospitals. Second, using results from the models, standardization is achieved by computing the ratio of the number of observed events to the number of expected events assuming a population norm and given the case-mix in that facility. A challenging aspect of our motivating example is that the number of parameters is very large and estimation of high-dimensional parameters is troublesome. To solve this problem, we propose a structured Newton-Raphson algorithm for a logistic fixed effects model and an approximate EM algorithm for the logistic mixed effects model. We consider a re-sampling and simulation technique to obtain p-values for the proposed measures. Finally, our method of identifying outlier facilities involves converting the observed p-values to Z-statistics and using the empirical null distribution, which accounts for overdispersion in the data. The finite-sample properties of proposed measures are examined through simulation studies. The methods developed are applied to national dialysis data. It is our great pleasure to present this paper in honor of Ross Prentice, who has been instrumental in the development of modern methods of modeling and analyzing life history and failure time data, and in the inventive applications of these methods to important national data problem. PMID:23709309

  12. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  13. Effect of Wound Classification on Risk-Adjustment in American College of Surgeons NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Mila H.; Cohen, Mark E.; Bilimoria, Karl Y.; Latus, Melissa S.; Scholl, Lisa M.; Schwab, Bradley J.; Byrd, Claudia M.; Ko, Clifford Y.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Hall, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical wound classification has been used in risk-adjustment models. However, it can be subjective and potentially improperly bias hospital quality comparisons. The objective is to examine the effect of wound classification on hospital performance risk-adjustment models. Study Design Retrospective review of the 2011 ACS NSQIP database was conducted for wound classification categories: clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty/infected. To assess the influence of wound classification on risk-adjustment, two models were developed for each outcome: one including and one excluding wound classification. For each model, hospital postoperative complications were estimated using hierarchical multivariable regression methods. Absolute changes in hospital rank, correlations of odds-ratios, and outlier status agreement between models were examined. Results Of the 442,149 cases performed in 315 hospitals: 53.6% were classified as clean; 34.2% clean/contaminated; 6.7% contaminated; and 5.5% dirty/infected. The surgical site infection (SSI) rate was highest in dirty/infected (8.5%) and lowest in clean (1.8%) cases. For overall SSI, the absolute change in risk-adjusted hospital performance rank between models including vs. excluding wound classification was minimal (mean 4.5 out of 315 positions). The correlations between odds ratios of the two performance models were nearly perfect (R=0.9976, P<0.0001), and outlier status agreement was excellent (Kappa=0.9508, P<0.0001). Similar findings were observed in models of subgroups of SSI and other postoperative outcomes. Conclusions In circumstances where alternate information is available for risk-adjustment, there appear to be minimal differences in performance models that include vs. exclude wound classification. Therefore, ACS NSQIP is critically evaluating the continued use of wound classification in hospital performance risk-adjustment models. PMID:25053222

  14. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  15. Effects of early exposure and lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Perkins, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to overwhelming and potentially traumatic events early in their lives are considered at-risk for problems in adjustment. Yet it is not known whether it is the age of first exposure (AFE) to violence or the amount of violence that the child witnessed in their lifetime that has the greatest impact on adjustment. For a sample of 190 children ages 6 to 12 exposed to intimate partner violence, their mothers reported that the average length of their abusive relationship was 10 years. The majority of children were first exposed to family violence as infants (64%), with only 12% first exposed when school-aged. Both the AFE and an estimate of the cumulative amount of violence were significantly and negatively related to children's behavioral problems. However, in regression analyses controlling for child sex, ethnicity, age, and family environment variables, cumulative violence exposure accounted for greater variance in adjustment than did AFE. Furthermore, cumulative violence exposure mediated the relationship between AFE and externalizing behavior problems, indicating that the cumulative exposure to IPV outweighed the AFE in its effect on child adjustment. PMID:20712143

  16. [Effect of economic structure adjustment on pollution emission: a case study of COD].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Hang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Economic structure adjustment is an important means to reduce the emissions of pollutants. For quantitative analysis of the effect of economic structure adjustment on the reduction of pollution emission, the country was divided into four sub-regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, and the industry was divided into 39 sectors. Taking chemical oxygen demand (COD) as an example, the influences of regional structure and industry structure adjustment on total emission reduction and emission intensity were analyzed through building a model. The results showed that, in 2000-2010: (1) COD emissions in China were reduced from 1 445 x 10(4) t to 1 238 x 10(4) t, with a total emission of 14 950 x 10(4) t in 11 years, among which the emissions from eastern area occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 35.6%. (2) In the industrial COD emissions, emission from paper and paper products was the largest, accounting for 35.8% of the industrial COD emissions. (3) The economic structure changes in the four areas reduced the COD emissions by 420 x 10(4) t, resulting in a decrease of 1.29% in COD emission intensity. (4) Industrial internal structure changes reduced the COD emissions by 533 x 10(4) t, leading to a decrease of 3.1% in COD emission intensity. The research results have certain reference value in guiding the Chinese economic structure adjustment and achieving the targets of energy-saving and emission reduction. PMID:25338401

  17. Quality of sexual life and its effect on marital adjustment of Turkish women in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Yilmaz, Duygu; Güner, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an important period of a woman's life that can affect marital relationships because of decrease in the sexual function. This study aimed to examine the effect of sexual life on the marital adjustment of 607 healthy, pregnant women using the self-administered Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female and the Marital Adjustment Scale. Results showed that 30% of the pregnant women experienced problems during sexual intercourse and 50% had painful intercourse. The median total score of the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female for pregnant women was 35.5, and the median total score of the Marital Adjustment Scale was 41.0. The authors found a positive moderate level correlation between the sexual quality of life for women and their marital adjustment for being pregnant (r = 0.468, p =.001). The results imply that the variance in the sexual activity during the childbearing period does occur and pregnant women need to be assessed regularly with regards to their sexuality by health care providers in a professional atmosphere. PMID:24102194

  18. Effects of anchoring and adjustment in the evaluation of product pricing.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Sayag, Neta; Ezer, Aliya

    2010-08-01

    Anchoring and adjustment comprise a heuristic that creates expectations. Two types of anchors were applied on participants' evaluation of products: the price reference of the product (maximum, minimum, or no price reference) and the context in which the products were evaluated (the prestige of the shopping center). Results showed that both factors anchored evaluations of products' value. Context effects were explained by the different expectations of visitors in prestigious (looking for quality) and less prestigious (seeking a bargain) centers. PMID:20923048

  19. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981) and Schaefer and Moos (1993) were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching atmosphere. Based on these findings

  20. Effects of site-specific level adjustments on speech recognition with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    ) required for 50% correct speech recognition, were evaluated for these MAPs using CUNY sentences. The site-specific level-adjusted MAPs were compared to the globally level-adjusted MAP and the MAP without level adjustment. The effects on speech recognition of adjusting the minimal stimulation level settings on the 5 poorest stimulation sites were also compared with effects of removing these sites from the speech-processor MAP. Results The 5% level increase on the 5 electrodes with the worst MDTs resulted in an improvement in the group-mean SRT of 2.36 dB SNR relative to the MAP without level adjustment. The magnitude of level increase that resulted in the greatest SRT improvement for individuals varied across ears. MDTs measured at 20% DR significantly improved on the poor sites after the level adjustment that resulted in the best SRT for that ear was applied. Increasing the minimal stimulation levels on all stimulation sites or removing sites selected for rehabilitation, the parsimonious approaches, did not improve speech reception thresholds. Conclusions The site-specific adjustments of the T level settings improved modulation sensitivity at low levels and significantly improved subjects’ speech reception thresholds. Thus, this site-rehabilitation strategy was an effective alternative to site-selection strategies for improving speech recognition in cochlear implant users. PMID:24225651

  1. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance. PMID:26686705

  2. Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PMID:24015982

  3. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time. PMID:25827314

  4. Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnik, M. V.; Visheratin, K. N.

    2008-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100°C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

  5. Adjustments of global and local hindlimb properties during terrestrial locomotion of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix).

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Nyakatura, John A; Bergmann, Florian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has resulted in increasing insight into neuro-mechanical control strategies during perturbed locomotion. In contrast, more general analyses on simple model (template)-related parameters during avian terrestrial locomotion are still rare. Quail kinematic data obtained using X-ray videography combined with ground reaction force measurements were used as a basis to investigate how 'global' template and 'local' leg joint parameters in this small, predominantly terrestrial bird change with speed and gait. Globally, quail locomotion approximates a spring-like behavior in all investigated gaits. However, ground reaction forces are more vertically oriented, which may help to balance the trunk. At the joint level, practically all the spring-like work was found to occur in the intertarsal joint (ITJ). From walking to grounded running, the local stiffness of the ITJ decreases similarly to the reduction observed in global leg stiffness. Thus, in gaits without aerial phases the quails may modulate ITJ stiffness to regulate global leg stiffness, and therefore gait changes, to a significant degree. At higher speeds both global leg compression and stiffness are increased (the latter to values not significantly different to those obtained during walking). This enables the animals to shorten contact time and to generate aerial phases (running). However, we did not observe a change in the stiffness in the ITJ with a change of gait from grounded running to running. We hypothesize that a more extended leg at touch-down, controlled by the joint angles in the knee and ITJ, has an important influence in the leg stiffness adjustment process during running. PMID:23868846

  6. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  7. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  8. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effect. (b) Method of adjustment—(1) Increase in basis. Where an election under section 754 is in effect... accounted for under a long-term contract method of accounting. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(1) are... in partnership ABC. The partnership has no liabilities and has assets consisting of cash of...

  9. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels. PMID:21117984

  10. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  11. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun-Hee; Pedersen, Lise; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Hong, Yun-Chul; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N = 514) and the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended. PMID:24853977

  12. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Esteem and Pay Satisfaction on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Warnie; von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Carole

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two papers investigating the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer. In the first paper we examined the effect of self-efficacy and flexibility within this adjustment process, revealing the significance of self-efficacy but failing to…

  13. Observational Constraint of Aerosol Effects on the CMIP5 Inter-model Spread of Adjusted Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Bordoni, S.

    2013-12-01

    The simulated global-mean temperature (GMT) change over the past 150 years is quite consistent across CMIP5 climate models and also consistent with the observations. However, the predicted future GMT under the identical CO2 forcing is divergent. This paradox is partly due to the errors in the predicted GMT produced by historical greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing being compensated by the parameterization of aerosol cloud radiative forcing. Historical increases in anthropogenic aerosols exert an overall (but highly uncertain) cooling effect in the climate system, which partially offsets the warming due to well mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs). Because aerosol concentrations are predicted to eventually decrease in future scenarios, climate change becomes dominated by warming due to the WMGHG. This change in the relative importance of forcing by aerosol versus WMGHG makes apparent the substantial differences in prediction of climate by WMGHG forcing. Here we investigate the role of aerosols in the context of adjusted forcing changes in the historical runs and the effect of aerosols on the cloud feedback. Our preliminary results suggest that models which are more sensitive to the increase in concentration of CO2 have a larger aerosol radiative cooling effect. By comparing the historicalMisc runs and historicalGHG runs, we find that aerosols exert a potential impact on the cloud adjusted forcings, especially shortwave cloud adjusted forcings. We use the CLIPSO, MISR and CERES data as the benchmark to evaluate the present aerosol simulations. Using satellite observations to assess the relative reliability of the different model responses and to constrain the simulated aerosol radiative forcing will contribute significantly to reducing the across model spread in future climate simulations and identifying some missing physical processes.

  14. The effect of case-mix adjustment on admission-based reimbursement.

    PubMed Central

    Kinzer, D; Warner, M

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions: (1) Does adjusting for case mix have any effect on prospective admission-based reimbursement? and (2) How does the way in which case type is defined (DRG, ICD9CM, Age, etc) affect reimbursement systems? Data from 20 Maryland hospitals provided the basis for analysis, and the results illustrate how hospital reimbursement is affected under alternative definitions of case type (including no case type), showing highly significant variation. Implications for cost control and existing and proposed prospective reimbursement systems are discussed. Images Figure 5 PMID:6409840

  15. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    PubMed

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E

    2012-10-01

    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment. PMID:23073971

  16. [Dependence of carcinogenic properties of benzene derivatives on structure of their substituents adjusted for biotransformation].

    PubMed

    Kharchevnikova, N V; Zholdakova, Z I

    2011-01-01

    An oxenoid model of the effect of cytochrome P450 and quantum chemical calculations were used to study a relationship of the carcinogenic activity of the benzene derivatives C6H5-X and C6H4-XY to the nature of the substituents X and Y For mono- and disubstituted benzenes, the methods based on the neglect of diatomic differential overlap was used to calculate the minimal values of AE for this compound, which is the minimum difference in the complete energies of the arenoxide intermediate OC6-H5-X or OC6H4-XY with one tetraedrically coordinated carbon atom in the benzene ring in reference to the initiar molecule of substituted benzene. The boundary value of the parameter deltaE min' which separated cancerogenic compounds from noncancerogenous ones was determined. A classification for nitrosubstituted benzenes was clarified using the parameter characterizing bioactivation via nitro group reduction to form phenylhydroxylamines and then nitrenic ions. PMID:22250402

  17. Radiation Effects on Polymer Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Report compiles data on effects of radiation on physical properties of synthetic organic materials. Emphasis on materials of interest to nuclear-equipment and nuclear-reactor designers. Data covers five categories of polymeric materials: Insulators, elastomeric seals and gaskets, lubricants, adhesives, and coatings. More than 250 materials represented.

  18. Effects of alignment of adjustable collimator on dosimetric parameters of a telecobalt machine.

    PubMed

    Sahani, G; Sharma, S D; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Hussain, S A

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the most appropriate hinge point for the alignment of adjustable collimators/trimmer bars in a telecobalt machine for obtaining acceptable dosimetric parameters of a telecobalt machine. Variations of relative output of the telecobalt machine with selection of different hinge points were also investigated. MCNP code was used for the present the study. A water phantom of dimension 50 x 50 x 40 cm(3) having voxels each of volume 0.72 cm(3) was used in our study for generating beam profiles and depth dose curves. When hinge points are selected at the periphery of the source bottom and the source top, flatness, symmetry and penumbra were found to be well within the recommended tolerance limits whereas values are far beyond with the hinge points selected at the centre of source bottom or the source top. Moreover, it was observed that the relative output of a telecobalt machine with hinge points at centre of the source bottom and the source top are appreciably lower than that of at periphery of source bottom particularly for smaller field sizes. This effect is due to the blockage of the part of the source volume in the radiation field. Therefore, hinge point for the alignment of adjustable collimators/trimmer bars should be selected either at periphery of source bottom or the source top for obtaining clinically acceptable flatness, symmetry and penumbra. However, selecting hinge point at the periphery of the source bottom for the alignment of the adjustable collimators/trimmer bars would be more appropriate as height of the source will vary depending on activity of the source used in the source capsule for given specific activity. PMID:23098284

  19. Systematic adjustment of charge densities and size of polyglycerol amines reduces cytotoxic effects and enhances cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Hellmund, Markus; Achazi, Katharina; Neumann, Falko; Thota, Bala N S; Ma, Nan; Haag, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Excessive cationic charge density of polyplexes during cellular uptake is still a major hurdle in the field of non-viral gene delivery. The most efficient cationic vectors such as polyethylene imine (PEI) or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) can be highly toxic and may induce strong side effects due to their high cationic charge densities. Alternatives like polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used to 'shield' these charges and thus to reduce the cytotoxic effects known for PEI/PEG-core-shell architectures. In this study, we compared the ability of hyperbranched polyglycerol amines (hPG amines) with different amine densities and molecular weights as non-viral cationic vectors for DNA delivery. By adjusting the hydroxyl to amine group ratio on varying molecular weights, we were able to perform a systematic study on the cytotoxic effects caused by the effective charge density in correlation to size. We could demonstrate that carriers with moderate charge density have a higher potential for effective DNA delivery as compared to high/low charged ones independent of their size, but the final efficiency can be optimized by the molecular weight. We analyzed the physicochemical properties and cellular uptake capacity as well as the cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of these new vector systems. PMID:26244171

  20. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting. PMID:10802832

  1. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  2. Relative Age Effects in Athletic Sprinting and Corrective Adjustments as a Solution for Their Removal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs) refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 – 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i) RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%); (ii) whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes – Top 10%) regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development. PMID:25844642

  3. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, Kathryn R

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed. PMID:14717258

  4. Effect of Risk Adjustment Method on Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users and Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Deyo, Richard A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Lafferty, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers are becoming more integrated into the United States health care system. Because patients self-select CAM use, risk adjustment is needed to make the groups more comparable when analyzing utilization. This study examined how the choice of risk adjustment method affects assessment of CAM use on overall health care utilization. Design and subjects Insurance claims data for 2000–2003 from Washington State, which mandates coverage of CAM providers, were analyzed. Three (3) risk adjustment methods were compared in patients with musculoskeletal conditions: Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCG), and the Charlson Index. Relative Value Units (RVUs) were used as a proxy for expenditures. Two (2) sets of median regression models were created: prospective, which used risk adjustments from the previous year to predict RVU in the subsequent year, and concurrent, which used risk adjustment measures to predict RVU in the same year. Results The sample included 92,474 claimants. Prospective models showed little difference in the effect of CAM use on RVU among the three risk adjustment methods, and all models had low predictive power (R2 ≤0.05). In the concurrent models, coefficients were similar in direction and magnitude for all risk adjustment methods, but in some models the predicted effect of CAM use on RVU differed by as much as double between methods. Results of DCG and ACG models were similar and were stronger than Charlson models. Conclusions Choice of risk adjustment method may have a modest effect on the outcome of interest. PMID:23036140

  5. Comparison of intraocular pressure adjusted by central corneal thickness or corneal biomechanical properties as measured in glaucomatous eyes using noncontact tonometers and the Goldmann applanation tonometer

    PubMed Central

    Yaoeda, Kiyoshi; Fukushima, Atsushi; Shirakashi, Motohiro; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlation coefficients between intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after adjusting for central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal biomechanical properties. Patients and methods A total of 218 eyes of 218 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean age =71.5 years; mean spherical equivalent =−0.51 D; mean deviation determined by Humphrey visual field analyzer =−3.22 dB) were included in this study. The tIOP and tIOPCCT, which were adjusted by the CCT (with tIOP meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT, as determined using the CT-1P; and tIOPCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the CT-1P), were determined using a noncontact tonometer. The IOPg and IOPCCT, which were adjusted by CCT, and IOPcc adjusted by corneal biomechanical properties were determined using a Reichert 7CR (with IOPg meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT or corneal biomechanical properties, as determined using the Reichert 7CR; IOPCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the Reichert 7CR; and IOPcc meaning IOP adjusted by corneal biomechanical properties, as determined using the Reichert 7CR). The GT and GTCCT adjusted by CCT were determined using a Goldmann applanation tonometer (with GT meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT, as determined using the Goldmann applanation tonometer; and with GTCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the GAT). Pearson’s correlation coefficients among the IOPs were calculated and compared. P-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results The tIOP, tIOPCCT, IOPg, IOPCCT, IOPcc, GT, and GTCCT were 14.8±2.5, 15.0±2.4, 13.1±3.2, 13.3±3.1, 13.7±2.9, 13.2±2.4, and 13.4±2.3 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The correlation coefficient between tIOPCCT and tIOP (r=0.979) was significantly higher than that between tIOPCCT and the other IOPs (r=0.668–0.852; P<0.001, respectively). The correlation coefficient between IOPCCT and IOPg (r=0.994) or IOPcc and IOPg (r=0.892) was

  6. Effects of chain flexibility on the properties of DNA hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Wen, Hao; Niu, Lin; Su, Cuicui; Liu, Chenyang; Zhao, Jiang; Mao, Chengde; Liang, Dehai

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chain rigidity on the mechanic properties of DNA hydrogels was studied. Counterintuitively, the hydrogel formed by mainly flexible chains exhibited better stability, stretchability, and much mechanical properties than the hydrogel containing only rigid chains. Calculations showed that the crosslinking ratio in the hydrogel formed by flexible chains was about twice that of the hydrogel formed by rigid chains under the same conditions. We attributed this to the ease of conformational adjustment of flexible chains. Incorporation of 25% rigid chains further improved the performance of DNA hydrogel by shrinking the pore size and tuning its distribution. PMID:27121600

  7. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850

  8. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and leg muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need. PMID:25434280

  9. Regulatory Properties of ADP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Are Required for Adjustment of Leaf Starch Synthesis in Different Photoperiods1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E.; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5′-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated. PMID:25293961

  10. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  11. The Effects of Coping Humour and Gender on College Adjustment in Turkish Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Yuksel, Asuman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of coping humour and gender in the college adjustment of Turkish freshmen. Considering greater happiness and academic achievement as predictors of initial college adjustment, data were gathered from a sample of 574 students using the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWS) and the Coping Humour…

  12. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  13. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  14. The Buffering Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Adjustment of Secondary School Students in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, David Akinlolu

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and adjustment of students transitioning from primary school to secondary school. Method: The study is a descriptive survey research in which emotional intelligence stands as the independent variable and adjustment as the dependent variable.…

  15. The Effects of Personality and Acculturation on the Adjustment of North American Sojourners in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swagler, Michelle A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2005-01-01

    As more North Americans sojourn abroad in the emerging global marketplace, it is important to understand the factors related to successful cross-cultural adjustment. This study explores how personality factors and acculturation influence the cross-cultural adjustment process of North Americans sojourning in Taiwan. The results reveal that greater…

  16. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  17. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  18. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987

  19. Risk Prediction for Prostate Cancer Recurrence Through Regularized Estimation with Simultaneous Adjustment for Nonlinear Clinical Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qi; Chung, Matthias; Moreno, Carlos S.; Johnson, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    In biomedical studies, it is of substantial interest to develop risk prediction scores using high-dimensional data such as gene expression data for clinical endpoints that are subject to censoring. In the presence of well-established clinical risk factors, investigators often prefer a procedure that also adjusts for these clinical variables. While accelerated failure time (AFT) models are a useful tool for the analysis of censored outcome data, it assumes that covariate effects on the logarithm of time-to-event are linear, which is often unrealistic in practice. We propose to build risk prediction scores through regularized rank estimation in partly linear AFT models, where high-dimensional data such as gene expression data are modeled linearly and important clinical variables are modeled nonlinearly using penalized regression splines. We show through simulation studies that our model has better operating characteristics compared to several existing models. In particular, we show that there is a non-negligible effect on prediction as well as feature selection when nonlinear clinical effects are misspecified as linear. This work is motivated by a recent prostate cancer study, where investigators collected gene expression data along with established prognostic clinical variables and the primary endpoint is time to prostate cancer recurrence. We analyzed the prostate cancer data and evaluated prediction performance of several models based on the extended c statistic for censored data, showing that 1) the relationship between the clinical variable, prostate specific antigen, and the prostate cancer recurrence is likely nonlinear, i.e., the time to recurrence decreases as PSA increases and it starts to level off when PSA becomes greater than 11; 2) correct specification of this nonlinear effect improves performance in prediction and feature selection; and 3) addition of gene expression data does not seem to further improve the performance of the resultant risk

  20. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  1. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  2. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of “shakiness” with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands. PMID:26328711

  3. The differential effects of forms and settings of exposure to violence on adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants (i.e., self-report, teacher report, and school report) were used to assess emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning in adolescents. The results of this study showed that overall exposure to violence was related to emotional and behavior problems. High rates of exposure to violence across multiple contexts were found in this sample. After controlling for the co-occurrence of risk factors (e.g., exposure to violence in other settings), both witnessing school violence and being victimized by domestic violence were associated with emotional problems, whereas being victimized by community violence was related to behavior problems. These results suggest that there are differential effects of risks associated with different forms and settings of exposure. PMID:19752203

  4. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce. PMID:21375123

  5. WBGT clothing adjustment factors for four clothing ensembles and the effects of metabolic demands.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thomas E; Caravello, Victor; Schwartz, Skai W; Ashley, Candi D

    2008-01-01

    This study measured the clothing adjustment factors (CAFs) for four clothing ensembles (Cotton Coveralls, Tyvek 1427 Coveralls, NexGen Coveralls, and Tychem QC Coveralls; all coveralls were worn without hoods) against a baseline of cotton work clothes to determine whether the CAFs would be affected by the metabolic rate. Fifteen participants wore one of the five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at low, moderate, and high rates of work in an environment maintained at 50% relative humidity. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature. When the participant's core temperature reached a steady-state, the dry bulb temperature was increased. The point at which the core temperature began to increase was defined as the inflection point, and the WBGT recorded 5 min before the inflection point was the critical WBGT for each ensemble. A three-way mixed effects linear model with ensemble by metabolic rate category interactions demonstrated that the CAF did not change with metabolic rate, so CAFs can be used over a wide range of metabolic rates. The data at the moderate metabolic rate were combined with data on 14 participants from a previous study under the same conditions. The CAFs in degrees C WBGT were 0 for cotton coveralls, 1.0 for Tyvek 1422A, and 2.5 for NexGen. Although the value of 7.5 for Tychem QC was found, the recommendation remained at 10 to account for the effects of humidity. The standard error for the determination of WBGT crit at 50% relative humidity was 1.60 degrees C WBGT. PMID:17999329

  6. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Wu, Bao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98%) of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10%) were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which was 8.93 days vs 7.68 days (P=0.26) and 30.10% vs 27.36% (P=0.39), respectively. Conclusion Pharmacist dosing adjustment for patients receiving CRRT was well accepted by physicians, and was related with lower adverse drug event rates and ICU cost savings. These results may support the development of strategies to include a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary ICU team. PMID:24940066

  7. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  8. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  9. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  10. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  11. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  12. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  13. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples. PMID:26644864

  14. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children’s optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-01-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  15. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  16. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  17. Adjustment of lifetime risks of space radiation-induced cancer by the healthy worker effect and cancer misclassification.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Leif E; Kovyrshina, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Background. The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a source of bias in occupational studies of mortality among workers caused by use of comparative disease rates based on public data, which include mortality of unhealthy members of the public who are screened out of the workplace. For the US astronaut corp, the HWE is assumed to be strong due to the rigorous medical selection and surveillance. This investigation focused on the effect of correcting for HWE on projected lifetime risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence. Methods. We performed radiation-induced cancer risk assessment using Poisson regression of cancer mortality and incidence rates among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Regression coefficients were used for generating risk coefficients for the excess absolute, transfer, and excess relative models. Excess lifetime risks (ELR) for radiation exposure and baseline lifetime risks (BLR) were adjusted for the HWE using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for aviators and nuclear workers who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. We also adjusted lifetime risks by cancer mortality misclassification among atomic bomb survivors. Results. For all cancers combined ("Nonleukemia"), the effect of adjusting the all-cause hazard rate by the simulated quantiles of the all-cause SMR resulted in a mean difference (not percent difference) in ELR of 0.65% and mean difference of 4% for mortality BLR, and mean change of 6.2% in BLR for incidence. The effect of adjusting the excess (radiation-induced) cancer rate or baseline cancer hazard rate by simulated quantiles of cancer-specific SMRs resulted in a mean difference of [Formula: see text] in the all-cancer mortality ELR and mean difference of [Formula: see text] in the mortality BLR. Whereas for incidence, the effect of adjusting by cancer-specific SMRs resulted in a mean change of [Formula: see text] for the all-cancer BLR. Only cancer mortality risks were adjusted by

  18. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  19. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  20. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  1. The Differential Effects of Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence on Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants…

  2. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  3. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  4. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J. M.; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  5. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Maryam; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sample population answered questionnaires for marital adjustment, sexual satisfaction and quality of life after which they received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Pre- and post-tests showed that EFT-C had a significant effect on marital adjust- ment and quality of life. Conclusion According to the results, EFT-C had a significant, positive effect on en- hancement of marital adjustment. Life quality of infertile couples significantly increased via application of EFT-C. This approach improved the physical, psychological and social relationships of infertile couples and enhanced their social environment. PMID:26246883

  6. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  7. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  8. Effects of Thermodynamic Properties on Slab Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, I.; King, S. D.; Caddick, M. J.; Ross, N.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a series of numerical experiments to investigate the effects of thermodynamic properties on the geometrical evolution of subducting slabs. We calculate density (ρ), thermal expansivity (α), and heat capacity (cp) of mantle mineral assemblages of a harzburgite composition over a range of pressure and temperature conditions applicable to the Earth's mantle, using the thermodynamic database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni [2011] and the thermodynamic calculation code Perple_X [Connolly, 2009]. Following Nakagawa et al. [2009], we assume that thermal diffusivity (κ) follows a power-law relationship with density (κ=κ0(ρ/ρ0)3, where κ0 and ρ0 are reference diffusivity and density, respectively). The calculations show that ρ, α, and κ change significantly along mantle geotherms; the ranges of their values are 3300-5100 km/m3, 1.5-3.5 10-5/K, and 3-17 W/m K, respectively. The change in cp is small (< 5%). We incorporate the pressure and temperature (PT) dependence of these thermodynamic properties into a 2-D finite element code with compressible convection formulations under the truncated anelastic liquid approximation [Lee and King, 2009] and develop a dynamic subduction model with kinematic boundary conditions. In the model, we use a composite mantle rheology that accounts for both diffusion and dislocation creep with flow law parameterization of wet olivine [Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003]. Following Billen and Hirth [2007] and Lee and King [2011], we adjust the flow law parameter values for the lower mantle to test the effects of viscosity contrast between the upper and lower mantle on slab evolution. We use a reference model with a constant ρ, κ α, and cp, which is equivalent to using the incompressible extended Bousisnesq approximation. Preliminary results show that incorporating PT-dependent ρ enhances the vigor of the buoyancy driven flow compared to the reference model. Further, lithostatic pressure at a given depth is higher than in the

  9. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking. PMID:27190468

  10. Adjustment of wind-drift effect for real-time systematic error correction in radar rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiang; Han, Dawei; Zhuo, Lu; Huang, Jing; Islam, Tanvir; Zhang, Shuliang

    An effective bias correction procedure using gauge measurement is a significant step for radar data processing to reduce the systematic error in hydrological applications. In these bias correction methods, the spatial matching of precipitation patterns between radar and gauge networks is an important premise. However, the wind-drift effect on radar measurement induces an inconsistent spatial relationship between radar and gauge measurements as the raindrops observed by radar do not fall vertically to the ground. Consequently, a rain gauge does not correspond to the radar pixel based on the projected location of the radar beam. In this study, we introduce an adjustment method to incorporate the wind-drift effect into a bias correlation scheme. We first simulate the trajectory of raindrops in the air using downscaled three-dimensional wind data from the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and calculate the final location of raindrops on the ground. The displacement of rainfall is then estimated and a radar-gauge spatial relationship is reconstructed. Based on this, the local real-time biases of the bin-average radar data were estimated for 12 selected events. Then, the reference mean local gauge rainfall, mean local bias, and adjusted radar rainfall calculated with and without consideration of the wind-drift effect are compared for different events and locations. There are considerable differences for three estimators, indicating that wind drift has a considerable impact on the real-time radar bias correction. Based on these facts, we suggest bias correction schemes based on the spatial correlation between radar and gauge measurements should consider the adjustment of the wind-drift effect and the proposed adjustment method is a promising solution to achieve this.

  11. Adult trauma and HIV status among Latinas: effects upon psychological adjustment and substance use.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael D; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Latinas have unique cultural factors that can contribute to their health, including recent immigration, documentation status, and language barriers. Additional stressors and experiencing traumatic events can further compromise their psychological adjustment and substance use. This study tests the differential contribution of adult trauma and other life stressors to psychological adjustment and substance use among Latinas who differ in their HIV status and level of acculturation. Baseline and 1-year follow-up data on a community sample of 113 (79 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative) 1 to 50 year old Latinas were examined with path analyses to estimate the influence of acculturation, HIV status, and adult trauma, including intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault, on subsequent changes in psychological adjustment (depression) and substance use 1 year later. Age, education, and relationship status were controlled and further analyses examined the interactive influence of HIV status and acculturation and trauma on the outcomes. Findings indicate that both acculturation and HIV status were related to the outcome variables, but did not influence these over time, emphasizing the developmental stability of these processes. Education was the most prominent variable in protecting these women from HIV, depression, and intimate partner violence (IPV), but placed them at greater risk for illicit drug use. The primary predictors of change in the outcome variables were domestic and sexual trauma were exacerbated by HIV positive status. Implications for future research and culturally relevant prevention and intervention programs are discussed. PMID:15690115

  12. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  13. Adjoint Methods for Adjusting Three-Dimensional Atmosphere and Surface Properties to Fit Multi-Angle Multi-Pixel Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William G.; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth?s atmosphere.

  14. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  15. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  16. Effects of unilateral stroke on multi-finger synergies and their feed-forward adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jo, H J; Maenza, C; Good, D C; Huang, X; Park, J; Sainburg, R L; Latash, M L

    2016-04-01

    We explored the changes in multi-finger synergies in patients after a single cortical stroke with mild motor impairments. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The patients with history of cortical stroke, and age-matched controls (n=12 in each group) performed one-finger and multi-finger accurate force production tasks involving both steady-state and quick force pulse production. Finger interdependence (enslaving) and multi-finger synergies stabilizing total force were quantified. The stroke patients showed lower maximal finger forces, in particular in the contralesional hand, which also showed increased enslaving indices. Multi-finger synergies during steady-state force production were, however, unchanged after stroke. In contrast, a drop in the synergy index prior to the force pulse generation was significantly delayed in the stroke patients. Our results show that mild cortical stroke leads to no significant changes in multifinger synergies, but there is impairment in feed-forward adjustments of the synergies prior to a quick action, a drop in the maximal force production, and an increase in enslaving. We conclude that studies of synergies reveal two aspects of synergic control differentially affected by cortical stroke. PMID:26828408

  17. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  18. Effect of Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch Ratio on the Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) showed substantial reinforcement effects in rubber composites. Due to different abilities of WG and WS to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG and WS as a co-filler. The...

  19. Therapeutic effects of minimally invasive adjustable and locking compression plate for unstable pelvic fractures via posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Lv, Hong-Zhi; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Unstable pelvic fractures are clinically complex injuries. Selecting appropriate treatment remains a challenging problem for orthopedic physicians. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical effects of minimally invasive adjustable plate and locking compression plate in treatment of unstable pelvic fractures via posterior approach. Methods: From January 2009 to June 2012, fifty-six patients with unstable pelvic fractures were included. After at least 12-month follow-up, forty-four patients treated with two methods were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: minimally invasive adjustable plate (group A) and locking compression plate (group B). Preoperative and postoperative radiography was taken to assess the fracture displacement and reduction quality. The size of incision, operation duration, blood loss, duration of X-ray exposures, Majeed postoperative functional evaluation and Lindahl postoperative reduction evaluation were analyzed. Results: The mean follow-up in group A was 27.3 months (range, 13-48 months), and that in group B was 21.8 months (range, 12-42 months). There were no iatrogenic neurovascular injuries during the operations in the two groups. In group B, malunion was observed in one patient, and infection of incision was observed in one case. The operation duration, blood loss, and size of incision of group A were significantly less than that of group B. There was no significant difference in the duration of X-ray exposures between the two groups. The Majeed functional evaluation score in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. The difference of the imaging score of the retained displacement was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the two methods can effectively stabilize the unstable pelvic fractures. However, the minimally invasive adjustable plate has the advantages of minimally invasive, less radiation exposure, technically safe and time saving. Minimally invasive adjustable plate is a

  20. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  1. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  2. Examining the Relationship between Heavy Alcohol Use and Assaults: With Adjustment for the Effects of Unmeasured Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Methods. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Results. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P < 0.05) among participants who consumed 5+ drinks/day for 5–8 days/month and 9–30 days/month, respectively. Conclusions. Even after adjustment for unknown/unmeasured confounders the association between heavy alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence. PMID:26380283

  3. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  4. Essays in applied macroeconomics: Asymmetric price adjustment, exchange rate and treatment effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jingping

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II examines the possible asymmetric response of gasoline prices to crude oil price changes using an error correction model with GARCH errors. Recent papers have looked at this issue. Some of these papers estimate a form of error correction model, but none of them accounts for autoregressive heteroskedasticity in estimation and testing for asymmetry and none of them takes the response of crude oil price into consideration. We find that time-varying volatility of gasoline price disturbances is an important feature of the data, and when we allow for asymmetric GARCH errors and investigate the system wide impulse response function, we find evidence of asymmetric adjustment to crude oil price changes in weekly retail gasoline prices. Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports only a weak impact of fiscal deficits on exchange rates. Based on US dollar-based real exchange rates in G5 countries and a flexible varying coefficient model, we show that the previously documented weak relationship between fiscal deficits and exchange rates may be the result of additive specifications, and that the relationship is stronger if we allow fiscal deficits to impact real exchange rates non-additively as well as nonlinearly. We find that the speed of exchange rate adjustment toward equilibrium depends on the state of the fiscal deficit; a fiscal contraction in the US can lead to less persistence in the deviation of exchange rates from fundamentals, and faster mean reversion to the equilibrium. Chapter IV proposes a kernel method to deal with the nonparametric regression model with only discrete covariates as regressors. This new approach is based on recently developed least squares cross-validation kernel smoothing method. It can not only automatically smooth

  5. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  6. Low-cost tissue simulating phantoms with adjustable wavelength-dependent scattering properties in the visible and infrared ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Quach, Alan; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Baldado, Melissa L.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method for low-cost fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue simulating phantoms with tunable scattering spectra, spanning visible, and near-infrared regimes. These phantoms use optical polishing agents (aluminum oxide powders) at various grit sizes to approximate in vivo tissue scattering particles across multiple size distributions (range: 17 to 3 μm). This class of tunable scattering phantoms is used to mimic distinct changes in wavelength-dependent scattering properties observed in tissue pathologies such as partial thickness burns. Described by a power-law dependence on wavelength, the scattering magnitude of these phantoms scale linearly with particle concentration over a physiologic range [μs‧=(0.5 to 2.0 mm-1)] whereas the scattering spectra, specific to each particle size distribution, correlate to distinct exponential coefficients (range: 0.007 to 0.32). Aluminum oxide powders used in this investigation did not detectably contribute to the absorption properties of these phantoms. The optical properties of these phantoms are verified through inverse adding-doubling methods and the tolerances of this fabrication method are discussed.

  7. Cascading effects of interparental conflict in adolescence: Linking threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents' perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 sixth-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in eighth grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Third, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents' threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  8. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  9. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  10. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  11. Cascading Effects of Interparental Conflict in Adolescence: Linking Threat Appraisals, Self-Efficacy, and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents’ perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 6th-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in 8th grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Finally, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents’ threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  12. The "How" and "When" of Parental Loss in Adulthood: Effects on Grief and Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Pruett, Jessica H; Caballero, Daniela M

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of cause of death on the grief responses of parentally bereaved young and middle-aged adults, 400 individuals completed measures assessing their experiences and feelings surrounding the loss of a parent. Respondents included 247 young adults and 155 middle-aged adults. Cause of death was categorized as acute or anticipated with 209 participants reporting the parent's death as acute, while anticipated death was reported by 191 individuals. Results suggested that gender of the adult child and age level of the participant were important factors contributing to the grief response, and women were found to have more difficulty adjusting to the loss of a parent as well as demonstrating a more intense grief response. Young adults were found to be more impacted by the loss of a parent than were middle-aged adults. Those who were single or separated were similarly more impacted versus those who were married, where more young adults were single/separated and more middle-aged adults were married. Cause of death was only mildly influential in influencing responses to parental loss and did not interact with other studied variables. These results point to the importance of support from others in coping with a parent's death as well as for the counseling of bereaved persons who may be at risk for difficulties in coping with the death of a parent and enable a more precise understanding of individual grief processes across the adult lifespan. PMID:26152024

  13. Effects of pH adjustment with phosphates on attributes and functionalities of normal and high pH beef.

    PubMed

    Young, O A; Zhang, S X; Farouk, M M; Podmore, C

    2005-05-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles from six normal- and six high-ultimate pH bulls were selected for fine mincing and subsequent pH adjustment with acid and alkaline pyrophosphate. Four pH treatments were prepared: initially high remains high (mean of pH 6.37), high becomes normal (5.62); initially normal remains normal (5.65), and normal becomes high (6.21). The addition level of phosphate as P(2)O(5) was the same in all replicates. Before pH adjustment, colour and water holding capacity (WHC) values were strongly affected by higher (initial) pH in expected ways: darker, lower chroma, higher capacity. After pH adjustment, these values were affected only by the final pH, not the initial pH (the pH history). Total protein solubility was likewise affected by final pH but not initial pH. In contrast, the combination high initial pH-high final pH improved sarcoplasmic protein solubility by 20% over the combination normal initial pH-high final pH. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility is an indicator of strain required to fracture cooked batters made from the minced meats; in the event, the rank order of the four treatments for strain-to-fracture matched that of sarcoplasmic protein solubility. Statistically, sarcoplasmic protein solubility and strain-to-fracture were both affected by initial pH (P<0.01) and final pH (P<0.001). However, stress required to fracture cooked batters was entirely controlled by initial pH (P<0.01). In other words, the stress-to-fracture advantage of initially high pH meat was not matched by upward pH adjustment of initially normal pH meat. Emulsion stability, which is better with higher pH meat, was affected by initial and final pH (both P<0.01). Cook yield, like WHC of pH-adjusted raw meat, was more due to final pH than initial pH, similarly cooked batter colour, whereas final pH had a significant effect on quality attributes (generally better when higher). An initially high pH history conferred an enduring advantage on three important batter attributes

  14. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  15. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed. PMID:25561100

  16. Isomer effects on polyimide properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of structure variation on the solubility and glass-transition temperature of polyimide polymers is investigated. The addition of alkyl substituents to an aromatic ring in the polymer molecule, the reduction in the number of imide rings per average polymer chain-length, and a variation in the symmetry of the polymer molecule are studied. The synthesis of key intermediates for the preparation of the monomers required in this investigation is reported along with progress made in the synthesis of polyimide-precursor amines that contain functional groups to allow for post-cure cross-linking.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the...

  20. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. PMID:26699446

  1. Examining the Effects of Residence and Gender on College Student Adjustment in Iran: Implications for Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Nunnery, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of on-campus residence, in comparison with commuter status, on academic performance, vocational commitment, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the college environment among female and male Iranian students at Shiraz University, Iran. The study sought to extend previous work investigating the effects of college…

  2. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  3. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Flexibility on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Warnie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer is investigated. Based on existing literature, the value of self-efficacy and flexibility on the adjustment process was explored. It was hypothesised that adjustment would result in reduced turnover…

  4. 20 CFR 418.1230 - What is the effective date of an income-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? 418.1230... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted... initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? (a) When you make your request prior...

  5. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  6. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  7. [Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances of melon seedlings under sub-low temperature].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-hai; Jia, Shuang-shuang; Miao, Yong-mei; Lu, Xiao-min; Li, Hui-min

    2016-02-01

    The melon cultivar 'Yangjiaosu' was subjected to the treatment of 18 °C/12 °C (day/night) in an artificial climate chamber for 6 days, and the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes [nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ] , the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and NH4+-N as well as the osmotic adjustment substances of melon leaf were then determined. The results showed that, compared with the control, sub-low temperature treatment reduced the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and the NR activity, but increased the content of NH4(+)-N, thereby leading to the growth inhibition of melon. Exogenous MT treatment significantly improved the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes, especially the activities of GS and GOGAT, effectively reducing the content of NH4+-N. Moreover, MT treatment increased the contents of proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar, and alleviated the damage of sub-low temperature on the cell membrane by reducing the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of melon leaves. In short, this work suggested that exogenous MT would enhance the sub-low temperature adaptability of melon by decreasing the leaf content of NH4-N, increasing the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:27396126

  8. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  9. Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reductions in children's anxiety over time on improvements in school performance and social functioning in the context of participation in a cognitive-behavioral intervention program. Participants included 40 children with high anxiety (6-13 years of age). Independent evaluators, children, and parents rated child…

  10. Socioenvironmental Risk and Adjustment in Latino Youth: The Mediating Effects of Family Processes and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Loukas, Alexandra; Jordan-Green, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth aged 10-14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed as part of the "Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study." It was hypothesized that…

  11. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years. PMID:26866838

  12. Effectiveness of Home Visiting as a Strategy for Promoting Children's Adjustment to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that involving families in home visiting services promotes positive experiences during the initial years of a child's life; however less is known about whether or not the benefits continue to accrue after a child enters school. This article describes the results of a study examining the effectiveness of an…

  13. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. PMID:25226227

  14. Health Effects of Lesion Localization in Multiple Sclerosis: Spatial Registration and Confounding Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Eloyan, Ani; Shou, Haochang; Shinohara, Russell T.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesion localization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be associated with the type and severity of adverse health effects. However, several factors hinder statistical analyses of such associations using large MRI datasets: 1) spatial registration algorithms developed for healthy individuals may be less effective on diseased brains and lead to different spatial distributions of lesions; 2) interpretation of results requires the careful selection of confounders; and 3) most approaches have focused on voxel-wise regression approaches. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five registration algorithms and observed that conclusions regarding lesion localization can vary substantially with the choice of registration algorithm. Methods for dealing with confounding factors due to differences in disease duration and local lesion volume are introduced. Voxel-wise regression is then extended by the introduction of a metric that measures the distance between a patient-specific lesion mask and the population prevalence map. PMID:25233361

  15. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions. PMID:20049253

  16. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  17. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel. PMID:22405497

  18. Dose-based duration adjustments for the effects of inhaled trichloroethylene on rat visual function.

    PubMed

    Boyes, William K; Bercegeay, Mark; Ali, Joseph S; Krantz, Todd; McGee, John; Evans, Marina; Raymer, James H; Bushnell, Philip J; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessments often must consider exposures that vary over time or for which the exposure duration of concern differs from the available data, and a variety of extrapolation procedures have been devised accordingly. The present experiments explore the relationship(s) between exposure concentration (C) and time (t) to investigate procedures for assessing the risks of short-term solvent exposures. The first hypothesis tested was that the product of C x t would produce a constant health effect (Haber's rule). The second hypothesis tested was that exposure conditions produce effects in proportion to the tissue concentrations created. Awake, adult, male Long-Evans (LE) rats were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor in a head-only exposure chamber while pattern onset/offset visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. Exposure conditions were designed to provide C x t products of 0 ppm/h (0 ppm for 4 h) or 4000 ppm/h created through four exposure scenarios: 1000 ppm for 4 h; 2000 ppm for 2 h; 3000 ppm for 1.3 h; or 4000 ppm for 1h (n = 9-10/concentration). The amplitude of the VEP frequency double component (F2) was decreased significantly by exposure; this decrease was related to C but not to t or to the C x t product, indicating that Haber's rule did not hold. The mean amplitude (+/- SEM in muV) of the F2 component in the control and treatment groups measured 4.4 +/- 0.5 (0 ppm/4 h), 3.1 +/- 0.5 (1000 ppm/4 h), 3.1 +/- 0.4 (2000 ppm/2 h), 2.3 +/- 0.3 (3000 ppm/1.3 h), and 1.9 +/- 0.4 (4000 ppm/1 h). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to estimate the concentrations of TCE in the brain achieved during each exposure condition. The F2 amplitude of the VEP decreased monotonically as a function of the estimated peak brain concentration but was not related to the area under the curve (AUC) of the brain TCE concentration. In comparison to estimates from the PBPK model, extrapolations based on Haber's rule yielded approximately a 6-fold error

  19. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this "normal" configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects" such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa. PMID:16334701

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and background variables. Student reports uniquely predicted school belonging, perceived academic competence, and math achievement. Teacher reports uniquely predicted behavioral engagement and child perceived academic competence. Teacher and student reports of the teacher-student relationship assess largely different constructs that predict different outcomes. Implications of findings for practice and research are discussed. PMID:21984843

  1. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  2. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  3. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  4. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy in Reducing Adolescent Mental Health Risk and Family Adjustment Difficulties in an Irish Context.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Dan; Carr, Alan; Sexton, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT) 42 cases were randomized to FFT and 55 to a waiting-list control group. Minimization procedures controlled the effects of potentially confounding baseline variables. Cases were treated by a team of five therapists who implemented FFT with a moderate degree of fidelity. Rates of clinical recovery were significantly higher in the FFT group than in the control group. Compared to the comparison group, parents in the FFT group reported significantly greater improvement in adolescent problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and both parents and adolescents reported improvements in family adjustment on the Systemic Clinical Outcomes and Routine Evaluation (SCORE). In addition, 93% of youth and families in the treatment condition completed FFT. Improvements shown immediately after treatment were sustained at 3-month follow-up. Results provide a current demonstration of FFT's effectiveness for youth with behavior problems in community-based settings, expand our understanding of the range of positive outcomes of FFT to include mental health risk and family-defined problem severity and impact, and suggests that it is an effective intervention when implemented in an Irish context. PMID:26542420

  5. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.C.; VonDoemming, J.D.; Martinez, K.

    1992-12-31

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research.

  6. 8 CFR 240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in 8 CFR 240.21 (as in effect prior to September 30, 1998). (b) Conditional grants of suspension... status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect before April 1, 1997) and cancellation of removal... of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect before April...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cancellation of removal as provided in 8 CFR 240.21 (as in effect prior to September 30, 1998). (b) Conditional... status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect before April 1, 1997) and cancellation of removal... in effect before April 1, 1997) and cancellation of removal and adjustment of status under...

  8. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact. PMID:26807855

  9. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  10. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of wadsleyite with anharmonic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongqing

    2015-02-01

    The thermodynamic properties of crystals can be routinely calculated by density functional theory calculations combining with quasi-harmonic approximation. Based on the method developed recently by Wu and Wentzcovitch (Phys Rev B 79:104304, 2009) and Wu (Phys Rev B 81:172301, 2010), we are able to further ab initio include anharmonic effect on thermodynamic properties of crystals by one additional canonical ensemble with numbers of particle, volume and temperature fixed (NVT) molecular dynamic simulations. Our study indicates that phonon-phonon interaction causes the renormalized phonon frequencies of wadsleyite decrease with temperature. This is consistent with the Raman experimental observation. The anharmonic free energy of wadsleyite is negative and its heat capacity at constant pressure can exceed the Dulong-Petit limit at high temperature. The anharmonicity still significantly affects thermodynamic properties of wadsleyite at pressure and temperature conditions correspond to the transition zone.

  12. Surface mechanical properties - effects of ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herbert

    1981-05-01

    Ion implantation has been used to modify the mechanical properties of a wide range of metals and alloys. The affected properties which have been studied include friction and wear, erosion and fatigue. Both BCC and FCC systems have been examined, with the major effort being directed at the former, due to the strong influence of interstitial implantants on mechanical properties of BCC and because of the industrial utility of these alloys. In seeking the microstructural origins of these sometimes dramatic effects, researchers have employed numerous surface analysis techniques, including backscattering and electron spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, X-ray and Mössbauer analysis and internal friction measurements. The interactions of surface dislocation structures with implantation-induced imperfections, surface alloying, and precipitation phenomena are discussed. A review is given of the current status of activities as represented by a number of research groups.

  13. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  14. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  15. Long-Term Effects of Incestuous Child Abuse in College Women: Social Adjustment, Social Cognition, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephanie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…

  16. Effect of melt cleanliness on the properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, F. H.; Liu, H.; Samuel, A. M.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of melt cleanliness with respect to the presence of inclusions on the properties of an Al-10 wt pct Si metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with 10 vol pct SiC particles. The occurrence of inclusions was controlled by filtra- tion, using ceramic foam filters of 10, 20, and 30 ppi sizes, under gravity and pressure. Test bars obtained from filtered and unfiltered melt castings, prepared from fresh (as-received) and recycled composite materials, were T6-tempered and tensile tested at room temperature. The casting quality was examined using X-ray radiography. The results indicate that various factors influence the casting quality and mechanical properties of the cast composite. The A12O3 films and spinel MgAl2O4 — the main inclusions observed in the present composite — are chiefly responsible for the degradation in the mechanical properties. In addition, SiC sedimentation, Al4C3 formation, the hydrogen level of the melt, and the starting material used can also influence these properties. Fracture studies reveal that the inclusions and associated microvoids act as the crack initiation sites during composite fracture. Simple filtration using 10 ppi ceramic foam filters under gravity serves adequately in removing these inclusions and producing the desired mechanical properties.

  17. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  18. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  19. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that

  20. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  1. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  2. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  3. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744

  4. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD. PMID:25310938

  5. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl. PMID:26801818

  6. Effect of six days of staging on physiologic adjustments and acute mountain sickness during ascent to 4300 meters.

    PubMed

    Beidleman, Beth A; Fulco, Charles S; Muza, Stephen R; Rock, Paul B; Staab, Janet E; Forte, Vincent A; Brothers, Michael D; Cymerman, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of 6 days (d) of staging at 2200 m on physiologic adjustments and acute mountain sickness (AMS) during rapid, high-risk ascent to 4300 m. Eleven sea-level (SL) resident men (means +/- SD; 21 +/- 3 yr; 78 +/- 13 kg) completed resting measures of end-tidal CO(2) (Petco(2)), arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at SL and within 1 h of exposure to 4300 m in a hypobaric chamber prior to 6 d of staging at 2200 m (preSTG) and on the summit of Pikes Peak following 6 d of staging at 2200 m (postSTG). Immediately following resting ventilation measures, all performed submaximal exercise ( approximately 55% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake) for approximately 2 h on a bicycle ergometer to induce higher levels of AMS. AMS-C, calculated from the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire, was measured following 4 h and 8 h of exposure at preSTG and postSTG, and the mean was calculated. Resting Petco(2) (mmHg) was unchanged from SL (39.8 +/- 2.6) to preSTG (39.3 +/- 3.0), but decreased (p < 0.05) from preSTG to postSTG (32.8 +/- 2.6). Resting Sao(2) (%) decreased (p < 0.05) from SL (97 +/- 2) to preSTG (80 +/- 4) and increased (p < 0.05) from preSTG to postSTG (83 +/- 3). Resting HR (bpm) and MAP (mmHg) did not change in any of the test conditions. The incidence and severity of AMS-C decreased (p < 0.05) from preSTG (91 +/- 30%; 1.05 +/- 0.56) to postSTG (45 +/- 53%; 0.59 +/- 0.43), respectively. These results suggest that modest physiologic adjustments induced by staging for 6 d at 2200 m reduced the incidence and severity of AMS during rapid, high-risk ascent to 4300 m. PMID:19775215

  7. Analytical investigation of turbines with adjustable stator blades and effect of these turbines on jet-engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvern, David H; Slivka, William R

    1950-01-01

    Adjustable-stator turbines are applied to turbojet engines and probable performance is compared with conventional engines with and without variable-area exhaust nozzles. Variation in stator-exit angle and exhaust area was not excessive for wide ranges of engine output. Variation in turbine efficiency for contemporary turbines equipped with adjustable stators was small. Improvements from 4.5 to 17 percent in over-all engine specific fuel consumption over conventional engines and from 2 to 8.5 percent over engines equipped with only adjustable-area exhaust nozzles were obtained at 60-percent rated power with adjustable-stator turbines and variable-area exhaust nozzles. The improvements depend on design parameters.

  8. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    PubMed

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  9. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  10. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.